HOME
ListMoto - Western Satraps


--- Advertisement ---



The Western Satraps, Western Kshatrapas, or Kshaharatas (35–405 CE) were Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
(Saka) rulers of the western and central part of India
India
(Saurashtra and Malwa: modern Gujarat, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
states). The Western Satraps
Western Satraps
were contemporaneous with the Kushans who ruled the northern part of the Indian subcontinent and were possibly their overlords, and the Satavahana (Andhra) who ruled in Central India. The power of the Saka
Saka
rulers started to decline in the 2nd century CE after the Saka
Saka
rulers were defeated by the south Indian Emperor Gautamiputra Satakarni
Gautamiputra Satakarni
of the Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty.[1] Later the Saka
Saka
kingdom was completely destroyed by Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
in the 4th century CE.[2] Altogether, there were 27 independent Western Satrap
Satrap
rulers during a period of about 350 years.

Contents

1 Name 2 First expansion: Kshaharata dynasty (1st century CE)

2.1 Support of Indian religions 2.2 Construction of Buddhist
Buddhist
caves

2.2.1 Great Chaitya
Chaitya
hall at Karla Caves 2.2.2 Cave No.10 of Nasik, the ' Nahapana
Nahapana
Vihara' 2.2.3 Junnar
Junnar
dedication

2.3 International trade: the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea

2.3.1 Defeat by Gautamiputra Satakarni 2.3.2 Colonization of Java
Java
and Sumatra

3 Kardamaka dynasty, family of Castana (1st–4th century)

3.1 Territory under Chastana 3.2 Rudradaman I
Rudradaman I
(130-150 CE)

3.2.1 Victory against the Satavahanas 3.2.2 Victory against the Yaudheyas 3.2.3 Jivadaman
Jivadaman
(178-181 CE, 197-198 CE) 3.2.4 Rudrasimha I
Rudrasimha I
(180-197)

3.3 Loss of southern territories to the Satavahanas
Satavahanas
(end of 2nd century CE) 3.4 Rudrasena II
Rudrasena II
(256–278)

4 Rudrasimha II
Rudrasimha II
family (304-396 CE)

4.1 Defeat by the Guptas (c. 400)

5 Coinage

5.1 Regnal dates 5.2 Languages 5.3 Influences

6 Monuments 7 Possible vassalage to the Kushans 8 Main rulers

8.1 Kshaharata dynasty 8.2 Bhadramukhas or Kardamaka dynasty

9 See also 10 Notes 11 References 12 External links

Name[edit] They are named Western Satraps
Western Satraps
in contrast to the "Northern Satraps" who ruled around East Punjab
East Punjab
and the area of Mathura, such as Rajuvula, and his successors under the Kushans, the "Great Satrap" Kharapallana
Kharapallana
and the "Satrap" Vanaspara.[3] Although they called themselves "Satraps" on their coins, leading to their modern designation of "Western Satraps", Ptolemy
Ptolemy
in his 2nd century "Geographia" still called them "Indo-Scythians".[4] The word Kshatrapa stands for satrap, itself descended from Old Persian and which means viceroy or governor of a province. First expansion: Kshaharata dynasty (1st century CE)[edit]

Coin of Bhumaka
Bhumaka
(?–119). Obv: Arrow, pellet, and thunderbolt. Kharoshthi
Kharoshthi
inscription Chaharasada Chatrapasa Bhumakasa: "Ksaharata Satrap
Satrap
Bhumaka". Rev: Capital of a pillar with seated lion with upraised paw, and wheel (dharmachakra). Brahmi inscription: Kshaharatasa Kshatrapasa Bhumakasa.

The Western Satraps
Western Satraps
are thought to have started with the rather short-lived Kshaharata dynasty (also called Chaharada, Khaharata or Khakharata depending on sources).[5] The term Kshaharata is also known from the 6 CE Taxila copper plate
Taxila copper plate
inscription, in which it qualifies the Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
ruler Liaka Kusulaka. The Nasik
Nasik
inscription of the 19th year of Sri Pulamavi also mentions the Khakharatavasa, or Kshaharata race.[6] The earliest Kshaharata for whom there is evidence is Abhiraka, whose rare coins are known. He was succeeded by Bhumaka, father of Nahapana, who only used on his coins the title of Satrap, and not that of Raja or Raño (king). Bhumaka
Bhumaka
was the father of the great ruler Nahapana, according to one of the latter's coins. His coins bear Buddhist symbols, such as the eight-spoked wheel (dharmachakra), or the lion seated on a capital, a representation of a pillar of Ashoka.

Coin of Nahapana
Nahapana
(119–124). British Museum.

Junnar

Nasik

Karli

Location of Western Satrap
Satrap
inscriptions in Buddhist
Buddhist
rock-cut caves, indicating the southern extent of their territory, circa 120 CE.[7]

Nahapana
Nahapana
succeeded to him, and became a very powerful ruler. He occupied portions of the Satavahana
Satavahana
empire in western and central India. Nahapana
Nahapana
held sway over Malwa, Southern Gujarat, and Northern Konkan, from Bharuch
Bharuch
to Sopara
Sopara
and the Nasik
Nasik
and Poona
Poona
districts.[8] His son-in-law, the Saka
Saka
Ushavadata
Ushavadata
(married to his daughter Dakshamitra), is known from inscriptions in Nasik
Nasik
and Karle and Junnar (Manmodi caves, inscription of the year 46) to have been viceroy of Nahapana, ruling over the southern part of his territory.[9][7] Nahapana
Nahapana
established the silver coinage of the Kshatrapas. Circa 120 CE, the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
are known to have allied with the Uttamabhadras
Uttamabhadras
in order to repulse an attack by the Malavas, whom they finally crushed.[10] The claim appears in an inscription at the Nashik Caves, made by the Nahapana's viceroy Ushavadata:

...And by order of the lord I went to release the chief of the Uttamabhadras, who had been besieged for the rainy season by the Malayas, and those Malayas fled at the mere roar (of my approaching) as it were, and were all made prisoners of the Uttamabhadra warriors. — Inscription in Cave No.10 of the Nashik
Nashik
Caves.[11]

Support of Indian religions[edit] An important inscription related to Nahapana
Nahapana
in the Great Chaitya
Chaitya
at Karla Caves
Karla Caves
(Valukura is thought to be an ancient name for Karla Caves) shows his support of Buddhist
Buddhist
as well as Brahmanical religions:

Karla Caves, inscription of Nahapana.

Success!! By Ushabadata, the son of Dinaka and the son-in-law of the king, the Kshaharata, the Kshatrapa Nahapana, who gave three hundred thousand cows, who made gifts of gold and a tirtha on the river Banasa, who gave to the Devas and Brahmanas
Brahmanas
sixteen villages, who at the pure tirtha Prabhasa gave eight wives to the Brahmanas, and who also fed annually a hundred thousand Brahmanas- there has been given the village of Karajika for the support of the ascetics living in the caves at Valuraka without any distinction of sect or origin, for all who would keep the varsha. — Inscription of Nahapana, Karla Caves.[12]

Construction of Buddhist
Buddhist
caves[edit] The Western Satraps
Western Satraps
are known for the construction and dedication of numerous Buddhist
Buddhist
caves in Central India, particularly in the areas of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Gujarat.[13][14] It is thought that Nahapana
Nahapana
ruled at least 35 years in the region of Karla, Junnar
Junnar
and Nasik, giving him ample time for construction works there.[15] Numerous inscriptions in the caves are known, which were made by the family of Nahapana: six inscriptions in Nasik
Nasik
caves, one inscription at Karli caves, and one by Nahapana's minister in the Manmodi caves
Manmodi caves
at Junnar.[16][17] At the same time, "Yavanas", Greeks or Indo-Greeks, also left donative inscriptions at the Nasik
Nasik
caves, Karla caves, Lenyadri
Lenyadri
and Manmodi caves.[18] Great Chaitya
Chaitya
hall at Karla Caves[edit] See also: Karla Caves In particular, the chaitya cave complex of the Karla Caves, the largest in South Asia, was constructed and dedicated in 120 CE by the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
ruler Nahapana.[13][19][20]

Great Chaitya
Chaitya
hall at Karla

Hall of the Great Chaitya
Chaitya
Cave at Karla (120 CE)[13]

Right row of columns

Chaitya
Chaitya
roof

Capitals

Donative inscription by a Yavana
Yavana
("Indo-Greek") named Vitasamghata.[21]

Cave No.10 of Nasik, the ' Nahapana
Nahapana
Vihara'[edit] See also: Pandavleni Caves Parts of the Nasik
Nasik
caves, also called Pandavleni Caves, were also carved during the time of Nahapana.[14] The inscriptions of cave no.10 in the Pandavleni Caves
Pandavleni Caves
near Nasik, reveal that in 105-106 CE, Kshatrapas
Kshatrapas
defeated the Satavahanas
Satavahanas
after which Kshatrapa Nahapana’s son-in-law and Dinika’s son- Ushavadata donated 3000 gold coins for this cave as well as for the food and clothing of the monks. Usabhdatta’s wife (Nahapana’s daughter), Dakshmitra also donated one cave for the Buddhist
Buddhist
monks. Cave 10 - ' Nahapana
Nahapana
Vihara' is spacious with 16 rooms.

Nasik
Nasik
Pandavleni Caves, cave No. 10

Front

Veranda

Interior

Chaitya
Chaitya
and Umbrellas

Inscription

Two inscriptions in Cave 10 mentions the building and the gift of the whole cave to the Samgha
Samgha
by Ushavadata, the Saka[22] son-in-law and viceroy of Nahapana:

Nasik
Nasik
Cave inscription No.10. of Nahapana, Cave No.10.

One of the pillars built by Ushavadata, viceroy of Nahapana, circa 120 CE, Pandavleni Caves, cave No10.

"Success ! Ushavadata, son of Dinika, son-in- law of king Nahapana, the Kshaharata Kshatrapa, (...) inspired by (true) religion, in the Trirasmi hills at Govardhana, has caused this cave to be made and these cisterns." — Inscription No.10 of Nahapana, Cave No.10, Nasik[23]

"Success ! In the year 42, in the month Vesakha, Ushavadata, son of Dinika, son-in- law of king Nahapana, the Kshaharata Kshatrapa, has bestowed this cave on the Samgha
Samgha
generally...." — Inscription No.12 of Nahapana, Cave No.10, Nasik[24]

According to the inscriptions, Ushavadata
Ushavadata
accomplished various charities and conquests on behalf of his father-in-law. He constructed rest-houses, gardens and tanks at Bharukachchha (Broach), Dashapura ( Mandasor
Mandasor
in Malva), Govardhana (near Nasik) and Shorparaga ( Sopara
Sopara
in the Thana district). Junnar
Junnar
dedication[edit] A dedication in the Lenyadri
Lenyadri
complex of the Junnar
Junnar
caves (inscription No.26 in Cave VI of the Bhimasankar group of caves), mentions a gift by Nahapana's prime minister Ayama in the "year 46":

The meritorious gift.... of Ayama of the Vachhasagotra, prime minister of the King Mahakshatrapa the lord Nahapana" —  Junnar
Junnar
inscription No.26, 124 CE[25]

This inscription, the last one of the reign of Nahapana, suggests that Nahapana
Nahapana
may have become an independent ruler since he is described as a King.[25] International trade: the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea[edit] Nahapana
Nahapana
is mentioned in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
Periplus of the Erythraean Sea
under the name Nambanus,[26] as ruler of the area around Barigaza:

41. "Beyond the gulf of Baraca is that of Barygaza
Barygaza
and the coast of the country of Ariaca, which is the beginning of the Kingdom of Nambanus and of all India. That part of it lying inland and adjoining Scythia is called Abiria, but the coast is called Syrastrene. It is a fertile country, yielding wheat and rice and sesame oil and clarified butter, cotton and the Indian cloths made therefrom, of the coarser sorts. Very many cattle are pastured there, and the men are of great stature and black in color. The metropolis of this country is Minnagara, from which much cotton cloth is brought down to Barygaza." — Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Chap. 41 [27]

Nahapana
Nahapana
coin hoard.

Under the Western Satraps, Barigaza
Barigaza
was one of the main centers of Roman trade with India. The Periplus describes the many goods exchanged:

49. There are imported into this market-town (Barigaza), wine, Italian preferred, also Laodicean and Arabian; copper, tin, and lead; coral and topaz; thin clothing and inferior sorts of all kinds; bright-colored girdles a cubit wide; storax, sweet clover, flint glass, realgar, antimony, gold and silver coin, on which there is a profit when exchanged for the money of the country; and ointment, but not very costly and not much. And for the King there are brought into those places very costly vessels of silver, singing boys, beautiful maidens for the harem, fine wines, thin clothing of the finest weaves, and the choicest ointments. There are exported from these places spikenard, costus, bdellium, ivory, agate and carnelian, lycium, cotton cloth of all kinds, silk cloth, mallow cloth, yarn, long pepper and such other things as are brought here from the various market-towns. Those bound for this market-town from Egypt make the voyage favorably about the month of July, that is Epiphi." — Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Chapter 48.[28]

The Western Satraps
Western Satraps
under Nahapana, with their harbour of Barigaza, were among the main actors of the 1st century CE international trade according to the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea.

Goods were also brought down in quantity from Ujjain, the capital of the Western Satraps:

48. Inland from this place and to the east, is the city called Ozene, formerly a royal capital; from this place are brought down all things needed for the welfare of the country about Barygaza, and many things for our trade : agate and carnelian, Indian muslins and mallow cloth, and much ordinary cloth. — Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Chapter 48.[28]

Some ships were also fitted out from Barigaza, to export goods westward across the Indian Ocean:

"Ships are also customarily fitted out from the places across this sea, from Ariaca and Barygaza, bringing to these far-side market-towns the products of their own places; wheat, rice, clarified butter, sesame oil, cotton cloth, (the monache and the sagmatogene), and girdles, and honey from the reed called sacchari. Some make the voyage especially to these market-towns, and others exchange their cargoes while sailing along the coast." — Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Chapter 14.[28]

Defeat by Gautamiputra Satakarni[edit]

One of the many coins of Nahapana, re-struck by Gautamiputra Satakarni.

Nahapana
Nahapana
and Ushavadata
Ushavadata
were ultimately defeated by the powerful Satavahana
Satavahana
king Gautamiputra Satakarni. Gautramiputra drove the Sakas from Malwa
Malwa
and Western Maharashtra, forcing Nahapana
Nahapana
west to Gujarat. His victory is known from the fact that Gautamiputra restruck many of Nahapana's coins, and that he claimed victory on them in an inscription at Cave No.3 of the Pandavleni Caves
Pandavleni Caves
in Nashik:

Gautamiputra Satakarni
Gautamiputra Satakarni
(…) who crushed down the pride and conceit of the Kshatriyas; who destroyed the Sakas (Western Satraps), Yavanas (Indo-Greeks) and Pahlavas (Indo-Parthians),... who rooted out the Khakharata family (the Kshaharata family of Nahapana); who restored the glory of the Satavahana
Satavahana
race. — Inscription of Queen Mother Gautami Balashri at Cave No.3 of the Pandavleni Caves
Pandavleni Caves
in Nashik.

Colonization of Java
Java
and Sumatra[edit] It seems that the Indian colonization of the islands of Java
Java
and Sumatra
Sumatra
took place during the time of the Western Satraps.[29] People may have fled the sub-continent due to the conflicts there. Some foundation legends of Java
Java
describe the leader of the colonists as Aji Saka, a prince from Gujarat, at the beginning of the Shaka era
Shaka era
(which is also the Java
Java
era).[29] Kardamaka dynasty, family of Castana (1st–4th century)[edit]

Coin of the Western Satrap
Satrap
Chastana
Chastana
(c. 130 CE). Obv: King in profile. The legend typically reads "PANNIΩ IATPAΠAC CIASTANCA" (corrupted Greek script), transliteration of the Prakrit
Prakrit
Raño Kshatrapasa Castana: "King and Satrap
Satrap
Castana".

A new dynasty, called the Bhadramukhas or Kardamaka dynasty, was established by the "Satrap" Castana. The date of Castana is not certain, but many believe his reign started in the year 78 CE, thus making him the founder of the Saka
Saka
era.[30] This is consistent with the fact that his descendants (who we know used the Saka
Saka
era on their coins and inscriptions) would use the date of their founder as their era. Castana was satrap of Ujjain
Ujjain
during that period. A statue found in Mathura
Mathura
together with statues of the Kushan
Kushan
king Kanishka
Kanishka
and Vima Taktu, and bearing the name "Shastana" is often attributed to Castana himself, and suggests Castana may have been a feudatory of the Kushans. Conversely, the Rabatak inscription
Rabatak inscription
also claims Kushan dominion over Western Satrap
Satrap
territory (by mentioning Kushan
Kushan
control over the capital Ujjain), during the reign of Kanishka
Kanishka
(c. 127–150 CE). Territory under Chastana[edit]

Statue of Chastana, with costume details. The belt displays designs of horsemen and tritons/anguipeds, the coat has a highly ornate hem. Inscription "Chastana". Mathura
Mathura
Museum.[31]

The territory of the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
at the time of Chastana
Chastana
is described extensively by the geographer Ptolemy
Ptolemy
in his "Geographia", where he qualifies them as "Indo-Scythians". He describes this territory as starting from Patalene
Patalene
in the West, to Ujjain
Ujjain
in the east ("Ozena-Regia Tiastani", "Ozene/Ujjain, capital of king Chastana"),[32] and beyond Barigaza
Barigaza
in the south.

Moreover the region which is next to the western part of India, is called Indoscythia. A part of this region around the (Indus) river mouth is Patalena, above which is Abiria. That which is about the mouth of the Indus and the Canthicolpus bay is called Syrastrena. (...) In the island formed by this river are the cities Pantala, Barbaria. (...) The Larica region of Indoscythia is located eastward from the swamp near the sea, in which on the west of the Namadus river is the interior city of Barygaza
Barygaza
emporium. On the east side of the river (...) Ozena-Regia Tiastani (...) Minnagara". —  Ptolemy
Ptolemy
Geographia, Book Seven, Chapter I

Rudradaman I
Rudradaman I
(130-150 CE)[edit] Victory against the Satavahanas[edit]

Silver coin of Rudradaman I
Rudradaman I
(130–150). Obv: Bust of Rudradaman, with corrupted Greek legend "OVONIΛOOCVΛCHΛNO". Rev: Three-arched hill or Chaitya
Chaitya
with river, crescent and sun. Brahmi legend: Rajno Ksatrapasa Jayadamasaputrasa Rajno Mahaksatrapasa Rudradamasa: "King and Great Satrap
Satrap
Rudradaman, son of King and Satrap
Satrap
Jayadaman" 16mm, 2.0 grams.

The Junagadh
Junagadh
rock contains inscriptions of Ashoka
Ashoka
(fourteen of the Edicts of Ashoka), Rudradaman I
Rudradaman I
(the Junagadh
Junagadh
rock inscription of Rudradaman)and Skandagupta.[33]

Around 130 CE, Rudradaman I, grandson of Chastana, took the title "Mahakshatrapa" ("Great Satrap"), and defended his kingdom from the Satavahanas. The conflict between Rudradaman and Satavahanas
Satavahanas
became so gruelling, that in order to contain the conflict, a matrimonial relationship was concluded by giving Rudradaman's daughter to the Satavahana
Satavahana
king Vashishtiputra Satakarni. The inscription relating the marriage between Rudradaman's daughter and Vashishtiputra Satakarni appears in a cave at Kanheri:

"0f the queen ... of the illustrious Satakarni Vasishthiputra, descended from the race of Karddamaka kings, (and) daughter of the Mahakshatrapa Ru(dra)....... .........of the confidential minister Sateraka, a water-cistern, the meritorious gift." —  Kanheri
Kanheri
inscription of Rudradaman I's daughter.[34]

The Satavahanas
Satavahanas
and the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
remained at war however, and Rudradaman I
Rudradaman I
defeated the Satavahanas
Satavahanas
twice in these conflicts, only sparing the life of Vashishtiputra Satakarni
Vashishtiputra Satakarni
due to their family alliance:

"Rudradaman (...) who obtained good report because he, in spite of having twice in fair fight completely defeated Satakarni, the lord of Dakshinapatha, on account of the nearness of their connection did not destroy him." —  Junagadh
Junagadh
rock inscription of Rudradaman [35]

Rudradaman regained all the previous territories held by Nahapana, probably with the exception of the southern areas of Poona
Poona
and Nasik (epigraphical remains in these two areas at that time are exclusively Satavahana):[36]

"Rudradaman (...) who is the lord of the whole of eastern and western Akaravanti (Akara: East Malwa
Malwa
and Avanti: West Malwa), the Anupa country, Anarta, Surashtra, Svabhra (northern Gujarat), Maru (Marwar), Kachchha (Cutch), Sindhu- Sauvira
Sauvira
( Sindh
Sindh
and Multan
Multan
districts), Kukura (Eastern Rajputana), Aparanta
Aparanta
("Western Border" – Northern Konkan), Nishada
Nishada
(an aboriginal tribe, Malwa
Malwa
and parts of Central India) and other territories gained by his own valour, the towns, marts and rural parts of which are never troubled by robbers, snakes, wild beasts, diseases and the like, where all subjects are attached to him, (and) where through his might the objects of [religion], wealth and pleasure [are duly attained]". —   Junagadh
Junagadh
rock inscription of Rudradaman.[35] Geographical interpretations in parenthesis from Rapson.[37]

Victory against the Yaudheyas[edit] Later, the Junagadh
Junagadh
rock inscription (c. 150 CE) of Rudradaman I[38] acknowledged the military might of the Yaudheyas
Yaudheyas
"who would not submit because they were proud of their title "heroes among the Kshatriyas"", before explaining that they were ultimately vanquished by Rudradaman I.[39][40]

Rudradaman (...) who by force destroyed the Yaudheyas
Yaudheyas
who were loath to submit, rendered proud as they were by having manifested their' title of' heroes among all Kshatriyas. —  Junagadh
Junagadh
rock inscription of Rudradaman[35]

Recently discovered pillar inscriptions describe the presence of a Western Satrap
Satrap
named Rupiamma in the Bhandara
Bhandara
district of the area of Vidarbha, in the extreme northeastern area of Maharashtra, where he erected the pillars.[41] Rudradarman is known for his sponsoring of the arts. He is known to have written poetry in the purest of Sanskrit, and made it his court language. His name is forever attached to the inscription by Sudharshini lake. He had at his court a Greek writer named Yavanesvara
Yavanesvara
("Lord of the Greeks"), who translated from Greek to Sanskrit
Sanskrit
the Yavanajataka ("Saying of the Greeks"), an astrological treatise and India's earliest Sanskrit
Sanskrit
work in horoscopy.[42] Jivadaman
Jivadaman
(178-181 CE, 197-198 CE)[edit]

A coin dated to the beginning of the first reign of Jivadaman, in the year 100 of the Saka
Saka
Era (corresponding to 178 CE).

King Jivadaman
Jivadaman
became king for the centenary of the Saka
Saka
Era, in the year 100 (corresponding to 178 CE). His reign is otherwise undocumented, but he is the first Western Satrap
Satrap
ruler who started to print the minting date on his coins, using the Brāhmī numerals of the Brāhmī script
Brāhmī script
behind the king's head.[43] This is of immense value to date precisely Western Satrap
Satrap
rulers, and to clarify perfectly the chronology and succession between them, as they also mention their predecessor on their coins. According to his coins, Jivadaman
Jivadaman
seems to have ruled two times, once between Saka
Saka
Era 100 and 103 (178-181 CE), before the rule of Rudrasimha I, and once between Saka
Saka
Era 119 and 120 (197-198 CE). Rudrasimha I
Rudrasimha I
(180-197)[edit]

Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Rudrasimha I
Rudrasimha I
(178 to 197).

An inscription of Rudrasimha I
Rudrasimha I
(178-197) was recently found at Setkhedi in Shajapur district, dated to 107 Saka
Saka
Era, that is 185 CE, confirming the expansion of the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
to the east at that date.[44] There is also an earlier inscription related to Saka
Saka
rule in Ujjain,[44] as well as a later one, the Kanakerha inscription, related to Sala rule in the area of Vidisha, Sanchi
Sanchi
and Eran
Eran
in the early 4th century.[44] Loss of southern territories to the Satavahanas
Satavahanas
(end of 2nd century CE)[edit] The south Indian ruler Yajna Sri Satakarni
Yajna Sri Satakarni
(170-199 CE) of the Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty defeated the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
in the late 2nd century CE. By defeating the Western Satraps, he reconquered their southern regions in western and central India, which led to the decline of the Western Satraps.[45] Yajna Sri Satakarni
Yajna Sri Satakarni
left inscriptions in Nasik
Nasik
caves, Kanheri
Kanheri
and Guntur, testifying to the renewed extant of the Satavahanas.[46] There are two inscriptions of Yajna Sri Satakarni
Yajna Sri Satakarni
at Kanheri, in cave No.81,[47] and in the Chaitya
Chaitya
cave No.3.[48] In the Nasik
Nasik
caves, there is one inscription of Sri Yajna Satakarni, in the 7th year of his reign.[49] There is a possibility however that the areas of Poona
Poona
and Nasik
Nasik
had remained in the hands of the Satavahanas
Satavahanas
since the time of Gautamiputra Satakarni
Gautamiputra Satakarni
after his victory over Nahapana, as there are no epigraphical records of the Kardamakas in this area.[36] Rudrasena II
Rudrasena II
(256–278)[edit]

Rudrasena II
Rudrasena II
(256-278 CE). Head right, wearing close-fitting cap / Three-arched hill; group of five pellets to right.[50]

Vidisha/ Sanchi

Eran

Ujjain

Barigaza

Devnimori

Western Satrap
Satrap
territory extended from the west coast of India
India
to Vidisha/ Sanchi
Sanchi
and Eran, from the time of Rudrasena II
Rudrasena II
(256–278) well into the 4th century.[51]

The Kshatrapa dynasty seems to have reached a high level of prosperity under the rule of Rudrasena II
Rudrasena II
(256–278), 19th ruler of Kshatrapa. The region of Sanchi- Vidisha
Vidisha
was again captured from the Satavahanas during the rule of Rudrasena II
Rudrasena II
(255-278 CE), as shown by finds of his coinage in the area.[51] The last Kshatrapa ruler of the Chastana
Chastana
family was Visvasena (Vishwasen), brother and successor to Bhartrdaman
Bhartrdaman
and son of Rudrasena II. Rudrasimha II
Rudrasimha II
family (304-396 CE)[edit]

Head of Buddha Shakyamuni, Devnimori, Gujarat
Gujarat
(375-400). Derived from the Greco- Buddhist
Buddhist
art of Gandhara, an example of the Western Indian art of the Western Satraps.[52][53]

A new family took over, started by the rule of Rudrasimha II. He declared on his coins to be the son of a Lord (Svami) Jivadaman.[54] His rule is partly coeval with that of other rulers, who were his sons as written on their coins, and may have been sub-kings: Yasodaman II (317–332) and Rudradaman II (332–348).

Contributions to Buddhism

Under Rudrasimha II, the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
are known to have maintained their presence in the Central India
India
areas of Vidisha/ Sanchi/ Eran well into the 4th century: during his rule, in 319 CE, a Saka
Saka
ruler inscribed the Kanakerha inscription,[55] on the hill of Sanchi mentioning the construction of a well by the Saka
Saka
chief and "righteous conqueror" (dharmaviyagi mahadandanayaka) Sridharavarman (339-368 CE).[51] Another inscription of the same Sridhavarman with his military commander is known from Eran.[51] These inscription point to the extent of Saka
Saka
rule as the time of Rudrasimha II. The construction of Buddhist
Buddhist
monuments in the area of Gujarat
Gujarat
during the later part of Western Satrap
Satrap
rule is attested with the site of Devnimori, which incorporates viharas and a stupa. Coins of Rudrasimha were found inside the Buddhist
Buddhist
stupa of Devnimori.[56] The Buddha images in Devnimori
Devnimori
clearly show the influence of the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara,[52] and have been described as examples of the Western Indian art of the Western Satraps.[52] It has been suggested that the art of Devnimori
Devnimori
represented a Western Indian artistic tradition, that was anterior to the rise of Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
art, and that it may have influenced it, and have influenced the art of the Ajanta Caves, Sarnath
Sarnath
and other places from the 5th century onward.[56] Overall, the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
may have played a role in the transmission of the art of Gandhara
Gandhara
to the western Deccan region.[57] Defeat by the Guptas (c. 400)[edit] Rudrasimha III
Rudrasimha III
seems to have been the last of the Western Satrap rulers. A fragment from the Natya-darpana mentions that the Gupta king Ramagupta, the elder brother of Chandragupta II, decided to expand his kingdom by attacking the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
in Gujarat.

Coin of the last Western Satrap
Satrap
ruler Rudrasimha III
Rudrasimha III
(388–395).

The campaign soon took a turn for the worse and the Gupta army was trapped. The Saka
Saka
king, Rudrasimha III, demanded that Ramagupta
Ramagupta
hand over his wife Dhruvadevi in exchange for peace. To avoid the ignominy the Guptas decide to send Madhavasena, a courtesan and a beloved of Chandragupta, disguised as the queen. However, Chandragupta changes the plan and himself goes to the Saka
Saka
King disguised as the queen. He then kills Rudrasimha and later his own brother, Ramagupta. Dhruvadevi is then married to Chandragupta. The Western Satraps
Western Satraps
were eventually conquered by emperor Chandragupta II. Inscriptions of a victorious Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
in the year 412-413 CE can be found on the railing near the Eastern Gateway of the Great Stupa
Stupa
in Sanchi.[58]

"The glorious Candragupta (II), (...) who proclaims in the world the good behaviour of the excellent people, namely, the dependents (of the king), and who has acquired banners of victory and fame in many battles" —  Sanchi
Sanchi
inscription of Chandragupta II, 412-413 CE.[59]

This brought an end to nearly four centuries of Saka
Saka
rule on the subcontinent. Coinage[edit] The Kshatrapas
Kshatrapas
have a very rich and interesting coinage. It was based on the coinage of the earlier Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kings, with Greek or pseudo-Greek legend and stylized profiles of royal busts on the obverse. The reverse of the coins however is original and typically depict a thunderbolt and an arrow, and later, a chaitya or three-arched hill and river symbol with a crescent and the sun, within a legend in Brahmi. These coins are very informative, since they record the name of the King, of his father, and the date of issue, and have helped clarify the early history of India. Regnal dates[edit]

Coin of Damasena. The minting date, here 153 (100-50-3 in Brahmi script numerals) of the Saka
Saka
era, therefore 232 CE, clearly appears behind the head of the king.

Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Rudrasimha I
Rudrasimha I
(178–197). Obv: Bust of Rudrasimha, with corrupted Greek legend "..OHIIOIH.." ( Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
style). Rev: Three-arched hill or Chaitya, with river, crescent and sun, within Prakrit
Prakrit
legend in Brahmi script:Rajno Mahaksatrapasa Rudradamnaputrasa Rajna Mahaksatrapasa Rudrasihasa "King and Great Satrap
Satrap
Rudrasimha, son of King and Great Satrap Rudradaman".

From the reigns of Jivadaman
Jivadaman
and Rudrasimha I, the date of minting of each coin, reckoned in the Saka
Saka
era, is usually written on the obverse behind the king's head in Brahmi numerals, allowing for a quite precise datation of the rule of each king.[60] This is a rather uncommon case in Indian numismatics. Some, such as the numismat R.C Senior considered that these dates might correspond to the much earlier Azes era instead. Also the father of each king is systematically mentioned in the reverse legends, which allows to reconstruct the regnal succession. Languages[edit] Kharoshthi, a script in use in more northern territories (area of Gandhara), is employed together with the Brahmi script and the Greek script on the first coins of the Western Satraps, but is finally abandoned from the time of Chastana.[61] From that time, only the Brahmi script would remain, together with the pseudo-Greek script on the facing, to write the Prakrit
Prakrit
language employed by the Western satraps. Occasionally, the legends are in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
instead. The coins of Nahapana
Nahapana
bears the Greek script legend "PANNIΩ IAHAPATAC NAHAΠANAC", transliteration of the Prakrit
Prakrit
"Raño Kshaharatasa Nahapanasa": "In the reign of Kshaharata Nahapana". The coins of Castana also have a readable legend "PANNIΩ IATPAΠAC CIASTANCA", transliteration of the Prakrit
Prakrit
"Raño Kshatrapasa Castana": "In the reign of the Satrap
Satrap
Castana". After these two rulers, the legend in Greek script becomes denaturated, and seems to lose all signification, only retaining an esthetic value. By the 4th century, the coins of Rudrasimha II
Rudrasimha II
exhibit the following type of meaningless legend in corrupted Greek script: "...ΛIOΛVICIVIIIΛ...".[62] Influences[edit]

The Guptas imitated Western Satrap
Satrap
coins for their silver coinage. Here, a coin of the Gupta king Kumaragupta I
Kumaragupta I
(414–455) (Western territories).

The coins of the Kshatrapas
Kshatrapas
were also very influential and imitated by neighbouring or later dynasties, such as the Satavahanas, and the Guptas. Silver coins of the Gupta kings Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
and his son Kumaragupta I
Kumaragupta I
adopted the Western Satrap
Satrap
design (itself derived from the Indo-Greeks) with bust of the ruler and pseudo-Greek inscription on the obverse, and a royal eagle (Garuda, the dynastic symbol of the Guptas) replacing the chaitya hill with star and crescent on the reverse.[63] The Western Satrap
Satrap
coin design was also adopted by the subsequent dynasty of the Traikutakas
Traikutakas
(388–456). Monuments[edit] Sudarshan Lake of Satrap
Satrap
period is mentioned in major rock edicts of Junagadh
Junagadh
but no trace of it remains. Six inscription-stones called Lashtis of 1st century were recovered from hillock near Andhau village in Khavda region of Kutch
Kutch
and were moved to Kutch
Kutch
Museum in Bhuj. They are earliest dated monuments of Satrap
Satrap
period and were erected in the time of Rudradaman I.[64] The large number of stone inscriptions from Kutch
Kutch
and Saurastra as well as hundreds of coins throughout Gujarat
Gujarat
are found belonging to Satrap
Satrap
period. The earlier caves at Sana, Junagadh, Dhank, Talaja, Sidhasar, Prabhas Patan and Ranapar in Barada Hills are mostly plain and austere in looks except some carvings in Bava Pyara caves
Bava Pyara caves
of Junagadh. They are comparable to Andhra- Satrap
Satrap
period caves in Deccan. As they have almost no carvings, the determination of their date and chronology is difficult. Uparkot Caves
Uparkot Caves
of Junagadh
Junagadh
and Khambhalida Caves belongs to later years of Satraps.[65] The stupas excavated at Boria and Intwa near Junagadh
Junagadh
belonged to Satrap
Satrap
period. The stupa excavated at Shamlaji probably belonged to this period or Gupta period.[66] Possible vassalage to the Kushans[edit]

Territories under Western Satraps
Western Satraps
in 375 AD

It is still unclear whether the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
were independent rulers or vassals of the Kushans. The continued use of the word "Satrap" on their coin would suggest a recognized subjection to a higher ruler, possibly the Kushan
Kushan
emperor.[67]

Inscribed statue of King Chastana
Chastana
in Mathura. Kushan
Kushan
Period.

Also, a statue of Chastana
Chastana
was found in Mathura
Mathura
at the Temple of Mat together with the famous statues of Vima Kadphises
Vima Kadphises
and Kanishka. This also would suggest at least alliance and friendship, if not vassalage. Finally Kanishka
Kanishka
claims in the Rabatak inscription
Rabatak inscription
that his power extends to Ujjain, the classical capital of the Western Satrap
Satrap
realm. This combined with the presence of the Chastana
Chastana
statue side-by-side with Kanishka
Kanishka
would also suggest Kushan
Kushan
alliance with the Western Satraps. Finally, following the period of the "Northern Satraps" who ruled in the area of Mathura, the "Great Satrap" Kharapallana
Kharapallana
and the "Satrap" Vanaspara
Vanaspara
are known from an inscription in Sarnath
Sarnath
to have been feudatories of the Kushans.[3] Generally the orientation taken by modern scholarship is that the Western Satraps
Western Satraps
were vassals of the Kushan, at least in the early period until Rudradaman I
Rudradaman I
conquered the Yaudheyas
Yaudheyas
who are usually thought themselves as Kushan
Kushan
vassals. The question is not considered as perfectly settled.

Main rulers[edit]

Outline of South Asian history

Palaeolithic (2,500,000–250,000 BC)

Madrasian Culture

Soanian
Soanian
Culture

Neolithic (10,800–3300 BC)

Bhirrana
Bhirrana
Culture (7570–6200 BC)

Mehrgarh
Mehrgarh
Culture (7000–3300 BC)

Edakkal Culture (5000–3000 BC)

Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
(3500–1500 BC)

Ahar-Banas Culture (3000–1500 BC)

Pandu Culture (1600–1500 BC)

Malwa
Malwa
Culture (1600–1300 BC)

Jorwe
Jorwe
Culture (1400–700 BC)

Bronze Age (3300–1300 BC)

Indus Valley Civilisation (3300–1300 BC)

 – Early Harappan Culture (3300–2600 BC)

 – Mature Harappan Culture (2600–1900 BC)

 – Late Harappan Culture (1900–1300 BC)

Vedic Civilisation (2000–500 BC)

 – Ochre Coloured Pottery culture (2000–1600 BC)

 – Swat culture (1600–500 BC)

Iron Age (1500–200 BC)

Vedic Civilisation (1500–500 BC)

 – Janapadas (1500–600 BC)

 – Black and Red ware culture (1300–1000 BC)

 – Painted Grey Ware culture (1200–600 BC)

 – Northern Black Polished Ware (700–200 BC)

Pradyota Dynasty (799–684 BC)

Haryanka Dynasty (684–424 BC)

Three Crowned Kingdoms (c. 600 BC–AD 1600)

Maha Janapadas (c. 600–300 BC)

Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC)

Ror Dynasty (450 BC–AD 489)

Shishunaga Dynasty (424–345 BC)

Nanda Empire (380–321 BC)

Macedonian Empire (330–323 BC)

Maurya Empire (321–184 BC)

Seleucid India (312–303 BC)

Pandya Empire (c. 300 BC–AD 1345)

Chera Kingdom (c. 300 BC-AD 1102)

Chola Empire (c. 300 BC–AD 1279)

Pallava Empire (c. 250 BC–AD 800)

Maha-Megha-Vahana Empire (c. 250 BC–c. AD 500)

Parthian Empire (247 BC– AD 224)

Middle Kingdoms (230 BC– AD 1206)

Satavahana
Satavahana
Empire (230 BC–AD 220)

Kuninda Kingdom (200 BC–AD 300)

Mitra Dynasty (c. 150 –c. 50 BC)

Shunga Empire (185–73 BC)

Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdom (180 BC–AD 10)

Kanva Empire (75–26 BC)

Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
Kingdom (50 BC–AD 400)

Indo-Parthian Kingdom (AD 21–c. 130)

Western Satrap
Satrap
Empire (AD 35–405 )

Kushan
Kushan
Empire (AD 60–240)

Bharshiva Dynasty (170–350)

Nagas of Padmavati (210–340)

Sasanian Empire (224–651)

Indo-Sassanid Kingdom (230–360)

Vakataka Empire (c. 250–c. 500)

Kalabhras Empire (c. 250–c. 600)

Gupta Empire (280–550)

Kadamba Empire (345–525)

Western Ganga Kingdom (350–1000)

Kamarupa
Kamarupa
Kingdom (350–1100)

Vishnukundina
Vishnukundina
Empire (420–624)

Maitraka
Maitraka
Empire (475–767)

Huna Kingdom (475–576)

Rai Kingdom (489–632)

Kabul Shahi
Kabul Shahi
Empire (c. 500–1026)

Chalukya Empire (543–753)

Maukhari
Maukhari
Empire (c. 550–c. 700)

Harsha Empire (606–647)

Tibetan Empire (618–841)

Eastern Chalukya Kingdom (624–1075)

Rashidun Caliphate (632–661)

Gurjara-Pratihara
Gurjara-Pratihara
Empire (650–1036)

Umayyad Caliphate (661–750)

Pala Empire (750–1174)

Rashtrakuta Empire (753–982)

Paramara Kingdom (800–1327)

Yadava Empire (850–1334)

Chaulukya Kingdom (942–1244)

Western Chalukya
Western Chalukya
Empire (973–1189)

Lohara Kingdom (1003–1320)

Hoysala Empire (1040–1346)

Sena Empire (1070–1230)

Eastern Ganga Empire (1078–1434)

Kakatiya Kingdom (1083–1323)

Zamorin Kingdom (1102–1766)

Kalachuris of Tripuri (675-1210)

Kalachuris of Kalyani (1156–1184)

Chutiya Kingdom (1187–1673)

Deva Kingdom (c. 1200–c. 1300)

Late medieval period (1206–1526)

Delhi Sultanate (1206–1526)

 – Mamluk Sultanate (1206–1290)

 – Khalji Sultanate (1290–1320)

 – Tughlaq Sultanate (1320–1414)

 – Sayyid Sultanate (1414–1451)

 – Lodi Sultanate (1451–1526)

Ahom Kingdom (1228–1826)

Chitradurga Kingdom (1300–1779)

Reddy Kingdom (1325–1448)

Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1646)

Bengal Sultanate (1352–1576)

Garhwal Kingdom (1358–1803)

Mysore Kingdom (1399–1947)

Gajapati Kingdom (1434–1541)

Deccan Sultanates (1490–1596)

 – Ahmadnagar Sultanate (1490–1636)

 – Berar Sultanate (1490–1574)

 – Bidar Sultanate (1492–1619)

 – Bijapur Sultanate (1492–1686)

 – Golkonda Sultanate (1518–1687)

Keladi Kingdom (1499–1763)

Koch Kingdom (1515–1947)

Early modern period
Early modern period
(1526–1858)

Mughal Empire (1526–1858)

Sur Empire (1540–1556)

Madurai Kingdom (1559–1736)

Thanjavur Kingdom (1572–1918)

Bengal Subah (1576–1757)

Marava Kingdom (1600–1750)

Thondaiman Kingdom (1650–1948)

Maratha Empire (1674–1818)

Sikh Confederacy (1707–1799)

Travancore
Travancore
Kingdom (1729–1947)

Sikh Empire (1799–1849)

Colonial states (1510–1961)

Portuguese India (1510–1961)

Dutch India (1605–1825)

Danish India (1620–1869)

French India (1759–1954)

Company Raj (1757–1858)

British Raj (1858–1947)

Periods of Sri Lanka

Prehistory (Until 543 BC)

Early kingdoms period (543 BC–377 BC)

Anuradhapura period (377 BC–AD 1017)

Polonnaruwa period (1056–1232)

Transitional period (1232–1505)

Crisis of the Sixteenth Century (1505–1594)

Kandyan period (1594–1815)

British Ceylon (1815–1948)

Contemporary Sri Lanka (1948–present)

National histories

Afghanistan Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Pakistan Sri Lanka

Regional histories

Assam Balochistan Bengal Bihar Gujarat Himachal Pradesh Kabul Kashmir Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Rajasthan Maharashtra Uttar Pradesh Punjab Odisha Sindh South India Tamil Nadu Tibet

Specialised histories

Agriculture Architecture Coinage Demographics Dynasties Economy Education Indology Influence on Southeast Asia Language Literature Maritime Metallurgy Military Partition of India Pakistan
Pakistan
studies Philosophy Religion Science & Technology Timeline

v t e

History of Gujarat

Stone Age (Before 4000 BCE)

Stone Age (Before 4000 BCE)

Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
to Bronze Age (4000–1300 BCE)

Chalcolithic
Chalcolithic
Gujarat

 – Anarta Tradition (c. 3950–1900 BCE)

 – Padri Ware (3600–2000 BCE)

 – Pre-Prabhas Assemblage (3200–2600 BCE)

 – Pre Urban Harappan Sindh
Sindh
Type Pottery (3000–2600 BCE)

 – Black and Red Ware (3950–900 BCE)

 – Reserved Slip Ware (3950–1900 BCE)

 – Micaceous Red Ware (2600–1600 BCE)

 – Malwa
Malwa
Ware

 – Jorwe
Jorwe
Ware

Indus Valley Civilisation (3300–1300 BCE)

 – Early Harappan (3300–2600 BCE)

 – Mature Harappan (2600–1900 BCE)

 – Late Harappan (1900–1300 BCE)

Late cultures (2200-1700 BCE)

 – Prabhas Assemblage (2200–1700 BCE)

 – Lustrous Red Ware (1900–1300 BCE)

Vedic Civilisation (2000–500 BCE)

Iron Age (1500–300 BCE)

Vedic Civilisation (2000–500 BCE)

 – Janapadas (1500–600 BCE)

 – Black and Red Ware (1300–1000 BCE)

 – Painted Grey Ware (1200–600 BCE)

Maha Janapadas (600–300 BCE)

Epic India (1700-300 BCE)

 –Abhira Kingdom

 – Anarta Kingdom

 –Dwaraka Kingdom

 – Sindhu
Sindhu
Kingdom

 –Saurashtra Kingdom

Classical Period (380 BCE–1299 CE)

Nanda Empire (380–321 BCE)

Maurya Empire (321–184 BCE)

Indo-Scythians (312 BCE –400 CE)

 –Western Satraps (c. 119 – 405 CE)

Vakataka dynasty (c. 250 - c.500 CE)

Kushan
Kushan
Empire (30 – 375 CE)

Traikutaka dynasty (388 - 454 CE)

Gupta Empire (405-c. 730 CE)

Maitraka (475 – 767 CE)

Saindhava (c.725 - c. 950 CE)

Gurjaras of Lata (c.580 - c. 738 CE)

Empire of Harsha ( 7th century)

Gurjara-Pratihara (c.730 - c. 960 CE)

Chavda dynasty (c. 690– c. 940 CE)

Chudasama dynasty (c. 875 -1472 CE)

Rashtrakuta dynasty (8-9th century)

Paramara dynasty (9-10th century)

Western Chalukya (9-10th century)

Chalukyas of Lata (c. 970 - c. 1070 CE)

Chaulukya dynasty (c. 940 -1243 CE)

Vaghela dynasty (1243-1299 CE)

Medieval and Early Modern Periods (1299–1819)

Gujarat
Gujarat
under Delhi Sultanate (1298–1407)

 – Khalji Sultanate (1298–1320)

 – Tughlaq Sultanate (1320–1407)

Gujarat
Gujarat
Sultanate (1407–1573)

Mughal Gujarat (1573–1756)

Maratha Empire (1756-1819)

 –Peshwa

 –Gaekwad

Cutch State (1365-1947)

Colonial period (1819–1961)

Portuguese India (1534-1961)

Company Raj (1819–1858)

British Raj (1858–1947)

 –Princely states (till 1948)

 –Residencies (1819-1947)

 –Agencies of British India (1819-1947)

 –Bombay Presidency (1618-1947)

Post-independence (1947–)

Saurashtra State (1948-1956)

Kutch
Kutch
State (1947-1956)

Bombay State (1947-1960)

Gujarat (1960-)

v t e

Kshaharata dynasty[edit]

Yapirajaya Hospises Higaraka Abhiraka
Abhiraka
(Aubhirakes) Bhumaka
Bhumaka
(?–119) Nahapana
Nahapana
(119–124)

Viceroy Ushavadata

Bhadramukhas or Kardamaka dynasty[edit] Family of Chastana:

Chastana
Chastana
(c. 78-130) , son of Zamotika Jayadaman, son of Chastana Rudradaman I
Rudradaman I
(c. 130–150) , son of Jayadaman Damajadasri I
Damajadasri I
(170–175) Jivadaman
Jivadaman
(178-181, d. 199) Rudrasimha I
Rudrasimha I
(180–188, d. 197) Rudrasimha I
Rudrasimha I
(restored) (191–197) Satyadaman
Satyadaman
(197-198) Jivadaman
Jivadaman
(restored) (197–199) Rudrasena I (200–222) Prthivisena (222) Samghadaman (222–223) Damasena
Damasena
(223–232) Damajadasri II (232–239) with Viradaman (234–238) Isvaradatta (236–239) Yasodaman I (239) Vijayasena
Vijayasena
(239–250) Damajadasri III (251–255) Rudrasena II
Rudrasena II
(255–277) Visvasimha (277–282) Bhartrdaman
Bhartrdaman
(282–295) Visvasena (293–304)

Family of Rudrasimha II:

Rudrasimha II
Rudrasimha II
(304–348) , son of Lord (Svami) Jivadaman, with

Yasodaman II
Yasodaman II
(317–332) Rudradaman II (332–348) No coins known

Rudrasena III (348–380) Simhasena
Simhasena
(380–384/5) Rudrasena IV (382–388) Rudrasimha III
Rudrasimha III
(388–395)

See also[edit]

History of India Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdom Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians Kushan
Kushan
Empire Rulers of Malwa

Notes[edit]

^ World history from early times to A D 2000 by B .V. Rao: p.97 ^ Ancient India
India
by Ramesh Chandra Majumdar p. 234 ^ a b Kharapallana
Kharapallana
and Vanaspara
Vanaspara
are known from an inscription discovered in Sarnath, and dated to the 3rd year of Kanishka, in which they were paying allegiance to the Kushanas. Source: "A Catalogue of the Indian Coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc." Rapson, p ciii ^ Ptolemy, "Geographia", Chap 7 ^ Rapson, p. CVII ^ " Kharoshthi
Kharoshthi
inscription, Taxila copper plate
Taxila copper plate
of Patika", Sten Konow, p25 ^ a b Tripathi, Rama Shankar (1942). History of Ancient India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 216. ISBN 9788120800182.  ^ "The Satavahanas
Satavahanas
did not hold the western Deccan for long. They were gradually pushed out of the west by the Sakas (Western Khatrapas). The Kshaharata Nahapana's coins in the Nasik
Nasik
area indicate that the Western Kshatrapas
Kshatrapas
controlled this region by the 1st century CE. By becoming master of wide regions including Malwa, Southern Gujarat, and Northern Konkan, from Broach to Sopara
Sopara
and the Nasik
Nasik
and Poona districts, Nahapana
Nahapana
rose from the status of a mere Kshatrapa in the year 41 (58 AD) to that of Mahakshatrapa in the year 46 (63 AD)." in "History of the Andhras" ^ "Catalogue of Indian coins of the British Museum. Andhras etc." Rapson. p. LVII ^ Ancient Indian History and Civilization by Sailendra Nath Sen p.188 ^ Epigraphia Indica Vol.8 p.78-79 ^ Epigraphia Indica Vol.7, Hultzsch, E. p.58 ^ a b c World Heritage Monuments and Related Edifices in India, Volume 1 ʻAlī Jāvīd, Tabassum Javeed, Algora Publishing, 2008 p.42 ^ a b Foreign Influence on Ancient India, Krishna Chandra Sagar, Northern Book Centre, 1992 p.150 ^ Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bombay. Asiatic Society of Bombay. 1986. p. 219. If Konow is right, then the length of time for Ksatrapa rule in the Nasik-Karla- Junnar
Junnar
region would be at least thirty-fire years.  ^ Cultural and Religious Heritage of India: Zoroastrianism, Suresh K. Sharma, Usha Sharma, Mittal Publications, 2004 p.112 ^ The Dynastic Arts of the Kushans, John M. Rosenfield p.131 ^ Religions and Trade: Religious Formation, Transformation and Cross-Cultural Exchange between East and West. BRILL. 2013. p. 97. ISBN 9789004255302.  ^ Southern India: A Guide to Monuments Sites & Museums, by George Michell, Roli Books Private Limited, 1 mai 2013 p.72 ^ "This hall is assigned to the brief period of Kshatrapas
Kshatrapas
rule in the western Deccan during the 1st century." in Guide to Monuments of India 1: Buddhist, Jain, Hindu - by George Michell, Philip H. Davies, Viking - 1989 Page 374 ^ Epigraphia Indica Vol.18 p.326 Inscription No1 ^ Ushavadata
Ushavadata
also presents himself as a Saka
Saka
in inscription 14a of Cave No.10 of the Pandavleni Caves: "[Success !] By permanent charities of Ushavadata, the Saka, [son of Dinika], son-in-law of king Nahapana, the [Kshahara]ta Kshatrapa...." in Epigraphia Indica p.85-86 ^ Epigraphia Indica p.78-79 ^ Epigraphia Indica p.82-83 ^ a b Cultural and Religious Heritage of India: Zoroastrianism, by Suresh K. Sharma,Usha Sharma p.114 ^ "History of the Andhras", Durga Prasad Source ^ Source ^ a b c Source ^ a b Foreign Influence on Ancient India, Krishna Chandra Sagar, Northern Book Centre, 1992 p.131 ^ A. Jha and D. Rajgor: Studies in the Coinage of the Western Ksatraps, Nashik: Indian Institute of Research in Numismatic Studies, 1992, p. 7. ^ The Dynastic Art of the Kushans, John Rosenfield, University of California Press, xxxiv ^ Allchin, F. R.; Erdosy, George (1995). The Archaeology of Early Historic South Asia: The Emergence of Cities and States. Cambridge University Press. p. 279. ISBN 9780521376952.  ^ Artefacts of History: Archaeology, Historiography and Indian Pasts, Sudeshna Guha, SAGE Publications India, 2015 p.50 ^ Burgess, James; Bühler, Georg (1883). Report on the Elura cave temples and the Brahmanical and Jaina caves in western India; completing the results of the fifth, sixth, and seventh seasons' operations of the Archaeological survey, 1877-78, 1878-79, 1879-80. Supplementary to the volume on "The cave temples of India.". London, Trübner & Co. p. 78.  ^ a b c Source Archived 23 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b Sircar, D. C. (2005). Studies in Indian Coins. Motilal Banarsidass Publishe. p. 118. ISBN 9788120829732.  ^ Rapson, "Indian coins of the British Museum" p.lx ^ Junagadh
Junagadh
Rock Inscription of Rudradaman I
Rudradaman I
Archived 23 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine., accessed on 23 March 2007. ^ Rosenfield, "The dynastic art of the Kushans", p132 ^ Rapson, "A catalogue of the Indian coins in the British Museum", p.lx ^ " Vidarbha
Vidarbha
also was under the rule of another Mahakshatrapa named Rupiamma, whose pillar inscription was recently discovered at Pavni in the Bhandara
Bhandara
district [Mirashi, Studies in Indology, Vol. IV, p. 109 f.]. It records the erection of a chhaya-stambha or sculptured pillar at the place. The Satavahanas
Satavahanas
had, Therefore, to leave Western Maharashtra
Maharashtra
and Vidarbha. They seem to have repaired to their capital Pratishthana where they continued to abide waiting for a favourable opportunity to oust the Shaka invaders." Source ^ Mc Evilley "The shape of ancient thought", p385 ("The Yavanajataka is the earliest surviving Sanskrit
Sanskrit
text in astrology, and constitute the basis of all later Indian developments in horoscopy", himself quoting David Pingree "The Yavanajataka
Yavanajataka
of Sphujidhvaja" p5) ^ Rapson, p.cxxiv ^ a b c Misra, Om Prakash (2003). Archaeological Excavations in Central India: Madhya Pradesh
Madhya Pradesh
and Chhattisgarh. Mittal Publications. p. 6. ISBN 9788170998747.  ^ "later Satavahana
Satavahana
named Yajna Satakarni seems to have conquered the Southern Dominions of the Western Satraps. His coins contain figures of ships, probably indicating the naval power of the Andras. He not only ruled Aparanta, but probably also the eastern part of the Central Provinces". Majumdar, p. 135 ^ Sen, Sailendra Nath (1999). Ancient Indian History and Civilization. New Age International. p. 174. ISBN 9788122411980.  ^ Burgess, James; Bühler, Georg (1883). Report on the Elura cave temples and the Brahmanical and Jaina caves in western India; completing the results of the fifth, sixth, and seventh seasons' operations of the Archaeological survey, 1877-78, 1878-79, 1879-80. Supplementary to the volume on "The cave temples of India.". London, Trübner & Co. p. 79.  ^ Burgess, James; Bühler, Georg (1883). Report on the Elura cave temples and the Brahmanical and Jaina caves in western India; completing the results of the fifth, sixth, and seventh seasons' operations of the Archaeological survey, 1877-78, 1878-79, 1879-80. Supplementary to the volume on "The cave temples of India.". London, Trübner & Co. p. 75.  ^ Burgess, Jas (1883). Archaeological Survey Of Western India. p. 114.  ^ CNG Coins Coin image ^ a b c d Buddhist
Buddhist
Landscapes in Central India: Sanchi
Sanchi
Hill and Archaeologies of Religious and Social Change, c. Third Century BC to Fifth Century AD, Julia Shaw, Routledge, 2016 p58-59 ^ a b c The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, Volume 4 1981 Number I An Exceptional Group of Painted Buddha Figures at Ajanṭā, p.97 and Note 2 ^ Los Angeles County Museum of Art description ^ Catalogue of the coins of the Andhra dynasty, the Western Ksatrapas, the Traikutaka dynasty, and the "Bodhi" dynasty, by British Museum. Dept. of Coins and Medals; Rapson, E. J. (Edward James) p.170 ^ Marshall, The Monuments of Sanchi
Sanchi
p.392 ^ a b Schastok, Sara L. (1985). The Śāmalājī Sculptures and 6th Century Art in Western India. BRILL. pp. 23–31. ISBN 9004069410.  ^ Brancaccio, Pia (2010). The Buddhist
Buddhist
Caves at Aurangabad: Transformations in Art and Religion. BRILL. p. 107. ISBN 9004185259.  ^ Marshall, The Monuments of India
India
p.388 ^ Marshall, The Monuments of India
India
p.388 inscription 833 ^ Rapson CCVIII ^ Rapson p. CIV ^ Rapson, "A Catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc.", p.cxcii ^ "Evidence of the conquest of Saurastra during the reign of Chandragupta II
Chandragupta II
is to be seen in his rare silver coins which are more directly imitated from those of the Western Satraps... they retain some traces of the old inscriptions in Greek characters, while on the reverse, they substitute the Gupta type ... for the chaitya with crescent and star." in Rapson "A catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. The Andhras etc.", p.cli ^ Hasmukh Dhirajlal Sankalia (1941). The Archaeology of Gujarat: Including Kathiawar. Natwarlal & Company. p. 46. Archived from the original on 2015.  ^ Nanavati, J. M.; Dhaky, M. A. (1969-01-01). "The Maitraka
Maitraka
and the Saindhava
Saindhava
Temples of Gujarat". Artibus Asiae. Supplementum. 26: 15–17. doi:10.2307/1522666.  ^ Nanavati, J. M. (March 1961). "A Kshatrapa Head from Saurashtra". In Sandesara, B. J. Journal Of Oriental Institute Baroda Vol.10. X. Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda. pp. 223–224.  ^ "The titles "Kshatrap" and "Mahakshatrapa" certainly show that the Western Kshatrapas
Kshatrapas
were originally feudatories" in Rapson, "Coins of the British Museum", p.cv

In foot note number 13 on Rupiamma, I would like to point out that he wasn't from the Kshahartha family or the Kardamaka family of Chashtana. Some rulers used the title Mahakshtrapa without belonging to these dynasties. There is an article in Journal of Epigraphic Society of India
India
Vol 18 by H.S. Thosar that will tell us the history of this Rupiamma. The pillar inscriptions merely mentions his name Mahakshtrapa Rupiamma with a low relief sculpture. There is no date or any other record. Rupiamma should not be included in the Western Satrap
Satrap
history. References[edit]

Rapson, "A Catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc." John Rosenfield, "The dynastic art of the Kushans", 1976 Claudius Ptolemy, "The geography", Translated and edited by Edward Luther Stevenson, Dover Publications Inc., New York, ISBN 0-486-26896-9

External links[edit]

[3] History of the Andhras, Prasad 1988 With many references to Western Satrap
Satrap
rule Online catalogue of Western Kshatrapa coins Coins of the Western Kshatrapas The Kshatrapas
Kshatrapas
in Nasik The Origins of the Indian Coinage Tradition at Academia.edu

v t e

Middle kingdoms of India

Timeline and cultural period

Northwestern India (Punjab-Sapta Sindhu)

Indo-Gangetic Plain Central India Southern India

Upper Gangetic Plain (Kuru-Panchala)

Middle Gangetic Plain Lower Gangetic Plain

IRON AGE

Culture Late Vedic Period Late Vedic Period (Brahmin ideology)[a] Painted Grey Ware culture

Late Vedic Period (Kshatriya/Shramanic culture)[b] Northern Black Polished Ware

Pre-history

 6th century BC Gandhara Kuru-Panchala Magadha

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

Culture Persian-Greek influences "Second Urbanisation" Rise of Shramana
Shramana
movements Jainism
Jainism
- Buddhism
Buddhism
- Ājīvika
Ājīvika
- Yoga

Pre-history

 5th century BC (Persian rule)

Shishunaga dynasty

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes)

 4th century BC (Greek conquests) Nanda empire

HISTORICAL AGE

Culture Spread of Buddhism Pre-history Sangam period (300 BC – 200 AD)

 3rd century BC Maurya Empire Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

Culture Preclassical Hinduism[c] - "Hindu Synthesis"[d] (ca. 200 BC - 300 AD)[e][f] Epics - Puranas
Puranas
- Ramayana
Ramayana
- Mahabharata
Mahabharata
- Bhagavad Gita
Bhagavad Gita
- Brahma Sutras - Smarta Tradition Mahayana Buddhism Sangam period (continued) (300 BC – 200 AD)

 2nd century BC Indo-Greek
Indo-Greek
Kingdom Shunga Empire Maha-Meghavahana Dynasty

Early Cholas Early Pandyan Kingdom Satavahana
Satavahana
dynasty Cheras 46 other small kingdoms in Ancient Thamizhagam

 1st century BC

 1st century AD

Indo-Scythians Indo-Parthians

Kuninda Kingdom

 2nd century Kushan
Kushan
Empire

 3rd century Kushano-Sasanian Kingdom Kushan
Kushan
Empire Western Satraps Kamarupa
Kamarupa
kingdom Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture "Golden Age of Hinduism"(ca. AD 320-650)[g] Puranas Co-existence of Hinduism and Buddhism

 4th century Kidarites Gupta Empire Varman dynasty

Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Kadamba Dynasty Western Ganga Dynasty

 5th century Hephthalite Empire Alchon Huns Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Vishnukundina

 6th century Nezak Huns Kabul Shahi

Maitraka

Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Badami Chalukyas Kalabhra dynasty Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras)

Culture Late-Classical Hinduism (ca. AD 650-1100)[h] Advaita Vedanta
Advaita Vedanta
- Tantra Decline of Buddhism
Buddhism
in India

 7th century Indo-Sassanids

Vakataka dynasty Empire of Harsha Mlechchha dynasty Adivasi
Adivasi
(tribes) Pandyan Kingdom(Under Kalabhras) Pandyan Kingdom(Revival) Pallava

 8th century Kabul Shahi

Pala Empire Pandyan Kingdom Kalachuri

 9th century

Gurjara-Pratihara

Rashtrakuta dynasty Pandyan Kingdom Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai

10th century Ghaznavids

Pala dynasty Kamboja-Pala dynasty

Kalyani Chalukyas Medieval Cholas Pandyan Kingdom(Under Cholas) Chera Perumals of Makkotai Rashtrakuta

References and sources for table

References

^ Samuel ^ Samuel ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Michaels (2004) p.39 ^ Hiltebeitel (2002) ^ Micheals (2004) p.40 ^ Michaels (2004) p.41

Sources

Flood, Gavin D. (1996), An Introduction to Hinduism, Cambridge University Press  Hiltebeitel, Alf (2002), Hinduism. In: Joseph Kitagawa, "The Religious Traditions of Asia: Religion, History, and Culture", Routledge  Michaels, Axel (2004), Hinduism. Past and present, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press  Samuel, Geoffrey (2010), The Origins of Yoga
Yoga
and Tantra. Indic Religions to the Thirteenth Century, Cambridge University Press 

v t e

Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
kings, territories and chronology

Territories/ dates Western India Western Pakistan Balochistan Paropamisadae Arachosia Bajaur Gandhara Western Punjab Eastern Punjab Mathura

INDO-GREEK KINGDOM

90–85 BCE

Nicias Menander II Artemidoros

90–70 BCE

Hermaeus Archebius

85-60 BCE

INDO-SCYTHIAN KINGDOM Maues

75–70 BCE

Vonones Spalahores Telephos Apollodotus II

65–55 BCE

Spalirises Spalagadames Hippostratos Dionysios

55–35 BCE

Azes I Zoilos II

55–35 BCE

Azilises Azes II Apollophanes Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
dynasty of the NORTHERN SATRAPS Hagamasha

25 BCE – 10 CE

Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
dynasty of the APRACHARAJAS Vijayamitra (ruled 12 BCE - 15 CE)[n 1] Liaka Kusulaka Patika Kusulaka Zeionises Kharahostes (ruled 10 BCE– 10 CE)[n 2] Mujatria Strato II
Strato II
and Strato III Hagana

10-20CE

INDO-PARTHIAN KINGDOM Gondophares Indravasu INDO-PARTHIAN KINGDOM Gondophares Rajuvula

20-30 CE

Ubouzanes Pakores Vispavarma (ruled c.0-20 CE)[n 3] Sarpedones Bhadayasa Sodasa

30-40 CE

KUSHAN EMPIRE Kujula Kadphises Indravarma Abdagases ... ...

40-45 CE

Aspavarma Gadana ... ...

45-50 CE

Sasan Sases ... ...

50-75 CE

... ...

75-100 CE Indo-Scythian
Indo-Scythian
dynasty of the WESTERN SATRAPS Chastana

Vima Takto ... ...

100-120 CE Abhiraka

Vima Kadphises ... ...

120 CE Bhumaka Nahapana PARATARAJAS Yolamira Kanishka
Kanishka
I Great Satrap
Satrap
Kharapallana and Satrap
Satrap
Vanaspara for Kanishka
Kanishka
I

130-230 CE

Jayadaman Rudradaman I Damajadasri I Jivadaman Rudrasimha I Satyadaman Jivadaman Rudrasena I

Bagamira Arjuna Hvaramira Mirahvara

Vāsishka
Vāsishka
(c. 140 – c. 160) Huvishka
Huvishka
(c. 160 – c. 190) Vasudeva I
Vasudeva I
(c. 190 – to at least 230)

230-280 CE

Samghadaman Damasena Damajadasri II Viradaman Isvaradatta Yasodaman I Vijayasena Damajadasri III Rudrasena II Visvasimha

Miratakhma Kozana Bhimarjuna Koziya Datarvharna Datarvharna

INDO-SASANIANS Ardashir I, Sassanid king and "Kushanshah" (c. 230 – 250) Peroz I, "Kushanshah" (c. 250 – 265) Hormizd I, "Kushanshah" (c. 265 – 295)

Kanishka
Kanishka
II (c. 230 – 240) Vashishka (c. 240 – 250) Kanishka
Kanishka
III (c. 250 – 275)

280-300 Bhratadarman Datayola II

Hormizd II, "Kushanshah" (c. 295 – 300)

Vasudeva II
Vasudeva II
(c. 275 – 310)

300-320 CE

Visvasena Rudrasimha II Jivadaman

Peroz II, "Kushanshah" (c. 300 – 325)

Vasudeva III Vasudeva IV Vasudeva V Chhu
Chhu
(c. 310? – 325)

320-388 CE

Yasodaman II Rudradaman II Rudrasena III Simhasena Rudrasena IV

Shapur II
Shapur II
Sassanid king and "Kushanshah" (c. 325) Varhran I, Varhran II, Varhran III
Varhran III
"Kushanshahs" (c. 325 – 350) Peroz III "Kushanshah" (c. 350 –360) HEPHTHALITE/ HUNAS invasions

Shaka I
Shaka I
(c. 325 – 345) Kipunada (c. 345 – 375)

GUPTA EMPIRE Chandragupta I
Chandragupta I
Samudragupta

388-396 CE Rudrasimha III

Chandragupta II

^ From the dated inscription on the Rukhana reliquary ^ An Inscribed Silver Buddhist
Buddhist
Reliquary of the Time of King Kharaosta and Prince Indravarman, Richard Salomon, Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 116, No. 3 (Jul. - Sep., 1996), pp. 442 [1] ^ A Kharosthī Reliquary Inscription of the Time of the Apraca Prince Visnuvarma, by Richard Salomon, South Asian Studies 11 1995, Pages 27-32, Published onlin

.