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The Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto[5] (German: Warschauer Ghetto, officially Jüdischer Wohnbezirk in Warschau Jewish
Jewish
Residential District in Warsaw; Polish: getto warszawskie) was the largest of all the Jewish
Jewish
ghettos in German-occupied Europe during World War II. It was established by the German authorities in the Muranów
Muranów
neighborhood of the Polish capital between October and November 16, 1940; within the new General Government territory of German-occupied Poland. There were over 400,000 Jews imprisoned there,[4] at an area of 3.4 km2 (1.3 sq mi), with an average of 7.2 persons per room;[6][7] barely subsisting on meager food rations.[7] From the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto, Jews were deported to Nazi camps
Nazi camps
and mass-killing centers. In the summer of 1942 at least 254,000 Ghetto residents were sent to the Treblinka extermination camp
Treblinka extermination camp
during Großaktion Warschau under the guise of "resettlement in the East" over the course of the summer.[7] The death toll among the Jewish
Jewish
inhabitants of the Ghetto is estimated to be at least 300,000 killed by bullet or gas,[8] combined with 92,000 victims of rampant hunger and hunger-related diseases, the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising, and the casualties of the final destruction of the Ghetto.[2][9][10][11]

Contents

1 Background 2 Creation 3 Ghetto administration 4 Conditions 5 Manufacture of German military supplies 6 Treblinka
Treblinka
deportations 7 Ghetto Uprising and final destruction of the ghetto 8 Preserving remnants of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto 9 Selected locations 10 People of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto 11 See also 12 References 13 Bibliography 14 External links

Background[edit] Before World War II, Warsaw
Warsaw
was one of the most diverse cities in the Second Polish Republic. The majority of Polish Jews
Polish Jews
lived in the merchant districts of Muranów, Powązki, and Stara Praga, while most ethnic Germans
Germans
lived in Śródmieście.[12] Over 90% of Catholics lived further away from the bustling commercial and vital centre of the capital.[12] The Jewish
Jewish
community was the most prominent there, constituting over 88% of the inhabitants of Muranów; with the total of about 32.7% of the population of the left-bank and 14.9% of the right-bank Warsaw, or 332,938 people in total according to 1931 census.[12] Many Jews left the city during the depression,[12] which was more severe and longer-lasting in Poland than elsewhere in Europe.[13] In 1938 the Jewish
Jewish
population of the Polish capital was estimated at 270,000 people.[14] The Siege of Warsaw
Warsaw
continued until September 29, 1939. On September 10 alone, the Luftwaffe
Luftwaffe
conducted 17 bombing raids on the city;[15] three days later, 50 German planes attacked the city centre, targeting specifically Wola
Wola
and Żoliborz. In total, some 30,000 people were killed,[15] and 10 percent of the city was destroyed.[4] Along with the advancing Wehrmacht, the Einsatzgruppe
Einsatzgruppe
EG IV and the Einsatzkommandos rolled into town. On November 7, 1939, the Reichsführer-SS
Reichsführer-SS
reorganized them into local security service (SD). Meanwhile, the German fifth column members of Selbstschutz
Selbstschutz
(detained by the defenders of Warsaw) were released immediately. The commander of EG IV, SS-Standartenführer
SS-Standartenführer
Josef Meisinger
Josef Meisinger
(the "Butcher of Warsaw"), was appointed chief of police for the newly formed Distrikt Warschau.[15] After the takeover of Warsaw, the German authorities began the registration of the ethnic Germans
Germans
who were issued the Kennkarte
Kennkarte
separate from the rest of the locals.[12] By June 1940 there were 2,500 Reichsdeutsche and 5,500 Volksdeutsche
Volksdeutsche
registered in Warsaw. In the next two years their number more than doubled, on top of over 50,000 German military personnel.[12] Creation[edit]

Borders of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto in November 1940 (see interactive map), with location of Umschlagplatz
Umschlagplatz
for awaiting death trains

Main article: Jewish
Jewish
ghettos in German-occupied Poland By the end of the September campaign
September campaign
the number of Jews in and around the capital increased dramatically with thousands of refugees escaping the Polish-German front in any way possible, often on foot.[16] In less than a year, the number of refugees in Warsaw
Warsaw
exceeded 90,000.[17] Once the partition of the country between Germany and the invading Soviet Union was complete,[6] on October 12, 1939, the General Government
General Government
was officially established by Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
in the occupied area of central Poland.[18] The Jewish
Jewish
Council (Judenrat) in Warsaw
Warsaw
was formed by the Nazis on October 7. It was composed of 24 prominent individuals led by Adam Czerniaków, personally responsible for carrying out German orders.[17] The persecution of Jews began soon thereafter. On October 26, the imposition of Jewish
Jewish
forced labour was announced, to clear the rubble from bomb damage among similar tasks. One month later, on November 20, the bank accounts of Polish Jews
Polish Jews
and any deposits exceeding 2,000 zł were blocked.[18] On November 23, all Jewish
Jewish
establishments were ordered to display a Jewish
Jewish
star on doors and windows. Beginning December 1, all Jews older than ten were compelled to wear a white armband, and on December 11, they were forbidden from using public transit.[18] On January 26, 1940, the Jews were banned from holding communal prayers ostensibly due to the risk of "spreading epidemics".[19] Food stamps were being introduced by the German authorities, and the liquidation of all smaller Jewish communities in the vicinity of Warsaw
Warsaw
had intensified. The Jewish population of the capital reached 359,827 before the end of the year.[17]

Roundup of Jewish
Jewish
men for forced labor by the Orpo police, Krakowskie Przedmieście, March 1940

On the orders of Warsaw
Warsaw
District Governor, Ludwig Fischer, the Ghetto wall construction started on April 1, 1940, circling the area of Warsaw
Warsaw
inhabited predominantly by Jews. The work was supervised by the Warsaw
Warsaw
Judenrat.[20] The Nazi authorities expelled 113,000 ethnic Poles from the neighbourhood, and ordered the relocation of 138,000 Warsaw
Warsaw
Jews from the suburbs into the city centre.[21] On October 16, 1940, the creation of the ghetto covering the area of 307 hectares (3.07 km2) was announced officially by the German Governor-General, Hans Frank. The population of the ghetto was 450,000 initially.[17] Before the Holocaust began the number of Jews imprisoned there was between 375,000[22] and 400,000 (about 30% of the general population of the capital).[23] The area of the ghetto constituted only about 2.4% of the overall metropolitan area.[24] The Germans
Germans
closed the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto to the outside world on November 15, 1940.[16] The wall around it was typically 3 m (9.8 ft) high and topped with barbed wire. Escapees were shot on sight. German policemen from Battalion 61 used to hold victory parties on the days when a large number of desperate prisoners were shot at the ghetto fence.[25] The borders of the ghetto changed and its overall area was gradually reduced, as the captive population was ravaged by outbreaks of infectious diseases, mass hunger, and regular executions.[21]

Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto wall and footbridge over Chłodna Street in 1942

The ghetto was divided in two along Chłodna Street (pl), which was excluded from it, due to its local importance at that time (as one of Warsaw's east-west thoroughfares).[26] The area south-east of Chłodna was known as the "Small Ghetto", while the area north of it became known as the "Large Ghetto". The two zones were connected at an intersection of Chłodna with Żelazna Street, where a special gate was built. In January 1942, the gate was removed and a wooden footbridge was built over it,[27] which became one of the postwar symbols of the Holocaust in occupied Poland.[28] Ghetto administration[edit] The first commissioner of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto, appointed by Fischer, was SA-Standartenführer Waldemar Schön, who also supervised the initial Jewish
Jewish
relocations in 1940.[29] He was an attritionist best known for orchestrating an "artificial famine" (künstliche Hungersnot) in January 1941. Schön had eliminated virtually all food supplies to the ghetto causing an uproar among the SS upper echelon.[30] He was relieved of his duties by Frank himself in March 1941 and replaced by Kommissar Heinz Auerswald, a "productionist" who served until November 1942.[31] Like in all Nazi ghettos across occupied Poland, the Germans ascribed the internal administration to a Judenrat
Judenrat
Council of the Jews, led by an "Ältester" (the Eldest).[32] In Warsaw, this role was relegated to Adam Czerniaków, who chose a policy of collaboration with the Nazis in the hope of saving lives. Adam Czerniaków
Adam Czerniaków
confided his harrowing experience in nine diaries.[33] In July 1942, when the Germans
Germans
ordered him to increase the contingent of people to be deported, he committed suicide.[34] Czerniaków's collaboration with the German occupation policies was a paradigm for attitude of the majority of European Jews vis à vis Nazism. Although his personality as president of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Judenrat may not become as infamous as Chaim Rumkowski, Ältester of the Łódź
Łódź
Ghetto; the SS policies he had followed were systematically anti-Jewish.

Jewish
Jewish
Ghetto Police in Warsaw

Czerniakow's first draft of October, 1939; for organizing the Warsaw Judenrat, was just a rehash of conventional kehilla departments: chancellery, welfare, rabbinate, education, cemetery, tax department, accounting, vital statistics... But the Kehilla was an anomalous institution. Throughout its history in czarist Russia, it served also as an instrument of the state, obligated to carry out the regime's policies within the Jewish
Jewish
community, even though these policies were frequently oppressive and specifically anti-Jewish. — Lucy Dawidowicz, The War Against the Jews
The War Against the Jews
[32]

The Council of Elders was supported internally by the Jewish
Jewish
Ghetto Police (Jüdischer Ordnungsdienst),[17] formed at the end of September 1940 with 3,000 men, instrumental in enforcing law and order as well as carrying out German ad-hoc regulations, especially after 1941, when the number of refugees and expellees in Warsaw
Warsaw
reached 150,000 or nearly one third of the entire Jewish
Jewish
population of the capital.[19] Conditions[edit] During the first year and a half, thousands of Polish Jews
Polish Jews
as well as some Romani people
Romani people
from smaller towns and the countryside were brought into the Ghetto. Nevertheless, the typhus epidemics and starvation kept the inhabitants at about the same number.[35] An average daily food ration in 1941 for Jews in Warsaw
Warsaw
was limited to 184 calories, compared to 699 calories allowed for the gentile Poles and 2,613 calories for the Germans.[36] In August, the rations fell to 177 calories per person. The German authorities were solely responsible for the arrival of food aid, consisting usually of dry bread, flour and potatoes of the lowest quality, groats, turnips, and a small monthly supplement of margarine, sugar, and meat.[37]

Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto, 1941, intersection of Ksawery Lubecki and Gęsia street

A child dying on the sidewalk of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto, September 19, 1941

The only real means of survival was the smuggling of food and bartering; with men, women and children all taking part in it. Up to 80 percent of food consumed in the Ghetto was brought in illegally.[37] Private workshops were created to manufacture goods to be sold secretly on the Aryan side of the city. Foodstuffs were smuggled often by children alone who crossed the Ghetto wall any way possible by the hundreds, sometimes several times a day, returning with goods that could weigh as much as they did. Smuggling was often the only source of subsistence for the Ghetto inhabitants, who would otherwise have died of starvation.[37] Unemployment leading to lack of funds was a major problem in the ghetto. Despite grave hardships, life in the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto had educational and cultural activities, conducted by its underground organizations. Hospitals, public soup kitchens, orphanages, refugee centers and recreation facilities were formed, as well as a school system. Some schools were illegal and operated under the guise of soup kitchens. There were secret libraries, classes for the children and even a symphony orchestra. Rabbi Alexander Friedman,[38] secretary-general of Agudath Israel of Poland, was one of the Torah leaders in the Warsaw Ghetto; he organized an underground network of religious schools, including "a Yesodei HaTorah school for boys, a Bais Yaakov
Bais Yaakov
school for girls, a school for elementary Jewish
Jewish
instruction, and three institutions for advanced Jewish
Jewish
studies".[39] These schools, operating under the guise of kindergartens, medical centers and soup kitchens, were a place of refuge for thousands of children and teens, and hundreds of teachers. In 1941, when the Germans
Germans
gave official permission to the local Judenrat
Judenrat
to open schools, these schools came out of hiding and began receiving financial support from the official Jewish
Jewish
community.[40] Manufacture of German military supplies[edit]

Textile manufacturing in the Ghetto

Not long after the Ghetto was closed off from the outside world, a number of German war profiteers such as Többens and Schultz
Többens and Schultz
appeared in the capital.[41] At first, they acted as middlemen between the high command and the Jewish-run workshops. By spring 1942, the Stickerei Abteilung Division with headquarters at Nowolipie 44 Street had already employed 3,000 workers making shoes, leather products, sweaters and socks for the Wehrmacht. Other divisions were making furs and wool sweaters also, guarded by the Werkschutz police.[42] Some 15,000 Jews were working in the Ghetto for Walter C. Többens from Hamburg, a convicted war criminal,[43] including at his factories on Prosta and Leszno Streets among other locations. His Jewish
Jewish
labour exploitation was a source of envy for other Ghetto inmates living in fear of deportations.[42] In early 1943 Többens gained for himself the appointment of a Jewish
Jewish
deportation commissar of Warsaw
Warsaw
in order to keep his own workforce secure, and maximize profits.[44] In May 1943 Többens transferred his businesses, including 10,000 Jewish slave workers to the Poniatowa concentration camp
Poniatowa concentration camp
barracks.[45] Fritz Schultz took his manufacture along with 6,000 Jews to the nearby Trawniki
Trawniki
concentration camp.[41][46] Treblinka
Treblinka
deportations[edit]

Umschlagplatz
Umschlagplatz
holding pen for deportations to Treblinka
Treblinka
death camp

Approximately 100,000 Ghetto inmates died of hunger-related diseases and starvation before the mass deportations started in the summer of 1942. Earlier that year, during the Wannsee Conference
Wannsee Conference
near Berlin, the Final Solution
Final Solution
was set in motion. It was a secretive plan to mass-murder Jewish
Jewish
inhabitants of the General Government. The techniques used to deceive victims were based upon experience gained at the Chełmno extermination camp
Chełmno extermination camp
(Kulmhof).[47] The ghettoised Jews were rounded up, street by street, under the guise of "resettlement", and marched to the Umschlagplatz
Umschlagplatz
holding area.[48] From there, they were sent aboard Holocaust trains to the Treblinka
Treblinka
death camp, built in a forest 80 kilometres (50 mi) northeast of Warsaw.[49] The operation was headed by the German Resettlement Commissioner, SS- Sturmbannführer
Sturmbannführer
Hermann Höfle, on behalf of Sammern-Frankenegg. Upon learning of this plan, Adam Czerniaków, leader of the Judenrat Council committed suicide. He was replaced by Marc Lichtenbaum,[7] tasked with managing roundups with the aid of Jewish
Jewish
Ghetto Police. No-one was informed about the real state of affairs.[50] The extermination of Jews by means of poisonous gases was carried out at Treblinka
Treblinka
II under the auspices of Operation Reinhard, which also included Bełżec, Majdanek, and Sobibór death camps.[47] About 254,000 Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto inmates (or at least 300,000 by different accounts) were sent to Treblinka
Treblinka
during the Grossaktion Warschau, and murdered there between Tisha B'Av
Tisha B'Av
(July 23) and Yom Kippur
Yom Kippur
(September 21) of 1942.[9] The ratio between Jews killed on the spot by Orpo and Sipo during roundups, and those deported was approximately 2 percent.[47]

The Grossaktion Warschau 1942 boarding onto the Holocaust trains

For eight weeks, the deportations of Jews from Warsaw
Warsaw
to Treblinka continued on a daily basis via two shuttle trains: each transport carrying about 4,000 to 7,000 people crying for water; 100 people to a cattle truck. The first daily trains rolled into the camp early in the morning often after an overnight wait at a layover yard; and the second, in mid-afternoon.[51] Dr Janusz Korczak, a famed educator, went to Treblinka
Treblinka
with his orphanage children in August 1942. He was offered a chance to escape by Polish friends and admirers, but he chose instead to share the fate of his life's work.[52] All new arrivals were sent immediately to the undressing area by the Sonderkommando
Sonderkommando
squad that managed the arrival platform, and from there to the gas chambers. The stripped victims were suffocated to death in batches of 200 with the use of monoxide gas. In September 1942, new gas chambers were built, which could kill as many as 3,000 people in just 2 hours. Civilians were forbidden to approach the camp area.[50] In the last two weeks of Großaktion Warschau ending on September 21, 1942, some 48,000 Warsaw
Warsaw
Jews are deported to their deaths. The last transport with 2,200 victims from the Polish capital included the Jewish
Jewish
police involved with deportations, and their families.[53] In October 1942 the Jewish
Jewish
Combat Organization (ŻOB) was formed and tasked with opposing further deportations. It was led by 24 year–old Mordechai Anielewicz.[2] Meanwhile, between October 1942 and March 1943, Treblinka
Treblinka
received transports of almost 20,000 foreign Jews from the German Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
via Theresienstadt, and from Bulgarian-occupied Thrace, Macedonia, and Pirot
Pirot
following an agreement with the Nazi-allied Bulgarian government.[54] By the end of 1942, it was clear that the deportations were to their deaths.[2] The underground activity of Ghetto resistors in the group Oyneg Shabbos increased after learning that the transports for "resettlement" led to the mass killings.[55] Also in 1942, Polish resistance officer Jan Karski
Jan Karski
reported to the Western governments on the situation in the Ghetto and on the extermination camps. Many of the remaining Jews decided to resist further deportations, and began to smuggle in weapons, ammunition and supplies.[2]

Suppression of Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising. Captured Jews escorted by the Waffen SS, Nowolipie Street, 1943

Ghetto Uprising and final destruction of the ghetto[edit] Main article: Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising On January 18, 1943, after almost four months without deportations, the Germans
Germans
suddenly entered the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto intent upon further roundups. Within hours, some 600 Jews were shot and 5,000 others removed from their residences. The Germans
Germans
expected no resistance, but the action was brought to a halt by hundreds of insurgents armed with handguns and Molotov cocktails.[56][57][58] Preparations to resist had been going on since the previous autumn.[59] The first instance of Jewish
Jewish
armed struggle in Warsaw
Warsaw
had begun. The underground fighters from ŻOB (Żydowska Organizacja Bojowa: Jewish
Jewish
Combat Organization) and ŻZW (Żydowski Związek Wojskowy: Jewish
Jewish
Military Union) achieved considerable success initially, taking control of the Ghetto. They then barricaded themselves in the bunkers and built dozens of fighting posts, stopping the expulsions. Taking further steps, a number of Jewish
Jewish
collaborators from Żagiew were also executed.[35] An offensive against the Ghetto underground launched by Von Sammern-Frankenegg was unsuccessful. He was relieved of duty by Heinrich Himmler
Heinrich Himmler
on April 17, 1943 and court-martialed.[60] The final battle started on the eve of Passover
Passover
of April 19, 1943, when a Nazi force consisting of several thousand troops entered the ghetto. After initial setbacks, 2,000 Waffen SS
Waffen SS
soldiers under the field command of Jürgen Stroop
Jürgen Stroop
systematically burned and blew up the ghetto buildings, block by block, rounding up or murdering anybody they could capture. Significant resistance ended on April 28, and the Nazi operation officially ended in mid-May, symbolically culminating with the demolition of the Great Synagogue of Warsaw
Warsaw
on May 16. According to the official report, at least 56,065 people were killed on the spot or deported to German Nazi concentration and death camps (Treblinka, Poniatowa, Majdanek, Trawniki).[61] Preserving remnants of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto[edit]

Ruins of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto in 1945; left, the Krasiński's Garden and Swiętojerska street. The entire city district was leveled by the German forces according to order from Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
after the suppression of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising in 1943

The ghetto was almost entirely leveled during the Uprising; however, a number of buildings and streets survived, mostly in the "small ghetto" area, which had been included into the Aryan part of the city in August 1942 and was not involved in the fighting. In 2008 and 2010 Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto boundary markers were built along the borders of the former Jewish
Jewish
quarter, where from 1940–1943 stood the gates to the ghetto, wooden footbridges over Aryan streets, and the buildings important to the ghetto inmates. The four buildings at 7, 9, 12 and 14 Próżna Street
Próżna Street
are among the best known original residential buildings that in 1940–41 housed Jewish
Jewish
families in the Warsaw Ghetto. They have largely remained empty since the war. The street is a focus of the annual Warsaw
Warsaw
Jewish
Jewish
Festival. In 2011–2013 buildings at number 7 and 9 underwent extensive renovations and have become office space.[62][63] The Nożyk Synagogue
Nożyk Synagogue
also survived the war. It was used as a horse stable by the German Wehrmacht. The synagogue has today been restored and is once again used as an active synagogue. The best preserved fragments of the ghetto wall are located 55 Sienna Street, 62 Złota Street, and 11 Waliców Street (the last two being walls of the pre-war buildings). There are two Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Heroes' monuments, unveiled in 1946 and 1948, near the place where the German troops entered the ghetto on 19 April 1943. In 1988 a stone monument was built to mark the Umschlagplatz.[63] There is also a small memorial at ul. Mila 18
Mila 18
to commemorate the site of the Socialist ŻOB underground headquarters during the Ghetto Uprising. In December 2012, a controversial statue of a kneeling and praying Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
was installed in a courtyard of the Ghetto. The artwork by Italian artist, Maurizio Cattelan, entitled "HIM", has received mixed reactions worldwide. Many feel that it is unnecessarily offensive, while others, such as Poland's chief rabbi, Michael Schudrich, feel that is thought-provoking, even "educational".[64] Selected locations[edit]

Ghetto is burning: the Germans
Germans
march the Jews along Nowolipie Street, Stroop Report

Originally captioned "Forcibly pulled out of dug-outs," photo of women and children

1941 announcement signed by Ludwig Fischer
Ludwig Fischer
about the risk of typhus from contacting Jews

Erecting ghetto wall on Świętokrzyska seen from Marszałkowska Street

Remnant of the Ghetto wall behind a house at 55 Sienna Street

Ghetto wall remnant behind a house at 62 Złota Street

Former ghetto wall at 11 Waliców Street

Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Heroes monument

Miła 18
Miła 18
memorial

One of 22 Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto boundary markers

Umschlagplatz
Umschlagplatz
Memorial on Stawki Street

Tombstone in Warsaw
Warsaw
Insurgents Cemetery of 6,588 Jews executed at RKS Skra Stadium

People of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto[edit]

Casualties

Tosia Altman
Tosia Altman
– ghetto resistance fighter, escaped the Ghetto in 1943 uprising through the sewers. Died after she was caught by the Gestapo when the celluloid factory where she hid caught fire. Mordechai Anielewicz
Mordechai Anielewicz
– ghetto resistance leader in the ŻOB (alias Aniołek). Died with many of his comrades at their surrounded command post. Dawid Moryc Apfelbaum
Dawid Moryc Apfelbaum
– ghetto resistance leader and commander of the ŻZW. Killed in action during the ghetto uprising.[65] Maria Ajzensztadt – singer known as the Nightingale of the Ghetto Adam Czerniaków
Adam Czerniaków
– engineer and senator, head of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Judenrat ( Jewish
Jewish
council). Committed suicide in 1942. Mira Fuchrer
Mira Fuchrer
– ghetto resistance fighter in the ZOB. Died with many of his comrades at their surrounded command post. Yitzhak Gitterman – director of the American Jewish
Jewish
Joint Distribution Committee in Poland, resistance fighter. Killed in action during the ghetto uprising. Itzhak Katzenelson
Itzhak Katzenelson
– teacher, poet, dramatist and resistance fighter. Executed at Auschwitz-Birkenau in 1944. Janusz Korczak
Janusz Korczak
– children's author, pediatrician, child pedagogist and orphanage owner. Executed along with his orphans at Treblinka
Treblinka
in August, 1942, after refusing an offer to leave his orphans and escape. Simon Pullman
Simon Pullman
– conductor of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto symphony orchestra. Executed at Treblinka
Treblinka
in 1942. Emanuel Ringelblum
Emanuel Ringelblum
– historian, politician and social worker, leader of the Ghetto chroniclers. Discovered in Warsaw
Warsaw
and executed together with his family in 1944. Kalonymus Kalman Shapira – grand rabbi of Piaseczno. Executed at Trawniki
Trawniki
during Aktion Erntefest
Aktion Erntefest
in 1943. Władysław Szlengel – poet of the Warsaw
Warsaw
ghetto; killed in 1943 uprising. Lidia Zamenhof
Lidia Zamenhof
– Bahá'í-Esperantist daughter of Dr. L. L. Zamenhof. Executed at Treblinka
Treblinka
in 1942. Nathalie Zand – Neurologist and research scientist. Practised as a doctor within the ghetto. Thought to have been executed at Pawiak prison, September 1942.

Survivors

Rokhl Auerbakh – Polish Jewish
Jewish
writer and essayist; member of the Ghetto chroniclers group led by Emanuel Ringelblum Mary Berg
Mary Berg
– 15-year-old diarist (in 1939) born to American mother in Łódź; Pawiak
Pawiak
internee exchanged for German POWs in March 1944.[16] Adolf Berman
Adolf Berman
– leader in Jewish
Jewish
Underground in Warsaw; member of Zegota
Zegota
and Centos – died in 1978

Yitzhak Zuckerman
Yitzhak Zuckerman
testifies for the prosecution during the trial of Adolf Eichmann

Yitzhak Zuckerman
Yitzhak Zuckerman
– ghetto resistance leader ("Antek"), founder of the Lohamei HaGeta'ot
Lohamei HaGeta'ot
kibbutz in Israel. Died in 1981. Marek Edelman
Marek Edelman
– Polish political and social activist, cardiologist. He was the last surviving leader of the ŻOB. Died in 2009. Jack P. Eisner – author of "The Survivor of the Holocaust". The young boy who hung the Jewish
Jewish
flag atop the burning building in the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising. ZZW fighter. Commemorator of the Holocaust. Died in 2003.[66] Ruben Feldschu (Ben Shem) (1900–1980) – Zionist author and political activist[67] Joseph Friedenson – editor of Dos Yiddishe Vort. Died in 2013. Bronisław Geremek
Bronisław Geremek
– Polish social historian and politician. Died in 2008. Martin Gray – Soviet secret police officer and American and French writer. Mietek Grocher – Swedish author and the Holocaust remembrance activist. Alexander J. Groth – Professor of Political Science at the University of California, Davis. Author of Lincoln: Authoritarian Savior and Democracies Against Hitler: Myth, Reality and Prologue, Holocaust Voices, Accomplices: Roosevelt, Churchill and the Holocaust. Ludwik Hirszfeld
Ludwik Hirszfeld
– Polish microbiologist and serologist, died in 1954. Morton Kamien – Polish-American economist, died in 2011. Zivia Lubetkin
Zivia Lubetkin
– ghetto resistance leader, Aliyah Bet
Aliyah Bet
activist, later married Cukierman. Died in 1976. Vladka Meed
Vladka Meed
– ghetto resistance member; author. Died in 2012. Uri Orlev – Israeli author of the semi-autobiographical novel The Island on Bird Street recounting his experiences in the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto. Marcel Reich-Ranicki
Marcel Reich-Ranicki
– German literary critic. Died in 2013. Sol Rosenberg – American steel industrialist and philanthropist. Died in 2009.[68] Simcha Rotem
Simcha Rotem
– ghetto resistance fighter ("Kazik"), Berihah activist, post-war Nazi hunter. Uri Shulevitz – book illustrator Władysław Szpilman
Władysław Szpilman
– Polish pianist, composer and writer, subject of the film The Pianist by Roman Polanski
Roman Polanski
(survivor of the Kraków Ghetto) based on his memoir. Died in 2000. Menachem Mendel Taub
Menachem Mendel Taub
– Kaliver rabbi in Israel. Dawid Wdowiński
Dawid Wdowiński
– psychiatrist, political leader of the Irgun
Irgun
in Poland, resistance leader of the ŻZW, American memoirist. Died in 1970.

Associated people

Władysław Bartoszewski
Władysław Bartoszewski
– Polish resistance activist of the Żegota organization in Warsaw. Henryk Iwański
Henryk Iwański
– Polish resistance officer in the charge of support for the Ghetto. Died in 1978.[69] Jan Karski
Jan Karski
– Polish resistance courier who reported on the Ghetto for the Allies. Died in 2000. Zofia Kossak-Szczucka – Polish writer and World War II
World War II
resistance fighter and co-founder of Żegota. Died in 1968. Irena Sendler
Irena Sendler
– Polish resistance member who smuggled 2,500 Jewish children out of the Ghetto and helped to hide them, subject of the film The Courageous Heart of Irena Sendler. Died in 2008. Szmul Zygielbojm
Szmul Zygielbojm
– Polish- Jewish
Jewish
socialist politician. In 1943 committed suicide in London in an act of protest against the Allied indifference to the death of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto.

See also[edit]

Adam Czerniaków
Adam Czerniaków
– Head of Warsaw
Warsaw
Judenrat
Judenrat
(1939–1942) Ghettos in occupied Europe 1939-1944 Great Synagogue in Warsaw
Warsaw
– one of the largest synagogues in the world, demolished in 1943 Grossaktion Warschau – the massive deportation to Treblinka
Treblinka
in 1942 Group 13
Group 13
Jewish
Jewish
collaborationist secret police also known as Jewish
Jewish
Gestapo, led by Abraham Gancwajch Heinz Auerswald
Heinz Auerswald
– Commissioner for the Jewish
Jewish
residential district in Warsaw Ludwig Hahn
Ludwig Hahn
– Chief of the Sicherheitspolizei
Sicherheitspolizei
and the Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
(KdS) for Warsaw Hermann Höfle
Hermann Höfle
– Deputy to Globocnik Jewish
Jewish
Ghetto Police – Jewish
Jewish
collaborationist police force in Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto and elsewhere Jürgen Stroop
Jürgen Stroop
– Nazi commander during the suppression of the uprising Miła 18
Miła 18
– place of mass suicide of Mordechai Anielewicz
Mordechai Anielewicz
and other leaders of Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising Mila 18
Mila 18
– book by Leon Uris Muranów
Muranów
– a district in Warsaw
Warsaw
where the major part of the Ghetto was built Odilo Globocnik
Odilo Globocnik
– The Nazi leader responsible for the liquidation of the Ghetto The Silver Sword
The Silver Sword
– novel focused on a family from Warsaw
Warsaw
during the Second World War Timeline of Treblinka
Treblinka
extermination camp Umschlagplatz
Umschlagplatz
– collection point for the deportations to extermination camps Warsaw
Warsaw
concentration camp – established in the former Ghetto Warschauer Kniefall
Warschauer Kniefall
– gesture by Chancellor of Germany Willy Brandt Żagiew – group of collaborators posing as a resistance group (see also Hotel Polski
Hotel Polski
affair)

References[edit]

^ Holocaust Encyclopedia (May 11, 2012). "Holocaust History: Warsaw". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Washington, DC. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012.  ^ a b c d e f Holocaust Encyclopedia (June 10, 2013) [2008]. "Warsaw Ghetto Uprising". US Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on May 2, 2012.  ^ Engelking, Barbara; Leociak, Jacek (2013) [2001]. Getto warszawskie. Przewodnik po nieistniejącym mieście. Warszawa: Stowarzyszenie Centrum Badań nad Zagładą Żydów. p. 71. ISBN 978-83-63444-27-3.  ^ a b c Philpott, Colin (2016). Relics of the Reich: The Buildings The Nazis Left Behind. Pen and Sword. p. 122. ISBN 1473844258 – via Google Books.  ^ Megargee, Geoffrey P. (2009). The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933–1945. Volume II: Ghettos in German-occupied Eastern Europe. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. pp. 456–460. ISBN 978-0-253-35599-7.  ^ a b Bains, Alisha (2016). World War II. A Political and Diplomatic History of the Modern World Series. Encyclopædia Britannica. pp. 190–200. ISBN 1680483528.  ^ a b c d Gutman, Israel (1998). Resistance: The Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. pp. 118–119, 200. ISBN 0395901308.  ^ Shapiro, Robert Moses (1999). Holocaust Chronicles. Published by KTAV Publishing. ISBN 0-88125-630-7 – via Google Books, 302 pages. 300,000 Jews murdered by bullet or gas.[page 35]  ^ a b Yad Vashem. " Treblinka
Treblinka
Extermination Camp in the Generalgouvernement" (PDF). Aktion Reinhard.  ^ Dr. Marcin Urynowicz. "Gross Aktion – Zagłada Warszawskiego Getta" [Gross Aktion – Annihilation of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto]. Biuletyn Instytutu Pamięci Narodowej, 7 /7 (2007) pp. 105–114 (in Polish). Institute of National Remembrance
Institute of National Remembrance
(IPN) – via direct download. Likwidacja getta warszawskiego wiosną 1943 r. oznaczała natychmiastową lub chwilowo odwleczoną śmierć ok. 50 tys. osób. Tymczasem Gross Aktion, tzw. Wielka Akcja, zakończyła się wysłaniem do obozu zagłady w Treblince ok. 250 tys. osób. Zatem to lato 1942 r., a nie wiosna 1943, było okresem faktycznej likwidacji społeczności warszawskich Żydów.  ^ Statistical data compiled on the basis of "Glossary of 2,077 Jewish towns in Poland" Archived February 8, 2016, at the Wayback Machine. by Virtual Shtetl
Virtual Shtetl
Museum of the History of the Polish Jews
Museum of the History of the Polish Jews
 (in English), as well as "Getta Żydowskie" by Gedeon  (in Polish) and "Ghetto List" by Michael Peters at ARC. ^ a b c d e f Gawryszewski, Andrzej (2009). Ludność Warszawy w XX wieku [Population of Warsaw
Warsaw
in the 20th Century] (PDF). Język, narodowość, wyznanie. Warsaw: Instytut Geografii i Przestrzennego Zagospodarowania PAN im. Stanisława Leszczyckiego. pp. 191, 193, 195, 202–203. ISBN 978-83-61590-96-5. ISSN 1643-2312 – via direct download, 425 pages.  ^ Melzer, Emanuel (1997). No way out: the politics of Polish Jewry, 1935–1939. Hebrew Union College Press. p. 132. ISBN 0878204180 – via Google Books, 235 pages.  ^ "Warsaw: Life and Death in the Ghetto during WWII". Dr. Peter K. Gessner, Director. Polish Academic Information Center, University at Buffalo. 2000.  ^ a b c Wardzyńska, Maria (2009). Intelligenzaktion (PDF). Operacja niemieckiej policji bezpieczeństwa w Polsce. Warsaw: Instytut Pamięci Narodowej Komisja Ścigania Zbrodni przeciwko Narodowi Polskiemu. pp. 46, 51–55, 88–89 – via direct download.  ^ a b c Berg, Mary; Pentlin, Susan Lee (2007) [1945]. The Diary of Mary Berg: Growing up in the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto. New York: L. B. Fischer Publishing / Oxford: Oneworld Publications (2nd ed). pp. 2–5, 38. ISBN 1851684727. Hardcover. Chapter I: Warsaw
Warsaw
Besieged: ... the roads were jammed, and gradually we were completely engulfed in the slow but steady flow of humanity toward the capital. Mile after mile it was the same ... as tens of thousands of provincials entered Warsaw
Warsaw
in the hope of finding shelter there.  ^ a b c d e Bielawski, Krzysztof; Dylewski, Adam; Kraus, Anna; Laskowska, Justyna. "Warszawa (part 7)". Virtual Shtetl. POLIN Museum of the History of Polish Jews.  [Also in:] "The Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto (part 2)". Translated by Magdalena Wójcik. Virtual Shtetl.  ^ a b c Grzesik, Julian (2011). Holocaust – Zagłada Żydów (1939–1945) [Holocaust – Destruction of the Jews (1939–1945)] (PDF). Lublin, 3rd edition, revised. pp. 43–44, 54 – via direct download.  ^ a b Trunk, Isaiah (1972). Judenrat: The Jewish
Jewish
Councils in Eastern Europe Under Nazi Occupation. U of Nebraska Press. pp. 191, 475, 543–544. ISBN 080329428X. The Jewish
Jewish
police have learned how to hit, to enforce order, and to send people to the labor camps, and they are one of the contributing factors that keep people in line. — Emanuel Ringelblum
Emanuel Ringelblum
[544]  ^ Czerniaków, Adam; Fuks, Marian. Adama Czerniakowa dziennik getta warszawskiego 6 IX 1939 – 23 VII 1942. Opracowanie i przypisy Marian Fuks. Warszawa 1983: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. p. 101 – via Google Books.  ^ a b Bergman, Eleonora. Ludność żydowska w Warszawie [Jewish population of Warsaw]. Book excerpt: Nie masz bóżnicy powszechnej. Synagogi i domy modlitwy w Warszawie od końca XVIII do początku XXI wieku. Virtual Shtetl.  ^ Levin, Itamar; Neiman, Rachel (2004). Walls Around: The Plunder of Warsaw
Warsaw
Jewry During World War II
World War II
and Its Aftermath. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 29. ISBN 0275976491.  ^ Holocaust Encyclopedia (2008). " Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum.  ^ The Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto. Local Life Warsaw, Guide. ^ Browning 1998, p. 41. ^ Chłodna Street. Warsaw: Google Maps. 2016. 52°14'13.0"N 20°59'18.0"E.  ^ Kajczyk, Agnieszka (January 24, 2015). "The bridge over Chłodna Street". Jewish
Jewish
Historical Institute.  ^ John D Clare (2014), The Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto, 1940–43. Modern World History Topics. ^ Gutman, Yisrael (1989). The Jews of Warsaw, 1939–1943: Ghetto, Underground, Revolt. Indiana University Press. pp. 50, 98. ISBN 0253205115.  ^ Browning, Christopher (2005). "Before the "Final Solution": Nazi Ghettoization Policy in Poland (1940–1941)" (PDF). Ghettos 1939–1945. New Research and Perspectives on Definition, Daily Life, and Survival. Symposium Presentations, USHMM. 18 of 175 in PDF.  ^ Yad Vashem. "Auerswald, Heinz" (PDF). Shoah Resource Center, The International School for Holocaust Studies – via direct download.  [Also in:] Browning, Christopher (2005). "Ghettos 1939–1945. New Research and Perspectives on Definition, Daily Life, and Survival" (PDF). Before the 'Final Solution'. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. PDF file, direct download.  ^ a b Dawidowicz, Lucy S. (1975). The war against the Jews 1933–1945. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. pp. 228–229.  ^ Hilberg, Raul, et al. (editors). The Warsaw
Warsaw
diary of Adam Czerniakow: Prelude to Doom (Stein & Day, NY, 1979). ^ Dr. Piotr M. A. Cywinski, Editor-in-chief (2004). "Adam Czerniakow". Dia-pozytyw: People. Translated by Dr. Christina Manetti. Adam Mickiewicz Institute. Archived from the original on August 22, 2004. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ a b Wdowiński, David (1963). And we are not saved. New York: Philosophical Library pp. 222. ISBN 0-8022-2486-5. Note: Chariton and Lazar are not co-authors of Wdowiński's memoir. Wdowiński is considered the single author. ^ Roland, Charles G, "Scenes of Hunger and Starvation" (1992), pages 99–104. ^ a b c Laqueur, Walter; Baumel, Judith Tydor (2001). The Holocaust Encyclopedia. Yale University Press. pp. 260–262. ISBN 0300138113.  ^ Farbstein, Esther (2007). Hidden in Thunder: Perspectives on faith, halachah and leadership during the Holocaust. 1. Feldheim Publishers. p. 31. ISBN 9789657265055. Friedman sought to inform world Jewry of the initial transports, he sent a telegram stating: 'Mr. Amos kept his promise from the fifth-third.' This is an allusion to Amos 5:3: 'The city that goes out a thousand strong will have a hundred left, and the one that goes out a hundred strong will have ten left to the House of Israel'.  ^ Frydman, A. Zisha (1986) [1974]. Wellsprings of Torah. Judaica Press. pp. xii–xxiii. ISBN 0910818045 – via Google Books snippet.  ^ Seidman, Hillel. "Alexander Zusia Friedman", in Wellsprings of Torah: An Anthology of Biblical Commentaries, Vol. 1. Nison L. Alpert, ed. The Judaica Press, Inc., 1974, pp. xii–xxiii. ^ a b Menszer, John (2015). "Tobbens' Shop in the Warsaw
Warsaw
ghetto". Background information to Survivor Stories. Holocaust Survivors: Encyclopedia.  ^ a b Centrum Badań nad Zagładą Żydów (2011). "Getto Warszawskie". Workshops, with internal links to locations (in Polish). CBnZŻ.  ^ Kurzman, Dan (2009). Tobbens Poniatow factories. The Bravest Battle: The Twenty-eight Days Of The Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising. Da Capo Press. p. 346. ISBN 0786748265.  ^ Powell, Lawrence N. (2000). Troubled Memory. Univ of North Carolina Press. p. 114. ISBN 0807825042.  ^ Nicosia, Francis; Niewyk, Donald (2000). The Columbia Guide to the Holocaust. New York: Columbia University Press. p. 232. ISBN 0231528787. The Jews of Poland were augmented by around 3,000 Slovakian and Austrian Jews (the camp elite) expelled to Poland beforehand, and housed separately from the rest.  ^ Lenarczyk, Wojciech; Libionka, Dariusz (2009). "Obóz pracy dla Żydów w Trawnikach" (PDF / HTML). Erntefest 3–4 listopada 1943 – zapomniany epizod Zagłady, pp. 183–210. Państwowe Muzeum na Majdanku: 189–191. ISBN 978-83-925187-5-4. 'Transfer szopów Schultza z getta warszawskiego'.  ^ a b c Browning, Christopher R. (1998) [1992]. The August Deportations to Treblinka
Treblinka
(PDF). Ordinary Men: Reserve Police Battalion 101 and the Final Solution
Final Solution
in Poland. Penguin Books. pp. 88–96 (115–123 in PDF). Document size 7.91 MB complete.  Also as: PDF cache archived by WebCite. ^ Memorial Museums.org (2013). " Treblinka
Treblinka
Museum of Struggle and Martyrdom". Remembrance. Uwe Neumärker (Director). Portal to European Sites of Remembrance.  ^ Kopówka, Edward (February 4, 2010). The Memorial. Treblinka. Nigdy wiecej, Siedlce 2002, pp. 5–54. Muzeum Walki i Męczeństwa w Treblince. Oddział Muzeum Regionalnego w Siedlcach [Museum of Struggle and Martyrdom at Treblinka. Division of the Regional Museum in Siedlce]. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013 – via Internet Archive.  ^ a b Edelman, Marek. "The Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising". Interpress Publishers: 17–39. undated.  [Also in:] Musial, Bogdan (2004). " Treblinka
Treblinka
— ein Todeslager der "Aktion Reinhard"". "Aktion Reinhard" — Die Vernichtung der Juden im Generalgouvernement. Osnabrück: 257–281.  [As well as:] "Operation Reinhard: Treblinka
Treblinka
Deportations". The Nizkor Project. 2008 [1991].  [Source:] Court of Assizes in Düsseldorf, Germany. "Excerpts From Judgments (Urteilsbegründung)". AZ-LG Düsseldorf: II 931638.  ^ Kopówka & Rytel-Andrianik 2011, p. 94. ^ Lifton, Betty Jean (2006). " Janusz Korczak
Janusz Korczak
Biography". The King of Children. American Academy Of Pediatrics. 1st edition. ISBN 1581101848.  [Also in:] "Janusz Korczak". Stockholm, Sweden: Living Heritage Association.  ^ Arad, Yitzhak. Belzec, Sobibor, Treblinka. Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indianapolis. pp. 97–99.  ^ Holocaust Encyclopedia (10 June 2013). "Treblinka: Chronology". United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Archived from the original on 5 June 2012. Deportations from Theresienstadt
Theresienstadt
and Bulgarian-occupied territory among others.  ^ Robert Moses Shapiro & Tadeusz Epsztein, eds. (2009). The Warsaw Ghetto Oyneg Shabes—Ringelblum Archive. Catalog and Guide. Introduction by Samuel D. Kassow. Indiana University Press in association with USHMM and the Jewish
Jewish
Historical Institute, Warsaw. ISBN 978-0-253-35327-6 – via Academic Publications of the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. For years, Oyneg Shabbos had discreetly chronicled conditions and hid their photos, writings, and short films in improvised time capsules. In May 1942, the Germans began filming a propaganda movie titled "Das Ghetto" which was never completed. Footage is shown in the 2010 documentary called "A Film Unfinished" which concerns the making of "Das Ghetto" and correlates scenes from the film with descriptions of them that Czerniakow mentioned in his own diary. CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link) ^ Seeman, Mary V. (August 25, 2013). "Review of Bohaterowie, Hochsztaplerzy, Opisywacze, Wokol Żydowskiego Związku Wojskowego". Heroes, Hucksters and Story-Tellers: On the Jewish
Jewish
Military Union in the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto. Scholars for Peace in the Middle East (SPME).  ^ Patt, Avinoam (2014). Henry, Patrick, ed. Resistance in the Warsaw Ghetto. Jewish
Jewish
Resistance Against the Nazis. CUA Press. pp. 414–425. ISBN 0813225892 – via Google Books.  ^ Schoenberner, Gerhard (2004). The Yellow Star: The Persecution of the Jews in Europe, 1933–1945. The first day of the Uprising. Fordham Univ Press. pp. 204–205. ISBN 0823223906 – via Google Books.  ^ Gilbert, Martin (1986), The Holocaust, pages 522–523. ^ Jewish
Jewish
Virtual Library, Ferdinand von Sammern-Frankenegg. Source: Danny Dor (Ed.), Brave and Desperate. Israel Ghetto Fighters, 2003, p. 166. ^ Jürgen Stroop
Jürgen Stroop
(May 1943). "The Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Is No More". The Stroop Report
Stroop Report
– Translation of Document No. 1061-PS. Nazi Conspriracy and Aggression Volume 3; The Avalon Project: Lillian Goldman Law Library. Archived from the original on November 26, 2010 – via Internet Archive. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ^ Robert Mielcarek (2016). "Book review". Rafał Chwiszczuk, Ulica Próżna i dzielnica żydowska w Warszawie, Warszawa: Austriackie Forum Kultury, 2013. Forum Żydów Polskich.  ^ a b UMSW (2016). "Miejsca historyczne związane z ludnością żydowską w Warszawie" [Historic places connected to Jewish
Jewish
people of Warsaw]. Judaica. Urząd m.st. Warszawy (official website).  ^ ""Controversy over Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
statue in Warsaw
Warsaw
ghetto"". The Guardian. 2012-12-28. Retrieved 2016-08-11.  ^ Libionka, Dariusz; Weinbaum, Laurence (June 22, 2007). "A legendary commander". Haaretz
Haaretz
weekend. Though Apfelbaum is listed in many books and articles devoted to the revolt in the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto as one of the commanders of the Jewish
Jewish
Military Union (see: Moshe Arens, "The Development of the Narrative of the Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising," Israel Affairs, Vol.14, No.1, January 2008), and a square was named for him in Warsaw, historians Dariusz Libionka and Laurence Weinbaum have cast doubt about his existence.  ^ Dariusz Libionka; Laurence Weinbaum (2011). Bohaterowie, hochsztaplerzy, opisywacze: wokół Żydowskiego Związku Wojskowego (in Polish). Warsaw: Stowarzyszenie Centrum Badań nad Zagładą Żydów, Polish Academy of Sciences. pp. 534–535. ISBN 9788393220281.  Eisner's memoir, 'The Survivor' (published in 1980) is challenged as not a reliable source of information. ^ Laurence Weinbaum, "Shaking the Dust Off" The Story of the Warsaw Ghetto's Forgotten Chronicler, Jewish
Jewish
Political Studies Review Vol. 22 No. 3-4 (Fall 2010). ^ Monroe News Star
Monroe News Star
(January 31, 2009), "Businessman Sol Rosenthal dies", Monroe, Louisiana. ^ Dariusz Libionka, Laurence Weinbaum (June 22, 2007). "A Legendary Commander". Haaretz
Haaretz
daily. Though he succeeded in convincing a number of historians of the veracity of his story, according to new research by a Polish-Israeli team of historians, Iwanski's unit never entered the ghetto. See: Dariusz Libionka, Laurence Weinbaum: "Bohaterowie, hochsztaplerzy, opisywacze – Wokół Żydowskiego Związku Wojskowego", Stowarzyszenie Centrum Badań nad Zagładą Żydów, Warsaw
Warsaw
2011. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) [also in] Joshua D. Zimmerman (2015). The Polish Underground and the Jews, 1939–1945. Cambridge University Press. p. 218. ISBN 1107014263. 

Bibliography[edit]

Edelman, Marek (1994). The Ghetto Fights. London: Bookmarks. ISBN 0-906224-56-X.  Gutman, Israel. Resistance: The Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Uprising. ISBN 0-395-60199-1.  Hilberg, Raul (1979). The Warsaw
Warsaw
diary of Adam Czerniakow: Prelude to Doom. et al. (editors). Stein & Day, NY.  Kopówka, Edward; Rytel-Andrianik, Paweł (2011). Treblinka
Treblinka
II – Obóz zagłady [Monograph, chapt. 3: Treblinka
Treblinka
II Death Camp] (PDF). Dam im imię na wieki [I will give them an everlasting name. Isaiah 56:5] (in Polish). Drohiczyńskie Towarzystwo Naukowe [The Drohiczyn Scientific Society]. ISBN 978-83-7257-496-1. With list of Catholic rescuers of Jews from around Treblinka, selected testimonies, bibliography, alphabetical indexes, photographs, English language summaries, and forewords by Holocaust scholars. – via direct download 20.2 MB.  Korczak, Janusz (2003). Ghetto Diary. Yale University Press. ISBN 978-0-89604-004-5 – via Google Books.  Ringelblum, Emmanuel (2015). Notes From The Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto: The Journal Of Emmanuel Ringelblum. Pickle Partners Publishing. ISBN 1786257165 – via Google Books Preview.  Władysław Szpilman, The Pianist: The Extraordinary True Story of One Man's Survival in Warsaw, 1939–1945, ISBN 0-312-31135-4 Wdowiński, Dawid. And We Are Not Saved. The Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto: A Guide to the Perished City. ISBN 978-0-300-11234-4. ISBN 978-0-8022-2486-6 – via sample in Kindle. [permanent dead link] Barbara Engelking & Jacek Leociak, The Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto: A Guide to the Perished City, ISBN 978-0-300-11234-4 Warsaw
Warsaw
and Ghetto, Warsaw: B&M Potyralski, 2000, ISBN 83-901501-2-3

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Warsaw
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Photographs from the Warsaw
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Ghetto – Online exhibition from Yad Vashem Warsaw
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Ghetto from Holocaust Survivors and Remembrance Project: "Forget You Not" Historical Sites of Jewish
Jewish
Warsaw Warsaw
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Ghetto Internet Database hosted by Polish Center for Holocaust Research Detailed, interactive map of the Warsaw
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Ghetto plotted on pre-war plan of the city Documents and information about the Warsaw
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Ghetto from the Jewish Virtual Library Yad Vashem
Yad Vashem
– About the Holocaust – The Warsaw
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Ghetto poems from the Ringelblum Archive Lecture on Emanuel Ringelblum
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and the Warsaw
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Ghetto Dr. Henry Abramson Artists of the Warsaw
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Ghetto The ramparts of Warsaw
Warsaw
1943–44 (documentary film) by André Bossuroy, 2014, programme 'Active European Remembrance' of the European Commission. ' Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto – hell in the center of the city'. Collection of testimonies concerning Warsaw
Warsaw
Ghetto Warszawa, Poland at JewishGen

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Ghetto Uprising

Leaders

Mordechai Anielewicz Icchak Cukierman Mordechai Tenenbaum Marek Edelman Leon Feldhendler Paweł Frenkiel Henryk Iwański Itzhak Katzenelson Michał Klepfisz Miles Lerman Alexander Pechersky Witold Pilecki Frumka Płotnicka Roza Robota Szmul Zygielbojm

Judenrat

Jewish
Jewish
Ghetto Police Adam Czerniaków Mordechai Chaim Rumkowski

Victim lists

Ghettos

Kraków Łódź Lvov (Lwów) Warsaw

Camps

Auschwitz Bełżec Gross-Rosen Izbica Majdanek Sobibór Soldau Stutthof Trawniki Treblinka

Documentation

Nazi sources

Auschwitz Album Frank Memorandum Höcker Album Höfle Telegram Katzmann Report Korherr Report Nisko Plan Posen speeches Special
Special
Prosecution Book-Poland Stroop Report Wannsee Conference

Witness accounts

Graebe affidavit Gerstein Report Vrba–Wetzler report Witold's Report Sonderkommando
Sonderkommando
photographs

Concealment

Sonderaktion 1005

Technical and logistics

Identification in camps Gas chamber Gas van Holocaust train Human medical experimentation Zyklon B

v t e

Aftermath, trials and commemoration

Aftermath

Holocaust survivors Polish population transfers (1944–1946) Bricha Kielce pogrom Anti- Jewish
Jewish
violence, 1944–46 Ministry of Public Security

Trials

West German trials

Frankfurt Auschwitz trials Treblinka
Treblinka
trials

Polish, East German, and Soviet trials

Auschwitz trial
Auschwitz trial
(Poland) Stutthof trials Extraordinary (Soviet) State Commission

Memorials

Museum of the History of Polish Jews Auschwitz-Birkenau Memorial and Museum Majdanek
Majdanek
State Museum Sobibór Museum International Youth Meeting Center in Oświęcim/Auschwitz March of the Living

Righteous Among the Nations

Polish Righteous Among the Nations Rescue of Jews by Poles during the Holocaust Garden of the Righteous

v t e

The Holocaust

By territory

Albania Belarus Belgium Channel Islands Croatia Estonia France Norway Latvia Libya Lithuania Luxembourg Poland Russia Serbia Ukraine

Lists and timelines

Victims of Nazism Holocaust survivors Survivors of Sobibór Victims and survivors of Auschwitz

Books and other resources Films about the Holocaust Nazi concentration camps Nazi ideologues Rescuers of Jews Shtetls depopulated of Jews Timeline of deportations of French Jews Timeline of the Holocaust Timeline of the Holocaust in Norway Treblinka
Treblinka
timeline

Camps

Concentration

Bergen-Belsen Bogdanovka Buchenwald Dachau Danica Dora Đakovo Esterwegen Flossenbürg Gonars Gospić Gross-Rosen Herzogenbusch Jadovno Janowska Kaiserwald Kraków-Płaszów Kruščica Lobor Mauthausen-Gusen Neuengamme Rab Ravensbrück Sachsenhausen Salaspils Sisak children's camp Stutthof Tenja Theresienstadt Topovske Šupe Uckermark Warsaw

Extermination

Auschwitz-Birkenau Bełżec Chełmno Jasenovac Majdanek Maly Trostenets Sajmište Slana Sobibór Treblinka

Transit

be Breendonk Mechelen fr Gurs Drancy it Bolzano Risiera di San Sabba nl Amersfoort Schoorl Westerbork

Methods

Einsatzgruppen Gas van Gas chamber Extermination through labour Human medical experimentation

Nazi units

SS-Totenkopfverbände Concentration Camps Inspectorate Politische Abteilung Sanitätswesen

Victims

Jews

Roundups

fr Izieu Marseille Vel' d'Hiv

Pogroms

Kristallnacht Bucharest Dorohoi Iaşi Jedwabne Kaunas Lviv Odessa Tykocin Wąsosz

Ghettos

Poland

Białystok Kraków Łódź Lublin Lwów Warsaw

Elsewhere

Budapest Kovno Minsk Riga Vilna

"Final Solution"

Wannsee Conference Operation Reinhard Holocaust trains Extermination camps

Einsatzgruppen

Babi Yar Bydgoszcz Kamianets-Podilskyi Ninth Fort Piaśnica Ponary Rumbula Erntefest

Resistance

Jewish
Jewish
partisans Ghetto uprisings

Warsaw Białystok Częstochowa

End of World War II

Death marches Wola Bricha Displaced persons Holocaust denial

trivialization

Others

Romani people
Romani people
(gypsies) Poles Soviet POWs Slavs in Eastern Europe Homosexuals People with disabilities Serbs Freemasons Jehovah's Witnesses Black people

Responsibility

Organizations

Nazi Party Schutzstaffel
Schutzstaffel
(SS) Reich Security Main Office (RSHA) Sicherheitsdienst
Sicherheitsdienst
(SD) Waffen-SS Wehrmacht

Units

Einsatzgruppen Police Regiments Orpo Police Battalions

Collaborators

Ypatingasis būrys Lithuanian Security Police Rollkommando Hamann Arajs Kommando Ukrainian Auxiliary Police Trawnikis Nederlandsche SS Special
Special
Brigades

Individuals

Major perpetrators Nazi ideologues

Early elements Aftermath Remembrance

Early elements

Nazi racial policy Nazi eugenics Nuremberg Laws Haavara Agreement Madagascar Plan Forced euthanasia (Action T4)

Nuremberg trials Denazification Holocaust survivors

Survivor guilt

Reparations

Remembrance

Days of remembrance Memorials and museums Academia

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 300729844

.