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Yama Zatdaw
Yama Zatdaw
(Burmese: ရာမဇာတ်တော်, pronounced [jàma̰ zaʔ tɔ̀]), unofficially Myanmar's national epic, is the Burmese version of the Ramayana. There are nine known pieces of the Yama Zatdaw
Yama Zatdaw
in Myanmar. The Burmese name for the story itself is Yamayana, while zatdaw refers to the acted play or being part of jataka tales of Theravada Buddhism. The Yama Zatdaw
Yama Zatdaw
was introduced by oral tradition during King Anawratha's reign although it was not known clearly whether the story was Valmiki’s Sanskrit epic Ramayana
Ramayana
or not. In the Nathlaung Temple, the Visnu
Visnu
temple, within the walls of old city Bagan, there are some stone sculptures, one of which is Ramachandra. Based on Burmese literature, at least, Hanuman
Hanuman
has been known in Burma definitely before 1527 AD. The Burmese Ramayana
Ramayana
was influenced greatly by Ayutthaya Kingdom, during which various Konbaung Dynasty
Konbaung Dynasty
kings invaded the kingdom. The invasions often brought back spoils of war, including elements of Ramakien
Ramakien
(Thai version of Ramayana) into the epic. Rama
Rama
sā-khyan, one of the well known literature in Burma, is believed to be composed in 1775 by U Aung Phyo which begins with Bala kanda
Bala kanda
and ends at Yudha kanda as in Valmiki's Ramayana. There are also important Burmese literature and classical music related to the Ramayana
Ramayana
which were developed in that era such as U Toe's Yama yakan (Rama's song, ရာမရကန် and Thida yakan (Sita's song, သီတာရကန်), both written in 1784; Yama pyazat (Ramayana ballet, ရာမပြဇာတ်) in 1789; and Kalay Yama wuthtu (Young Rama's life, ကလေးရာမဝတ္ထု) in 1800.[1] The ethnic Mon adaptation of Ramayana
Ramayana
is known as "Loik Samoing Ram" which was written in 1834 AD by a Buddhist monk named Uttama. It is evident that "Loik Samoing Ram" is mainly derived from Burmese version as the author of the Mon version stated in his preface that due to the popularity of Burmese version in the capital. However, Mon version also exhibits the connections with Thai, Javanese and Malayan versions and has own unique episodes, not found in Thai, Burmese or Malayan versions.[2] Characters[edit] The characters of Yama Zatdaw
Yama Zatdaw
share the same features and characteristics as those in the original story. However, in acting, the costumes are a mixture of Bamar
Bamar
and Thai elements. The names of the characters, in general, are Burmese transliterations of the Sanskrit names.

Rama
Rama
is known as Yama (ရာမ). Sita
Sita
is known as Thida (မယ်သီတာ). Lakshmana
Lakshmana
is known as Lakhana (လက္ခဏ). Hanuman
Hanuman
is known as Hanuman
Hanuman
(ဟာနုမန်). Parashurama
Parashurama
is known as Pashu-Yama. Ravana
Ravana
is known as Yawana (ရာ၀ဏ) or Datha-giri (ဒသဂီရိ). Vali is known as Bali. Maricha
Maricha
is known as Marizza(မာရဇၨ). Vibhishana
Vibhishana
is known as Bibi-thana (ဘိဘိသန).

References[edit]

^ "Ramayana, the old ancient wonder of the world was one center of a romantic powerful empire" ^ "Salient features of Mon Rama
Rama
story" by Toru Ohno

External links[edit]

" Ramayana
Ramayana
in Myanmar's Heart" "Traduction du Maha Yama Zat Vatthu"

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