HOME
ListMoto - War Democrats


--- Advertisement ---



War Democrats in American politics of the 1860s were members of the Democratic Party who supported the Union and rejected the policies of the Copperheads (or Peace Democrats). The War Democrats demanded a more aggressive policy toward the Confederacy and supported the policies of Republican President Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
when the Civil War broke out a few months after his win in the 1860 presidential election.[1]

Contents

1 Ohio 2 1864 presidential campaign 3 1865–69 4 Leadership 5 Notes 6 References

Ohio[edit] In the critical state elections in Ohio in 1862, the Republicans and War Democrats formed a Unionist Party. This led to victory over the Democrats led by Copperhead Clement Vallandigham. However, it caused trouble for Radical Republican
Radical Republican
Senator Benjamin Wade's reelection bid. War Democrats opposed Wade's radicalism and Wade refused to make concessions to their point of view. He was narrowly reelected by the legislature.[2] In 1863, the Ohio gubernatorial campaign drew national attention. Ohio Republicans and War Democrats were dissatisfied with the leadership of Ohio Gov. David Tod
David Tod
and turned to War Democrat John Brough
John Brough
after he made a strongly pro-Union speech in his hometown of Marietta on June 10, 1863. He was elected to the governorship that fall on a pro-Union ticket, partly due to his stronger support than Tod of the anti-slavery direction that the Northern war effort was taking. Brough telegraphed Washington that he had a 100,000 vote margin over Vallandigham. President Lincoln wired Brough: "Glory to God in the Highest. Ohio has saved the Nation".[3] 1864 presidential campaign[edit] Recognizing the importance of the War Democrats, the Republican Party changed its name for the national ticket in the 1864 presidential election, held during the Civil War. The National Union Party nominated the incumbent President and "former" Republican Lincoln for President and former War Democrat Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
for Vice President. As a result, many War Democrats could support Lincoln's Civil War policies while avoiding the "Republican" ticket. While a large number of Republican dissidents had maintained an entity separate from the National Union Party leading up to the 1864 election, they withdrew their ticket for fear that splitting the vote would allow the Copperhead Democrats and their "peace at all costs" ticket to possibly win the election. The National Union ticket won 42 of 54 available Senate seats and 149 of 193 available House of Representatives seats. 1865–69[edit] Following Lincoln's 1865 assassination, Johnson became President. Johnson's Reconstruction policies were lenient compared to those of the Radical Republicans. This dispute represented the conflict that many War Democrats faced, in that they supported the Union, but did not wish to severely punish former Confederates or strongly protect the rights of negroes. In the 1868 lead up to the first post-Civil War presidential election, President Johnson was a candidate for the Democratic Party presidential nomination. However, he finished second in the 22 ballots cast at the Democratic Convention and lost the nomination to former New York Governor Horatio Seymour, a former Peace Democrat.[4] Lincoln appointed other War Democrats to high civil and military offices. Some joined the Republican Party while others remained Democrats. Leadership[edit] Prominent War Democrats included:

Andrew Johnson, Senator from Tennessee and military Governor of Tennessee who was elected Vice President in 1864 on a ticket with Lincoln and became President after Lincoln's assassination George Bancroft, historian and presidential speech writer[5] John Brough, Governor of Ohio Benjamin F. Butler, Congressman from Massachusetts and Union General John Cochrane, general Reverdy Johnson, Senator from Maryland John Alexander McClernand, Union General from Illinois John Adams Dix, James Buchanan's Secretary of the Treasury and Union General Stephen A. Douglas, Senator from Illinois and Democratic Party's Northern candidate in the presidential election of 1860 who died a few weeks into the war Joseph Holt, Buchanan's Secretary of War and Lincoln's Judge Advocate General of the Army Francis Kernan, Congressman from New York Michael Crawford Kerr, 32nd Speaker of the United States House of Representatives from December 6, 1875 to August 19, 1876 John A. Logan, Congressman from Illinois and Union General George B. McClellan, railroad president, Union General and Democratic presidential nominee in 1864 Joel Parker, Governor of New Jersey Edwards Pierrepont, appointed in 1875 as Attorney General by President Ulysses S. Grant William Rosecrans, led the Union at Chickamauga and was asked to run with Lincoln as a War Democrat in 1864 Daniel Sickles, former New York Congressman who led III Corps at Gettysburg David Tod, Governor of Ohio Edwin M. Stanton, Buchanan's Attorney General and Lincoln's Secretary of War who switched to the Republican Party in 1862

Notes[edit]

^ Jean H. Baker, Affairs of Party: Political Culture of Northern Democrats in the Mid-nineteenth Century (1983) p. 152. ^ Kenneth B. Shover, "Maverick at Bay: Ben Wade's Senate Re-Election Campaign, 1862-1863," Civil War History (1966) 12#1 pp. 23–42. ^ John C. Waugh (2001). Reelecting Lincoln: The Battle for the 1864 Presidency. Da Capo Press. p. 14.  ^ "Andrew Johnson: Campaigns and Elections". Miller Center of Public Affairs. University of Virginia. Retrieved 1 February 2016. ^ William P. Leeman, "George Bancroft's Civil War: Slavery, Abraham Lincoln, and the Course of History," New England Quarterly (2008) 81#3 pp. 462-488 in JSTOR.

References[edit]

Cowden, Joanna D. "The Politics of Dissent: Civil War Democrats in Connecticut". New England Quarterly (1983). 56#4. pp. 538–554. in JSTOR. Dell, Christopher (1975). Lincoln and the War Democrats: The Grand Erosion of Conservative Tradition. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. Nevins, Allan (1959). War for the Union. 4 vol. Silbey, Joel H. (1977). A Respectable Minority: The Democratic Party in the Civil War Era, 1860-1868.

v t e

American Civil War

Origins

Origins Issues

Timeline leading to the War Antebellum era Bleeding Kansas Border states Compromise of 1850 Dred Scott v. Sandford Lincoln-Douglas debates Missouri Compromise Popular sovereignty Secession States' rights President Lincoln's 75,000 volunteers

Slavery

African Americans Cornerstone Speech Emancipation Proclamation Fugitive slave laws Plantations in the American South Slave Power Slavery in the United States Treatment of slaves in the United States Uncle Tom's Cabin

Abolitionism

Susan B. Anthony John Brown Frederick Douglass William Lloyd Garrison Elijah Parish Lovejoy J. Sella Martin Lysander Spooner George Luther Stearns Thaddeus Stevens Charles Sumner Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad

Combatants Theaters Campaigns Battles States

Combatants

Union (USA)

Army Navy Marine Corps Revenue Cutter Service

Confederacy (CSA)

Army Navy Marine Corps

Theaters

Eastern Western Lower Seaboard Trans-Mississippi Pacific Coast Union naval blockade

Major Campaigns

Anaconda Plan Blockade runners New Mexico Jackson's Valley Peninsula Northern Virginia Maryland Stones River Vicksburg Tullahoma Gettysburg Morgan's Raid Bristoe Knoxville Red River Overland Atlanta Valley 1864 Bermuda Hundred Richmond-Petersburg Franklin–Nashville Price's Raid Sherman's March Carolinas Appomattox

Major battles

Fort Sumter 1st Bull Run Wilson's Creek Fort Donelson Pea Ridge Hampton Roads Shiloh New Orleans Corinth Seven Pines Seven Days 2nd Bull Run Antietam Perryville Fredericksburg Stones River Chancellorsville Gettysburg Vicksburg Chickamauga Chattanooga Wilderness Spotsylvania Cold Harbor Atlanta Mobile Bay Franklin Nashville Five Forks

Involvement (by  state or territory)

AL AK AR AZ CA CO CT DC DE FL GA HI ID IL IN IA KS KY LA ME MD MA MI MN MS MO MT NE NV NH NJ NM NY NC ND OH OK OR PA RI SC SD TN TX UT VT VA WA WV WI WY

Leaders

Confederate

Military

R. H. Anderson Beauregard Bragg Buchanan Cooper Early Ewell Forrest Gorgas Hill Hood Jackson A. S. Johnston J. E. Johnston Lee Longstreet Morgan Mosby Price Semmes E. K. Smith Stuart Taylor Wheeler

Civilian

Benjamin Bocock Breckinridge Davis Hunter Mallory Memminger Seddon Stephens

Union

Military

Anderson Buell Burnside Butler Du Pont Farragut Foote Frémont Grant Halleck Hooker Hunt McClellan McDowell Meade Meigs Ord Pope D. D. Porter Rosecrans Scott Sheridan Sherman Thomas

Civilian

Adams Chase Ericsson Hamlin Lincoln Pinkerton Seward Stanton Stevens Wade Welles

Aftermath

U.S. Constitution

Reconstruction amendments

13th Amendment 14th Amendment 15th Amendment

Reconstruction

Alabama Claims Brooks–Baxter War Carpetbaggers Colfax Riot of 1873 Eufaula Riot of 1874 Freedmen's Bureau Freedman's Savings Bank Impeachment of Andrew Johnson Kirk-Holden War Knights of the White Camelia Ku Klux Klan Memphis Riot of 1866 Meridian Riot of 1871 New Orleans
New Orleans
Riot of 1866 Pulaski (Tennessee) Riot of 1867 Reconstruction acts

Habeas Corpus Act 1867 Enforcement Act of 1870 Enforcement Act of February 1871 Enforcement Act of April 1871

Reconstruction treaties

Indian Council at Fort Smith

Red Shirts Redeemers Confederate refugees

Confederados

Scalawags South Carolina riots of 1876 Southern Claims Commission Homestead acts

Southern Homestead Act of 1866 Timber Culture Act
Timber Culture Act
of 1873

White League

post-Reconstruction

Commemoration

Centennial Civil War Discovery Trail Civil War Roundtables Civil War Trails Program Civil War Trust Confederate History Month Confederate monuments and memorials Historical reenactment Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
Day

Disenfranchisement

Black Codes Jim Crow

Lost Cause mythology Modern display of the Confederate flag Sons of Confederate Veterans Sons of Union Veterans of the Civil War Southern Historical Society United Daughters of the Confederacy

Monuments and memorials

Union

List of Union Civil War monuments and memorials List of memorials to the Grand Army of the Republic Memorials to Abraham Lincoln

Confederate

List of Confederate monuments and memorials Removal of Confederate monuments and memorials List of memorials to Robert E. Lee List of memorials to Jefferson Davis Annapolis

Roger B. Taney Monument

Baltimore

Confederate Soldiers and Sailors Monument Confederate Women's Monument Roger B. Taney Monument Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
and Stonewall Jackson
Stonewall Jackson
Monument

Durham, North Carolina

Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
Monument

New Orleans

Battle of Liberty Place Monument Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Davis
Monument General Beauregard Equestrian Statue Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
Monument

Cemeteries

Confederate Memorial Day Ladies' memorial associations U.S. Memorial Day U.S. national cemeteries

Veterans

1913 Gettysburg Reunion Confederate Veteran Grand Army of the Republic Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the U.S. Old soldiers' homes Southern Cross of Honor United Confederate Veterans

Related topics

Related topics

Military

Arms Campaign Medal Cavalry Confederate Home Guard Confederate railroads Confederate Revolving Cannon Field artillery Medal of Honor recipients Medicine Leadership Naval battles Official Records Partisan rangers POW camps Rations Signal Corps Turning point Union corps badges U.S. Balloon Corps U.S. Home Guard U.S. Military Railroad

Political

Committee on the Conduct of the War Confederate States Presidential Election of 1861 Confiscation Act of 1861 Confiscation Act of 1862 Copperheads Emancipation Proclamation Habeas Corpus Act of 1863 Hampton Roads Conference National Union Party Radical Republicans Trent Affair Union leagues U.S. Presidential Election of 1864 War Democrats

Other topics

Bibliography Confederate war finance

Confederate States dollar

Espionage

Confederate Secret Service

Great Revival of 1863 Music Naming the war Native Americans

Cherokee Choctaw

New York City Gold Hoax of 1864 New York City Riot of 1863 Photographers Richmond Riot of 1863 Sexuality Supreme Court cases Tokens U.S. S

.