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Ypatingasis būrys
Ypatingasis būrys
( Special
Special
Squad) or Special
Special
SD and German Security Police Squad (Lithuanian: Vokiečių Saugumo policijos ir SD ypatingasis būrys, Polish: Specjalny Oddział SD i Niemieckiej Policji Bezpieczeństwa, also colloquially strzelcy ponarscy ("Ponary riflemen" in Polish)[1][2] (1941–1944) was a Lithuanian killing squad of approximately 50 men, also called the "Lithuanian equivalent of Sonderkommando",[3] operating in the Vilnius Region. The unit, primarily composed of Lithuanian volunteers,[4] was formed by the German occupational government[5] and was subordinate to Einsatzkommando 9
Einsatzkommando 9
and later to Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
(SD) and Sicherheitspolizei
Sicherheitspolizei
(Sipo).[6] There are different estimates regarding the size of the unit. Polish historian Czesław Michalski estimates that it grew from base of 50[7] while Tadeusz Piotrowski asserts about that there were 100 volunteers at its onset.[8] According to Michalski, after its initial creation, at various times hundreds of people were members.[7] Arūnas Bubnys states that it never exceeded a core of forty or fifty men.[9] 118 names are known; 20 of the members have been prosecuted and punished.[10] Together with German police, the squad participated in the Ponary massacre, where some 70,000 Jews were murdered,[11] along with estimated 20,000 Poles and 8,000 Russian POWs, many from nearby Vilnius.

Contents

1 History 2 See also 3 References 4 External links

History[edit]

Original Soviet built memorial to the Soviet Victims in the Paneriai Woods

The first mention of the name of the Vilnian Special
Special
Squad, (Lithuanian: Ypatingasis būrys) is from documents dated 15 July 1941. The Special
Special
Squad (YB) began as police units formed after Lithuania was occupied by Germany in 1941. Many were volunteers,[4] particularly recruited from the former paramilitary nationalistic[2][12] Union of Lithuanian Riflemen (Lithuanian: Lietuvos Šaulių Sąjunga) organization.[13][14] It was composed primarily of Lithuanians, although according to Lithuanian historian Bubnys, a few Russians and a few Poles served in it as well.[3][5] The unit was subordinated to German police, and had no autonomy.[15] Amongst the original organizers of the squad were junior lieutenants Jakubka and Butkus. After 23 July 1941, the commanding officer was Juozas Šidlauskas. Squad members were issued Soviet weapons and white armbands and were used as guards and to move Jews from their apartments to the ghetto. In November 1941, lieutenant Balys Norvaiša, became the commander of the squad and his deputy was lieutenant Balys Lukošius. The size of the squad was reduced to between forty and fifty men. By the end of 1943, Norvaiša and Lukošius were deployed to a self-defence battalion and command of the YB was transferred to sergeant Jonas Tumas. Some of the squad members were wearing uniforms of Lithuanian Army until in 1942 they were issued green SD uniforms with Swastika
Swastika
and skulls on caps. Squad members were also issued SD identity cards. YB was subordinate only to the German Security Police. The longest-serving commander of YB was SS man Martin Weiss. Weiss not only directed executions but killed victims personally. In 1943 Weiss was replaced by private Fiedler.[16] YB was created to kill people and it killed people during its entire existence. It carried out most of the murders in 1941. YB killed people in Paneriai, Nemenčinė, Naujoji Vilnia, Varėna, Jašiūnai, Eišiškės, Trakai, Semeliškės, and Švenčionys.[16] YB also guarded the Gestapo
Gestapo
headquarters in Vilnius, the prison on present-day Gediminas Avenue, as well as the Paneriai
Paneriai
base. When Germans closed Vilnius' monasteries in 1943, YB guarded their facilities until Germans removed the seized property.[16] In 1943 YB performed far fewer executions than in 1941–1942. From December 1943 Paneriai
Paneriai
was guarded by an SS unit and by 1944, according to Lithuanian historian Bubnys, YB did not perform shootings in Paneriai.[16] From August 1943 YB was renamed to a Squad of 11th Battalion of Latvian Legion. Old identity documents were replaced with new documents of Latvian Legion
Latvian Legion
troops. Despite the formal change, YB was still serving German Security Police
German Security Police
and SD. In July 1944 YB was moved to Kaunas
Kaunas
and stationed at Ninth Fort. There YB guarded the prison and before retreating, killed 100 prisoners. Then YB was moved to Stutthof, where it escorted Jews to Toruń. It stayed there until April 1944, when it received orders to convoy Jews to Bydgoszcz. However members of YB fled from the approaching front and Jewish prisoners escaped. Some YB members successfully retreated to Germany; some stayed in the zone occupied by Red Army.[16] YB killed tens of thousands people, mostly Jews. Ten YB members were sentenced and executed by Soviet authorities in 1945 (Jonas Oželis-Kazlauskas, Juozas Macys, Stasys Ukrinas, Mikas Bogotkevičius, Povilas Vaitulionis, Jonas Dvilainis, Vladas Mandeika, Borisas Baltūsis, Juozas Augustas, Jonas Norkevičius).[16] In total, twenty YB members were convicted by Polish and Soviet authorities, four of them in Poland
Poland
in the 70s.[14] In 1972 Polish authorities arrested three men, one Polish (Jan Borkowski, who during the war used a Lithuanized version of his name, Jonas Barkauskas), and the other two of mixed Polish–Lithuanian ethnicity (Władysław Butkun aka Vladas Butkunas and Józef Miakisz aka Juozas Mikašius) and sentenced them to death. This was later commuted to 20 years imprisonment.[3] Other YB members died after the war or lived abroad.[16] According to the Lithuanian historian Arūnas Bubnys, who cited the Polish historian Helena Pasierbska, during 1941–1944, approximately 108 men were members of YB.[16] Bubnys notes that it is difficult to answer two questions: how many members YB had and how many people they killed. Bubnys argues that the number of 100,000 victims attributed to the organization is inflated.[16] See also[edit]

The Holocaust The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Poland Holocaust in Nazi-occupied Lithuania Lithuanian Security Police

References[edit]

^ Wilno on Diapositive. ^ a b Tadeusz Piotrowski (1997). Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide... McFarland & Company. p. 162. ISBN 0-7864-0371-3.  ^ a b c MacQueen, Michael (2004). "Lithuanian Collaboration in the "Final Solution": Motivations and Case Studies" (PDF). Lithuania and the Jews The Holocaust
The Holocaust
Chapter. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. p. 55. Archived from the original (pdf) on 15 May 2006. Retrieved 19 February 2007.  ^ a b Timothy Snyder, The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569–1999, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-10586-X Google Books, p.84 ^ a b Bubnys, Arūnas (2004). "Vokiečių ir lietuvių saugumo policija (1941–1944)" (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 18 February 2007. Daugumą būrio narių sudarė lietuviai, tačiau buvo keletas rusų ir lenkų.  ^ Sakowicz, Kazimierz (2005). Ponary Diary, 1941–1943 : A Bystander's Account of a Mass Murder. Yale University Press. pp. 7, 15. ISBN 978-0-300-10853-8.  ^ a b Konspekt Ponary – Golgota Wileńszczyzny Czesław Michalski Pedagogical University of Cracow 2001 ^ Tadeusz Piotrowski (1997). Poland's Holocaust: Ethnic Strife, Collaboration with Occupying Forces and Genocide... McFarland & Company. p. 165. ISBN 0-7864-0371-3.  ^ Bubnys, Arūnas (2004). "Vokiečių ir lietuvių saugumo policija (1941–1944)" (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 18 February 2007. Pirmą kartą dokumentuose Vilniaus ypatingojo būrio vardas (vok. Sonderkommando) aptinkamas 1941 m. liepos 15 d. Dokumentuose kalbama apie šovinių išdavimą ypatingojo būrio reikmėms.  ^ Raport z rozstrzelanego świata ^ Jews of Vilna and Lithuania in general had their own complex identity, and labels of Polish Jews, Lithuanian Jews
Lithuanian Jews
or Russian Jews are all applicable only in part. See also: Ezra Mendelsohn, On Modern Jewish Politics, Oxford University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-19-508319-9, Google Print, p.8 and Mark Abley, Spoken Here: Travels Among Threatened Languages, Houghton Mifflin Books, 2003, ISBN 0-618-23649-X, Google Print, p.205 ^ Kazimierz Sakowicz, Yitzhak Arad, Yale University Press, 2005, ISBN 0-300-10853-2 Google Print, p.12 ^ (in Polish) Czesław Michalski, Ponary – Golgota Wileńszczyzny Archived 24 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine. (Ponary – the Golgoth of Wilno Region). Konspekt nº 5, Winter 2000–2001, a publication of the Academy of Pedagogy in Kraków. Last accessed on 10 February 2007. ^ a b (in Polish) Stanisław Mikke, 'W Ponarach'. Relation from a Polish–Lithuanian memorial ceremony in Paneriai, 2000. On the pages of Polish Bar Association ^ Bubnys, Arūnas (2004). "Vokiečių ir lietuvių saugumo policija (1941–1944)" (in Lithuanian). Retrieved 18 February 2007. YB buvo pavaldus tik vokiečių saugumo policijai ir vykdė jos pareigūnų nurodymus.  ^ a b c d e f g h i Arūnas Bubnys (2004). Vokiečių ir lietuvių saugumo policija (1941–1944) (German and Lithuanian security police: 1941–1944) (in Lithuanian). Vilnius: Lietuvos gyventojų genocido ir rezistencijos tyrimo centras. Retrieved 9 June 2006. 

External links[edit]

"Chronicles of the Vilna Ghetto": wartime photographs & documents – vilnaghetto.com Can Lithuania face its Holocaust past? – Excerpts from lecture given by Dr. Efraim Zuroff, Director of the Wiesenthal Center, Jerusalem, at the conference on “Litvaks in the World,” 28 August 2001.

v t e

The Holocaust
The Holocaust
in Lithuania

Main article The Holocaust Related articles by country Belarus Estonia Latvia Poland Russia Ukraine

People

Perpetrators

Algimantas Dailidė Erich Ehrlinger Joachim Hamann Karl Jäger Bruno Kittel Algirdas Klimaitis Hinrich Lohse Franz Murer Helmut Rauca Adrian von Renteln Rudolf Joachim Seck Franz Walter Stahlecker Martin Weiss

Victims and resistance

Chaim Yellin Alexander Bogen Josef Glazman Jay M. Ipson Shmerke Kaczerginski Zelig Kalmanovich Abba Kovner Ephraim Oshry Abraham Sutzkever Elchonon Wasserman Yitzhak Wittenberg Jacob Wygodzki Wolf Durmashkin See also: Songs of the Vilna Ghetto

Rescuers

Kazys Binkis Petronėlė Lastienė Karl Plagge Antanas Poška Ona Šimaitė Chiune Sugihara Jan Zwartendijk See also: List of Lithuanian Righteous Among the Nations

Groups

Perpetrators

Einsatzgruppen Police Battalions Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann TDA Ypatingasis būrys

Resistance

Fareinigte Partizaner Organizacje

Events

Jäger Report Kaunas
Kaunas
June 1941 Kaunas
Kaunas
29 October 1941 Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
November 1941 Ponary

Places

HKP 562 forced labor camp Kailis forced labor camp Kovno Ghetto Lukiškės Prison Marcinkonys Ghetto Ninth Fort Šiauliai Ghetto Švenčionys
Švenčionys
Ghetto Vilna Ghetto

Occupation of Lithuania by Nazi Germany History of the Jews in Lithuania

v t e

Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
and Einsatzkommandos

People

Director

Reinhard Heydrich Ernst Kaltenbrunner

Commanders of Einsatzgruppen

Humbert Achamer-Pifrader Walther Bierkamp Horst Böhme Erich Ehrlinger Wilhelm Fuchs Heinz Jost Erich Naumann Arthur Nebe Otto Ohlendorf Friedrich Panzinger Otto Rasch Heinrich Seetzen Franz Walter Stahlecker Bruno Streckenbach

Commanders of Einsatzkommandos, Sonderkommandos

Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski Rudolf Batz Ernst Biberstein Wolfgang Birkner Helmut Bischoff Paul Blobel Walter Blume Friedrich-Wilhelm Bock Otto Bradfisch Werner Braune Friedrich Buchardt Fritz Dietrich Karl Jäger Friedrich Jeckeln Waldemar Klingelhöfer Wolfgang Kügler Walter Kutschmann Rudolf Lange Gustav Adolf Nosske Hans-Adolf Prützmann Walter Rauff Martin Sandberger Hermann Schaper Karl Eberhard Schöngarth Erwin Schulz Franz Six Eugen Steimle Eduard Strauch Martin Weiss Udo von Woyrsch

Other members

August Becker Lothar Fendler Joachim Hamann Emil Haussmann Felix Landau Albert Widmann

Collaborators

Viktors Arājs Herberts Cukurs Antanas Impulevičius Konrāds Kalējs Algirdas Klimaitis

Groups

German

SS RSHA SD Orpo 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz Sonderdienst

Non-German

Schutzmannschaft
Schutzmannschaft
(Belarusian, Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian, Ukrainian) Arajs Kommando Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann TDA Ypatingasis būrys

Crimes

Belarus

Łachwa Ghetto Minsk Ghetto Slutsk Affair

Estonia

Kalevi-Liiva

Latvia

Burning of the Riga synagogues Dünamünde Action Jelgava Pogulianski Rumbula Liepāja (Šķēde)

Lithuania

Ninth Fort Kaunas
Kaunas
June 1941 Kaunas
Kaunas
29 October 1941 Ninth Fort
Ninth Fort
November 1941 Ponary

Poland

Operation Tannenberg Intelligenzaktion AB-Aktion Operation Reinhard

Russia

Gully of Petrushino Zmievskaya Balka Lokot Autonomy

Ukraine

Babi Yar Drobytsky Yar Drohobycz Kamianets-Podilskyi Lviv pogroms Mizocz Ghetto Odessa

Records

The Black Book Commissar Order Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
trial Generalplan Ost Jäger Report Korherr Report Special
Special
Prosecution Book- Poland
Poland
(Sonderfahndungsbuch Polen) Einsatzgruppen
Einsatzgruppen
reports

v t e

Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS)

Branches

Allgemeine SS Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV) Waffen-SS

Leadership

Reichsführer-SS SS and police leader SS personnel SS commands

Leaders

Julius Schreck Joseph Berchtold Erhard Heiden Heinrich Himmler Karl Hanke

Main departments

Personal Staff Reichsführer-SS SS Main Office Head Operational Office Reich Main Security Office
Reich Main Security Office
(RSHA) Economics and Administration Office Office of Race and Settlement (RuSHA) Main Office for Ethnic Germans (VOMI) Office of the Reich Commissioner for Germanic Resettlement (RKFDV) Courts Office Personnel Office Education Office

Ideological institutions

Ahnenerbe Das Schwarze Korps SS-Junkerschule Bad Tölz Lebensborn

Police and security services

Regular uniform police (Orpo) Schutzpolizei (Schupo) Criminal police (Kripo) Secret State police (Gestapo) State Security police (SiPo) SS Security Service (SD)

Führer protection

SS-Begleitkommando des Führers Reichssicherheitsdienst

Paramilitary units

Einsatzgruppen Schutzmannschaft Belarusian Auxiliary Police Latvian Police Battalions Ypatingasis būrys Lithuanian Security Police Lithuanian Auxiliary Police Battalions Rollkommando Hamann Arajs Kommando Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Volksdeutscher Selbstschutz Trawnikis Estonian Auxiliary Police Police Regiment Centre

Waffen-SS
Waffen-SS
divisions

Verfügungstruppe (SS-VT) Leibstandarte (LSSAH) SS Division Das Reich SS Division Totenkopf SS Polizei Division SS Division Wiking

Foreign SS units

Germanic-SS Germaansche SS in Nederland Germaansche SS in Vlaanderen Germanske SS Norge Schalburg Corps Britisches Freikorps S.S. Sturmbrigade R.O.N.A. Finnish Volunteer Battalion of the Waffen-SS

SS-controlled enterprises

Ostindustrie Deutsche Wirtschaftsbetriebe Deutsche Ausrüstungswerke DEST Allach porcelain Apollinaris Mattoni Sudetenquell Anton Loibl

SS awards

SS Sword of Honour SS Honour Ring SS Honor Dagger

Ranks, uniforms and insignia

Uniforms and insignia of the SS Ranks and insignia of the Waffen-SS Ranks and insignia of the Orpo Corps colour

.