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The WHYTE NOTATION for classifying steam locomotives by wheel arrangement was devised by Frederick Methvan Whyte , and came into use in the early twentieth century following a December 1900 editorial in _American Engineer and Railroad Journal_. The notation counts the number of leading wheels , then the number of driving wheels , and finally the number of trailing wheels , groups of numbers being separated by dashes. Other classification schemes, like UIC classification and the French, Turkish and Swiss systems for steam locomotives, count axles rather than wheels.

In the notation a locomotive with two leading axles (four wheels) in front, then three driving axles (six wheels) and then one trailing axle (two wheels) is classified as 4-6-2 .

CONTENTS

* 1 Method

* 1.1 Articulated locomotives * 1.2 Duplex locomotives * 1.3 Suffixes * 1.4 Internal combustion locomotives

* 2 Limitations

* 3 Naming

* 3.1 Common wheel arrangements

* 4 See also * 5 References * 6 Further reading * 7 External links

METHOD

ARTICULATED LOCOMOTIVES

Articulated locomotives such as Garratts , which are effectively two locomotives joined by a common boiler , have a + between the arrangements of each engine. Thus a "double Pacific" type Garratt
Garratt
is a 4-6-2+2-6-4. For Garratt
Garratt
locomotives the + sign is used even when there are no intermediate unpowered wheels, e.g. the LMS Garratt 2-6-0+0-6-2
2-6-0+0-6-2
. This is because the two engine units are more than just power bogies . They are complete engines, carrying fuel and water tanks. The + sign represents the bridge (carrying the boiler) that links the two engines.

Simpler articulated types such as Mallets , have a jointed frame under a common boiler where there are no unpowered wheels between the sets of powered wheels. Typically, the forward frame is free to swing, whereas the rear frame is rigid with the boiler. Thus a Union Pacific Big Boy is a 4-8-8-4; four leading wheels, one group of eight driving wheels, another group of eight driving wheels, and then four trailing wheels.

DUPLEX LOCOMOTIVES

This numbering system is shared by duplex locomotives , which have powered wheel sets sharing a rigid frame.

SUFFIXES

No suffix means a tender locomotive .

T indicates a tank locomotive : in European practice, this is sometimes extended to indicate the type of tank locomotive: T means side tank , PT pannier tank , ST saddle tank , WT well tank . T+T means a tank locomotive that also has a tender.

In Europe, the suffix R can signify rack (0-6-0RT) or reversible (0-6-0TR), the latter being _Bi-cabine_ locomotives used in France.

The suffix F indicates a fireless locomotive (0-4-0F). This locomotive has no tender.

Other suffixes have been used, including ng for narrow-gauge (less than 1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in) ) and CA or ca for compressed air (running on compressed air from a tank instead of steam from a boiler).

INTERNAL COMBUSTION LOCOMOTIVES

In Britain, small diesel and petrol locomotives are usually classified in the same way as steam locomotives, e.g. 0-4-0, 0-6-0, 0-8-0. This may be followed by D for diesel or P for petrol, and another letter describing the transmission: E for electric, H hydraulic, M mechanical. Thus 0-6-0DE denotes a six-wheel diesel locomotive with electric transmission. Where the axles are coupled by chains or shafts (rather than side rods) or are individually driven, the terms 4w, 6w or 8w are generally used. Thus 4wPE indicates a four-wheel petrol locomotive with electric transmission. For large diesel locomotives the UIC classification is used.

LIMITATIONS

The main limitation of Whyte Notation is that it does not cover non-standard types such as Shay locomotives , which use geared trucks rather than driving wheels. The most commonly used system in Europe outside the United Kingdom is UIC classification, based on German practice, which can define the exact layout of a locomotive.

NAMING

In American (and to a lesser extent British) practice, most wheel arrangements in common use were given names, sometimes from the name of the first such locomotive built. For example, the 2-2-0 type arrangement is named _Planet_, after the 1830 locomotive on which it was first used. (This naming convention is similar to the naming of warship classes.)

COMMON WHEEL ARRANGEMENTS

The most common wheel arrangements are listed below. In the diagrams, the front of the locomotive is to the left.

Arrangement (locomotive front is to the left) WHYTE CLASSIFICATION NAME # OF UNITS PRODUCED

_NON-ARTICULATED LOCOMOTIVES_

_ 0-2-2 Northumbrian

2-2-0 Planet

2-2-2 Single, Jenny Lind

2-2-4 Aerolite

4-2-0 Jervis

4-2-2 Bicycle

4-2-4 Huntington

6-2-0 Crampton

0-4-0 Four-Coupled

0-4-0+4 Four-Coupled as used on Railmotors

0-4-2 Olomana

0-4-4 Forney

2-4-0 Porter, 'Old English'

2-4-2 Columbia

2-4-4 Boston

4-4-0 American, Eight-wheeler

4-4-2 Atlantic

4-4-4 Reading, Jubilee (Canada)

0-3-0 (one driving wheel per axle; used on Patiala State Monorail Trainways and also on the Listowel and Ballybunion Railway )

0-6-0 Six-Coupled, Bourbonnais (France), USRA 0-6-0 (United States)

0-6-2 Branchliner, Webb

0-6-4 Forney six-coupled

0-6-6

2-6-0 Mogul 11,000

2-6-2 Prairie

2-6-4 Adriatic

2-6-6
2-6-6
Suburban

4-6-0 Ten-Wheeler (not Britain)

4-6-2 Pacific 6,800

4-6-4 Hudson, Baltic

0-8-0
0-8-0
Eight-Coupled, USRA 0-8-0
0-8-0
(United States)

0-8-2 Kado

0-8-4 London

2-8-0
2-8-0
Consolidation 35,000

2-8-2 Mikado, Mike, MacArthur

2-8-4 Berkshire, Kanawha

2-8-6 Used only on four Mason Bogie locomotives_

_ 4-8-0 Twelve-Wheeler

4-8-2 Mountain, Mohawk

4-8-4 Northern, Niagara, Confederation, Dixie, Greenbrier, Pocono, Potomac, Golden State (Southern Pacific), Western, Laurentian ( Delaware & Hudson Railroad ), General, Wyoming (Lehigh Valley ), Governor, Big Apple , GS Series "Daylight" (Southern Pacific)

4-8-6 Proposed by Lima , never built_

_ 6-8-6 ( PRR S2 steam turbine locomotive)

0-10-0 Ten-Coupled, (rarely) Decapod

0-10-2 Union

2-10-0 Decapod, Russian Decapod

2-10-2 Santa Fe, Central, Decapod (only on the Southern Pacific)

2-10-4 Texas, Colorado ( CB&Q ), Selkirk (Canada)

4-10-0 Mastodon, Gobernador (in honor of El Gobernador _)

_ 4-10-2 Reid Tenwheeler, Southern Pacific , Overland

0-12-0 Twelve-Coupled

2-12-0
2-12-0
Centipede

2-12-2 Javanic

2-12-4
2-12-4
Bulgaria

4-12-2 Union Pacific
Union Pacific

4-14-4 AA20

DUPLEX LOCOMOTIVES_

_ 4- 4-4-4 ( PRR T1 )

6-4-4-6 ( PRR S1 )

4- 4-6-4 ( PRR Q2 )

4-6-4-4 ( PRR Q1 )

MALLET (SIMPLE AND COMPOUND) ARTICULATED LOCOMOTIVES_

_ 0- 4-4-0 Bavarian BB II

2- 4-4-0 Vivarais

0-4-4-2 Swiss

2-4-4-2 Skookum

0-6-6-0 Erie

2-6-6-0 Denver & Salt Lake

2-6-6-2 C&O/N&W. C&O Class H-2 thru H-5. Alco 1912.

2-6-6-4 Norfolk & Western

2-6-6-6 Allegheny, Blue Ridge 68

4-6-6-2 ( Southern Pacific class AM-2 )

4-6-6-4 Challenger 252

2-6-8-0 (Southern Railway, Great Northern Railway)

0-8-8-0 Angus

2-8-8-0 Bull Moose

2-8-8-2 Chesapeake, Norfolk -webkit-column-width: 30em; column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">

* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_ _Q_ _R_ _S_ _T_ Colvin, Fred H. (1906). _The railroad pocket-book: a quick reference cyclopedia of railroad information_. New York, Derry-Collard; London, Locomotive
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Publishing Company (US-UK co-edition). p. L‑9. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ "Steam Locomotive
Locomotive
Glossary". _Railway Technical Web Pages_. 2007-06-28. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ Thompson, Keith (2006-05-01). "Builder\'s plates: A locomotive\'s birth certificate". Kalmbach Publishing . Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ White, John H., Jr. (1968). _A History of the American Locomotive
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- Its Development: 1830-1880_. New York: Dover Publications. ISBN 0-486-23818-0 . CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link ), p. 33. * ^ Adams, Bob (December 1968). "The Crampton Type Locomotive
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on the Camden & Amboy Railroad". _NMRA Bulletin_. National Model Railroad Association. * ^ Ellis, C Hamilton, _Some Classic Locomotives_, Allen & Unwin, 1949.173 p. * ^ White (1968), p. 46. * ^ Marsden, Richard (2008). "The LNER 4-4-2 Atlantic Locomotives". _The London & North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia_. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ "Canadian Pacific Railway No. 2929". _Steamtown NHS Special History Study_. United States National Park Service. 2002-02-14. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ White (1968), p 62-65. * ^ "Moguls, The 2-6-0". _American-Rails.com_. Retrieved 8 November 2016. * ^ White (1968), p. 57. * ^ Marsden, Richard (2008). "LNER 4-6-0 Locomotives". _The London & North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia_. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ Marsden, Richard (2008). "LNER 4-6-2 Pacific Locomotives". _The London & North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia_. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ "Pacifics". _SteamLocomotive.com_. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ "The 4-6-2 Pacific Type". _American-Rails.com_. Retrieved 8 November 2016. * ^ "Hudsons". _SteamLocomotive.com_. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ Marsden, Richard (2008). "The Ivatt R1 0-8-2 Tank Locomotives". _The London & North Eastern Railway (LNER) Encyclopedia_. Archived from the original on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ White (1968), p. 65. * ^ "The 2-8-0
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Consolidation Type". _American-Rails.com_. Retrieved 8 November 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Glossary Of Common Railroad Terms: M". Kalmbach Publishing. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ "The Mikado Type Locomotive". _SteamLocomotive.com_. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ Farrell, Jack W. (1989). _North American steam locomotives: The Berkshire and Texas types_. Edmonds, WA: Pacific Fast Mail. ISBN 0-915713-15-2 . * ^ "Berkshires & Kanawhas". _SteamLocomotive.com_. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ "Mountains". _SteamLocomotive.com_. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ Taylor, Frank (January 1941). "New York Central Dual-service Mohawk". _Model Railroader_. Kalmbach Publishing. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Northerns". _SteamLocomotive.com_. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ http://www.steamlocomotive.com/northern/lv.shtml * ^ Staufer, Alvin F.; Pennypacker, Bert (1962). _Pennsy Power: Steam and Electric Locomotives of the Pennsylvania Railroad, 1900-1957_. Research by Martin Flattley. Carollton, OH: Alvin F. Staufer. ISBN 978-0-9445-1304-0 . LCCN 62020878 . OCLC
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profile: 0-10-0". _Classic Trains_. Kalmbach Publishing. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ "Glossary Of Common Railroad Terms: D". Kalmbach Publishing. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ "The Texas Type Locomotive". _SteamLocomotive.com_. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ Paxton, Leith; Bourne, David (1985). _Locomotives of the South African Railways_ (1st ed.). Cape Town: Struik. pp. 10–11, 31. ISBN 0869772112 . * ^ Holland, D.F. (1971). _Steam Locomotives of the South African Railways_. 1: 1859–1910 (1st ed.). Newton Abbott, Devon: David & Charles. pp. 92–95, 123–124, 134–135. ISBN 978-0-7153-5382-0 . * ^ Westing, Frederick (April 1954). "Baldwin's barnstorming behemoth". _Trains_. * ^ Westcott, Linn H. (1960). _Model Railroader Cyclopedia - Volume 1: Steam Locomotives_. Kalmbach Books. ISBN 0-89024-001-9 . * ^ "Russian Reforms". 2001-10-06. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ Russ, David (July 1943). "Riding the Pennsy T1". _Trains_. Kalmbach Publishing. * ^ Morgan, David P. (May 1965). "They called her the big engine". _Trains_. Kalmbach Publishing. * ^ Herring, S. E. & Morgan, David P. (June 1966). "Instead of a 4-10-4". _Trains_. Kalmbach Publishing. * ^ Barry, Frank (June 1963). "Mexico's inside-and-outside-framed 0-4-4-0s". _Trains_. Kalmbach Publishing. * ^ "The Allegheny Type Locomotive". _SteamLocomotive.com_. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ "The 2-6-6-6 Allegheny Type". _American-Rails.com_. Retrieved 8 November 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Diebert, Timothy S. & Strapac, Joseph A. (1987). _Southern Pacific Company Steam Locomotive
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Conpendium_. Shade Tree Books. ISBN 0-930742-12-5 . * ^ "The Challenger Type Locomotive". _SteamLocomotive.com_. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ "The 4-6-6-4 Challenger". _American-Rails.com_. Retrieved 8 November 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ Carlson, Neil (2006-06-15). " Steam locomotive
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profile: 2-8-8-2". _Classic Trains_. Kalmbach Publishing. Retrieved 2008-02-08.

* ^ "The Yellowstone Type Locomotive". _SteamLocomotive.com_. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ " Union Pacific
Union Pacific
Big Boys". _SteamLocomotive.com_. Retrieved 2008-02-08. * ^ " Union Pacific
Union Pacific
Big Boy: The rebirth of a legend". _Trains_. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2016. * ^ "Virginian Class XA Locomotives". _SteamLocomotive.com_. Retrieved 2008-02-08.

FURTHER READING

* Boylan, Richard; Barris, Wes (1991-05-30). "American Steam Locomotive
Locomotive
Wheel Arrangements". _SteamLocomotive.com_. Retrieved 2008-02-08.

EXTERNAL

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