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Zeus
Zeus
(/zjuːs/;[3] Greek: Ζεύς Zeús [zdeǔ̯s])[4] is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus. His name is cognate with the first element of his Roman equivalent Jupiter. His mythologies and powers are similar, though not identical, to those of Indo-European deities such as Indra, Jupiter, Perkūnas, Perun, Thor, and Odin.[5][6][7] Zeus
Zeus
is the child of Cronus
Cronus
and Rhea, the youngest of his siblings to be born, though sometimes reckoned the eldest as the others required disgorging from Cronus's stomach. In most traditions, he is married to Hera, by whom he is usually said to have fathered Ares, Hebe, and Hephaestus.[8] At the oracle of Dodona, his consort was said to be Dione, by whom the Iliad
Iliad
states that he fathered Aphrodite.[11] Zeus was also infamous for his erotic escapades. These resulted in many godly and heroic offspring, including Athena, Apollo, Artemis, Hermes, Persephone, Dionysus, Perseus, Heracles, Helen of Troy, Minos, and the Muses.[8] He was respected as an allfather who was chief of the gods[12] and assigned the others to their roles:[13] "Even the gods who are not his natural children address him as Father, and all the gods rise in his presence."[14][15] He was equated with many foreign weather gods, permitting Pausanias to observe "That Zeus
Zeus
is king in heaven is a saying common to all men".[16] Zeus' symbols are the thunderbolt, eagle, bull, and oak. In addition to his Indo-European inheritance, the classical "cloud-gatherer" (Greek: Νεφεληγερέτα, Nephelēgereta)[17] also derives certain iconographic traits from the cultures of the ancient Near East, such as the scepter. Zeus
Zeus
is frequently depicted by Greek artists in one of two poses: standing, striding forward with a thunderbolt leveled in his raised right hand, or seated in majesty.

Contents

1 Name 2 Mythology

2.1 Birth 2.2 Infancy 2.3 King of the gods 2.4 Zeus
Zeus
and Hera 2.5 Consorts and offspring

2.5.1 Divine offspring 2.5.2 Semi-divine/mortal offspring

3 Roles and epithets 4 Cults of Zeus

4.1 Panhellenic cults

4.1.1 Zeus
Zeus
Velchanos 4.1.2 Zeus
Zeus
Lykaios 4.1.3 Additional cults of Zeus

4.2 Non-panhellenic cults 4.3 Oracles of Zeus

4.3.1 The Oracle
Oracle
at Dodona 4.3.2 The Oracle
Oracle
at Siwa

5 Zeus
Zeus
and foreign gods 6 Zeus
Zeus
and the sun 7 Zeus
Zeus
in philosophy 8 Zeus
Zeus
in the Bible 9 Zeus
Zeus
in the Iliad 10 Zeus's notable conflicts 11 In modern culture 12 Genealogy
Genealogy
of the Olympians 13 Argive genealogy 14 See also 15 Notes 16 References 17 External links

Name

The Chariot of Zeus, from an 1879 Stories from the Greek Tragedians by Alfred Church.

The god's name in the nominative is Ζεύς Zeús. It is inflected as follows: vocative: Ζεῦ Zeû; accusative: Δία Día; genitive: Διός Diós; dative: Διί Dií. Diogenes Laertius
Diogenes Laertius
quotes Pherecydes of Syros
Pherecydes of Syros
as spelling the name, Ζάς.[18] Zeus
Zeus
is the Greek continuation of *Di̯ēus, the name of the Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
god of the daytime sky, also called * Dyeus
Dyeus
ph2tēr ("Sky Father").[19][20] The god is known under this name in the Rigveda ( Vedic Sanskrit Dyaus/Dyaus Pita), Latin
Latin
(compare Jupiter, from Iuppiter, deriving from the Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
vocative *dyeu-ph2tēr),[21] deriving from the root *dyeu- ("to shine", and in its many derivatives, "sky, heaven, god").[19] Zeus
Zeus
is the only deity in the Olympic pantheon whose name has such a transparent Indo-European etymology.[22] The earliest attested forms of the name are the Mycenaean Greek 𐀇𐀸, di-we and 𐀇𐀺, di-wo, written in the Linear B
Linear B
syllabic script.[23] Plato, in his Cratylus, gives a folk etymology of Zeus
Zeus
meaning "cause of life always to all things," because of puns between alternate titles of Zeus
Zeus
(Zen and Dia) with the Greek words for life and "because of."[24] This etymology, along with Plato's entire method of deriving etymologies, is not supported by modern scholarship.[25][26] Mythology

Zeus, at the Getty Villa, A.D. 1 – 100 by unknown.

Birth

"Cave of Zeus", Mount Ida
Mount Ida
(Crete).

Cronus
Cronus
sired several children by Rhea: Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon, but swallowed them all as soon as they were born, since he had learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to be overthrown by his son as he had previously overthrown Uranus, his own father, an oracle that Rhea heard and wished to avert. When Zeus
Zeus
was about to be born, Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save him, so that Cronus
Cronus
would get his retribution for his acts against Uranus and his own children. Rhea gave birth to Zeus
Zeus
in Crete, handing Cronus
Cronus
a rock wrapped in swaddling clothes, which he promptly swallowed.[27] Infancy Rhea hid Zeus
Zeus
in a cave on Mount Ida
Mount Ida
in Crete. According to varying versions of the story:

He was then raised by Gaia. He was raised by a goat named Amalthea, while a company of Kouretes— soldiers, or smaller gods— danced, shouted and clashed their spears against their shields so that Cronus
Cronus
would not hear the baby's cry (see cornucopia). According to some versions of this story he was reared by Amalthea in a cave called Dictaeon Andron (Psychro Cave) in Lasithi plateau. He was raised by a nymph named Adamanthea. Since Cronus
Cronus
ruled over the Earth, the heavens and the sea, she hid him by dangling him on a rope from a tree so he was suspended between earth, sea and sky and thus, invisible to his father. He was raised by a nymph named Cynosura. In gratitude, Zeus
Zeus
placed her among the stars. He was raised by Melissa, who nursed him with goat's milk and honey. He was raised by a shepherd family under the promise that their sheep would be saved from wolves.

King of the gods

Colossal seated Marnas from Gaza portrayed in the style of Zeus. Roman period Marnas[28] was the chief divinity of Gaza (Istanbul Archaeology Museum).

After reaching manhood, Zeus
Zeus
forced Cronus
Cronus
to disgorge first the stone (which was set down at Pytho
Pytho
under the glens of Parnassus
Parnassus
to be a sign to mortal men, the Omphalos) then his siblings in reverse order of swallowing. In some versions, Metis gave Cronus
Cronus
an emetic to force him to disgorge the babies, or Zeus
Zeus
cut Cronus's stomach open. Then Zeus released the brothers of Cronus, the Hecatonchires and the Cyclopes, from their dungeon in Tartarus, killing their guard, Campe. As a token of their appreciation, the Cyclopes gave him thunder and the thunderbolt, or lightning, which had previously been hidden by Gaia. Together, Zeus, his brothers and sisters, Hecatonchires and Cyclopes overthrew Cronus
Cronus
and the other Titans, in the combat called the Titanomachy. The defeated Titans were then cast into a shadowy underworld region known as Tartarus. Atlas, one of the titans who fought against Zeus, was punished by having to hold up the sky. After the battle with the Titans, Zeus
Zeus
shared the world with his elder brothers, Poseidon
Poseidon
and Hades, by drawing lots: Zeus
Zeus
got the sky and air, Poseidon
Poseidon
the waters, and Hades
Hades
the world of the dead (the underworld). The ancient Earth, Gaia, could not be claimed; she was left to all three, each according to their capabilities, which explains why Poseidon
Poseidon
was the "earth-shaker" (the god of earthquakes) and Hades
Hades
claimed the humans who died (see also Penthus). Gaia resented the way Zeus
Zeus
had treated the Titans, because they were her children. Soon after taking the throne as king of the gods, Zeus had to fight some of Gaia's other children, the monsters Typhon
Typhon
and Echidna. He vanquished Typhon
Typhon
and trapped him under Mount Etna, but left Echidna and her children alive. Zeus
Zeus
and Hera Main article: Hera Zeus
Zeus
was brother and consort of Hera. By Hera, Zeus
Zeus
sired Ares, Hebe and Hephaestus, though some accounts say that Hera
Hera
produced these offspring alone. Some also include Eileithyia, Eris, Enyo
Enyo
and Angelos as their daughters. In the section of the Iliad
Iliad
known to scholars as the Deception of Zeus, the two of them are described as having begun their sexual relationship without their parents knowing about it.[29] The conquests of Zeus
Zeus
among nymphs and the mythic mortal progenitors of Hellenic dynasties are famous. Olympian mythography even credits him with unions with Leto, Demeter, Metis, Themis, Eurynome and Mnemosyne.[30][31] Other relationships with immortals included Dione and Maia. Among mortals were Semele, Io, Europa and Leda (for more details, see below) and with the young Ganymede (although he was mortal Zeus
Zeus
granted him eternal youth and immortality). Many myths render Hera
Hera
as jealous of his amorous conquests and a consistent enemy of Zeus's mistresses and their children by him. For a time, a nymph named Echo had the job of distracting Hera
Hera
from his affairs by talking incessantly, and when Hera
Hera
discovered the deception, she cursed Echo to repeat the words of others. Consorts and offspring

Divine offspring

Mother Children

Aega Aegipan[32]

Ananke or Themis Moirai/Fates1

Atropos Clotho Lachesis

Aphrodite Tyche6 (possibly)

Demeter Persephone

Dione or Thalassa Aphrodite

Eris Limos

Eurynome/Eurydome/ Eurymedusa/Euanthe Charites/Graces2

Aglaea Euphrosyne Thalia

Gaia

Manes

Hera

Angelos Ares3 Eileithyia Enyo Eris Hebe3 Hephaestus3

Leto

Apollo Artemis

Maia Hermes

Metis Athena4

Mnemosyne

Muses
Muses
(Original three)

Aoide Melete Mneme

Muses
Muses
(Later nine)

Calliope Clio Euterpe Erato Melpomene Polyhymnia Terpsichore Thalia Urania

Nemesis Helen of Troy
Helen of Troy
(possibly)

Persephone

Zagreus Melinoe

Selene

Ersa Nemean Lion Pandia

Thalia Palici

Themis

Astraea Nymphs of Eridanos Nemesis Horae

First Generation

Auxo Carpo Thallo

Second Generation

Dike Eirene Eunomia

Third generation

Pherusa Euporie Orthosie Adikia

Eos

Carae

Unknown mother Aletheia

Unknown mother Ate

Unknown mother Caerus

Unknown mother Litae

Semi-divine/mortal offspring

Mother Children

Aegina

Aeacus Damocrateia[33]

Alcmene Heracles

Antiope

Amphion Zethus

Anaxithea Olenus

Asterope, Oceanid Acragas

Callisto Arcas

Calyce Aethlius (possibly)

Callirhoe (daughter of Achelous) no known offspring

Carme Britomartis

Cassiopeia Atymnius

Chaldene

Solymus Milye

Danaë Perseus

Dia Pirithous

Elara

Tityos

Electra

Dardanus Iasion Harmonia

Europa

Minos Rhadamanthus Sarpedon Alagonia Carnus Dodon[34]

Eurymedousa Myrmidon

Euryodeia Arcesius

Himalia

Kronios Spartaios Kytos

Idaea, nymph Cres

Iodame Thebe

Io

Epaphus Keroessa

Isonoe Orchomenus

Lamia

Achilleus[35]

Lamia (daughter of Poseidon) Libyan Sibyl

Laodamia Sarpedon

Leda

Pollux Helen of Troy5

Maera Locrus

Niobe

Argus Pelasgus

Othreis Meliteus

Pandora

Graecus

Phthia (daughter of Phoroneus) Achaeus (possibly)

Plouto Tantalus

Podarge

Balius Xanthus

Protogeneia

Aethlius (possibly) Opus

Pyrrha Hellen

Semele Dionysus

Taygete Lacedaemon

Thyia

Magnes Makednos

Torrhebia Carius

Nymph
Nymph
African Iarbas

Nymph
Nymph
Samothracian Saon (possibly)

Nymph
Nymph
Sithnid Megarus

Unknown mother

Calabrus Geraestus Taenarus

Unknown mother Corinthus

Unknown mother Crinacus

1The Greeks
Greeks
variously claimed that the Moires/Fates were the daughters of Zeus
Zeus
and the Titaness Themis
Themis
or of primordial beings like Chaos, Nyx, or Ananke. 2The Charites/ Graces
Graces
were usually considered the daughters of Zeus
Zeus
and Eurynome but they were also said to be daughters of Dionysus
Dionysus
and Aphrodite
Aphrodite
or of Helios
Helios
and the naiad Aegle. 3Some accounts say that Ares, Hebe, and Hephaestus
Hephaestus
were born parthenogenetically. 4According to one version, Athena
Athena
is said to be born parthenogenetically. 5Helen was either the daughter of Leda or Nemesis. 6 Tyche
Tyche
is usually considered a daughter of Aphrodite
Aphrodite
and Hermes.

Roles and epithets See also: Category:Epithets of Zeus

Roman marble colossal head of Zeus, 2nd century AD (British Museum)[36]

Zeus
Zeus
played a dominant role, presiding over the Greek Olympian pantheon. He fathered many of the heroes and was featured in many of their local cults. Though the Homeric "cloud collector" was the god of the sky and thunder like his Near-Eastern counterparts, he was also the supreme cultural artifact; in some senses, he was the embodiment of Greek religious beliefs and the archetypal Greek deity. Aside from local epithets that simply designated the deity as doing something random at some particular place, the epithets or titles applied to Zeus
Zeus
emphasized different aspects of his wide-ranging authority:

Zeus
Zeus
Aegiduchos or Aegiochos: Usually taken as Zeus
Zeus
as the bearer of the Aegis, the divine shield with the head of Medusa
Medusa
across it,[37][38][39] although others derive it from "goat" (αἴξ) and okhē (οχή) in reference to Zeus's nurse, the divine goat Amalthea.[40][41] Zeus
Zeus
Agoraeus: Zeus
Zeus
as patron of the marketplace (agora) and punisher of dishonest traders. Zeus
Zeus
Areius: either "warlike" or "the atoning one". Zeus
Zeus
Horkios: Zeus
Zeus
as keeper of oaths. Exposed liars were made to dedicate a votive statue to Zeus, often at the sanctuary at Olympia Zeus
Zeus
Olympios: Zeus
Zeus
as king of the gods and patron of the Panhellenic Games at Olympia Zeus
Zeus
Panhellenios (" Zeus
Zeus
of All the Greeks"): worshipped at Aeacus's temple on Aegina Zeus
Zeus
Xenios, Philoxenon, or Hospites: Zeus
Zeus
as the patron of hospitality (xenia) and guests, avenger of wrongs done to strangers

Additional names and epithets for Zeus
Zeus
are also:

Abrettenus (Ἀβρεττηνός): surname of Zeus
Zeus
in Mysia[42] Apemius: Zeus
Zeus
as the averter of ills Apomyius Zeus
Zeus
as one who dispels flies Astrapios ("Lightninger"): Zeus
Zeus
as a weather god Bottiaeus: Worshipped at Antioch[43] Brontios ("Thunderer"): Zeus
Zeus
as a weather god Diktaios: Zeus
Zeus
as lord of the Dikte
Dikte
mountain range, worshipped from Mycenaean times on Crete[44] Ithomatas: Worshipped at Mount Ithome
Mount Ithome
in Messenia Zeus
Zeus
Adados: A Hellenization of the Canaanite Hadad
Hadad
and Assyrian Adad, particularly his solar cult at Heliopolis[45] Zeus
Zeus
Bouleus: Worshipped at Dodona, the earliest oracle, along with Zeus
Zeus
Naos Zeus
Zeus
Georgos (Ζεὺς Γεωργός, " Zeus
Zeus
the Farmer"): Zeus
Zeus
as god of crops and the harvest, worshipped in Athens Zeus
Zeus
Helioupolites ("Heliopolite" or "Heliopolitan Zeus"): A Hellenization of the Canaanite Baʿal
Baʿal
(probably Hadad) worshipped as a sun god at Heliopolis (modern Baalbek)[45] Zeus
Zeus
Kasios (" Zeus
Zeus
of Mount Kasios" the modern Jebel Aqra): Worshipped at a site on the Syrian–Turkish border, a Hellenization of the Canaanite mountain and weather god Baal Zephon Zeus
Zeus
Labrandos (" Zeus
Zeus
of Labraunda"): Worshiped at Caria, depicted with a double-edged axe (labrys), a Hellenization of the Hurrian weather god Teshub Zeus
Zeus
Meilichios (" Zeus
Zeus
the Easily-Entreated"): Worshipped at Athens, a form of the archaic chthonic daimon Meilichios Zeus
Zeus
Naos: Worshipped at Dodona, the earliest oracle, along with Zeus Bouleus Zeus
Zeus
Tallaios ("Solar Zeus"): Worshipped on Crete

Cults of Zeus

Marble eagle from the sanctuary of Zeus
Zeus
Hypsistos, Archaeological Museum of Dion.

Panhellenic cults The major center where all Greeks
Greeks
converged to pay honor to their chief god was Olympia. Their quadrennial festival featured the famous Games. There was also an altar to Zeus
Zeus
made not of stone, but of ash, from the accumulated remains of many centuries' worth of animals sacrificed there. Outside of the major inter-polis sanctuaries, there were no modes of worshipping Zeus
Zeus
precisely shared across the Greek world. Most of the titles listed below, for instance, could be found at any number of Greek temples from Asia Minor
Asia Minor
to Sicily. Certain modes of ritual were held in common as well: sacrificing a white animal over a raised altar, for instance. Zeus
Zeus
Velchanos With one exception, Greeks
Greeks
were unanimous in recognizing the birthplace of Zeus
Zeus
as Crete. Minoan culture contributed many essentials of ancient Greek religion: "by a hundred channels the old civilization emptied itself into the new", Will Durant observed,[46] and Cretan Zeus
Zeus
retained his youthful Minoan features. The local child of the Great Mother, "a small and inferior deity who took the roles of son and consort",[47] whose Minoan name the Greeks
Greeks
Hellenized as Velchanos, was in time assumed as an epithet by Zeus, as transpired at many other sites, and he came to be venerated in Crete
Crete
as Zeus Velchanos ("boy-Zeus"), often simply the Kouros. In Crete, Zeus
Zeus
was worshipped at a number of caves at Knossos, Ida and Palaikastro. In the Hellenistic period a small sanctuary dedicated to Zeus
Zeus
Velchanos was founded at the Hagia Triada
Hagia Triada
site of a long-ruined Minoan palace. Broadly contemporary coins from Phaistos
Phaistos
show the form under which he was worshiped: a youth sits among the branches of a tree, with a cockerel on his knees.[48] On other Cretan coins Velchanos is represented as an eagle and in association with a goddess celebrating a mystic marriage.[49] Inscriptions at Gortyn
Gortyn
and Lyttos record a Velchania festival, showing that Velchanios was still widely venerated in Hellenistic Crete.[50] The stories of Minos
Minos
and Epimenides
Epimenides
suggest that these caves were once used for incubatory divination by kings and priests. The dramatic setting of Plato's Laws is along the pilgrimage-route to one such site, emphasizing archaic Cretan knowledge. On Crete, Zeus
Zeus
was represented in art as a long-haired youth rather than a mature adult and hymned as ho megas kouros, "the great youth". Ivory statuettes of the "Divine Boy" were unearthed near the Labyrinth
Labyrinth
at Knossos
Knossos
by Sir Arthur Evans.[51] With the Kouretes, a band of ecstatic armed dancers, he presided over the rigorous military-athletic training and secret rites of the Cretan paideia. The myth of the death of Cretan Zeus, localised in numerous mountain sites though only mentioned in a comparatively late source, Callimachus,[52] together with the assertion of Antoninus Liberalis that a fire shone forth annually from the birth-cave the infant shared with a mythic swarm of bees, suggests that Velchanos had been an annual vegetative spirit.[53] The Hellenistic writer Euhemerus apparently proposed a theory that Zeus
Zeus
had actually been a great king of Crete
Crete
and that posthumously, his glory had slowly turned him into a deity. The works of Euhemerus himself have not survived, but Christian patristic writers took up the suggestion. Zeus
Zeus
Lykaios Further information: Lykaia

Laurel-wreathed head of Zeus
Zeus
on a gold stater, Lampsacus, c 360–340 BC (Cabinet des Médailles).

The epithet Zeus
Zeus
Lykaios ("wolf-Zeus") is assumed by Zeus
Zeus
only in connection with the archaic festival of the Lykaia
Lykaia
on the slopes of Mount Lykaion ("Wolf Mountain"), the tallest peak in rustic Arcadia; Zeus
Zeus
had only a formal connection[54] with the rituals and myths of this primitive rite of passage with an ancient threat of cannibalism and the possibility of a werewolf transformation for the ephebes who were the participants.[55] Near the ancient ash-heap where the sacrifices took place[56] was a forbidden precinct in which, allegedly, no shadows were ever cast.[57] According to Plato,[58] a particular clan would gather on the mountain to make a sacrifice every nine years to Zeus
Zeus
Lykaios, and a single morsel of human entrails would be intermingled with the animal's. Whoever ate the human flesh was said to turn into a wolf, and could only regain human form if he did not eat again of human flesh until the next nine-year cycle had ended. There were games associated with the Lykaia, removed in the fourth century to the first urbanization of Arcadia, Megalopolis; there the major temple was dedicated to Zeus Lykaios. There is, however, the crucial detail that Lykaios or Lykeios (epithets of Zeus
Zeus
and Apollo) may derive from Proto-Greek *λύκη, "light", a noun still attested in compounds such as ἀμφιλύκη, "twilight", λυκάβας, "year" (lit. "light's course") etc. This, Cook argues, brings indeed much new 'light' to the matter as Achaeus, the contemporary tragedian of Sophocles, spoke of Zeus
Zeus
Lykaios as "starry-eyed", and this Zeus
Zeus
Lykaios may just be the Arcadian Zeus, son of Aether, described by Cicero. Again under this new signification may be seen Pausanias' descriptions of Lykosoura being 'the first city that ever the sun beheld', and of the altar of Zeus, at the summit of Mount Lykaion, before which stood two columns bearing gilded eagles and 'facing the sun-rise'. Further Cook sees only the tale of Zeus' sacred precinct at Mount Lykaion allowing no shadows referring to Zeus as 'god of light' (Lykaios).[59] Additional cults of Zeus

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Although etymology indicates that Zeus
Zeus
was originally a sky god, many Greek cities honored a local Zeus
Zeus
who lived underground. Athenians and Sicilians honored Zeus
Zeus
Meilichios ("kindly" or "honeyed") while other cities had Zeus
Zeus
Chthonios ("earthy"), Zeus
Zeus
Katachthonios ("under-the-earth") and Zeus
Zeus
Plousios ("wealth-bringing"). These deities might be represented as snakes or in human form in visual art, or, for emphasis as both together in one image. They also received offerings of black animal victims sacrificed into sunken pits, as did chthonic deities like Persephone
Persephone
and Demeter, and also the heroes at their tombs. Olympian gods, by contrast, usually received white victims sacrificed upon raised altars. In some cases, cities were not entirely sure whether the daimon to whom they sacrificed was a hero or an underground Zeus. Thus the shrine at Lebadaea in Boeotia
Boeotia
might belong to the hero Trophonius
Trophonius
or to Zeus
Zeus
Trephonius ("the nurturing"), depending on whether you believe Pausanias, or Strabo. The hero Amphiaraus
Amphiaraus
was honored as Zeus Amphiaraus
Amphiaraus
at Oropus outside of Thebes, and the Spartans even had a shrine to Zeus
Zeus
Agamemnon. Ancient Molossian kings sacrificed to Zeus Areius. Non-panhellenic cults In addition to the Panhellenic titles and conceptions listed above, local cults maintained their own idiosyncratic ideas about the king of gods and men. With the epithet Zeus
Zeus
Aetnaeus he was worshiped on Mount Aetna, where there was a statue of him, and a local festival called the Aetnaea in his honor.[60] Other examples are listed below. As Zeus Aeneius or Zeus
Zeus
Aenesius, he was worshiped in the island of Cephalonia, where he had a temple on Mount Aenos.[61] Oracles of Zeus

Roman cast terracotta of ram-horned Jupiter
Jupiter
Ammon, 1st century AD (Museo Barracco, Rome).

Although most oracle sites were usually dedicated to Apollo, the heroes, or various goddesses like Themis, a few oracular sites were dedicated to Zeus. In addition, some foreign oracles, such as Baʿal's at Heliopolis, were associated with Zeus
Zeus
in Greek or Jupiter
Jupiter
in Latin. The Oracle
Oracle
at Dodona The cult of Zeus
Zeus
at Dodona
Dodona
in Epirus, where there is evidence of religious activity from the second millennium BC onward, centered on a sacred oak. When the Odyssey
Odyssey
was composed (circa 750 BC), divination was done there by barefoot priests called Selloi, who lay on the ground and observed the rustling of the leaves and branches.[62] By the time Herodotus
Herodotus
wrote about Dodona, female priestesses called peleiades ("doves") had replaced the male priests. Zeus's consort at Dodona
Dodona
was not Hera, but the goddess Dione — whose name is a feminine form of "Zeus". Her status as a titaness suggests to some that she may have been a more powerful pre-Hellenic deity, and perhaps the original occupant of the oracle. The Oracle
Oracle
at Siwa The oracle of Ammon at the Siwa Oasis
Siwa Oasis
in the Western Desert of Egypt did not lie within the bounds of the Greek world before Alexander's day, but it already loomed large in the Greek mind during the archaic era: Herodotus
Herodotus
mentions consultations with Zeus
Zeus
Ammon in his account of the Persian War. Zeus
Zeus
Ammon was especially favored at Sparta, where a temple to him existed by the time of the Peloponnesian War.[63] After Alexander made a trek into the desert to consult the oracle at Siwa, the figure arose in the Hellenistic imagination of a Libyan Sibyl. Zeus
Zeus
and foreign gods

Evolution of Zeus
Zeus
Nikephoros (" Zeus
Zeus
holding Nike") on Indo-Greek coinage: from the Classical motif of Nike handing the wreath of victory to Zeus
Zeus
himself (left, coin of Heliocles I
Heliocles I
145-130 BC), then to a baby elephant (middle, coin of Antialcidas
Antialcidas
115-95 BC), and then to the Wheel of the Law, symbol of Buddhism
Buddhism
(right, coin of Menander II 90–85 BC).

Zeus
Zeus
as Vajrapāni, the protector of the Buddha. 2nd century, Greco-Buddhist art.[64]

Zeus
Zeus
was identified with the Roman god Jupiter
Jupiter
and associated in the syncretic classical imagination (see interpretatio graeca) with various other deities, such as the Egyptian Ammon and the Etruscan Tinia. He, along with Dionysus, absorbed the role of the chief Phrygian god Sabazios
Sabazios
in the syncretic deity known in Rome as Sabazius. The Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV Epiphanes
Antiochus IV Epiphanes
erected a statue of Zeus Olympios
Zeus Olympios
in the Judean Temple in Jerusalem.[65] Hellenizing Jews referred to this statue as Baal Shamen (in English, Lord of Heaven).[66] Zeus
Zeus
and the sun Zeus
Zeus
is occasionally conflated with the Hellenic sun god, Helios, who is sometimes either directly referred to as Zeus' eye,[67] or clearly implied as such. Hesiod, for instance, describes Zeus's eye as effectively the sun.[68] This perception is possibly derived from earlier Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
religion, in which the sun is occasionally envisioned as the eye of *Dyḗus Pḥatḗr (see Hvare-khshaeta).[69] The Cretan Zeus
Zeus
Tallaios had solar elements to his cult. "Talos" was the local equivalent of Helios.[70] Zeus
Zeus
in philosophy In Neoplatonism, Zeus's relation to the gods familiar from mythology is taught as the Demiurge
Demiurge
or Divine Mind. Specifically within Plotinus's work the Enneads[71] and the Platonic Theology of Proclus. Zeus
Zeus
in the Bible Zeus
Zeus
is mentioned in the New Testament twice, first in Acts 14:8–13: When the people living in Lystra
Lystra
saw the Apostle Paul
Apostle Paul
heal a lame man, they considered Paul and his partner Barnabas
Barnabas
to be gods, identifying Paul with Hermes
Hermes
and Barnabas
Barnabas
with Zeus, even trying to offer them sacrifices with the crowd. Two ancient inscriptions discovered in 1909 near Lystra
Lystra
testify to the worship of these two gods in that city.[72] One of the inscriptions refers to the "priests of Zeus", and the other mentions " Hermes
Hermes
Most Great"" and " Zeus
Zeus
the sun-god".[73] The second occurrence is in Acts 28:11: the name of the ship in which the prisoner Paul set sail from the island of Malta bore the figurehead "Sons of Zeus" aka Castor and Pollux. The deuterocanonical book of 2 Maccabees
2 Maccabees
6:1, 2 talks of King Antiochus IV
Antiochus IV
(Epiphanes), who in his attempt to stamp out the Jewish religion, directed that the temple at Jerusalem be profaned and rededicated to Zeus
Zeus
( Jupiter
Jupiter
Olympius).[74] Zeus
Zeus
in the Iliad

Jupiter
Jupiter
and Juno on Mount Ida
Mount Ida
by James Barry, 1773 (City Art Galleries, Sheffield.)

The Iliad
Iliad
is a poem by Homer
Homer
about the Trojan war
Trojan war
and the battle over the City of Troy. As God of the sky, lightning, thunder, law, order, justice, Zeus
Zeus
controlled ancient Greece and all of the mortals and immortals living there.[75] The Iliad
Iliad
covers the Trojan War, in which Zeus
Zeus
plays a major part. Notable Scenes that include Zeus[76][77]

Book 2: Zeus
Zeus
sends Agamemnon
Agamemnon
a dream and is able to partially control his decisions because of the effects of the dream Book 4: Zeus
Zeus
promises Hera
Hera
to ultimately destroy the City of Troy
Troy
at the end of the war Book 7: Zeus
Zeus
and Poseidon
Poseidon
ruin the Achaeans fortress Book 8: Zeus
Zeus
prohibits the other Gods from fighting each other and has to return to Mount Ida
Mount Ida
where he can think over his decision that the Greeks
Greeks
will lose the war Book 14: Zeus
Zeus
is seduced by Hera
Hera
and becomes distracted while she helps out the Greeks Book 15: Zeus
Zeus
wakes up and realizes that Poseidon
Poseidon
his own brother has been helping out the Greeks, while also sending Hector
Hector
and Apollo
Apollo
to help fight the Trojans ensuring that the City of Troy
Troy
will fall Book 16: Zeus
Zeus
is upset that he couldn't help save Sarpedon's life because it would then contradict his previous decisions Book 17: Zeus
Zeus
is emotionally hurt by the fate of Hector Book 20: Zeus
Zeus
lets the other Gods help out their respective sides in the war Book 24: Zeus
Zeus
demands that Achilles
Achilles
(his son) release the corpse of Hector
Hector
to be buried honourably

A statue of Zeus
Zeus
in a drawing.

A bust of Zeus.

Zeus's notable conflicts The most notable conflict in Zeus's history was his struggle for power. Zeus's parents Cronus
Cronus
and Rhea ruled the Ancient World after taking control from Uranus, Cronus's father. When Cronus
Cronus
realized that he wanted power for the rest of time he started to eat his children, Hestia, Demeter, Hera, Hades, and Poseidon. When Rhea realized what was going on, she quickly saved their youngest child, Zeus. Having escaped, Zeus
Zeus
was spared because of the swiftness of Rhea tricking Cronus
Cronus
into thinking she consumed Zeus. She wrapped a stone in a blanket, and Cronus
Cronus
swallowed it thinking he was swallowing his last child.[78] As a result of this, Zeus
Zeus
was shipped off to live on the island of Crete. When Zeus
Zeus
was atop Mount Olympus
Mount Olympus
he grew upset with mankind and the sacrifices they were performing on one another. Furiously, he decided it would be smart to wipe out mankind with a gigantic flood using the help of his brother Poseidon, King of the Seas. Killing every human except Deucalion
Deucalion
and Pyrrha, Zeus
Zeus
flooded the entire planet but then realized he then had to restore society with new people. After clearing all the water, he had Deucalion
Deucalion
and Pyrrah create humans to repopulate the earth using stones that became humans. These stones represented the "hardness" of mankind and the man life. This story has been told different ways and in different time periods between Ancient Greek Mythology
Mythology
and The Bible, although the base of the story remains true.[79] Throughout history Zeus
Zeus
has used violence to get his way, or even terrorize humans. As God of the sky he has the power to hurl lightning bolts as his weapon of choice. Since lightning is quite powerful and sometimes deadly, it is a bold sign when lightning strikes because it is known that Zeus
Zeus
most likely threw the bolt.[80] In modern culture Depictions of Zeus
Zeus
as a bull, the form he took when abducting Europa, are found on the Greek 2-euro coin and on the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
identity card for visa holders. Mary Beard, professor of Classics at Cambridge University, has criticised this for its apparent celebration of rape.[81] Genealogy
Genealogy
of the Olympians

Olympians' family tree [82]

Uranus

Gaia

Uranus' genitals

Cronus

Rhea

ZEUS

Hera

Poseidon

Hades

Demeter

Hestia

    a[83]

     b[84]

Ares

Hephaestus

Metis

Athena[85]

Leto

Apollo

Artemis

Maia

Hermes

Semele

Dionysus

Dione

    a[86]

     b[87]

Aphrodite

Argive genealogy

Argive genealogy in Greek mythology

v t e

Inachus

Melia

Zeus

Io

Phoroneus

Epaphus

Memphis

Libya

Poseidon

Belus

Achiroë

Agenor

Telephassa

Danaus

Pieria

Aegyptus

Cadmus

Cilix

Europa

Phoenix

Mantineus

Hypermnestra

Lynceus

Harmonia

Zeus

Polydorus

Sparta

Lacedaemon

Ocalea

Abas

Agave

Sarpedon

Rhadamanthus

Autonoë

Eurydice

Acrisius

Ino

Minos

Zeus

Danaë

Semele

Zeus

Perseus

Dionysus

Colour key:      Male      Female      Deity

See also

Greek mythology
Greek mythology
portal Hellenismos portal

Achaean League Agetor Deception of Zeus Hetairideia – Thessalian Festival
Festival
to Zeus Temple of Zeus, Olympia Zanes of Olympia - Statues of Zeus

Notes

^ The sculpture was presented to Louis XIV as Aesculapius
Aesculapius
but restored as Zeus, ca. 1686, by Pierre Granier, who added the upraised right arm brandishing the thunderbolt. Marble, middle 2nd century CE. Formerly in the 'Allée Royale', (Tapis Vert) in the Gardens of Versailles, now conserved in the Louvre Museum
Louvre Museum
(Official on-line catalog) ^ Larousse Desk Reference Encyclopedia, The Book People, Haydock, 1995, p. 215. ^ Oxford English Dictionary, 1st ed. "Zeus, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1921. ^ In classical Attic Greek. ^ Thomas Berry (1996). Religions of India: Hinduism, Yoga, Buddhism. Columbia University Press. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-0-231-10781-5.  ^ T. N. Madan (2003). The Hinduism Omnibus. Oxford University Press. p. 81. ISBN 978-0-19-566411-9.  ^ Sukumari Bhattacharji (2015). The Indian Theogony. Cambridge University Press. pp. 280–281.  ^ a b Hamilton, Edith (1942). Mythology
Mythology
(1998 ed.). New York: Back Bay Books. p. 467. ISBN 978-0-316-34114-1.  ^ Homer, Il., Book V. ^ Plato, Symp., 180e. ^ There are two major conflicting stories for Aphrodite's origins: Hesiod's Theogony
Theogony
claims that she was born from the foam of the sea after Cronos castrated Uranus, making her Uranus's daughter but Homer's Iliad
Iliad
has Aphrodite
Aphrodite
as the daughter of Zeus
Zeus
and Dione.[9] A speaker in Plato's Symposium offers that they were separate figures: Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Ourania and Aphrodite
Aphrodite
Pandemos.[10] ^ Homeric Hymns. ^ Hesiod, Theogony. ^ Burkert, Greek Religion. ^ See, e.g., Homer, Il., I.503 & 533. ^ Pausanias, 2.24.2. ^ Νεφεληγερέτα. Liddell, Henry George; Scott, Robert; A Greek–English Lexicon at the Perseus
Perseus
Project. ^ Laertius, Diogenes (1972) [1925]. "1.11". In Hicks, R.D. Lives of Eminent Philosophers.  "1.11". Diogenes Laertius, Lives of Eminent Philosophers (in Greek).  ^ a b "Zeus". American Heritage Dictionary. Retrieved 2006-07-03.  ^ R. S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, Brill, 2009, p. 499. ^ Harper, Douglas. "Jupiter". Online Etymology Dictionary.  ^ Burkert (1985). Greek Religion. p. 321. ISBN 0-674-36280-2.  ^ "The Linear B
Linear B
word di-we".  "The Linear B
Linear B
word di-wo". Palaeolexicon. Word study tool of Ancient languages.  ^ "Plato's Cratylus," by Plato, ed. by David Sedley, Cambridge University Press, 6 Nov 2003, p.91 ^ "The Makers of Hellas".  ^ "Limiting the Arbitrary".  ^ "Greek and Roman Mythology.". Mythology: Myths, Legends, & Fantasy. Sweet Water Press. 2003. p. 21. ISBN 9781468265903.  ^  Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "Gaza". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. ; Johannes Hahn: Gewalt und religiöser Konflikt; The Holy Land and the Bible ^ Iliad, Book 14, line 294 ^ Theogony
Theogony
886–900. ^ Theogony
Theogony
901–911. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 155 ^ Scholia on Pindar, Olympian Ode 9, 107 ^ Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. Dōdōne, with a reference to Acestodorus ^ Photios (1824). "190.489R". In Bekker, August Immanuel. Myriobiblon (in Greek). Tomus alter. Berlin: Ge. Reimer. p. 152a.  At the Internet Archive. "190.152a" (PDF). Myriobiblon (in Greek). Interreg
Interreg
Δρόμοι της πίστης – Ψηφιακή Πατρολογία. 2006. p. 163.  At khazarzar.skeptik.net. ^ The bust below the base of the neck is eighteenth century. The head, which is roughly worked at back and must have occupied a niche, was found at Hadrian's Villa, Tivoli and donated to the British Museum
British Museum
by John Thomas Barber Beaumont
John Thomas Barber Beaumont
in 1836. BM 1516. (British Museum, A Catalogue of Sculpture in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities, 1904). ^ Homer, Iliad
Iliad
i. 202, ii. 157, 375, &c. ^ Pindar, Isthmian Odes iv. 99 ^ Hyginus, Poetical Astronomy ii. 13 ^ Spanh. ad Callim. hymn. in Jov, 49 ^ Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Aegiduchos". In Smith, William. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Vol. I. Boston. p. 26.  ^ Strab. xii. p. 574 ^ Libanius (2000). Antioch
Antioch
as a Centre of Hellenic Culture as Observed by Libanius. Translated with an introduction by A.F. Norman. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. p. 23. ISBN 0-85323-595-3.  ^ Δικταῖος in Liddell and Scott. ^ a b Cook, Arthur Bernard (1914), Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion, I: Zeus
Zeus
God of the Bright Sky, Cambridge: Cambridge University
Cambridge University
Press, pp. 549 ff. . ^ Durant, The Life of Greece (The Story of Civilization Part II, New York: Simon & Schuster) 1939:23. ^ Rodney Castleden, Minoans: Life in Bronze-Age Crete, "The Minoan belief-system" (Routledge) 1990:125 ^ Pointed out by Bernard Clive Dietrich, The Origins of Greek Religion (de Gruyter) 1973:15. ^ A.B. Cook, Zeus
Zeus
Cambridge University
Cambridge University
Press, 1914, I, figs 397, 398. ^ Dietrich 1973, noting Martin P. Nilsson, Minoan-Mycenaean Religion, and Its Survival in Greek Religion
Religion
1950:551 and notes. ^ "Professor Stylianos Alexiou reminds us that there were other divine boys who survived from the religion of the pre-Hellenic period — Linos, Ploutos
Ploutos
and Dionysos
Dionysos
— so not all the young male deities we see depicted in Minoan works of art are necessarily Velchanos" (Castleden 1990:125 ^ Richard Wyatt Hutchinson, Prehistoric Crete, (Harmondsworth: Penguin) 1968:204, mentions that there is no classical reference to the death of Zeus
Zeus
(noted by Dietrich 1973:16 note 78). ^ "This annually reborn god of vegetation also experienced the other parts of the vegetation cycle: holy marriage and annual death when he was thought to disappear from the earth" (Dietrich 1973:15). ^ In the founding myth of Lycaon's banquet for the gods that included the flesh of a human sacrifice, perhaps one of his sons, Nyctimus or Arcas. Zeus
Zeus
overturned the table and struck the house of Lyceus with a thunderbolt; his patronage at the Lykaia
Lykaia
can have been little more than a formula. ^ A morphological connection to lyke "brightness" may be merely fortuitous. ^ Modern archaeologists have found no trace of human remains among the sacrificial detritus, Walter Burkert, " Lykaia
Lykaia
and Lykaion", Homo Necans, tr. by Peter Bing (University of California) 1983, p. 90. ^ Pausanias 8.38. ^ Republic 565d-e ^ A. B. Cook (1914), Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion, Vol. I, p.63, Cambridge University
Cambridge University
Press ^ Schol. ad Pind. Ol. vi. 162 ^ Hesiod, according to a scholium on Apollonius of Rhodes. Argonautika, ii. 297 ^ Odyssey
Odyssey
14.326-7 ^ Pausanias 3.18. ^ "In the art of Gandhara Zeus
Zeus
became the inseparable companion of the Buddha
Buddha
as Vajrapani." in Freedom, Progress, and Society, K. Satchidananda Murty, R. Balasubramanian, Sibajiban Bhattacharyya, Motilal Banarsidass Publishe, 1986, p. 97 ^ 2 Maccabees
2 Maccabees
6:2 ^ David Syme Russel. Daniel. (Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press, 1981) 191. ^ Sick, David H. (2004), "Mit(h)ra(s) and the Myths of the Sun", Numen, 51 (4): 432–467, JSTOR 3270454 ^ Ljuba Merlina Bortolani, Magical Hymns from Roman Egypt: A Study of Greek and Egyptian Traditions of Divinity, Cambridge University
Cambridge University
Press, 13/10/2016 ^ West, Martin Litchfield (2007). Indo-European Poetry and Myth (PDF). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. pp. 194–196. ISBN 978-0-19-928075-9. Retrieved 7 May 2017.  ^ Karl Kerenyi, The Gods of the Greeks
Greeks
1951:110. ^ In Fourth Tractate 'Problems of the Soul' The Demiurge
Demiurge
is identified as Zeus.10. "When under the name of Zeus
Zeus
we are considering the Demiurge
Demiurge
we must leave out all notions of stage and progress, and recognize one unchanging and timeless life." ^ The translation of Hermes ^ The International Standard Bible Encyclopaedia, edited by J. Orr, 1960, Vol. III, p. 1944. ^ "The Second Book of the Maccabees".  ^ " Zeus
Zeus
• Facts and Information on Greek God of the Sky Zeus". Greek Gods & Goddesses. Retrieved 2015-11-30.  ^ "The Gods in the Iliad". department.monm.edu. Retrieved 2015-12-02.  ^ Homer
Homer
(1990). The Iliad. South Africa: Penguin Classics.  ^ "Zeus". Ancient History Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2015-11-30.  ^ "Greek Gods". AllAboutHistory.org. Retrieved 2015-12-02.  ^ " Zeus
Zeus
• Facts and Information on Greek God of the Sky Zeus". Greek Gods & Goddesses. Retrieved 2015-12-02.  ^ A Point of View: The euro's strange stories, BBC, retrieved 20/11/2011 ^ This chart is based upon Hesiod's Theogony, unless otherwise noted. ^ According to Homer, Iliad
Iliad
1.570–579, 14.338, Odyssey
Odyssey
8.312, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was apparently the son of Hera
Hera
and Zeus, see Gantz, p. 74. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
927–929, Hephaestus
Hephaestus
was produced by Hera
Hera
alone, with no father, see Gantz, p. 74. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
886–890, of Zeus' children by his seven wives, Athena
Athena
was the first to be conceived, but the last to be born; Zeus
Zeus
impregnated Metis then swallowed her, later Zeus
Zeus
himself gave birth to Athena
Athena
"from his head", see Gantz, pp. 51–52, 83–84. ^ According to Hesiod, Theogony
Theogony
183–200, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was born from Uranus' severed genitals, see Gantz, pp. 99–100. ^ According to Homer, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
was the daughter of Zeus
Zeus
( Iliad
Iliad
3.374, 20.105; Odyssey
Odyssey
8.308, 320) and Dione ( Iliad
Iliad
5.370–71), see Gantz, pp. 99–100.

References

Burkert, Walter, (1977) 1985. Greek Religion, especially section III.ii.1 (Harvard University Press) Cook, Arthur Bernard, Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion, (3 volume set), (1914–1925). New York, Bibilo & Tannen: 1964.

Volume 1: Zeus, God of the Bright Sky, Biblo-Moser, June 1, 1964, ISBN 0-8196-0148-9 (reprint) Volume 2: Zeus, God of the Dark Sky ( Thunder
Thunder
and Lightning), Biblo-Moser, June 1, 1964, ISBN 0-8196-0156-X Volume 3: Zeus, God of the Dark Sky (earthquakes, clouds, wind, dew, rain, meteorites)

Druon, Maurice, The Memoirs of Zeus, 1964, Charles Scribner's and Sons. (tr. Humphrey Hare) Farnell, Lewis Richard, Cults of the Greek States 5 vols. Oxford; Clarendon 1896–1909. Still the standard reference. Farnell, Lewis Richard, Greek Hero
Hero
Cults and Ideas of Immortality, 1921. Gantz, Timothy, Early Greek Myth: A Guide to Literary and Artistic Sources, Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996, Two volumes: ISBN 978-0-8018-5360-9 (Vol. 1), ISBN 978-0-8018-5362-3 (Vol. 2). Graves, Robert; The Greek Myths, Penguin Books Ltd. (1960 edition) Hesiod, Theogony, in The Homeric Hymns and Homerica with an English Translation by Hugh G. Evelyn-White, Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. 1914. Online version at the Perseus
Perseus
Digital Library. Homer, The Iliad
Iliad
with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, Ph.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1924. Online version at the Perseus
Perseus
Digital Library. Homer; The Odyssey
Odyssey
with an English Translation by A.T. Murray, PH.D. in two volumes. Cambridge, MA., Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann, Ltd. 1919. Online version at the Perseus
Perseus
Digital Library. Mitford, William, The History of Greece, 1784. Cf. v.1, Chapter II, Religion
Religion
of the Early Greeks Moore, Clifford H., The Religious Thought of the Greeks, 1916. Nilsson, Martin P., Greek Popular Religion, 1940. Nilsson, Martin P., History of Greek Religion, 1949. Rohde, Erwin, Psyche: The Cult of Souls and Belief in Immortality among the Greeks, 1925. Smith, William, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, 1870, Ancientlibrary.com, William Smith, Dictionary: "Zeus" Ancientlibrary.com

External links

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in myth Theoi Project, Zeus
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cult and statues Photo: Pagans Honor Zeus
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at Ancient Athens
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v t e

Ancient Greek religion
Ancient Greek religion
and mythology

Classical religious forms

Ancient Greek religion Gnosticism Paleo-Balkan mythology Proto-Indo-European
Proto-Indo-European
religion Hellenistic religion Alchemy Orphism Pythagoreanism Mycenaean deities

Mystery religions and sacred mysteries

Dionysian Mysteries Eleusinian Mysteries Imbrian Mysteries Mithraism Samotracian Mysteries

Main beliefs

Apotheosis Euhemerism Greek Heroic Age Monism Mythology Nympholepsy Paganism Paradoxography Polytheism Theism

Texts/ Epic poems/ Ode

Aretalogy Argonautica Bibliotheca Cyranides Derveni papyrus Ehoiai Greek Magical Papyri Homeric Hymns Iliad Odyssey Papyrus Graecus Holmiensis Telegony The golden verses of Pythagoras Theogony Works and Days Epic Cycle Theban Cycle

Rites and practices

Amphictyonic League Amphidromia Animal sacrifice Apotheosis Baptes Curse tablet Daduchos Delphinion Funeral and burial practices Hymns Hero
Hero
cult Heroon Hierophany Hierophant Hierophylakes Hieros gamos Hypsistarians Iatromantis Interpretatio graeca Libations Mystagogue Nekyia Necromancy Necromanteion Nymphaeum Panegyris Pharmakos Prayers Orgia Sacrifices Temenos Temples Votive
Votive
offerings

Sacred places

Athenian sacred ships Cave of Zeus Cretea Delphi Delos Dodona Eleusis Hiera Orgas Olympia Olympus Psychro Cave Sacred Way

Mythical beings

Dragons in Greek mythology Greek mythological creatures Greek mythological figures List of minor Greek mythological figures

Deities

Primordial deities

Aether Aion Ananke Chaos Chronos Erebus Eros Gaia Hemera Nyx Phanes Pontus Thalassa Tartarus Uranus

Titans

First generation

Coeus Crius Cronus Hyperion Iapetus Mnemosyne Oceanus Phoebe Rhea Tethys Theia Themis

Second generation

Asteria Astraeus Atlas Eos Epimetheus Helios Leto Menoetius Metis Pallas Perses Prometheus Selene

Third generation

Hecate Hesperus Phosphorus

Twelve Olympians

Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Athena Demeter Dionysus Hephaestus Hera Hermes Hestia Poseidon Zeus

Aquatic deities

Amphitrite Alpheus Ceto Glaucus The Naiads The Nereids Nereus The Oceanids Phorcys Poseidon The Potamoi Potamides Proteus Scamander Thaumas Thetis Triton

Love deities

Erotes

Anteros Eros Hedylogos Hermaphroditus Himeros Hymen/Hymenaeus Pothos

Aphrodite Aphroditus Philotes Peitho

War deities

Adrestia Alala Alke Amphillogiai Androktasiai Ares Athena Bia Deimos Enyalius Enyo Eris Gynaecothoenas Homados Hysminai Ioke Keres Kratos Kydoimos Ma Makhai Nike Palioxis Pallas Perses Phobos Phonoi Polemos Proioxis

Chthonic
Chthonic
deities

Psychopomps

Hermanubis Hermes Thanatos

Achlys Angelos Hades
Hades
/ Pluto Hecate Hypnos Keres Lampad Macaria Melinoe Persephone

Health deities

Aceso Aegle Artemis Apollo Asclepius Chiron Eileithyia Epione Hebe Hygieia Iaso Paean Panacea Telesphorus

Sleep deities

Empusa Epiales Hypnos Morpheus Pasithea Phantasos Phobetor Oneiroi

Messenger deities

Angelia Arke Hermes Iris

Trickster deities

Apate Dolos Hermes Momus

Magic deities

Circe Hecate Hermes
Hermes
Trismegistus Triple deity

Other major deities

Azone The Erinyes Harmonia The Muses Nemesis Pan Unknown God Zelus

Heroes/Heroines

Abderus Achilles Actaeon Aeneas Argonauts Ajax the Great Ajax the Lesser Akademos Amphiaraus Amphitryon Antilochus Atalanta Autolycus Bellerophon Bouzyges Cadmus Chrysippus Cyamites Daedalus Diomedes Dioscuri
Dioscuri
(Castor and Pollux) Echetlus Eleusis Erechtheus Eunostus Ganymede Hector Heracles Icarus Iolaus Jason Meleager Odysseus Oedipus Orpheus Pandion Peleus Pelops Penthesilea Perseus Theseus Triptolemus

Mythical tribes

Amazons Anthropophage Atlantians Bebryces Curetes Dactyls Gargareans Halizones Korybantes Lapiths Lotus-eaters Myrmidons Pygmies Telchines

Oracles/Seers

Aesacus Aleuas Amphiaraus Amphilochus Ampyx Anius Asbolus Bakis Branchus Calchas Carnus Carya Cassandra Delphic Sibyl Elatus Ennomus Halitherses Helenus Iamus Idmon Manto Melampus Mopsus Munichus Phineus Polyeidos Polypheides Pythia Sibyl Telemus Theiodamas Theoclymenus Tiresias

Magic

Apotropaic magic Greek Magical Papyri Philia

Mythical realms

Aethiopia Atlantis Hyperborea Libya Nysa Panchaia Scythia Themiscyra

Underworld

Entrances to the underworld

Rivers

Acheron Cocytus Eridanos Lethe Phlegethon Styx

Lakes/ Swamps

Acherusia Avernus Lake Lerna
Lerna
Lake

Caves

Cave at Cape Matapan Cave Charonium Cave at Lake Avernus Cave at Heraclea Pontica

Ploutonion

Pluto's Gate

Places

Elysium Erebus Fields of Asphodel Fields of Punishment Isles of the Blessed Tartarus

Judges of the underworld

Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus

Guards

Cerberus

Ferryman

Charon Charon's obol

Symbols-Objects

Bident Cap of invisibility

Animals-Daemons/Spirits

Ascalaphus Ceuthonymus Eurynomos Hade's cattle

Mythological wars

Amazonomachy Attic War Centauromachy Gigantomachy Cranes-Pygmies war Theomachy Titanomachy Trojan War

Mythological and religious objects

Adamant Aegis Ambrosia Apple of Discord Ara Baetylus Caduceus Cornucopia Dragon's teeth Diipetes Galatea Golden apple Golden Fleece Gorgoneion Greek terracotta figurines Harpe Ichor Lotus tree Minoan sealstone Moly Necklace of Harmonia Omphalos Orichalcum Palladium Panacea Pandora's box Petasos
Petasos
(Winged helmet) Philosopher's stone Ring of Gyges Rod of Asclepius Sacrificial tripod Sceptre Shield of Achilles Shirt of Nessus Sword of Damocles Talaria Thunderbolt Thymiaterion Thyrsus Trident Trojan Horse Winnowing Oar Wheel of Fortune Wheel of fire Xoanon

Symbols

Arkalochori Axe Labrys Ouroboros Owl of Athena

Mythological powers

Anthropomorphism Divination Eternal youth Evocation Fortune-telling Immortality Language of the birds Nympholepsy Magic Ornithomancy Shamanism Shapeshifting Weather modification

Storage containers/ Cups

Amphora Calathus Chalice Ciborium Cotyla Hydria Hydriske Kalpis Kylix Kantharos Lebes Lekythos Loutrophoros Oenochoe Pelike Pithos Skyphos Stamnos

Musical Instruments

Aulos Barbiton Chelys Cithara Cochilia Crotalum
Crotalum
(Castanets) Epigonion Kollops Lyre Pan flute Pandura Phorminx Psaltery Salpinx Sistrum Tambourine Trigonon Tympanum Water organ

Games

Panhellenic Games

Olympic Games Pythian Games Nemean Games Isthmian Games

Agon Panathenaic Games Rhieia

Festivals/Feasts

Actia Adonia Agrionia Amphidromia Anthesteria Apellai Apaturia Aphrodisia Arrhephoria Ascolia Bendidia Boedromia Brauronia Buphonia Chalceia Diasia Delphinia Dionysia Ecdysia Elaphebolia Gamelia Haloa Heracleia Hermaea Hieromenia Iolaia Kronia Lenaia Lykaia Metageitnia Munichia Oschophoria Pamboeotia Pandia Plynteria Pyanopsia Skira Synoikia Soteria Tauropolia Thargelia Theseia Thesmophoria

Vessels

Argo Phaeacian ships

Modern offshoot religions

Discordianism Gaianism Hellenismos Decline of Greco-Roman polytheism

Modern popular culture

Greek mythology
Greek mythology
in popular culture

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Ancient Greek deities by affiliation

Primordial deities

Achlys Aether Aion/Chronos Ananke Chaos Erebus Eros/Phanes Gaia Hemera Nyx The Ourea Pontus/Thalassa Tartarus Uranus Fates

Atropos Clotho Lachesis

Titan deities

Titanes (male)

Coeus Crius Cronus Hyperion Iapetus Oceanus Ophion

Titanides (female)

Dione Eurybia Mnemosyne Phoebe Rhea Tethys Theia Themis

Hyperionides

Eos Helios Selene

Koionides

Asteria Leto

Krionides

Astraeus Pallas Perses

Iapetionides

Atlas Epimetheus Menoetius Prometheus

Mousai (Muses)

Aoide Arche Melete Mneme

Olympian deities

Dodekatheon

Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Athena Demeter Dionysus Hephaestus Hera Hermes Hestia Poseidon Zeus

Theoi Olympioi

Asclepius Deimos Ganymede Eileithyia Enyo Eris Iris Harmonia Hebe Heracles Paean Pan Phobos

Mousai (Muses)

Daughters of Zeus

Calliope Clio Euterpe Erato Melpomene Polyhymnia Terpsichore Thalia Urania

Daughters of Apollo

Apollonis Borysthenis Cephisso

Muses
Muses
of the Lyre

Hypate Mese Nete

Muses
Muses
at Sicyon

Polymatheia

Charites
Charites
(Graces)

Aglaea Antheia Euphrosyne Hegemone Pasithea Thalia

Horae
Horae
(Hours)

Dike Eirene Eunomia

Styktides

Bia Kratos Nike Zelos

Aquatic deities

Theoi Halioi

Amphitrite Benthesikyme Brizo Calypso Ceto Glaucus The Ichthyocentaurs Kymopoleia Leucothea Melicertes Nereus Nerites The Nesoi Oceanus Phorcys Pontus/Thalassa Poseidon Proteus Rhodos Tethys Thaumas Thetis Triton

Oceanids

Acaste Admete Adrasteia Amalthea Asia Callirrhoe Ceto Clytie Dione Dodone Doris Electra Eurynome Idyia Melia Metis Nemesis Perse Pleione Plouto Styx Telesto Zeuxo

Nereides

Amphitrite Arethusa Dynamene Galatea Galene Psamathe Thetis

Potamoi

Achelous Almo Alpheus Anapos Asopus Asterion Axius Caanthus Cebren Cephissus Clitumnus Enipeus Kladeos Meander Nilus Numicus Phyllis Peneus Rivers of the Underworld

Cocytus Eridanos Lethe Phlegethon Styx

Sangarius Scamander Simoeis Strymon

Naiads

Aegina Achiroe Aganippe The Anigrides Argyra Bistonis Bolbe Caliadne Cassotis Castalia Cleocharia Creusa Daphne Drosera Harpina The Ionides Ismenis Larunda Lilaea Liriope Melite Metope Minthe Moria Nana Nicaea Orseis Pallas Pirene Salmacis Stilbe The Thriae

Corycia Kleodora Melaina

Tiasa

Chthonic deities

Theoi Chthonioi

Angelos Demeter Gaia Hades Hecate The Lampads Macaria Melinoë Persephone Zagreus

Erinyes
Erinyes
(Furies)

Alecto Megaera Tisiphone

Earthborn

Cyclopes Gigantes Hecatonchires Kouretes Meliae Telchines Typhon

Apotheothenai

Trophonius Triptolemus Orpheus Aeacus Minos Rhadamanthus

Personifications

Children of Nyx

Achlys Apate Dolos Eleos Elpis Epiphron Eris Geras Hesperides Hybris Hypnos Ker The Keres The Moirai

Aisa Clotho Lachesis

Momus Moros Oizys The Oneiroi

Epiales Morpheus Phantasos Phobetor

Nemesis Philotes Sophrosyne Thanatos

Children of Eris

Algos Amphillogiai Ate The Androktasiai Dysnomia Horkos Hysminai Lethe Limos Machai Phonoi Ponos Neikea Pseudea Logoi

Children of other gods

Aergia Aidos Alala Aletheia Angelia Arete Bia Caerus The Younger Charites

Eucleia Eupheme Euthenia Philophrosyne

Corus Deimos The Erotes

Anteros Eros Hedylogos Hermaphroditus Hymen

Eupraxia Hedone Homonoia Iacchus Kratos The Litae Homonoia Nike Peitho Phobos Tyche Zelos

Others

Adephagia Alala Alke Amechania Anaideia Alastor Apheleia Aporia The Arae Dikaiosyne Dyssebeia Ekecheiria Eulabeia Eusebeia Gelos Heimarmene Homados Horme Ioke Kakia Kalokagathia Koalemos Kydoimos Lyssa The Maniae Methe Nomos Palioxis Peitharchia Penia Penthus Pepromene Pheme Philotes Phrike Phthonus Pistis Poine Polemos Poros Praxidike Proioxis Prophasis Roma Soter Soteria Techne Thrasos

Other deities

Sky deities

The Anemoi The Astra Planeti

Stilbon Eosphorus Hesperus Pyroeis Phaethon Phaenon

Aura Chione The Hesperides The Hyades Nephele The Pleiades

Alcyone Sterope Celaeno Electra Maia Merope Taygete

Agricultural deities

Aphaea Ariadne Carmanor Demeter Despoina Eunostus Philomelus Plutus

Health deities

Asclepius Aceso Epione Iaso Hygieia Panacea Telesphorus

Rustic deities

Aetna The Alseids The Auloniads Amphictyonis The Anthousai Aristaeus Attis Britomartis The Cabeiri Comus The Dryades

Erato Eurydice The Hamadryades

Chrysopeleia

The Epimeliades Hecaterus Leuce Ma The Maenades The Meliae The Napaeae The Nymphai Hyperboreioi The Oreads

Adrasteia Echo Helike Iynx Nomia Oenone Pitys

The Pegasides Priapus Rhapso Silenus Telete

Others

Acratopotes Adrasteia Agdistis Alexiares and Anicetus Aphroditus Astraea Circe Eiresione Enyalius Harpocrates Ichnaea Palaestra

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Greek deities series

Primordial deities Titan deities Aquatic deities Chthonic
Chthonic
deities Mycenaean deities

Twelve Olympians

Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Athena Demeter Dionysus Hephaestus Hera Hermes Hestia Poseidon Zeus

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 3266770 LCCN: no2014048

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