Zef Jubani (1818–1880) born Zef Ndokillia was an Albanian
folklorist, philosopher and activist of the Albanian National
Awakening. He is known for the publication of a Collection of Albanian
Songs and Rhapsodies in the
Gheg Albanian dialect. Jubani
advocated the creation of a unique alphabet of the Albanian language.
For his political activities, which often were anti-clericalist Jubani
was denounced to the
Holy See by the
Jesuit missionaries of Shkodër.
3 Political philosophy
Zef Jubani was born in 1818 in Shkodër, modern
Albania to a notable
merchant family from the nearby village of Juban. He initially studied
Shkodër and later continued his studies in Malta, where his uncle
lived. After returning to
Shkodër he worked since 1848 as a secretary
to the French consul of the city and also became the assistant of the
vice consul of the United Kingdom in 1853. Jubani spent a
significant part of his life in Trieste,
Venice and modern Montenegro.
Since 1850 Jubani documented the folklore of his home region. In 1858
part of his work was published in the Histoire et description de la
Haute Albanie ou Guegarie written by Hyacinthe Hecguard, then French
consul of Shkodër. The original texts of the folk songs documented
by Jubani included in Hecguard's work were lost on January 13, 1866
during a flood in Shkodër. His best known work is the Collection of
Songs and Rhapsodies (Albanian: Përmbledhje këngësh
popullore dhe rrapsodish shqiptare, Italian: Raccolta di canti
popolari e rapsodie di poemi albanesi) published in 1871 in
Trieste. The Collection of Albanian Folk
Songs and Rhapsodies is
the first collection of folk songs in the
Gheg Albanian dialect and
the first folklore work published by an Albanian who lived in
Albania. The book was published along with two political and
philosophical studies of Jubani the Current situation of the
population of northern
Albania (Albanian: Gjendja aktuale e popullit
të Shqiperisë së Veriut) and Thoughts on the moral situation and
intellectual culture of the Albanian people (Albanian: Kundrime mbi
gjëndjen morale dhe mbi kulturën intelektuale të popullit
shqiptar), which were introductory to his main work.
In the two introductory studies Jubani advocated for the formation of
a literary commission for the purification of the Albanian language
and the promotion of Albanian literature. Jubani also supported the
creation of a unique alphabet for the Albanian language, arguing that
since Albanian was a unique language, it should have a separate
alphabet, and wrote a grammar textbook of the Albanian language. In
Trieste he became one of the editors of a local newspaper and in 1873
he edited and translated from Ottoman Turkish to Italian Law, appendix
and procedure of the Ottoman commerce (Italian: Codice e appendice e
procedura commercialo ottomano), a book about commerce practices in
the Ottoman Empire. In 1878 he published in
Venice a pamphlet to
encourage the use of steamships in routes between
Albania and Italy.
Jubani's study On the Albanian poetry and music was among the first
works that dealt with the polyphonic music of the area of Myzeqe.
Jubani's political philosophy was influenced largely by classical
liberalism and anti-clericalism during his travels in
Malta and Italy.
He believed that reforms should be based on an industrial economic
policy, the center of which would be an Albanian bourgeoisie, whose
commerce with Europe would be encouraged and it would pay lower taxes,
while that social class would heavily support the industrial
development of Albania.
He often accused the Catholic and Muslim clergy of inciting and
encouraging religious segregation and differences. Jubani criticized
the Italian missionaries for teaching only in Italian, while in
previous years Albanian had been used too. The
Shkodër eventually denounced Jubani to the
Holy See as an
^ Clayer, p.165
^ a b Marcel Cornis-Pope, p.337
^ Skendi, p.121
^ Frashëri, p.164
^ Clayer, p.229
^ The Ukrainian Quarterly, p.455
^ Clayer, p.217
^ Sanghera, p.96-7
^ Clayer, p.218
Skendi, Stavro (1967). The Albanian national awakening, 1878-1912.
Princeton University Press.
The Ukrainian Quarterly. The Ukrainian Quarterly. 48. Ukrainian
Congress Committee of America. 1992. p. 455.
Cornis-Pope, Marcel; John Neubauer (2004). History of the literary
cultures of East-Central Europe: junctures and disjunctures in the
19th and 20th centuries. History of the Literary Cultures of
East-central Europe. 2. John Benjamins Publishing Company.
Clayer, Natalie (2007). Aux origines du nationalisme albanais: la
naissance d'une nation majoritairement musulmane en Europe (in
French). KARTHALA Editions. ISBN 2-84586-816-2.
Frashëri, Kristo; Aleks Buda (1967). Historia e Shqipërisë II (in
Sanghera, Balihar; Amsler, Sarah; Yarkova, Tatiana (2007-09-05).
Theorising social change in post-Soviet countries: critical
approaches. Peter Lang. pp. 96–7. ISBN 978-3-03910-329-4.
Retrieved 27 September 2010.