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The Yugurs (Chinese: 裕固族; pinyin: Yùgù Zú), or Yellow Uyghurs,[1] as they are traditionally known, are a Turkic group and one of China's 56 officially recognized nationalities, consisting of 13,719 persons according to the 2000 census.[2] The Yugur
Yugur
live primarily in Sunan Yugur Autonomous County
Sunan Yugur Autonomous County
in Gansu, China. They are Tibetan Buddhists.[3][4]

Contents

1 Name 2 History 3 Language 4 People 5 Religion 6 Popular culture 7 References 8 External links

Name[edit] The nationality's current, official name, Yugur, derived from its autonym: the Turkic-speaking Yugur
Yugur
designate themselves as Yogïr "Yugur" or Sarïg Yogïr "Yellow Yugur", and the Mongolic-speaking Yugur
Yugur
likewise use either Yogor or Šera Yogor "Yellow Yugur". Chinese historical documents have recorded these ethnonyms as Sālǐ Wèiwùr or Xīlǎgǔr. During the Qing dynasty, the Yugur
Yugur
were also called by a term that included "fān", the Classical Chinese term for Tibetic ethnic groups (Chinese: 西喇古兒黃番; pinyin: Xī Lǎgǔr Huáng Fān. In order to distinguish both groups and their languages, Chinese linguists coined the terms Xībù Yùgùr "Western Yugur" and Dōngbù Yùgùr "Eastern Yugur" based on their geographical distribution. History[edit] The Turkic-speaking Yugurs are considered to be the descendants of a group of Uyghurs
Uyghurs
who fled from Mongolia
Mongolia
southwards to Gansu
Gansu
after the collapse of the Uyghur Khaganate
Uyghur Khaganate
in 840, where they established the prosperous Gansu
Gansu
Uyghur Kingdom (Ganzhou Uyghur Khanate) (870-1036) with capital near present Zhangye
Zhangye
at the base of the Qilian Mountains in the valley of the Ruo Shui.[5] The population of this kingdom, estimated at 300,000 in Song chronicles, practised Manichaeism
Manichaeism
and Buddhism
Buddhism
in numerous temples throughout the country. In 1037 the Yugur
Yugur
came under Tangut domination.[6] The Gansu
Gansu
Uyghur Kingdom was forcibly incorporated into the Western Xia
Western Xia
after a bloody war that raged from 1028–1036. Mahmud al-Kashgari, who lived at the time in Kashgar, stated that "Uyghur blood was pouring like a murmuring stream" during this war.[citation needed] The Mongolic-speaking Yugurs are probably the descendants of one of the Mongolic-speaking groups that invaded North China
China
during the Mongol conquests of the thirteenth century. The Yugurs were eventually incorporated into Qing China
China
in 1696 during the reign of the second Qing ruler, the Kangxi Emperor
Kangxi Emperor
(1662–1723). In 1893, Russian explorer Grigory Potanin, the first Western scientist to study the Yugur, published a small glossary of Yugur
Yugur
words, along with notes on their administration and geographical situation.[7] Then, in 1907, Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
Carl Gustaf Emil Mannerheim
visited the Western Yugur village of Lianhua (Mazhuangzi) and the Kangle Temple of the Eastern Yugur. Mannerheim was the first to conduct a detailed ethnographic investigation of the Yugur. In 1911, he published his findings in an article for the Finno-Ugrian Society. Language[edit] About 4,600 of the Yugurs speak Western Yugur
Yugur
(a Turkic language) and about 2,800 Eastern Yugur
Yugur
(a Mongolic language). Western Yugur
Yugur
has preserved many archaisms of Old Uyghur.[8][9] The remaining Yugurs of the Autonomous County lost their respective Yugur
Yugur
language and speak Chinese. A very small number of the Yugur
Yugur
reportedly speak Tibetan. They use Chinese for intercommunication. Both Yugur
Yugur
languages are now unwritten, although the Old Uyghur alphabet was in use in some Yugur
Yugur
communities until end of 19th century.[10] People[edit] The Turkic speaking Yugur
Yugur
mainly live in the western part of the County in Mínghuā District, in the Townships of Liánhuā and Mínghǎi, and in Dàhé District, in the centre of the County. The Mongolic speaking Yugur
Yugur
mainly live in the County's eastern part, in Huángchéng District, and in Dàhé and Kānglè Districts, in the centre of the County. The Yugur
Yugur
people are predominantly employed in animal husbandry. Religion[edit]

Part of a series on

Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism

Traditions Historical traditions:

Ari-Acharya

Burmese-Bengal † Yunnan

Indonesian Esoteric Buddhism
Buddhism
† Filipino Esoteric Buddhism
Buddhism

East Asian

Han † Japanese

Nepalese

Inner Asian

Tibetan Altaic (o, x, b, t, k, y)

New branches:

Blue Lotus Assembly

Gateway of the Hidden Flower

New Kadampa Buddhism

Shambhala Buddhism

True Awakening Tradition

History

Tantrism

Mahasiddha

Sahaja

Pursuit

Buddhahood Bodhisattva

Kalachakra

Practices

Generation stage Completion stage

Phowa

Tantric techniques: Fourfold division:

Kriyayoga

Charyayoga

Yogatantra

Anuttarayogatantra

Twofold division:

Inner Tantras

Outer Tantras

Thought forms and visualisation:

Mandala

Mantra

Mudra

Thangka

Yantra

Yoga:

Deity yoga

Dream yoga

Death yoga

Ngöndro

Guru
Guru
yoga ("Lama" yoga)

Luminosity yoga

Sex yoga

Festivals

Ganachakra

Tantric texts

Anuttarayoga Tantra

Cakrasaṃvara Tantra

Guhyagarbha Tantra

Kulayarāja Tantra

Mahāmāyā Tantra

Mañjuśrī-mūla-kalpa

Mañjuśrīnāmasamgīti

Tattvasaṃgraha Tantra

Vajrasekhara Sutra

Yuthok Nyingthig

Symbols and tools

Damaru Ghanta Kila

Vajra Yab-Yum

Ordination and transmission

Pointing-out instruction

Samaya Vajracharya

Vajrayana
Vajrayana
Buddhism
Buddhism
portal

v t e

The traditional religion of the Yugur
Yugur
is Tibetan Buddhism, which used to be practised alongside shamanism. Popular culture[edit] The historical country of Sarig Yogir is a playable nation in the Paradox Interactive
Paradox Interactive
grand strategy video game Europa Universalis IV. References[edit]

^ Justin Jon Rudelson; Justin Ben-Adam Rudelson (1997). Oasis Identities: Uyghur Nationalism Along China's Silk Road. Columbia University Press. pp. 206–. ISBN 978-0-231-10786-0.  ^ Justin Keith Brown, Sarah Ogilvie (2009). Concise encyclopedia of languages of the world. Elsevier. p. 1142. ISBN 0-08-087774-5. Retrieved 2010-10-31.  ^ Justin Ben-Adam Rudelson, Justin Jon Rudelson (1997). Oasis identities: Uyghur nationalism along China's Silk Road. Columbia University Press. p. 178. ISBN 0-231-10786-2. Retrieved 2010-10-31.  ^ Wong, Edward (September 28, 2016). "Modern Life Presents Nomads of China's Steppe With a 'Tragic Choice'". New York Times.  ^ Edward Allworth (1994). Central Asia, 130 years of Russian dominance: a historical overview. Duke University Press. p. 89. ISBN 0-8223-1521-1. Retrieved 2010-10-31.  ^ Michael Dillon (2004). Central Xinjiang: China's Muslim far northwest. Psychology Press. p. 10. ISBN 0-415-32051-8. Retrieved 2010-10-31.  ^ Eric Enno Tamm. (2010) "The Horse That Leaps Through Clouds: A Tale of Espionage, the Silk Road and the Rise of Modern China." Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, p.218. ISBN 978-1-55365-269-4. http://horsethatleaps.com/chapter-11 ^ Aslı Göksel, Celia Kerslake, ed. (2000). Studies on Turkish and Turkic Languages: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Turkish Linguistics. Harrassowitz. pp. 430–431. ISBN 978-3447042932.  ^ Lars Johanson, Éva Csató (1998). The Turkic languages. Taylor & Francis. p. 397. ISBN 0-415-08200-5. Retrieved 2010-10-31.  ^ Dru C. Gladney (2004). Dislocating China: reflections on Muslims, minorities and other subaltern subjects. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. p. 212. ISBN 1-85065-324-0. Retrieved 2010-10-31. 

External links[edit]

Slide shows, maps and other material on the Yugur
Yugur
from author Eric Enno Tamm Original Western Yugur
Yugur
texts with English translation plus PDF grammar of Sarig Yugur
Yugur
[1]

v t e

Ethnic groups in China

Sino-Tibetan

Sinitic

Han Bai Hui

Burmic

Achang Hani Jino Lahu Lisu Nu Yi

Qiangic

Nakhi Pumi Qiang

Others

Derung Jingpo Lhoba Monpa Tibetan Tujia

Austroasiatic

Blang Gin Palaung Va

Hmong-Mien

Miao

Hmong

She Yao

Mongolic

Bonan Daur Dongxiang Mongol Monguor Yugur

Tai-Kadai

Bouyei Dai Dong Gelao Li Maonan Mulao Sui Zhuang

Tungusic

Evenk Manchu Nanai Oroqen Sibe

Turkic

Kazakh Kyrgyz Salar Tatar Uyghur Uzbek Yugur

Unrecognized

Lai Deng Gejia Utsul Khmu Macanese Mang Jews

Others

Filipinos Gaoshan Japanese Koreans Russian Tajik

Unrecognized ethnic groups in China
China
· Immigrant ethnic groups in China
China
· Historic ethnic groups

v t e

Turkic peoples

Altays Afshar Azerbaijanis Balkars Bashkirs Bulaqs Bulgars Chelkans Chulyms Chuvash Crimean Karaites Crimean Tatars Cumans Dolgans Dughlats Gagauz Iraqi Turkmen Karachays Karakalpaks Karluks Kazakhs Khakas Khalajs Khazars Khorasani Turks Kimek Kipchaks Kryashens Krymchaks Kumandins Kumyks Kyrgyz Lipka Tatars Meskhetian Turks Mishar Tatars

Finnish Tatars

Nağaybäk Naimans Nogais Oghuz Turks Qarapapaqs Qashqai Qizilbash Salar Siberian Tatars Shatuo Shors Syrian Turkmen Telengits Teleuts Tofalar Tubalar Turgesh Turks (proper)

diaspora

Turkmens Tuvans Uyghurs Uzbeks Volga Tatars Yakuts Yugur

Italics indicate extinct group

v t e

Mongolic peoples

History

Timeline Mongolian Plateau States Rulers Slab Grave culture Ordos culture Proto-Mongolic language Medieval tribes Modern clans Mongolian nobility Writing systems Languages Soyombo symbol Religion

Ethnic groups

Eastern Mongols

Darkhad Dariganga Eljigin Khalkha Khotogoyd Sartuul

Western Mongols

Altai Uriankhai Baatud Bayad Chantuu Choros Dörben Oyrad Khoyd Khoshuud Khoton Kalmyk Oyrad Myangad Ӧlӧӧd Sart Kalmak Torguud Zakhchin

Northern Mongols

Buriad Barga Hamnigan

Southern Mongols

Abaga Abaganar Aohans Asud Baarin Chahar Eastern Dorbed Gorlos Kharchin Khishigten Khorchin Khuuchid Jalaid Jaruud Muumyangan Naiman Onnigud Ordos Sunud Tumed Urad Üzemchin

Other

Bonan Daur Dongxiang Mughal Moghol Monguor Khatso
Khatso
(Yunnan Mongol) Sichuan Mongol Sogwo Arig Yugur

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