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Western European Summer Time
Western European Summer Time
(WEST) is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. It is used in:

the Canary Islands Portugal
Portugal
(including Madeira
Madeira
but not the Azores) Ireland the United Kingdom the British Crown dependencies the Faroe Islands

Western European Summer Time
Western European Summer Time
is known in the countries concerned as:

British Summer Time
British Summer Time
(BST) in the United Kingdom. Irish Standard Time
Irish Standard Time
(IST)[1] (Am Caighdeánach na hÉireann (ACÉ)[2]) in Ireland. Also sometimes erroneously referred to as "Irish Summer Time" (Am Samhraidh na hÉireann).[3][4]

The scheme runs from the last Sunday in March to the last Sunday in October each year. At both the start and end of the schemes, clock changes take place at 01:00 UTC. During the winter, Western European Time (WET, UTC+0) is used. The start and end dates of the scheme are asymmetrical in terms of daylight hours: the vernal time of year with a similar amount of daylight to late October is mid-February, well before the start of summer time. The asymmetry reflects temperature more than the length of daylight. Ireland observes Standard Time during the summer months and changes to UTC+0
UTC+0
in winter.[1] As Ireland's winter time period begins on the last Sunday in October and finishes on the last Sunday in March, the result is the same as if it observed summer time.

Contents

1 Usage

1.1 Ireland 1.2 Portugal 1.3 United Kingdom

2 Start and end dates of British Summer Time
British Summer Time
and Irish Standard Time 3 References 4 Further reading 5 External links

Usage[edit] The following countries and territories use Western European Summer Time during the summer, between 1:00 UTC
UTC
on the last Sunday of March and 1:00 UTC
UTC
on the last Sunday of October.

Spain

Canary Islands, regularly since 1980 (rest of Spain
Spain
is CEST, i.e. UTC+2)

Kingdom of Denmark

Faroe Islands, regularly since 1981

Ireland

1916–1939 summers IST 1940–1946 all year IST 1947–1968 summers IST 1968–1971 all year IST 1972– summers IST

Portugal

Continental Portugal[5]

1916–1921 summers WEST 1924 summer WEST 1926–1929 summers WEST 1931–1932 summers WEST 1934–1941 summers WEST 1942–1945 summers WEST (1942–1945 midsummers WEMT[6][7]=WEST+1) 1946–1966 summers WEST 1966–1976 all year WEST/CET 1977–1992 summers WEST 1992–1996 winters WEST/CET (1993–1995 summers CEST) 1996– summers WEST

Madeira, regularly since 1982[8]

The United Kingdom

1916–1939 summers BST 1940–1945 all year BST (1941–1945 summers BDST=BST+1) 1946 summer BST 1947 summer BST (1947 midsummer BDST=BST+1) 1948–1968 summers BST 1968–1971 all year BST 1972– summers BST

Ireland[edit] Main article: Time in Ireland In Ireland, since the Standard Time (Amendment) Act, 1971, Ireland has used UTC+1
UTC+1
in summer (officially "standard time",[9] Irish: am caighdeánach,[10] though usually called "summer time") and UTC+0
UTC+0
in winter (officially "winter time").[11] Portugal[edit] Main article: Time in Portugal Portugal
Portugal
moved to Central European Time
Central European Time
and Central European Summer Time in 1992, but reverted to Western European Time
Western European Time
in 1996 after concluding that energy savings were small, it had a disturbing effect on children's sleeping habits as it would not get dark until 22:00 or 22:30 in summer evenings, during winter mornings the sun was still rising at 9:00, with repercussions on standards of learning and school performance, and insurance companies reported a rise in the number of accidents.[12] United Kingdom[edit] Main article: British Summer Time Starting in 1916, the dates for the beginning and end of BST each year were mandated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom. In February 2002, the Summer Time Order 2002[13] changed the dates and times to match European rules for moving to and from daylight saving time. Start and end dates of British Summer Time
British Summer Time
and Irish Standard Time[edit]

Summer Begins (BST) Ends (GMT) UK Notes Ireland Notes

2017 Sun 26 March 01:00 Sun 29 October 01:00

2016 Sun 27 March 01:00 Sun 30 October 01:00

2015 Sun 29 March 01:00 Sun 25 October 01:00

2014 Sun 30 March 01:00 Sun 26 October 01:00

2013 Sun 31 March 01:00 Sun 27 October 01:00

2012 Sun 25 March 01:00 Sun 28 October 01:00

2011 Sun 27 March 01:00 Sun 30 October 01:00

2010 Sun 28 March 01:00 Sun 31 October 01:00

2009 Sun 29 March 01:00 Sun 25 October 01:00

2008 Sun 30 March 01:00 Sun 26 October 01:00

2007 Sun 25 March 01:00 Sun 28 October 01:00

2006 Sun 26 March 01:00 Sun 29 October 01:00

2005 Sun 27 March 01:00 Sun 30 October 01:00

2004 Sun 28 March 01:00 Sun 31 October 01:00

2003 Sun 30 March 01:00 Sun 26 October 01:00

2002 Sun 31 March 01:00 Sun 27 October 01:00 UK adopts EU practice[13][14] Ireland adopts EU Practice [14][15]

2001 Sun 25 March 01:00 Sun 28 October 01:00

2000 Sun 26 March 01:00 Sun 29 October 01:00

1999 Sun 28 March 01:00 Sun 31 October 01:00

1998 Sun 29 March 01:00 Sun 25 October 01:00

1997 Sun 30 March 01:00 Sun 26 October 01:00

1996 Sun 31 March 01:00 Sun 27 October 01:00

1995 Sun 26 March 01:00 Sun 22 October 01:00

1994 Sun 27 March 01:00 Sun 23 October 01:00

1993 Sun 28 March 01:00 Sun 24 October 01:00

1992 Sun 29 March 01:00 Sun 25 October 01:00

1991 Sun 31 March 01:00 Sun 27 October 01:00

1990 Sun 25 March 01:00 Sun 28 October 01:00

1989 Sun 26 March 01:00 Sun 29 October 01:00

1988 Sun 27 March 01:00 Sun 23 October 01:00

1987 Sun 29 March 01:00 Sun 25 October 01:00

1986 Sun 30 March 01:00 Sun 26 October 01:00

1985 Sun 31 March 01:00 Sun 27 October 01:00

1984 Sun 25 March 01:00 Sun 28 October 01:00

1983 Sun 27 March 01:00 Sun 23 October 01:00

1982 Sun 28 March 01:00 Sun 24 October 01:00

1981 Sun 29 March 01:00 Sun 25 October 01:00

1980 Sun 16 March 02:00 Sun 26 October 02:00

1979 Sun 18 March 02:00 Sun 28 October 02:00

1978 Sun 19 March 02:00 Sun 29 October 02:00

1977 Sun 20 March 02:00 Sun 23 October 02:00

1976 Sun 21 March 02:00 Sun 24 October 02:00

1975 Sun 16 March 02:00 Sun 26 October 02:00

1974 Sun 17 March 02:00 Sun 27 October 02:00

1973 Sun 18 March 02:00 Sun 28 October 02:00

1972 Sun 19 March 02:00 Sun 29 October 02:00

1971

Sun 31 October 02:00 BST all year ends IST all year ends

1970

BST all year IST all year

1969

BST all year IST all year

1968 Sun 18 February 01:00

BST all year begins IST all year begins

1967 Sun 19 March 02:00 Sun 29 October 02:00

1966 Sun 20 March 02:00 Sun 23 October 02:00

1965 Sun 21 March 02:00 Sun 24 October 02:00

1964 Sun 22 March 02:00 Sun 25 October 02:00

1963 Sun 31 March 02:00 Sun 27 October 02:00

1962 Sun 25 March 02:00 Sun 28 October 02:00

1961 Sun 26 March 02:00 Sun 29 October 02:00

1960 Sun 10 April 02:00 Sun 2 October 02:00

1959 Sun 12 April 02:00 Sun 4 October 02:00

1958 Sun 20 April 02:00 Sun 5 October 02:00

1957 Sun 14 April 02:00 Sun 6 October 02:00

1956 Sun 22 April 02:00 Sun 7 October 02:00

1955 Sun 17 April 02:00 Sun 2 October 02:00

1954 Sun 11 April 02:00 Sun 3 October 02:00

1953 Sun 19 April 02:00 Sun 4 October 02:00

1952 Sun 20 April 02:00 Sun 26 October 02:00

1951 Sun 15 April 02:00 Sun 21 October 02:00

1950 Sun 16 April 02:00 Sun 29 October 02:00

1949 Sun 3 April 02:00 Sun 30 October 02:00

1948 Sun 14 March 02:00 Sun 31 October 02:00

1947

Sun 2 November 02:00 Back to GMT Back to GMT

1947 Sun 13 April 02:00 Sun 10 August 02:00 BDST (2 hours ahead) IST / no DST

1947 Sun 16 March 02:00

BST begins IST begins

1946 Sun 14 April 02:00 Sun 6 October 02:00 Back to GMT (Oct) Back to GMT (Oct)

1945

Sun 7 October 02:00 Back to GMT IST

1945 Mon 2 April 01:00 Sun 15 July 01:00 BDST (2 hours ahead) IST / no DST

1944 Sun 2 April 01:00 Sun 17 September 01:00 BDST (2 hours ahead) IST / no DST

1943 Sun 4 April 01:00 Sun 15 August 01:00 BDST (2 hours ahead) IST / no DST

1942 Sun 5 April 01:00 Sun 9 August 01:00 BDST (2 hours ahead) IST / no DST

1941 Sun 4 May 01:00 Sun 10 August 01:00 BDST (2 hours ahead) IST / no DST

1940 Sun 25 February 02:00

BST 1940–1945 IST 1940–1946

1939 Sun 16 April 02:00 Sun 19 November 02:00

1938 Sun 10 April 02:00 Sun 2 October 02:00

1937 Sun 18 April 02:00 Sun 3 October 02:00

1936 Sun 19 April 02:00 Sun 4 October 02:00

1935 Sun 14 April 02:00 Sun 6 October 02:00

1934 Sun 22 April 02:00 Sun 7 October 02:00

1933 Sun 9 April 02:00 Sun 8 October 02:00

1932 Sun 17 April 02:00 Sun 2 October 02:00

1930 Sun 13 April 02:00 Sun 5 October 02:00

1929 Sun 21 April 02:00 Sun 6 October 02:00

1928 Sun 22 April 02:00 Sun 7 October 02:00

1927 Sun 10 April 02:00 Sun 2 October 02:00

1926 Sun 18 April 02:00 Sun 3 October 02:00

1925 Sun 19 April 02:00 Sun 4 October 02:00

1924 Sun 13 April 02:00 Sun 21 September 02:00

1923 Sun 22 April 02:00 Sun 16 September 02:00

1922 Sun 26 March 02:00 Sun 8 October 02:00

1921 Sun 3 April 02:00 Sun 2 October 02:00

1920 Sun 28 March 02:00 Sun 24 October 02:00

1919 Sun 30 March 02:00 Sun 28 September 02:00

1918 Sun 24 March 02:00 Sun 29 September 02:00

1917 Sun 8 April 02:00 Sun 16 September 02:00

1916 Sun 21 May 02:00 Sun 1 October 02:00

Abolition of DMT

Note: Until 1 October 1916 time in all of Ireland was based on Dublin Mean Time, GMT − 25 minutes. References[edit]

^ a b "STANDARD TIME ACT, 1968".  ^ "AN tACHT UM AM CAIGHDEÁNACH, 1968".  ^ "timeanddate.com webpage erroneously referring to IST as "Irish Summer Time"". Retrieved 2009-08-27.  ^ "Example of Trinity College, Dublin
Trinity College, Dublin
using the term "Irish Summer Time"". Trinity College, Dublin. Retrieved 2009-08-27.  ^ "Hora Legal em Portugal
Portugal
Continental [Standard and Summer Time in Continental Portugal]" (PDF) (in Portuguese). Astronomical Observatory of Lisbon. Retrieved 20 May 2014.  ^ "Time Changes in Lisbon over the years (1925–1949); Time Zone in Lisbon, Portugal". timeanddate.com. Retrieved 20 May 2014.  ^ Law, Gwillim (30 May 2001). "Time Zones of Portugal". Statoids. Retrieved 20 May 2014.  ^ "Decreto Regional n.º 5/82/M, de 3 de Abril [Regional Decree 5/82/M, 3 April 1982]" (PDF). Diário da República, I Série, n.º 78, 7 de Abril de 1982 (in Portuguese). 7 April 1982. pp. 777–778. Retrieved 20 May 2014.  ^ "Standard Time Act, 1968". Irish Statute Book. Attorney General. 15 July 1968.  ^ "Standard time". Focal. Retrieved 17 August 2012.  ^ "Standard Time (Amendment) Act, 1971". Irish Statute Book. Attorney General. 20 July 1971.  ^ "Lighter Evenings (Experiment) Bill [HL]".  ^ a b "Statutory Instrument 2002 No. 262—The Summer Time Order 2002".  ^ a b "Directive 2000/84/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 January 2001 on summer-time arrangements".  ^ "Winter Time Order, 2001". 

Further reading[edit]

Prerau, David. Saving the Daylight: Why We Put the Clocks Forward (ISBN 1-86207-796-7) — The Story of Summer Time/Daylight Saving Time with a focus on the UK

External links[edit]

A Brief History of BST/DST History of legal time in Britain BBC News report: Safety call as clocks go back. BBC News report: Tundra time call in clocks debate. UK Government Report: Overview of the pros and cons of British Summer Time. RoSPA Press Release: RoSPA calls for switch to lighter nights to save lives BST FAQ Official British Government site listing Summer time dates for 2006–2011 inclusive (Updated March 2008) Dates when BST began and ended UNIX 'zoneinfo' file for Europe: as well as including a full set of dates for all European countries, it includes many comments on the history of DST i

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