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WEST BENGAL (/wɛst bɛŋˈɡɔːl/ ) is an Indian state , located in Eastern India
India
on the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
. With over 91 million inhabitants (as of 2011), it is India's fourth-most populous state. It has an area of 88,752 km2 (34,267 sq mi). A part of the ethno-linguistic Bengal region, it borders Bangladesh
Bangladesh
in the east, and Nepal
Nepal
and Bhutan
Bhutan
in the north. It also borders the Indian states of Odisha
Odisha
, Jharkhand
Jharkhand
, Bihar , Sikkim
Sikkim
, and Assam
Assam
. The state capital is Kolkata
Kolkata
(Calcutta), the seventh-largest city in India
India
. As for geography, West Bengal
Bengal
includes the Darjeeling Himalayan hill region , the Ganges delta
Ganges delta
, the Rarh region , and the coastal Sundarbans
Sundarbans
. The main ethnic group are the Bengalis , with Bengali Hindus forming the demographic majority.

Ancient Bengal
Bengal
was the site of several major janapadas . In the 2nd century BCE, the region was conquered by the emperor Ashoka
Ashoka
. In the 4th century CE, it was absorbed into the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
. From the 13th century onward, the region was ruled by several sultans , powerful Hindu states , and Baro-Bhuyan
Baro-Bhuyan
landlords, until the beginning of British rule in the 18th century. The British East India
East India
Company cemented their hold on the region following the Battle of Plassey
Battle of Plassey
in 1757, and Calcutta served for many years as the capital of British India
India
. The early and prolonged exposure to British administration resulted in an expansion of Western education, culminating in developments in science, institutional education, and social reforms in the region, including what became known as the Bengali Renaissance . A hotbed of the Indian independence movement
Indian independence movement
through the early 20th century, Bengal
Bengal
was divided during India's independence in 1947 along religious lines into two separate entities: West Bengal, a state of India, and East Bengal
Bengal
, which later became Bangladesh
Bangladesh
. Between 1977 and 2011 the state was administered by the world's longest elected Communist
Communist
government.

A agricultural producer , West Bengal
Bengal
is ranked sixth in terms of contributions to India's net domestic product . The state's cultural heritage, besides varied folk traditions, includes authors in literature, such as Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore
Rabindranath Tagore
. Kolkata
Kolkata
is known as the "cultural capital of India". West Bengal
Bengal
is also known for its enthusiasm for the sport of association football , as well as cricket, the national sport.

CONTENTS

* 1 Etymology

* 2 History

* 2.1 Ancient and classical period * 2.2 Medieval and early modern periods * 2.3 Colonial period * 2.4 Indian independence and afterwards

* 3 Geography and climate * 4 Flora and fauna * 5 Government and politics * 6 Districts * 7 Economy * 8 Transport * 9 Demographics

* 10 Culture

* 10.1 Literature * 10.2 Music and dance * 10.3 Films * 10.4 Fine arts * 10.5 Reformist heritage * 10.6 Cuisine * 10.7 Clothing * 10.8 Festivals

* 11 Education * 12 Media * 13 Sports * 14 See also * 15 Notes * 16 Further reading * 17 External links

ETYMOLOGY

Main article: Names of Bengal
Bengal

The origin of the name Bengal
Bengal
(Bangla and Bongo in Bengali ) is unknown. One theory suggests that the word derives from "Bang", a Dravidian tribe that settled the region around 1000 BCE. The Bengali word Bongo might have been derived from the ancient kingdom of Vanga (or Banga). Although some early Sanskrit literature mentions the name Vanga, the region's early history is obscure.

At the end of British rule over the Indian subcontinent
Indian subcontinent
, the Bengal region was partitioned in 1947 along religious lines into east and west. The eastern part came to be known be as East Pakistan
East Pakistan
, the eastern wing of newly born Pakistan and the western part came to be known as West Bengal, which continued as an Indian state . In 2011 the Government of West Bengal proposed a change in the official name of the state to Poschimbongo (Bengali : পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Pôshchimbônggô). This is the native name of the state, literally meaning western Bengal
Bengal
in the native Bengali language. In August 2016 the West Bengal Legislative Assembly passed another resolution to change the name of West Bengal
Bengal
to "Bangla" in Hindi
Hindi
, "Bengal" in English , and "Bangla" in Bengali . Despite the Trinamool Congress government's efforts to forge a consensus on the name change resolution, the Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
, the Left Front , and the Bharatiya Janata Party opposed the resolution.

However, the central government has turned down the proposal stating that the state should have one single name for all languages instead of three and also the name should not be the same as that of any other territory (pointing out that the name 'Bangla' may create confusion with neighboring Bangladesh
Bangladesh
).

HISTORY

Main articles: History of Bengal
Bengal
and History of West Bengal
Bengal

ANCIENT AND CLASSICAL PERIOD

Stone Age tools dating back 20,000 years have been excavated in the state, showing human occupation 8,000 years earlier than scholars had earlier thought. The region was a part of the Vanga Kingdom , according to the Indian epic Mahabharata . Several Vedic realms were present in the Bengal
Bengal
region, including Vanga
Vanga
, Rarh , Pundravardhana , and the Suhma Kingdom . One of the earliest foreign references to Bengal
Bengal
is a mention by the Ancient Greeks around 100 BCE of a land named Gangaridai , which was located at the mouths of the Ganges
Ganges
. Bengal
Bengal
had overseas trade relations with Suvarnabhumi (Burma, Lower Thailand, the Lower Malay Peninsula , and Sumatra
Sumatra
). According to the Sri Lankan chronicle Mahavamsa , Prince Vijaya (c. 543 – c. 505 BCE), a Vanga Kingdom prince, conquered Lanka
Lanka
(modern-day Sri Lanka) and gave the name Sinhala Kingdom to the country.

The kingdom of Magadha
Magadha
was formed in the 7th century BCE, consisting of the regions now comprising Bihar
Bihar
and Bengal
Bengal
. It was one of the four main kingdoms of India
India
at the time of the lives of Mahavira , founder of Jainism
Jainism
, and Gautama Buddha
Gautama Buddha
, founder of Buddhism
Buddhism
. It consisted of several janapadas , or kingdoms. Under Ashoka
Ashoka
, the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
of Magadha
Magadha
in the 3rd century BCE extended over nearly all of South Asia
South Asia
, including Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and parts of Balochistan
Balochistan
. From the 3rd to the 6th centuries CE, the kingdom of Magadha
Magadha
served as the seat of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
.

Two kingdoms – Vanga
Vanga
or Samatata, and Gauda – are mentioned in some texts to have appeared after the end of the Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire
although details of their ascendancy are uncertain. The first recorded independent king of Bengal
Bengal
was Shashanka , who reigned in the early 7th century. Shashanka is often recorded in Buddhist annals as an intolerant Hindu ruler who is noted for his persecution of the Buddhists. Shashanka murdered Rajyavardhana, the Buddhist king of Thanesar, and is noted for destroying the Bodhi tree at Bodhgaya , and replacing Buddha statues with Shiva lingams . After a period of anarchy, :36 the Pala dynasty ruled the region for four hundred years starting in the 8th century. It was followed by a shorter reign of the Hindu Sena dynasty .

Some areas of Bengal
Bengal
were invaded by Rajendra Chola I
Rajendra Chola I
of the Chola dynasty between 1021 and 1023. Islam
Islam
made its first appearance in Bengal
Bengal
during the 12th century when Sufi missionaries arrived. Later, occasional Muslim raiders reinforced the process of conversion by building mosques , madrasas , and khanqahs . Between 1202 and 1206 Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji , a military commander from the Delhi Sultanate , overran Bihar
Bihar
and Bengal
Bengal
as far east as Rangpur , Bogra , and the Brahmaputra River
Brahmaputra River
. Although he failed to bring Bengal
Bengal
under his control, the expedition defeated Lakshman Sen , whose two sons moved to a place then called Vikramapur (present-day Munshiganj District ), where their diminished dominion lasted until the late 13th century.

MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN PERIODS

Adina Mosque The temple city of Bishnupur is home to several architecturally significant terracotta Hindu temples.

Subsequent Muslim conquests helped spread Islam
Islam
throughout the region. The region was ruled by dynasties of the Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate and feudal lords under the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
for the next few hundred years. The Bengal
Bengal
Sultanate was interrupted for a period of twenty years by a Hindu uprising under Raja Ganesha . In the 16th century, Mughal general Islam
Islam
Khan conquered Bengal. Administration by governors appointed by the court of the Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
gave way to semi-independence under the Nawabs of Murshidabad
Murshidabad
, who nominally respected the sovereignty of the Mughals in Delhi
Delhi
. Several independent Hindu states were established in Bengal
Bengal
during the Mughal period, including those of Pratapaditya of Jessore District and Raja Sitaram Ray of Bardhaman . The Koch dynasty in northern Bengal flourished during the 16th and 17th centuries; it weathered the Mughals and survived until the advent of the British colonial era.

COLONIAL PERIOD

Ram Mohan Roy
Ram Mohan Roy
is regarded as the "Father of the Bengali Renaissance ".

Several European traders reached this area late in the 15th century. The British East India
East India
Company defeated Siraj ud-Daulah , the last independent Nawab, in the Battle of Plassey
Battle of Plassey
in 1757. The company gained the right to collect revenue in Bengal
Bengal
subah (province) in 1765 with the signing of the treaty between the East India
East India
company and the Mughal emperor following the Battle of Buxar
Battle of Buxar
in 1764. The Bengal Presidency was established in 1765; it later incorporated all British-controlled territory north of the Central Provinces (now Madhya Pradesh ), from the mouths of the Ganges
Ganges
and the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
to the Himalayas
Himalayas
and the Punjab . The Bengal
Bengal
famine of 1770 claimed millions of lives due to tax policies enacted by the British company. Calcutta, the headquarters of the East India
East India
company, was named in 1773 as the capital of British-held territories in India. The failed Indian rebellion of 1857
Indian rebellion of 1857
started near Calcutta and resulted in a transfer of authority to the British Crown , administered by the Viceroy of India
Viceroy of India
.

The Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance and the Brahmo Samaj socio-cultural reform movements significantly influenced the cultural and economic life of Bengal. Between 1905 and 1911 an abortive attempt was made to divide the province of Bengal
Bengal
into two zones. Bengal
Bengal
suffered from the Great Bengal
Bengal
famine in 1943, which claimed 3 million lives during World War II. Bengalis played a major role in the Indian independence movement , in which revolutionary groups such as Anushilan Samiti and Jugantar were dominant. Armed attempts against the British Raj
British Raj
from Bengal reached a climax when news of Subhas Chandra Bose
Subhas Chandra Bose
leading the Indian National Army against the British reached Bengal. The Indian National Army was subsequently routed by the British.

INDIAN INDEPENDENCE AND AFTERWARDS

When India
India
gained independence in 1947, Bengal
Bengal
was partitioned along religious lines. The western part went to the Dominion of India
Dominion of India
(and was named West Bengal), while the eastern part went to the Dominion of Pakistan as a province called East Bengal
Bengal
(later renamed East Pakistan in 1956). The latter became the independent nation of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
in 1971. In 1950 the Princely State of Cooch Behar
Cooch Behar
merged with West Bengal. In 1955 the former French enclave of Chandannagar , which had passed into Indian control after 1950, was integrated into West Bengal; portions of Bihar
Bihar
were also subsequently merged with West Bengal. Both West and East Bengal
Bengal
experienced large influxes of refugees during and after partition in 1947. Refugee resettlement and related issues continued to play a significant role in the politics and socio-economic condition of the state. The Darjeeling Himalayan Railway was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site
UNESCO World Heritage Site
in 1999.

During the 1970s and 1980s, severe power shortages, strikes, and a violent Naxalite movement damaged much of the state's infrastructure, leading to a period of economic stagnation. The Bangladesh
Bangladesh
Liberation War of 1971 resulted in the influx of millions of refugees to West Bengal, causing significant strains on its infrastructure. The 1974 smallpox epidemic killed thousands. West Bengal
Bengal
politics underwent a major change when the Left Front won the 1977 assembly election, defeating the incumbent Indian National Congress
Indian National Congress
. The Left Front, led by the Communist
Communist
Party of India
India
(Marxist) , governed the state for the next three decades.

The state's economic recovery gathered momentum after economic liberalisations were introduced in the mid-1990s by the central government . This was aided by the advent of information technology and IT-enabled services . Starting in the mid-2000s, armed activists conducted minor terrorist attacks in some parts of the state while clashes with the administration took place at several controversial locations over the issue of industrial land acquisition, which became a decisive reason behind the defeat of the ruling Left Front government in the 2011 assembly election. Although the economy was severely damaged during the unrest in the 1970s, the state has managed to revive its economy, steadily throughout the years. The state has shown improvement regarding bandhs (strikes ) and educational infrastructure. Significant strides have been made in reducing unemployment. Though the state suffers from substandard healthcare services, a lack of socio-economic development, poor infrastructure, unemployment, and civil violence.

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

Main articles: Geography of West Bengal
Bengal
and Climate of West Bengal
Bengal
Many areas remain flooded during the heavy rains brought by a monsoon .

West Bengal
Bengal
is on the eastern bottleneck of India, stretching from the Himalayas
Himalayas
in the north to the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
in the south. The state has a total area of 88,752 square kilometres (34,267 sq mi). The Darjeeling Himalayan hill region in the northern extreme of the state is a part of the eastern Himalayas
Himalayas
mountain range. In this region is Sandakfu , which, at 3,636 m (11,929 ft), is the highest peak in the state. The narrow Terai region separates the hills from the North Bengal
Bengal
plains , which in turn transitions into the Ganges delta towards the south. The Rarh region
Rarh region
intervenes between the Ganges delta in the east and the western plateau and high lands . A small coastal region is in the extreme south, while the Sundarbans
Sundarbans
mangrove forests form a geographical landmark at the Ganges
Ganges
delta.

The main river in West Bengal
Bengal
is the Ganges, which divides into two branches. One branch enters Bangladesh
Bangladesh
as the Padma , or Pôdda, while the other flows through West Bengal
Bengal
as the Bhagirathi River and Hooghly River . The Farakka barrage over the Ganges
Ganges
feeds the Hooghly branch of the river by a feeder canal, and its water flow management has been a source of lingering dispute between India
India
and Bangladesh. The Teesta , Torsa , Jaldhaka , and Mahananda rivers are in the northern hilly region. The western plateau region has rivers such as the Damodar , Ajay , and Kangsabati . The Ganges delta
Ganges delta
and the Sundarbans
Sundarbans
area have numerous rivers and creeks. Pollution of the Ganges
Ganges
from indiscriminate waste dumped into the river is a major problem. Damodar , another tributary of the Ganges
Ganges
and once known as the "Sorrow of Bengal" (due to its frequent floods), has several dams under the Damodar Valley Project . At least nine districts in the state suffer from arsenic contamination of groundwater , and as of 2017, an estimated 1.04 crore people were afflicted by arsenic poisioning

West Bengal's climate varies from tropical savanna in the southern portions to humid subtropical in the north. The main seasons are summer, the rainy season, a short autumn, and winter. While the summer in the delta region is noted for excessive humidity, the western highlands experience a dry summer like northern India, with the highest daytime temperature ranging from 38 °C (100 °F) to 45 °C (113 °F). At night, a cool southerly breeze carries moisture from the Bay of Bengal. In early summer, brief squalls and thunderstorms known as Kalbaisakhi, or Nor'westers, often occur. West Bengal receives the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
branch of the Indian Ocean monsoon that moves in a southeast to northwest direction. Monsoons bring rain to the whole state from June to September. Heavy rainfall of above 250 centimetres (98 in) is observed in the Darjeeling
Darjeeling
, Jalpaiguri , and Cooch Behar district
Cooch Behar district
. During the arrival of the monsoons, low pressure in the Bay of Bengal
Bay of Bengal
region often leads to the formation of storms in the coastal areas . Winter (December–January) is mild over the plains with average minimum temperatures of 15 °C (59 °F). A cold and dry northern wind blows in the winter, substantially lowering the humidity level. The Darjeeling
Darjeeling
Himalayan Hill region experiences a harsh winter, with occasional snowfall.

FLORA AND FAUNA

A Bengal tiger
Bengal tiger
Sal trees in the Arabari
Arabari
forest in West Midnapur

As of 2013, recorded forest area in the state is 16,805 km2 (6,488 sq mi), which is 18.93% of the state's geographical area, compared to the national average of 21.23%. Reserves and protected and unclassed forests constitute 59.4%, 31.8%, and 8.9%, respectively, of forested areas, as of 2009. Part of the world's largest mangrove forest, the Sundarbans
Sundarbans
is located in southern West Bengal.

WEST BENGAL STATE SYMBOLS TITLE SYMBOL IMAGE

STATE ANIMAL Fishing cat
Fishing cat

STATE BIRD White-throated kingfisher

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FURTHER READING

* Pranab Chatterjee (2009). A Story of Ambivalent Modernization in Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and West Bengal: The Rise and Fall of Bengali Elitism in South Asia. Peter Lang Publishing; First printing edition. ISBN 978-1-4331-0820-4 . * Baxter, Craig (1997). Bangladesh: From a Nation to a State. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press. ISBN 1-85984-121-X . * Gooptu, Sharmistha (November 2010). Bengali Cinema: \'An Other Nation\'. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-91217-7 . * Bald, Vivek (2013). Bengali Harlem and the Lost Histories of South Asian America. Harvard University Press. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-674-07040-0 . * Sarkar, Sumit (1990). "Calcutta and the Bengal
Bengal
Renaissance". In Chaudhuri, Sukanta. Calcutta, the Living City: The past. 1. Oxford University Press. * Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar (2004). Caste, Culture and Hegemony: Social Dominance in Colonial Bengal. SAGE Publications India. p. 256. ISBN 978-81-321-0407-0 . * Klass, L; Morton, S (1996). Community Structure and industrialization in West Bengal. University Press of America Inc. ISBN 0-7618-0420-X . * Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar (2009). Decolonization in South Asia: Meanings of Freedom in Post-independence West Bengal, 1947–52. Routledge. p. 256. ISBN 978-1-134-01823-9 . * Chakrabarti, Ranjan (2013). Dictionary of Historical Places: Bengal, 1757–1947. Primus Books. p. 657. ISBN 978-93-80607-41-2 . * Bhargava, Ed.Gopal (2008). Encyclopaedia of Art And Culture In India
India
(West Bengal) 20th Volume. Isha Books. p. 508. ISBN 978-81-8205-460-8 . * Datta, Amaresh (1988). Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature. Sahitya Akademi. ISBN 978-81-260-1194-0 . * Banerjee, Anuradha (1998). Environment, population, and human settlements of Sundarban Delta. Ashok Kumar Mittal. ISBN 81-7022-739-9 . * Tapan Raychaudhuri (2002). Europe Reconsidered: Perceptions of the West in Nineteenth-Century Bengal. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-566109-5 . * Chakrabarti, Kunal; Chakrabarti, Shubhra (22 August 2013). Historical Dictionary of the Bengalis. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-8024-5 . * Impact of Social Sector Development in West Bengal. Planning Commission, Government of India. 2009. * Inden; Ronald B.; Ralph W (2005). Kinship in Bengali Culture. The University of Chicago Press, 1977. ISBN 81-8028-018-7 . * Sen, Jyotirmoy (1988). Land Utilisation and Population Distribution: A Case Study of West Bengal, 1850–1985. Daya Books. p. 227. ISBN 978-81-7035-043-9 . * Hindle, Jane, ed. (1996). London Review of Books: An Anthology. Foreword by Alan Bennett
Alan Bennett
. London: Verso. pp. 63–70. ISBN 1-85984-121-X . * Bose, Sugata (1993). Peasant Labour and Colonial Capital: Rural Bengal
Bengal
Since 1770, Volume 3. Cambridge University Press. p. 203. ISBN 978-0-521-26694-9 . * Mukherjee, Bharati (1991). Political Culture and Leadership in India: A Study of West Bengal. Mittal Publications. p. 403. ISBN 978-81-7099-320-9 . * Sunny, C (1999). "Poverty and social development in west bengal" (PDF). India
India
Rural Development Report, NIRD. * Marvin, Davis (1983). Rank and rivalry: the politics of inequality in rural West Bengal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. xxvii, 239. ISBN 0-521-24657-1 . * Arnold-Baker, Charles (30 July 2015). The Companion to British History. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-1-317-40039-4 . * Bardhan, Kalpana (2010). The Oxford India
India
Anthology of Bengali Literature: 1941–1991. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-806461-9 . * Gooptu, Sharmistha (17 April 2013). "'Bengali' cinema: Its making and unmaking". In Gokulsing, K. Moti; Dissanayake, Wimal. Routledge Handbook of Indian Cinemas. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-136-77284-9 . * Roy, Ananya ; AlSayyad, Nezar (2004). Urban Informality: Transnational Perspectives from the Middle East, Latin America, and South Asia. Lanham, Md: Lexington Books. ISBN 0-7391-0741-0 . * West Bengal
Bengal
Human Development Report, 2004 (PDF). Kolkata: Development and Planning Department, Government of West Bengal. May 2004. ISBN 81-7955-030-3 . * Amrita Basu, V. (1997). Two Faces of Protest: Contrasting Modes of Women\'s Activism in India. University of California Press
University of California Press
ltd. ISBN 0-520-06506-9 . Retrieved 16 June 2009. * Jasodhara Bagchi, Sarmistha Dutta Gupta, V. (2000). The changing status of women in West Bengal, 1970–2000: the challenge ahead. Saga Publication India
India
Pvt Ltd. ISBN 0-7619-3242-9 . Retrieved 16 June 2010. * Magnus Öberg, Kaare Strom, V. (2008). Resources, governance and civil conflict. Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-41671-9 . Retrieved 16 June 2004. * Atul Kohli, I. (1987). The State and Poverty in India. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-37876-5 . Retrieved 16 June 2007. * Richard Maxwell Eaton, The rise of Islam
Islam
and the Bengal
Bengal
frontier, 1204–1760, 1993, University of California Press, California, California,1993, ISBN 0-520-08077-7 . * Ross Mallick. (1955). Development Policy of a Communist Government: West Bengal
Bengal
Since 1977, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (Reprinted 2008) ISBN 978-0-521-43292-4 .

* Harriss-White, Barbara, ed. (2008). Rural Commercial Capital: Agricultural Markets in West Bengal. Oxford University Press, USA. ISBN 0-19-569159-8 . * Raychaudhuri, Ajitava; Das, Tuhin K., eds. (2005). West Bengal economy: some contemporary issues. Jadavpur University Press, India. ISBN 81-7764-731-8 . * Government of West Bengal , Law Department, Lagislative Notification. No. 182- L – 24 January 2013. West Bengal
Bengal
Act XXXVI of 2012. The West Bengal
Bengal
Official Language (Second Amendment) Act, 2012. * Chatterjee, Partha (1997). The Present History of West Bengal: Essays in Political Criticism. the University of Michigan: Oxford University Press. p. 223. ISBN 978-0-19-563945-2 . * Bandyopadhyay, Sekhar (2009). Decolonization in South Asia: Meanings of Freedom in Post-independence West Bengal, 1947–52. Routledge. p. 256. ISBN 978-1-134-01823-9 . * Chatterji, Joya (2007). The Spoils of Partition: Bengal
Bengal
and India, 1947–1967. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-1-139-46830-5 . * Sen, Raj Kumar; Dasgupta, Asis (2007). West Bengal
Bengal
Today: 25 Years of Economic Development. Deep and Deep Publications. p. 380. ISBN 978-81-7629-984-8 . * Roy, Dayabati (2013). Rural Politics in India: Political Stratification and Governance in West Bengal. Cambridge University Press. p. 278. ISBN 978-1-107-51316-7 . * Samaddar, Ranabir (1999). The Marginal Nation: Transborder Migration from Bangladesh
Bangladesh
to West Bengal. the University of Michigan: SAGE Publications. p. 227. ISBN 978-0-7619-9283-7 . * Bayly, Christopher Alan (1987). Indian Society and the Making of the British Empire. Cambridge University Press. pp. 195,196. ISBN 9780521386500 . * Khan, Muhammad Mojlum (2013). The Muslim Heritage of Bengal: The Lives, Thoughts and Achievements of Great Muslim Scholars, Writers and Reformers of Bangladesh
Bangladesh
and West Bengal. Kube Publishing Ltd. p. 384. ISBN 978-1-84774-062-5 .

Chandra, Bipan; Mukherjee, Mridula; Mukherjee, Aditya; Panikkar, K. N.; Mahajan, Sucheta (2016-08-09). India\'s Struggle for Independence. Penguin UK. ISBN 9788184751833 .

EXTERNAL LINKS

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