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Virginia
Virginia
(/vərˈdʒɪniə/ ( listen); officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern[6] and Mid-Atlantic[7] regions of the United States
United States
located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains. Virginia
Virginia
is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" due to its status as the first English colonial possession established in mainland North America,[8] and "Mother of Presidents" because eight U.S. presidents were born there, more than any other state. The geography and climate of the Commonwealth are shaped by the Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
and the Chesapeake Bay, which provide habitat for much of its flora and fauna. The capital of the Commonwealth is Richmond; Virginia Beach
Virginia Beach
is the most populous city, and Fairfax County is the most populous political subdivision. The Commonwealth's estimated population as of 2017[update] is over 8.4 million.[2] The area's history begins with several indigenous groups, including the Powhatan. In 1607 the London Company
London Company
established the Colony of Virginia
Virginia
as the first permanent New World
New World
English colony. Slave labor and the land acquired from displaced Native American tribes each played a significant role in the colony's early politics and plantation economy. Virginia
Virginia
was one of the 13 Colonies in the American Revolution
American Revolution
and joined the Confederacy in the American Civil War, during which Richmond was made the Confederate capital and Virginia's northwestern counties seceded to form the state of West Virginia. Although the Commonwealth was under one-party rule for nearly a century following Reconstruction, both major national parties are competitive in modern Virginia.[9] The Virginia General Assembly
Virginia General Assembly
is the oldest continuous law-making body in the New World.[10] The state government was ranked most effective by the Pew Center on the States in both 2005 and 2008.[11] It is unique in how it treats cities and counties equally, manages local roads, and prohibits its governors from serving consecutive terms. Virginia's economy has many sectors: agriculture in the Shenandoah Valley; federal agencies in Northern Virginia, including the headquarters of the U.S. Department of Defense and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA); and military facilities in Hampton Roads, the site of the region's main seaport.

Contents

1 Geography

1.1 Geology and terrain 1.2 Climate 1.3 Ecosystem

2 History

2.1 Colony 2.2 Statehood 2.3 Civil War and aftermath 2.4 Post-Reconstruction

3 Cities and towns 4 Demographics

4.1 Ethnicity 4.2 Languages 4.3 Religion

5 Economy

5.1 Government 5.2 Business 5.3 Agriculture 5.4 Taxes

6 Culture

6.1 Fine and performing arts 6.2 Festivals

7 Media 8 Education 9 Health 10 Transportation 11 Law and government 12 Politics 13 Sports 14 State symbols 15 See also 16 References 17 Bibliography 18 External links

Geography Main article: Environment of Virginia

Geographically and geologically, Virginia
Virginia
is divided into five regions from east to west: Tidewater, Piedmont, Blue Ridge Mountains, Ridge and Valley, and Cumberland Plateau.[12]

Virginia
Virginia
has a total area of 42,774.2 square miles (110,784.7 km2), including 3,180.13 square miles (8,236.5 km2) of water, making it the 35th-largest state by area.[13] Virginia
Virginia
is bordered by Maryland
Maryland
and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
to the north and east; by the Atlantic Ocean
Atlantic Ocean
to the east; by North Carolina to the south; by Tennessee
Tennessee
to the southwest; by Kentucky
Kentucky
to the west; and by West Virginia
West Virginia
to the north and west. Virginia's boundary with Maryland
Maryland
and Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
extends to the low-water mark of the south shore of the Potomac River.[14] The southern border is defined as the 36° 30′ parallel north, though surveyor error led to deviations of as much as three arcminutes.[15] The border with Tennessee
Tennessee
was not settled until 1893, when their dispute was brought to the U.S. Supreme Court.[16] Geology and terrain The Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
separates the contiguous portion of the Commonwealth from the two-county peninsula of Virginia's Eastern Shore. The bay was formed from the drowned river valleys of the Susquehanna River
Susquehanna River
and the James River.[17] Many of Virginia's rivers flow into the Chesapeake Bay, including the Potomac, Rappahannock, York, and James, which create three peninsulas in the bay.[18][19]

Deciduous and evergreen trees give the Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
their distinct color.[20]

The Tidewater is a coastal plain between the Atlantic coast and the fall line. It includes the Eastern Shore and major estuaries of Chesapeake Bay. The Piedmont is a series of sedimentary and igneous rock-based foothills east of the mountains which were formed in the Mesozoic
Mesozoic
era.[21] The region, known for its heavy clay soil, includes the Southwest Mountains
Southwest Mountains
around Charlottesville.[22] The Blue Ridge Mountains are a physiographic province of the Appalachian Mountains with the highest points in the state, the tallest being Mount Rogers at 5,729 feet (1,746 m).[23] The Ridge and Valley region is west of the mountains and includes the Great Appalachian Valley. The region is carbonate rock based and includes Massanutten Mountain.[24] The Cumberland Plateau
Cumberland Plateau
and the Cumberland Mountains
Cumberland Mountains
are in the southwest corner of Virginia, south of the Allegheny Plateau. In this region, rivers flow northwest, with a dendritic drainage system, into the Ohio River basin.[25] The Virginia Seismic Zone has not had a history of regular earthquake activity. Earthquakes are rarely above 4.5 in magnitude, because Virginia
Virginia
is located away from the edges of the North American Plate. The largest earthquake, at an estimated 5.9 magnitude, was in 1897 near Blacksburg.[26] A 5.8 magnitude earthquake struck central Virginia
Virginia
on August 23, 2011, near Mineral. The earthquake was reportedly felt as far away as Toronto, Atlanta
Atlanta
and Florida.[27] Coal mining takes place in the three mountainous regions at 45 distinct coal beds near Mesozoic
Mesozoic
basins.[28] Over 62 million tons of other non-fuel resources, such as slate, kyanite, sand, or gravel, were also mined in Virginia
Virginia
in 2012.[29] The state's carbonate rock is filled with more than 4,000 caves, ten of which are open for tourism.[30] 35 million years ago, a bolide impacted what is now eastern Virginia. The resulting crater may explain sinking and earthquakes in the region.[31] Climate Main article: Climate of Virginia

Virginia
Virginia
state-wide averages

Climate chart (explanation)

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    3.1     46 26

    3.1     48 27

    3.7     57 34

    3.3     67 43

    4     76 52

    3.7     83 60

    4.3     86 64

    4.1     85 63

    3.5     79 57

    3.4     69 45

    3.2     58 35

    3.2     48 28

Average max. and min. temperatures in °F

Precipitation totals in inches

Source: University of Virginia
University of Virginia
data 1895–1998

Metric conversion

J F M A M J J A S O N D

    79     8 −3

    79     9 −3

    94     14 1

    84     19 6

    102     24 11

    94     28 16

    109     30 18

    104     29 17

    89     26 14

    86     21 7

    81     14 2

    81     9 −2

Average max. and min. temperatures in °C

Precipitation totals in mm

The climate of Virginia
Virginia
is humid subtropical and becomes increasingly warmer and more humid farther south and east.[32] Seasonal extremes vary from average lows of 26 °F (−3 °C) in January to average highs of 86 °F (30 °C) in July. The Atlantic Ocean has a strong effect on eastern and southeastern coastal areas of the state. Influenced by the Gulf Stream, coastal weather is subject to hurricanes, most pronouncedly near the mouth of Chesapeake Bay.[33] In spite of its position adjacent to the Atlantic Ocean, even the coastal areas have a significant continental influence with quite large temperature differences between summer and winter, particularly given the state climate's subtropical classification, which is typical of states in the Upper South. Virginia
Virginia
has an annual average of 35–45 days of thunderstorm activity, particularly in the western part of the state,[34] and an average annual precipitation of 42.7 inches (108 cm).[33] Cold air masses arriving over the mountains in winter can lead to significant snowfalls, such as the Blizzard of 1996
Blizzard of 1996
and winter storms of 2009–2010. The interaction of these elements with the state's topography creates distinct microclimates in the Shenandoah Valley, the mountainous southwest, and the coastal plains.[35] Virginia averages seven tornadoes annually, most F2 or lower on the Fujita scale.[36] In recent years, the expansion of the southern suburbs of Washington, D.C. into Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
has introduced an urban heat island primarily caused by increased absorption of solar radiation in more densely populated areas.[37] In the American Lung Association's 2011 report, 11 counties received failing grades for air quality, with Fairfax County having the worst in the state, due to automobile pollution.[38][39] Haze in the mountains is caused in part by coal power plants.[40] Ecosystem See also: List of endangered species in Virginia Forests cover 65% of the state, primarily with deciduous, broad leaf trees in the western part of the state and evergreens and conifers dominant the central and eastern part of Virginia.[41] Lower altitudes are more likely to have small but dense stands of moisture-loving hemlocks and mosses in abundance, with hickory and oak in the Blue Ridge.[32] However, since the early 1990s, Gypsy moth
Gypsy moth
infestations have eroded the dominance of oak forests.[42] In the lowland tidewater and piedmont, yellow pines tend to dominate, with bald cypress wetland forests in the Great Dismal and Nottoway swamps. Other common trees and plants include red bay, wax myrtle, dwarf palmetto, tulip poplar, mountain laurel, milkweed, daisies, and many species of ferns. The largest areas of wilderness are along the Atlantic coast and in the western mountains, where the largest populations of trillium wildflowers in North America are found.[32][43] The Atlantic coast regions are host to flora commonly associated with the South Atlantic pine forests and lower Southeast Coastal Plain maritime flora, the latter found primarily in eastern and central Virginia.

White-tailed deer, also known as Virginia
Virginia
deer, graze at Big Meadows in Shenandoah National Park

Mammals include white-tailed deer, black bear, beaver, bobcat, coyote, raccoon, skunk, groundhog, Virginia
Virginia
opossum, gray fox, red fox, and eastern cottontail rabbit.[44] Other mammals include: nutria, fox squirrel, gray squirrel, flying squirrel, chipmunk, brown bat, and weasel. Birds include cardinals (the state bird), barred owls, Carolina chickadees, red-tailed hawks, ospreys, brown pelicans, quail, seagulls, bald eagles, and wild turkeys. Virginia
Virginia
is also home to the pileated woodpecker as well as the red-bellied woodpecker. The peregrine falcon was reintroduced into Shenandoah National Park
Shenandoah National Park
in the mid-1990s.[45] Walleye, brook trout, Roanoke bass, and blue catfish are among the 210 known species of freshwater fish.[46] Running brooks with rocky bottoms are often inhabited by plentiful amounts of crayfish and salamanders.[32] The Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
is host to many species, including blue crabs, clams, oysters, and rockfish (also known as striped bass).[47] Virginia
Virginia
has 30 National Park Service
National Park Service
units, such as Great Falls Park and the Appalachian Trail, and one national park, the Shenandoah National Park.[48] Shenandoah was established in 1935 and encompasses the scenic Skyline Drive. Almost 40% of the park's area (79,579 acres/322 km2) has been designated as wilderness under the National Wilderness Preservation System.[49] Additionally, there are 34 Virginia
Virginia
state parks and 17 state forests, run by the Department of Conservation and Recreation and the Department of Forestry.[41][50] The Chesapeake Bay, while not a national park, is protected by both state and federal legislation, and the jointly run Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
Program which conducts restoration on the bay and its watershed. The Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge
Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge
extends into North Carolina, as does the Back Bay National Wildlife Refuge, which marks the beginning of the Outer Banks.[51] History Main article: History of Virginia

The story of Pocahontas, an ancestress of many of the First Families of Virginia, was romanticized by later artists.[52]

"Jamestown 2007" marked Virginia's quadricentennial year, celebrating 400 years since the establishment of the Jamestown Colony. The celebrations highlighted contributions from Native Americans, Africans, and Europeans, each of which had a significant part in shaping Virginia's history.[53][54] Warfare, including among these groups, has also had an important role. Virginia
Virginia
was a focal point in conflicts from the French and Indian War, the American Revolution
American Revolution
and the Civil War, to the Cold War
Cold War
and the War on Terrorism.[55] Stories about historic figures, such as those surrounding Pocahontas
Pocahontas
and John Smith, George Washington's childhood, or the plantation elite in the slave society of the antebellum period, have also created potent myths of state history, and have served as rationales for Virginia's ideology.[56] Colony Main article: Colony of Virginia The first people are estimated to have arrived in Virginia
Virginia
over 12,000 years ago.[57] By 5,000 years ago more permanent settlements emerged, and farming began by 900 AD. By 1500, the Algonquian peoples
Algonquian peoples
had founded towns such as Werowocomoco
Werowocomoco
in the Tidewater region, which they referred to as Tsenacommacah. The other major language groups in the area were the Siouan to the west, and the Iroquoians, who included the Nottoway and Meherrin, to the north and south. After 1570, the Algonquians consolidated under Chief Powhatan in response to threats from these other groups on their trade network.[58] Powhatan
Powhatan
controlled more than 30 smaller tribes and over 150 settlements, who shared a common Virginia
Virginia
Algonquian language. In 1607, the native Tidewater population was between 13,000 and 14,000.[59] Several European expeditions, including a group of Spanish Jesuits, explored the Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
during the 16th century.[60] In 1583, Queen Elizabeth I of England
Elizabeth I of England
granted Walter Raleigh
Walter Raleigh
a charter to plant a colony north of Spanish Florida.[61] In 1584, Raleigh sent an expedition to the Atlantic coast of North America.[62] The name "Virginia" may have been suggested then by Raleigh or Elizabeth, perhaps noting her status as the "Virgin Queen," and may also be related to a native phrase, "Wingandacoa," or name, "Wingina."[63] Initially the name applied to the entire coastal region from South Carolina to Maine, plus the island of Bermuda.[64] Later, subsequent royal charters modified the Colony's boundaries. The London Company was incorporated as a joint stock company by the proprietary Charter of 1606, which granted land rights to this area. The company financed the first permanent English settlement in the "New World", Jamestown. Named for King James I, it was founded in May 1607 by Christopher Newport.[65] In 1619, colonists took greater control with an elected legislature called the House of Burgesses. With the bankruptcy of the London Company
London Company
in 1624, the settlement was taken into royal authority as an English crown colony.[66]

Williamsburg was Virginia's capital from 1699 to 1780.

Life in the colony was perilous, and many died during the Starving Time in 1609 and the Anglo- Powhatan
Powhatan
Wars, including the Indian massacre of 1622, which fostered the colonists' negative view of all tribes.[67] By 1624, only 3,400 of the 6,000 early settlers had survived.[68] However, European demand for tobacco fueled the arrival of more settlers and servants.[69] The headright system tried to solve the labor shortage by providing colonists with land for each indentured servant they transported to Virginia.[70] African workers were first imported to Jamestown in 1619 initially under the rules of indentured servitude. The shift to a system of African slavery in Virginia
Virginia
was propelled by the legal cases of John Punch, who was sentenced to lifetime slavery in 1640 for attempting to run away,[71] and of John Casor, who was claimed by Anthony Johnson as his servant for life in 1655.[72] Slavery first appears in Virginia
Virginia
statutes in 1661 and 1662, when a law made it hereditary based on the mother's status.[73] Tensions and the geographic differences between the working and ruling classes led to Bacon's Rebellion
Bacon's Rebellion
in 1676, by which time current and former indentured servants made up as much as 80% of the population.[74] Rebels, largely from the colony's frontier, were also opposed to the conciliatory policy towards native tribes, and one result of the rebellion was the signing at Middle Plantation of the Treaty of 1677, which made the signatory tribes tributary states and was part of a pattern of appropriating tribal land by force and treaty. Middle Plantation saw the founding of The College of William & Mary in 1693 and was renamed Williamsburg as it became the colonial capital in 1699.[75] In 1747, a group of Virginian speculators formed the Ohio
Ohio
Company, with the backing of the British crown, to start English settlement and trade in the Ohio Country
Ohio Country
west of the Appalachian Mountains.[76] France, which claimed this area as part of their colony of New France, viewed this as a threat, and the ensuing French and Indian War
French and Indian War
became part of the Seven Years' War (1756–1763). A militia from several British colonies, called the Virginia
Virginia
Regiment, was led by then-Lieutenant Colonel George Washington.[77] Statehood

1851 painting of Patrick Henry's speech before the House of Burgesses on the Virginia Resolves
Virginia Resolves
against the Stamp Act of 1765

The British Parliament's efforts to levy new taxes following the French and Indian War
French and Indian War
were deeply unpopular in the colonies. In the House of Burgesses, opposition to taxation without representation was led by Patrick Henry
Patrick Henry
and Richard Henry Lee, among others.[78] Virginians began to coordinate their actions with other colonies in 1773, and sent delegates to the Continental Congress
Continental Congress
the following year.[79] After the House of Burgesses
House of Burgesses
was dissolved by the royal governor in 1774, Virginia's revolutionary leaders continued to govern via the Virginia
Virginia
Conventions. On May 15, 1776, the Convention declared Virginia's independence from the British Empire and adopted George Mason's Virginia
Virginia
Declaration of Rights, which was then included in a new constitution.[80] Another Virginian, Thomas Jefferson, drew upon Mason's work in drafting the national Declaration of Independence.[81] When the American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War
began, George Washington
George Washington
was selected to head the colonial army. During the war, the capital was moved to Richmond at the urging of Governor Thomas Jefferson, who feared that Williamsburg's coastal location would make it vulnerable to British attack.[82] In 1781, the combined action of Continental and French land and naval forces trapped the British army on the Virginia Peninsula, where troops under George Washington
George Washington
and Comte de Rochambeau defeated British General Cornwallis
General Cornwallis
in the Siege of Yorktown. His surrender on October 19, 1781 led to peace negotiations in Paris and secured the independence of the colonies.[83] Virginians were instrumental in writing the United States Constitution. James Madison
James Madison
drafted the Virginia Plan
Virginia Plan
in 1787 and the Bill of Rights in 1789.[81] Virginia
Virginia
ratified the Constitution on June 25, 1788. The three-fifths compromise ensured that Virginia, with its large number of slaves, initially had the largest bloc in the House of Representatives. Together with the Virginia dynasty of presidents, this gave the Commonwealth national importance. In 1790, both Virginia and Maryland
Maryland
ceded territory to form the new District of Columbia, though the Virginian area was retroceded in 1846.[84] Virginia
Virginia
is called "Mother of States" because of its role in being carved into states like Kentucky, which became the 15th state in 1792, and for the numbers of American pioneers born in Virginia.[85] Civil War and aftermath Main article: Virginia
Virginia
in the American Civil War

Union soldiers before Marye's Heights, Fredericksburg in May 1863

In addition to agriculture, slave labor was increasingly used in mining, shipbuilding and other industries.[86] The execution of Gabriel Prosser
Gabriel Prosser
in 1800, Nat Turner's slave rebellion
Nat Turner's slave rebellion
in 1831 and John Brown's Raid on Harpers Ferry in 1859 marked the growing social discontent over slavery and its role in the plantation economy. By 1860, almost half a million people, roughly 31% of the total population of Virginia, were enslaved.[87][88] This division contributed to the start of the American Civil War. Virginia
Virginia
voted to secede from the United States
United States
on April 17, 1861, after the Battle of Fort Sumter
Battle of Fort Sumter
and Abraham Lincoln's call for volunteers. On April 24, Virginia
Virginia
joined the Confederate States of America, which chose Richmond as its capital.[85] After the 1861 Wheeling Convention, 48 counties in the northwest separated to form a new state of West Virginia, which chose to remain loyal to the Union. Virginian general Robert E. Lee
Robert E. Lee
took command of the Army of Northern Virginia
Virginia
in 1862, and led invasions into Union territory, ultimately becoming commander of all Confederate forces. During the war, more battles were fought in Virginia
Virginia
than anywhere else, including Bull Run, the Seven Days Battles, Chancellorsville, and the concluding Battle of Appomattox Court House.[89] After the capture of Richmond in April 1865, the state capital was briefly moved to Lynchburg,[90] while the Confederate leadership fled to Danville.[91] Virginia
Virginia
was formally restored to the United States
United States
in 1870, due to the work of the Committee of Nine.[92] During the post-war Reconstruction era, Virginia
Virginia
adopted a constitution which provided for free public schools, and guaranteed political, civil, and voting rights.[93] The populist Readjuster Party ran an inclusive coalition until the conservative white Democratic Party gained power after 1883.[94] It passed segregationist Jim Crow laws and in 1902 rewrote the Constitution of Virginia
Constitution of Virginia
to include a poll tax and other voter registration measures that effectively disfranchised most African Americans and many poor European Americans.[95] Though their schools and public services were segregated and underfunded due to a lack of political representation, African Americans were able to unite in communities and take a greater role in Virginia
Virginia
society.[96] Post-Reconstruction

Many Pre-Dreadnought
Pre-Dreadnought
and World War I-era warships were built in Newport News, including the USS Virginia.

New economic forces also changed the Commonwealth. Virginian James Albert Bonsack invented the tobacco cigarette rolling machine in 1880 leading to new industrial scale production centered on Richmond. In 1886, railroad magnate Collis Potter Huntington
Collis Potter Huntington
founded Newport News Shipbuilding, which was responsible for building six major World War I-era battleships for the U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
from 1907 to 1923.[97] During the war, German submarines like U-151 attacked ships outside the port.[98] In 1926, Dr. W.A.R. Goodwin, rector of Williamsburg's Bruton Parish Church, began restoration of colonial-era buildings in the historic district with financial backing of John D. Rockefeller, Jr.[99] Though their project, like others in the state, had to contend with the Great Depression and World War II, work continued as Colonial Williamsburg became a major tourist attraction.[100]

The Virginia Civil Rights Memorial
Virginia Civil Rights Memorial
was erected in 2008 to commemorate the protests which led to school desegregation.

Protests started by Barbara Rose Johns
Barbara Rose Johns
in 1951 in Farmville against segregated schools led to the lawsuit Davis v. County School Board of Prince Edward County. This case, filed by Richmond natives Spottswood Robinson and Oliver Hill, was decided in 1954 with Brown v. Board of Education, which rejected the segregationist doctrine of "separate but equal". But, in 1958, under the policy of "massive resistance" led by the influential segregationist Senator Harry F. Byrd
Harry F. Byrd
and his Byrd Organization, the Commonwealth prohibited desegregated local schools from receiving state funding.[101] The civil rights movement gained many participants in the 1960s. It achieved the moral force and support to gain passage of national legislation with the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. In 1964 the United States Supreme Court
United States Supreme Court
ordered Prince Edward County and others to integrate schools.[102] In 1967, the Court also struck down the state's ban on interracial marriage with Loving v. Virginia. From 1969 to 1971, state legislators under Governor Mills Godwin rewrote the constitution, after goals such as the repeal of Jim Crow laws had been achieved. In 1989, Douglas Wilder
Douglas Wilder
became the first African American elected as governor in the United States.[103] The Cold War
Cold War
led to the expansion of national defense government programs housed in offices in Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
near Washington, D.C., and correlative population growth.[104] The Central Intelligence Agency in Langley was involved in various Cold War
Cold War
events, including as the target of Soviet espionage activities. Also among the federal developments was the Pentagon, built during World War II
World War II
as the headquarters for the Department of Defense. It was one of the targets of the September 11 attacks; 189 people died at the site when a jet passenger plane was crashed into the building.[105] Cities and towns Main article: Political subdivisions of Virginia

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Virginia Source:[106][107]

Rank Name County Pop.

Virginia
Virginia
Beach

Norfolk 1 Virginia
Virginia
Beach Independent city 452,602

Chesapeake

Arlington

2 Norfolk Independent city 245,115

3 Chesapeake Independent city 237,940

4 Arlington Arlington 230,050

5 Richmond Independent city 223,170

6 Newport News Independent city 181,825

7 Alexandria Independent city 155,810

8 Hampton Independent city 135,410

9 Roanoke Independent city 99,660

10 Portsmouth Independent city 95,252

Virginia
Virginia
counties and cities by population in 2010

Virginia
Virginia
is divided into 95 counties and 38 independent cities, the latter acting in many ways as county-equivalents.[108] This general method of treating cities and counties on par with each other is unique to Virginia; only three other independent cities exist elsewhere in the United States, each in a different state.[109] Virginia
Virginia
limits the authority of cities and counties to countermand laws expressly allowed by the Virginia General Assembly
Virginia General Assembly
under what is known as Dillon's Rule.[110] In addition to independent cities, there are also incorporated towns which operate under their own governments, but are part of a county. Finally there are hundreds of unincorporated communities within the counties. Virginia
Virginia
does not have any further political subdivisions, such as villages or townships. Virginia
Virginia
has 11 Metropolitan Statistical Areas; Northern Virginia, Hampton Roads, and Richmond-Petersburg
Richmond-Petersburg
are the three most populous. Richmond is the capital of Virginia, and its metropolitan area has a population of over 1.2 million.[111] As of 2010[update], Virginia Beach is the most populous city in the Commonwealth, with Norfolk and Chesapeake second and third, respectively.[112] Norfolk forms the urban core of the Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
metropolitan area, which has a population over 1.6 million people and is the site of the world's largest naval base, Naval Station Norfolk.[111][113] Suffolk, which includes a portion of the Great Dismal Swamp, is the largest city by area at 429.1 square miles (1,111 km2).[114] Fairfax County is the most populous locality in Virginia, with over one million residents, although that does not include its county seat Fairfax, which is one of the independent cities.[115] Fairfax County has a major urban business and shopping center in Tysons Corner, Virginia's largest office market.[116] Neighboring Prince William County is Virginia's second most populous county, with a population exceeding 450,000, and is home to Marine Corps Base Quantico, the FBI Academy
FBI Academy
and Manassas National Battlefield Park. Loudoun County, with the county seat at Leesburg, is both the fastest-growing county in Virginia
Virginia
and has the highest median household income ($114,204) in the country as of 2010[update].[117] Arlington County, the smallest self-governing county in the United States by land area, is an urban community organized as a county.[118] The Roanoke area, with an estimated population of 300,399, is the largest Metropolitan Statistical Area in western Virginia.[119] Demographics Main article: Demographics of Virginia

Historical population

Census Pop.

1790 691,737

1800 807,557

16.7%

1810 877,683

8.7%

1820 938,261

6.9%

1830 1,044,054

11.3%

1840 1,025,227

−1.8%

1850 1,119,348

9.2%

1860 1,596,318

42.6%

1870 1,225,163

−23.3%

1880 1,512,565

23.5%

1890 1,655,980

9.5%

1900 1,854,184

12.0%

1910 2,061,612

11.2%

1920 2,309,187

12.0%

1930 2,421,851

4.9%

1940 2,677,773

10.6%

1950 3,318,680

23.9%

1960 3,966,949

19.5%

1970 4,648,494

17.2%

1980 5,346,818

15.0%

1990 6,187,358

15.7%

2000 7,078,515

14.4%

2010 8,001,024

13.0%

Est. 2017 8,470,020

5.9%

Source: 1860[120] 1910–2010[121] 2016 estimate[122]

The Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
metropolitan area is home to the first British colony in the Americas, and currently has a population exceeding 1.7 million.

The United States Census Bureau
United States Census Bureau
estimates that the state population was 8,411,808 on July 1, 2016, a 5.1% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[122] This includes an increase from net migration of 381,969 people into the Commonwealth since the 2010 census. Immigration from outside the United States
United States
resulted in a net increase of 159,627 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 155,205 people.[123] As of 2000, the center of population is located in Goochland County, near Richmond.[124] Aside from Virginia, the top birth state for Virginians is New York, having overtaken North Carolina
North Carolina
in the 1990s, with the Northeast accounting for the largest number of migrants into the state by region.[125] Ethnicity The state's most populous ethnic group, Non-Hispanic White, has declined as a proportion of population from 76% in 1990 to 62.7% in 2015, as other ethnicities have increased.[126][127] In 2011, non-Hispanic Whites were involved in 50.9% of all the births.[128] People of English heritage settled throughout the Commonwealth during the colonial period, and others of British and Irish heritage have since immigrated.[129] Those who identify on the census as having "American ethnicity" are predominantly of English descent, but have ancestors who have been in North America for so long that they choose to identify simply as American.[130][131] Of the English immigrants to Virginia
Virginia
in the 17th century, 75% came as indentured servants.[132] The western mountains have many settlements that were founded by Scots-Irish immigrants before the American Revolution.[133][134] There are also sizable numbers of people of German descent in the northwestern mountains and Shenandoah Valley.[135] On the 2010 American Community Survey, 11.7% said they were of German ancestry.[136] 2.9% of Virginians also describe themselves as biracial.[137] The largest minority group in Virginia
Virginia
is African American, at 19.7% as of 2015[update].[127] Most African-American Virginians have been descendants of enslaved Africans who worked on tobacco, cotton, and hemp plantations. The first generations of enslaved men, women and children were brought from West and West-Central Africa, primarily from Angola
Angola
and the Bight of Biafra. The Igbo ethnic group of what is now southern Nigeria
Nigeria
were the single largest African group among slaves in Virginia.[138] Many African Americans also have European and Native American ancestry. Though the black population was reduced by the Great Migration to northern industrial cities in the first half of the 20th century, since 1965 there has been a reverse migration of blacks returning south.[139] According to the Pew Research Center, the state has the highest number of black-white interracial marriages in the US.[140] More recent immigration in the late 20th century and early 21st century has resulted in new communities of Hispanics and Asians. As of 2015[update], 9.0% of Virginians are Hispanic or Latino (of any race), and 6.5% are Asian.[127] The state's Hispanic population rose by 92% from 2000 to 2010, with two-thirds of Hispanics in the state living in Northern Virginia.[137] Hispanic citizens in Virginia
Virginia
have higher median household incomes and educational attainment than the general state population.[141] There is a large Salvadoran population in the DC suburbs of Northern Virginia,[142] and a large Puerto Rican population in the Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
region of Southeast Virginia.[143] Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
also has a significant population of Vietnamese Americans, whose major wave of immigration followed the Vietnam War.[144] Korean Americans have migrated more recently, attracted by the quality school system.[145] The Filipino American
Filipino American
community has about 45,000 in the Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
area, many of whom have ties to the U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
and armed forces.[146] Additionally, 0.5% of Virginians are American Indian or Alaska
Alaska
Native, and 0.1% are Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
or other Pacific Islander.[127] Virginia has extended state recognition to eight Native American tribes resident in the state; six of these gained federal recognition as tribes in 2018, and two were already recognized. Most Native American groups are located in the Tidewater region.[147]

Ethnicity[127]   Largest ancestries by county Ancestry (2010)

Non-Hispanic White 62.7%

American Community Survey
American Community Survey
5-year estimate

 

German 11.7%

Black or African American 19.7%

 

English 10.7%

Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 9.0%

 

Irish 9.8%

Asian 6.5%

 

American 9.7%

American Indian and Alaska
Alaska
Native  0.5%

 

Subsaharan African  1.7%

As of 2011, 49.1% of Virginia's population younger than age 1 were minorities (meaning that they had at least one parent who was not non-Hispanic white).[148] Languages As of 2010[update], 85.87% (6,299,127) of Virginia
Virginia
residents age 5 and older spoke English at home as a primary language, while 6.41% (470,058) spoke Spanish, 0.77% (56,518) Korean, 0.63% (45,881) Vietnamese, 0.57% (42,418) Chinese (which includes Mandarin), and Tagalog was spoken as a main language by 0.56% (40,724) of the population over the age of five. In total, 14.13% (1,036,442) of Virginia's population age 5 and older spoke a mother language other than English.[149] English was passed as the Commonwealth's official language by statutes in 1981 and again in 1996, though the status is not mandated by the Constitution of Virginia.[150] The Piedmont region is known for its dialect's strong influence on Southern American English. While a more homogenized American English is found in urban areas, various accents are also used, including the Tidewater accent, the Old Virginia
Virginia
accent, and the anachronistic Elizabethan of Tangier Island.[151][152] Religion See also: Religion in early Virginia

Religion in Virginia
Virginia
(2014)[153]

Religion

Percent

Protestant

58%

None

20%

Catholic

12%

Mormon

2%

Eastern Orthodox

1%

Other faith

6%

Virginia
Virginia
is predominantly Christian and Protestant; Baptists
Baptists
are the largest single group with 27% of the population as of 2008[update].[154] Baptist congregations in Virginia
Virginia
have 763,655 members.[155] Baptist denominational groups in Virginia
Virginia
include the Baptist General Association of Virginia, with about 1,400 member churches, which supports both the Southern Baptist Convention
Southern Baptist Convention
and the moderate Cooperative Baptist Fellowship; and the Southern Baptist Conservatives of Virginia
Virginia
with more than 500 affiliated churches, which supports the Southern Baptist Convention.[156][157] Roman Catholics are the second-largest religious group with 673,853 members.[155] The Roman Catholic
Catholic
Diocese of Arlington includes most of Northern Virginia's Catholic
Catholic
churches, while the Diocese of Richmond covers the rest.

Christ Church in Alexandria was frequented by George Washington
George Washington
and Robert E. Lee.

The Virginia
Virginia
Conference is the regional body of the United Methodist Church in most of the Commonwealth, while the Holston Conference represents much of extreme Southwest Virginia. The Virginia Synod
Virginia Synod
is responsible for the congregations of the Lutheran Church. Presbyterian, Pentecostal, Congregationalist, and Episcopalian adherents each composed less than 2% of the population as of 2010[update].[155] The Episcopal Diocese of Virginia, Southern Virginia, and Southwestern Virginia
Virginia
support the various Episcopal churches. In November 2006, 15 conservative Episcopal churches voted to split from the Diocese of Virginia
Virginia
over the ordination of openly gay bishops and clergy in other dioceses of the Episcopal Church; these churches continue to claim affiliation with the larger Anglican Communion through other bodies outside the United States. Though Virginia
Virginia
law allows parishioners to determine their church's affiliation, the diocese claimed the secessionist churches' buildings and properties. The resulting property law case, ultimately decided in favor of the mainline diocese, was a test for Episcopal churches nationwide.[158] Among other religions, adherents of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints constitute 1% of the population, with 200 congregations in Virginia
Virginia
as of 2017[update].[159] Fairfax Station is the site of the Ekoji Buddhist Temple, of the Jodo Shinshu
Jodo Shinshu
school, and the Hindu Durga
Durga
Temple. While the state's Jewish population is small, organized Jewish sites date to 1789 with Congregation Beth Ahabah.[160] Muslims
Muslims
are a growing religious group throughout the Commonwealth through immigration.[161] Megachurches in the Commonwealth include Thomas Road Baptist Church, Immanuel Bible Church, and McLean Bible Church.[162] Several Christian universities are also based in the state, including Regent University, Liberty University, and Lynchburg College. Economy Main article: Economy of Virginia See also: Virginia
Virginia
locations by per capita income

Virginia
Virginia
counties and cities by median household income (2010).

Virginia
Virginia
is an employment-at-will state;[163] its economy has diverse sources of income, including local and federal government, military, farming and business. Virginia
Virginia
has 4.1 million civilian workers, and one-third of the jobs are in the service sector.[164][165] The unemployment rate in Virginia
Virginia
as of 2017[update] is 3.8%, which is below the national average.[166] The second fastest job growth town in the nation is Leesburg, as of 2011[update].[167] The Gross Domestic Product of Virginia
Virginia
was $492 billion in 2016.[168] According to the Bureau of Economic Analysis, Virginia
Virginia
had the most counties in the top 100 wealthiest in the United States
United States
at sixteen counties based upon median income in 2007.[169] Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
is the highest-income region in Virginia, having six of the twenty highest-income counties in the United States, including the two highest as of 2008[update].[170] According to CNN Money Magazine the highest-income town in the nation is Great Falls, as of 2011[update].[171] According to a 2013 study by Phoenix Marketing International, Virginia
Virginia
had the seventh-largest number of millionaires per capita in the United States, with a ratio of 6.64%.[172] Government

The Department of Defense is headquartered in Arlington at The Pentagon, the world's largest office building.[173]

Virginia
Virginia
has the highest defense spending of any state per capita, providing the Commonwealth with around 900,000 jobs.[174][175] Approximately 12% of all U.S. federal procurement money is spent in Virginia, the second-highest amount after California.[175][176] Many Virginians work for federal agencies in Northern Virginia, which include the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
and the Department of Defense, as well as the National Science Foundation, the United States Geological Survey and the United States
United States
Patent and Trademark Office. Many others work for government contractors, including defense and security firms, which hold more than 15,000 federal contracts.[177] Virginia
Virginia
has one of the highest concentrations of veterans of any state,[178] and is second to California
California
in total Department of Defense employees.[176][179] The Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
area has the largest concentration of military personnel and assets of any metropolitan area in the world,[180] including the largest naval base in the world, Naval Station Norfolk.[113] In its state government, Virginia
Virginia
employs 106,143 public employees, who combined have a median income of $44,656 as of 2013[update].[181] Business

Ocean tourism is an important sector of Virginia
Virginia
Beach's economy.

Virginia
Virginia
has the highest concentration of technology workers of any state,[182] and the fourth-highest number of technology workers after California, Texas, and New York.[183] Computer chips became the state's highest-grossing export in 2006, surpassing its traditional top exports of coal and tobacco combined,[184] reaching a total export value of $717 million in 2015.[185] Northern Virginia, once considered the state's dairy capital, now hosts software, communication technology, defense contracting companies, particularly in the Dulles Technology Corridor. The state has the highest average and peak Internet speeds in the United States, with the third-highest worldwide.[186] Northern Virginia's data centers can carry up to 70% of the nation's internet traffic,[187] and in 2015 the region was the largest and fastest growing data center market in the nation.[188][189] In 2009, Forbes
Forbes
magazine named Virginia
Virginia
the best state in the nation for business for the fourth year in a row,[190] while CNBC
CNBC
named it the top state for business in 2007, 2009, and 2011.[191] Additionally, in 2014 a survey of 12,000 small business owners found Virginia
Virginia
to be one of the most friendly states for small businesses.[192] Virginia has 20 Fortune 500
Fortune 500
companies, ranking the state eighth nationwide.[193] Tysons Corner
Tysons Corner
is one of the largest business districts in the nation. Tourism in Virginia
Virginia
supported an estimated 210,000 jobs and generated $21.2 billion in 2012.[194] Arlington County is the top tourist destination in the state by domestic spending, followed by Fairfax County, Loudoun County, and Virginia
Virginia
Beach.[195] Agriculture

Rockingham County is Virginia's leading county in agriculture.[196]

As of 2007[update], agriculture occupied 32% of the land in Virginia and about 357,000 Virginian jobs were in agriculture, with over 47,000 farms, averaging 171 acres (0.27 sq mi; 0.69 km2), in a total farmland area of 8.1 million acres (12,656 sq mi; 32,780 km2). Though agriculture has declined significantly since 1960 when there were twice as many farms, it remains the largest single industry in Virginia.[197] Tomatoes surpassed soy as the most profitable crop in Virginia
Virginia
in 2006, with peanuts and hay as other agricultural products.[198] Although it is no longer the primary crop, Virginia
Virginia
is still the fifth-largest producer of tobacco nationwide.[199] Virginia
Virginia
is the largest producer of seafood on the East Coast, with scallops, oysters, blue crabs, and clams as the largest seafood harvests by value, and France, Canada, and Hong Kong
Hong Kong
as the top export destinations.[200][201] Eastern oyster
Eastern oyster
harvests have increased from 23,000 bushels in 2001 to over 500,000 in 2013.[200] Wineries and vineyards in the Northern Neck
Northern Neck
and along the Blue Ridge Mountains
Blue Ridge Mountains
also have begun to generate income and attract tourists.[202] Virginia
Virginia
has the fifth-highest number of wineries in the nation.[203] Taxes Virginia
Virginia
collects personal income tax in five income brackets, ranging from 3.0% to 5.75%. The state sales and use tax rate is 4.3%, while the tax rate on food is 1.5%. There is an additional 1% local tax, for a total of a 5.3% combined sales tax on most Virginia
Virginia
purchases and 2.5% on most food.[204] Virginia's property tax is set and collected at the local government level and varies throughout the Commonwealth. Real estate is also taxed at the local level based on 100% of fair market value. Tangible personal property also is taxed at the local level and is based on a percentage or percentages of original cost.[205] Culture Main article: Culture of Virginia

Colonial Virginian culture, language, and style are reenacted in Williamsburg.

Virginia's culture was popularized and spread across America and the South by figures such as George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, and Robert E. Lee. Their homes in Virginia
Virginia
represent the birthplace of America and the South.[206] Modern Virginia
Virginia
culture has many sources, and is part of the culture of the Southern United States.[207] The Smithsonian Institution
Smithsonian Institution
divides Virginia
Virginia
into nine cultural regions.[208] Besides the general cuisine of the Southern United States, Virginia maintains its own particular traditions. Virginia wine
Virginia wine
is made in many parts of the state.[202] Smithfield ham, sometimes called "Virginia ham", is a type of country ham which is protected by state law, and can only be produced in the town of Smithfield.[209] Virginia furniture and architecture are typical of American colonial architecture. Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and many of the state's early leaders favored the Neoclassical architecture
Neoclassical architecture
style, leading to its use for important state buildings. The Pennsylvania Dutch
Pennsylvania Dutch
and their style can also be found in parts of the state.[135] Literature in Virginia
Virginia
often deals with the state's extensive and sometimes troubled past. The works of Pulitzer Prize
Pulitzer Prize
winner Ellen Glasgow often dealt with social inequalities and the role of women in her culture.[210] Glasgow's peer and close friend James Branch Cabell wrote extensively about the changing position of gentry in the Reconstruction era, and challenged its moral code with Jurgen, A Comedy of Justice.[211] William Styron
William Styron
approached history in works such as The Confessions of Nat Turner and Sophie's Choice.[212] Tom Wolfe has occasionally dealt with his southern heritage in bestsellers like I Am Charlotte Simmons.[213] Mount Vernon native Matt Bondurant received critical acclaim for his historic novel The Wettest County in the World about moonshiners in Franklin County during prohibition.[214] Virginia
Virginia
also names a state Poet Laureate.[215] Fine and performing arts See also: Music of Virginia

The Meadow Pavilion is one of the theaters at Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts.

Rich in cultural heritage, Virginia
Virginia
however ranks near the bottom of U.S. states in terms of public spending on the arts, at nearly half of the national average.[216] The state government does fund some institutions, including the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts
Virginia Museum of Fine Arts
and the Science Museum of Virginia. Other museums include the popular Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center of the National Air and Space Museum
National Air and Space Museum
and the Chrysler Museum of Art.[217] Besides these sites, many open-air museums are located in the Commonwealth, such as Colonial Williamsburg, the Frontier Culture Museum, and various historic battlefields.[218] The Virginia Foundation for the Humanities works to improve the Commonwealth's civic, cultural, and intellectual life.[219] Theaters and venues in the Commonwealth are found both in the cities and suburbs. The Harrison Opera House, in Norfolk, is home of the Virginia
Virginia
Opera. The Virginia Symphony Orchestra operates in and around Hampton Roads.[220] Resident and touring theater troupes operate from the American Shakespeare Center
American Shakespeare Center
in Staunton.[221] The Barter Theatre, designated the State Theatre of Virginia, in Abingdon won the first Regional Theatre Tony Award in 1948, while the Signature Theatre in Arlington won it in 2009. There is also a Children's Theater of Virginia, Theatre IV, which is the second largest touring troupe nationwide.[222] Virginia
Virginia
has launched many award-winning traditional musical artists and internationally successful popular music acts, as well as Hollywood actors.[1] Virginia
Virginia
is known for its tradition in the music genres of old-time string and bluegrass, with groups such as the Carter Family
Carter Family
and Stanley Brothers, as well as gospel, blues, and shout bands.[223] Contemporary Virginia
Virginia
is also known for folk rock artists like Dave Matthews
Dave Matthews
and Jason Mraz, hip hop stars like Pharrell Williams and Missy Elliott, as well as thrash metal groups like GWAR and Lamb of God.[224] Notable performance venues include The Birchmere, the Landmark Theater, and Jiffy Lube Live.[225] Wolf Trap National Park for the Performing Arts is located in Vienna and is the only national park intended for use as a performing arts center.[226] Festivals

The annual Chincoteague Pony
Chincoteague Pony
Swim features over 200 wild ponies swimming across the Assateague Channel into Chincoteague.

Many counties and localities host county fairs and festivals. The Virginia State Fair
Virginia State Fair
is held at the Meadow Event Park
Meadow Event Park
every September. Also in September is the Neptune Festival in Virginia
Virginia
Beach, which celebrates the city, the waterfront, and regional artists. Norfolk's Harborfest, in June, features boat racing and air shows.[227] Fairfax County also sponsors Celebrate Fairfax! with popular and traditional music performances.[228] The Virginia
Virginia
Lake Festival is held during the third weekend in July in Clarksville.[229] Wolf Trap hosts the Wolf Trap Opera Company, which produces an opera festival every summer.[226] Each September, Bay Days celebrates the Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
as well as Hampton's 400-year history since 1610, and Isle of Wight County holds a County Fair on the second week of September as well. Both feature live music performances, and other unique events. On the Eastern Shore island of Chincoteague the annual Pony Swim & Auction of feral Chincoteague ponies at the end of July is a unique local tradition expanded into a week-long carnival. The Shenandoah Apple Blossom Festival is a six-day festival held annually in Winchester that includes parades and bluegrass concerts. The Old Time Fiddlers' Convention in Galax, begun in 1935, is one of the oldest and largest such events worldwide. Two important film festivals, the Virginia Film Festival and the VCU French Film Festival, are held annually in Charlottesville and Richmond, respectively.[230] Media Main articles: List of newspapers in Virginia, List of radio stations in Virginia, and List of television stations in Virginia

USA Today, the nation's most circulated newspaper, has its headquarters in McLean.

The Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
area is the 45th-largest media market in the United States as ranked by Nielsen Media Research, while the Richmond-Petersburg
Richmond-Petersburg
area is 57th and Roanoke-Lynchburg is 66th as of 2013[update].[231] Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
is part of the much larger Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
media market. There are 36 television stations in Virginia, representing each major U.S. network, part of 42 stations which serve Virginia
Virginia
viewers.[232] More than 720 FCC-licensed FM radio stations broadcast in Virginia, with about 300 such AM stations.[233][234] The nationally available Public Broadcasting Service
Public Broadcasting Service
(PBS) is headquartered in Arlington. Independent PBS affiliates exist throughout Virginia, and the Arlington PBS member station WETA-TV
WETA-TV
produces programs such as the PBS NewsHour and Washington Week. The most circulated native newspapers in the Commonwealth are Norfolk's The Virginian-Pilot (142,476 daily subscribers), the Richmond Times-Dispatch (108,559), and The Roanoke Times
The Roanoke Times
(78,663), as of 2014[update].[235] Several Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
papers are based in Northern Virginia, such as The Washington Examiner
The Washington Examiner
and Politico. The paper with the nation's widest circulation, USA Today, with 1.83 million daily subscriptions, is headquartered in McLean.[236] Besides traditional forms of media, Virginia
Virginia
is the home base for telecommunication companies such as Voxant and XO Communications. In Northern Virginia, The Washington Post
The Washington Post
is the dominant newspaper, since Northern VA is located in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. Education Main article: Education in Virginia

The University of Virginia, a World Heritage Site, was founded by President Thomas Jefferson.[237]

Virginia's educational system consistently ranks in the top ten states on the U.S. Department of Education's National Assessment of Educational Progress, with Virginia
Virginia
students outperforming the average in all subject areas and grade levels tested.[238] The 2011 Quality Counts report ranked Virginia's K–12 education fourth best in the country.[239] All school divisions must adhere to educational standards set forth by the Virginia
Virginia
Department of Education, which maintains an assessment and accreditation regime known as the Standards of Learning to ensure accountability.[240] In 2010, 85% of high school students graduated on-time after four years.[241] Between 2000 and 2008, school enrollment increased 5%, the number of teachers 21%.[242] Public K–12 schools in Virginia
Virginia
are generally operated by the counties and cities, and not by the state. As of 2011[update], a total of 1,267,063 students were enrolled in 1,873 local and regional schools in the Commonwealth, including three charter schools, and an additional 109 alternative and special education centers across 132 school divisions.[243][244] Besides the general public schools in Virginia, there are Governor's Schools and selective magnet schools. The Governor's Schools are a collection of more than 40 regional high schools and summer programs intended for gifted students.[245] The Virginia
Virginia
Council for Private Education oversees the regulation of 320 state accredited and 130 non-accredited private schools.[246][247] An additional 24,682 students receive homeschooling.[248] As of 2011[update], there are 176 colleges and universities in Virginia.[249] In the 2017 U.S. News & World Report ranking of national public universities, the University of Virginia
University of Virginia
is ranked No. 2, the College of William and Mary
College of William and Mary
is No. 6, Virginia Tech
Virginia Tech
is No. 27, George Mason
George Mason
University is No. 71, and Virginia
Virginia
Commonwealth University is No. 87.[250][251] Virginia
Virginia
Commonwealth is also ranked the No. 1 public graduate school in fine arts, while James Madison University is ranked the No. 8 regional university in The South.[252][253] The Virginia Military Institute
Virginia Military Institute
is the oldest state military college.[254][255] Virginia State University
Virginia State University
and Virginia Tech are the state's land-grant universities. Virginia
Virginia
also operates 23 community colleges on 40 campuses serving over 260,000 students.[256] There are 129 private institutions in the state, including nationally ranked liberal arts colleges Washington and Lee University at No. 11, the University of Richmond
University of Richmond
at No. 27, and the Virginia Military Institute
Virginia Military Institute
at No. 72.[249][257] Liberty University is Virginia's largest university, with an enrollment total of greater than 110,000 students.[258] Health

Sentara Norfolk General Hospital, part of the Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
based Sentara Health System
Sentara Health System
and a teaching institution of Eastern Virginia Medical School, was the site of the first successful in-vitro fertilization birth.[259][260]

Virginia
Virginia
has a mixed health record, and is ranked as the 26th overall healthiest state according to the 2013 United Health Foundation's Health Rankings.[261] Virginia
Virginia
also ranks 21st among the states in the rate of premature deaths, 6,816 per 100,000. In 2008, Virginia
Virginia
reached its lowest ever rate of infant mortality, at 6.7 deaths per 1,000.[262] There are however racial and social health disparities, in 2010 African Americans experienced 28% more premature deaths than whites, while 13% of Virginians lack any health insurance. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's 2009 survey, 26% of Virginians are obese and another 35% are overweight. 78% of residents claim to have exercised at least once in the past three months.[263][264] About 30% of Virginia's 10- to 17-year-olds are overweight or obese.[265] Virginia
Virginia
banned smoking in bars and restaurants in January 2010.[266] 19% of Virginians smoke tobacco.[261] Residents of Virginia's 8th congressional district
Virginia's 8th congressional district
share the longest average life expectancy rate in the nation, over 83 years.[267] There are 89 hospitals in Virginia
Virginia
listed with the United States Department of Health and Human Services.[268] Notable examples include Inova Fairfax Hospital, the largest hospital in the Washington Metropolitan Area, and the VCU Medical Center, located on the medical campus of Virginia
Virginia
Commonwealth University. The University of Virginia Medical Center, part of the University of Virginia
University of Virginia
Health System, is highly ranked in endocrinology according to U.S.News & World Report.[269] Virginia
Virginia
has a ratio of 127 primary care physicians per 10,000 residents, which is the 16th highest nationally.[261] Virginia was one of five states to receive a perfect score in disaster preparedness according to a 2008 report by the Trust for America's Health, based on criteria such as detecting pathogens and distributing vaccines and medical supplies.[270] Transportation Main article: Transportation in Virginia

Located at the confluence of major bridges, roads, bus lines, and subway lines, Rosslyn station
Rosslyn station
in Arlington is the biggest choke point of the Washington Metro
Washington Metro
system.[271] Arlington accounts for 40% of Virginia's public transit trips.[272]

Because of the 1932 Byrd Road Act, the state government controls most of Virginia's roads, instead of a local county authority as is usual in other states.[273] As of 2011[update], the Virginia
Virginia
Department of Transportation owns and operates 57,867 miles (93,128 km) of the total 70,105 miles (112,823 km) of roads in the state, making it the third largest state highway system in the United States.[274] Although the Washington Metropolitan Area, which includes Northern Virginia, has the second worst traffic in the nation, Virginia
Virginia
as a whole has the 21st-lowest congestion and the average commute time is 26.9 minutes.[275][276] Virginia
Virginia
hit peak car usage before the year 2000, making it one of the first such states.[277]

The main terminal of Washington Dulles International Airport
Washington Dulles International Airport
is one of the few surviving examples of Space Age architecture.

Virginia
Virginia
has Amtrak
Amtrak
passenger rail service along several corridors, and Virginia Railway Express
Virginia Railway Express
(VRE) maintains two commuter lines into Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
from Fredericksburg and Manassas. VRE is one of the nation's fastest growing commuter rail services, handling nearly 20,000 passengers a day.[278] The Washington Metro
Washington Metro
rapid transit system serves Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
as far west as communities along I-66 in Fairfax County, with expansion plans to reach Loudoun County by 2017.[279] Major freight railroads in Virginia
Virginia
include Norfolk Southern and CSX Transportation. Commuter buses include the Fairfax Connector and the Shenandoah Valley
Shenandoah Valley
Commuter Bus. The Virginia Department of Transportation operates several free ferries throughout Virginia, the most notable being the Jamestown-Scotland ferry which crosses the James River
James River
in Surry County.[280] Virginia
Virginia
has five major airports: Washington Dulles International and Reagan Washington National in Northern Virginia, both of which handle over 20 million passengers a year; Richmond International; and Newport News/Williamsburg International Airport and Norfolk International serving the Hampton Roads
Hampton Roads
area. Several other airports offer limited commercial passenger service, and sixty-six public airports serve the state's aviation needs.[281] The Virginia
Virginia
Port Authority's main seaports are those in Hampton Roads, which carried 17,726,251 short tons (16,080,984 t) of bulk cargo in 2007, the sixth most of United States
United States
ports.[282] The Eastern Shore of Virginia
Eastern Shore of Virginia
is the site of Wallops Flight Facility, a rocket testing center owned by NASA, and the Mid-Atlantic Regional Spaceport, a commercial spaceport.[283][284] Space tourism
Space tourism
is also offered through Vienna-based Space Adventures.[285] Law and government Main article: Government of Virginia

The Virginia
Virginia
State Capitol, designed by Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
and Charles-Louis Clérisseau, is home to the Virginia
Virginia
General Assembly.

In colonial Virginia, free men elected the lower house of the legislature, called the House of Burgesses, which together with the Governor's Council, made the "General Assembly". Founded in 1619, the Virginia General Assembly
Virginia General Assembly
is still in existence as the oldest legislature in the Western Hemisphere.[286] In 2008, the government was ranked by the Pew Center on the States with an A− in terms of its efficiency, effectiveness, and infrastructure, tied with Utah
Utah
and Washington. This was the second consecutive time that Virginia received the highest grade in the nation.[11] Since 1971, the government has functioned under the seventh Constitution of Virginia, which provides for a strong legislature and a unified judicial system. Similar to the federal structure, the government is divided in three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. The legislature is the General Assembly, a bicameral body whose 100-member House of Delegates and 40-member Senate write the laws for the Commonwealth. The Assembly is stronger than the executive, as it selects judges and justices. The Governor and Lieutenant Governor are elected every four years in separate elections. Incumbent governors cannot run for re-election, however the Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General can, and governors may serve non-consecutive terms.[287] The judicial system, the oldest in America, consists of a hierarchy from the Supreme Court of Virginia and the Court of Appeals of Virginia to the Circuit Courts, the trial courts of general jurisdiction, and the lower General District Courts and Juvenile and Domestic Relations District Courts.[288] The Code of Virginia
Code of Virginia
is the statutory law, and consists of the codified legislation of the General Assembly. The Virginia
Virginia
State Police is the largest law enforcement agency in Virginia. The Virginia Capitol Police is the oldest police department in the United States.[289] The Virginia National Guard
Virginia National Guard
consists of 7,500 soldiers in the Virginia Army National Guard
Virginia Army National Guard
and 1,200 airmen in the Virginia
Virginia
Air National Guard.[290] Since the resumption of capital punishment in Virginia
Virginia
in 1982, 107 people have been executed, the second highest number in the nation.[291] The "total crime risk" is 28% lower than the national average.[292] Since Virginia
Virginia
ended prisoner parole in 1995, the rate of recidivism has fallen to 28.3%, among the lowest nationwide.[293] Virginia
Virginia
is an open-carry state. Politics Main article: Politics of Virginia See also: Democratic Party of Virginia, Green Party of Virginia, Independent Greens of Virginia, Libertarian Party of Virginia, Political party strength in Virginia, and Republican Party of Virginia

Presidential elections results[294]

Year Republicans Democrats

2016 44.43% 1,769,443 49.75% 1,981,473

2012 47.28% 1,822,522 51.16% 1,971,820

2008 46.33% 1,725,005 52.63% 1,959,532

2004 53.68% 1,716,959 45.48% 1,454,742

2000 52.47% 1,437,490 44.44% 1,217,290

1996 47.10% 1,138,350 45.15% 1,091,060

1992 44.97% 1,150,517 40.59% 1,038,650

1988 59.74% 1,309,162 39.23% 859,799

1984 62.29% 1,337,078 37.09% 796,250

1980 53.03% 989,609 40.31% 752,174

Over the 20th century, Virginia
Virginia
shifted from a largely rural, politically Southern and conservative state to a more urbanized, pluralistic, and politically moderate environment. Up until the 1970s, Virginia
Virginia
was a racially divided one-party state dominated by the Byrd Organization.[295] The legacy of slavery in the state effectively disfranchised African Americans until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-1960s.[296] Enfranchisement and immigration of other groups, especially Hispanics, have placed growing importance on minority voting,[297] while voters that identify as "white working-class" declined by three percent between 2008 and 2012.[298] Regional differences play a large part in Virginia
Virginia
politics.[299] Rural southern and western areas moved to support the Republican Party in response to its "southern strategy", while urban and growing suburban areas, including much of Northern Virginia, form the Democratic Party base.[300][301] Democratic support also persists in union-influenced Roanoke in Southwest Virginia, college towns such as Charlottesville and Blacksburg, and the southeastern Black Belt Region.[302] Political party strength in Virginia has likewise been in flux. In the 2007 state elections, Democrats regained control of the State Senate, and narrowed the Republican majority in the House of Delegates to eight seats.[303] Yet elections in 2009 resulted in the election of Republican Bob McDonnell
Bob McDonnell
as Governor by a seventeen-point margin, the election of a Republican Lieutenant Governor and Attorney General, as well as Republican gains of six seats in the House of Delegates.[304] In 2011, the Republican caucus took over two-thirds (68–32) of the seats in the House of Delegates, and a majority of the Senate based on the Lieutenant Governor Bill Bolling
Bill Bolling
as the tie-breaker.[305] Following the 2013 elections, Democrat Terry McAuliffe
Terry McAuliffe
was elected Governor by two percentage points,[306][307] and Democrat Ralph Northam was elected Lieutenant Governor by double digits.[308][309] Republicans, however, maintained their super-majority (68–32) in the House of Delegates.[308][310] State election seasons traditionally start with the annual Shad Planking
Shad Planking
event in Wakefield.[311] In federal elections since 2006, both parties have seen successes. Republican Senator George Allen lost close races in 2006, to Democratic newcomer Jim Webb, and again in 2012, to Webb's replacement, former Governor Tim Kaine.[312] In 2008, Democrats won both United States Senate
United States Senate
seats; former Governor Mark Warner
Mark Warner
was elected to replace retiring Republican John Warner.[313] The state went Republican in 13 out of 14 presidential elections from 1952 to 2004, including 10 in a row from 1968 to 2004. However, Democrat Barack Obama
Barack Obama
carried Virginia's 13 electoral votes in both the 2008 and 2012 presidential elections.[298] In the 2010 elections, Republicans won three United States House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
seats from the Democrats. Of the state's eleven seats in the House of Representatives, Republicans hold seven and Democrats hold four. Virginia
Virginia
is considered a "swing state" in future presidential elections.[9] In the 2016 U.S. presidential election, Democrat Hillary Clinton carried Virginia, marking the third consecutive win for the Democratic Party at the presidential level and the first time the state gave its electoral votes to a Democrat who did not win the national Electoral Vote, since 1924. In contrast, the state gave Donald J. Trump
Donald J. Trump
the smallest percentage of Virginian votes for any Republican Party presidential nominee since Thomas E. Dewey
Thomas E. Dewey
in 1948. Sports See also: Sports teams in Virginia

The Virginia Tech
Virginia Tech
Hokies football team has the second-longest bowl game streak in the nation.[314]

Virginia
Virginia
is the most populous U.S. state
U.S. state
without a major professional sports league franchise.[315] The reasons for this include the lack of any dominant city or market within the state, the proximity of teams in Washington, D.C.
Washington, D.C.
and North Carolina, and a reluctance to publicly finance stadiums.[316][317] However, in recent years, the city of Virginia Beach
Virginia Beach
has proposed a new arena designed to lure a major league franchise. Norfolk is host to two minor league teams: The AAA Norfolk Tides
Norfolk Tides
and the ECHL's Norfolk Admirals. The San Francisco Giants' AA team, the Richmond Flying Squirrels, began play at The Diamond in 2010, replacing the AAA Richmond Braves, who relocated after 2008.[318] Additionally, the Washington Nationals, Boston Red Sox, Cleveland Indians, Atlanta
Atlanta
Braves, Pittsburgh Pirates, New York Yankees, and Toronto
Toronto
Blue Jays also have Single-A and Rookie-level farm teams in Virginia.[319] The state is also home to United Soccer League club, the Richmond Kickers.[320] The Washington Redskins
Washington Redskins
have Redskins Park, their headquarters, in Ashburn and their training facility is in Richmond,[321] and the Washington Capitals
Washington Capitals
train at Kettler Capitals Iceplex
Kettler Capitals Iceplex
in Ballston. Virginia
Virginia
has many professional caliber golf courses including the Greg Norman course at Lansdowne Resort and Kingsmill Resort, home of the Kingsmill Championship, an LPGA Tour
LPGA Tour
tournament. NASCAR
NASCAR
currently schedules Sprint Cup races on two tracks in Virginia: Martinsville Speedway and Richmond International Raceway. Virginia
Virginia
natives currently competing in the series include Denny Hamlin
Denny Hamlin
and Elliott Sadler.[322] Virginia
Virginia
does not allow state appropriated funds to be used for either operational or capital expenses for intercollegiate athletics.[323] Despite this, both the Virginia Cavaliers
Virginia Cavaliers
and Virginia Tech
Virginia Tech
Hokies have been able to field competitive teams in the Atlantic Coast Conference and maintain modern facilities. Their rivalry is followed statewide. Twelve other universities compete in NCAA Division I, particularly in the Atlantic 10 Conference, Big South Conference, and Colonial Athletic Association. Three historically black schools compete in the Division II Central Intercollegiate Athletic Association, and two others compete in the Division I Mid-Eastern Athletic Conference. Several smaller schools compete in the Old Dominion
Dominion
Athletic Conference and the USA South Athletic Conference
USA South Athletic Conference
of NCAA Division III. The NCAA currently holds its Division III championships in football, men's basketball, volleyball and softball in Salem.[324] State symbols Main article: List of Virginia
Virginia
state symbols

The state slogan, " Virginia
Virginia
is for Lovers," was developed in 1968 and is featured on the state's welcome signs

The state nickname is its oldest symbol, though it has never been made official by law. Virginia
Virginia
was given the title "Dominion" by King Charles II of England
Charles II of England
at the time of The Restoration, because it had remained loyal to the crown during the English Civil War, and the present moniker, "Old Dominion" is a reference to that title. Charles' supporters were called Cavaliers, and "The Cavalier
Cavalier
State" nickname was popularized after the American Civil War
American Civil War
to romanticize the antebellum period. Sports teams from the University of Virginia
University of Virginia
are called the Cavaliers.[325] The other nickname, "Mother of Presidents", is also historic, as eight Virginians have served as President of the United States, including four of the first five.[1] The state's motto, Sic Semper Tyrannis, translates from Latin as "Thus Always to Tyrants", and is used on the state seal, which is then used on the flag. While the seal was designed in 1776, and the flag was first used in the 1830s, both were made official in 1930.[1] The majority of the other symbols were made official in the late 20th century.[326] The Virginia
Virginia
reel is among the square dances classified as the state dance.[12] In March 2015, after 20 years without a state song, Virginia
Virginia
received two: "Our Great Virginia" (official traditional state song) and "Sweet Virginia
Virginia
Breeze" (official popular state song).[327] In 1940, Virginia
Virginia
made "Carry Me Back to Old Virginny" the state song, but it was retired in 1997 and reclassified as the state song emeritus.[328]

Mammal: Virginia
Virginia
big-eared bat Beverages: Milk, Rye Whiskey Boat: Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
deadrise Bird: Cardinal

Dance: Square dancing Dog: American Foxhound Fish: Brook trout, striped bass Flower/Tree: Dogwood

Fossil: Chesapecten jeffersonius Insect: Tiger swallowtail Motto: Sic Semper Tyrannis Nickname: The Old Dominion

Shell: Eastern oyster Slogan: Virginia
Virginia
is for Lovers Songs: "Our Great Virginia", "Sweet Virginia
Virginia
Breeze" Tartan: Virginia
Virginia
Quadricentennial

See also

United States
United States
portal Virginia
Virginia
portal

Index of Virginia-related articles Outline of Virginia

References

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Peninsula

Metro areas

Blacksburg-Christiansburg-Radford Bluefield Bristol Charlottesville Danville Harrisonburg Lynchburg Martinsville Richmond Roanoke Staunton-Waynesboro Norfolk- Virginia
Virginia
Beach Washington-Arlington-Alexandria Winchester

Counties

Accomack Albemarle Alleghany Amelia Amherst Appomattox Arlington Augusta Bath Bedford Bland Botetourt Brunswick Buchanan Buckingham Campbell Caroline Carroll Charles City Charlotte Chesterfield Clarke Craig Culpeper Cumberland Dickenson Dinwiddie Essex Fairfax Fauquier Floyd Fluvanna Franklin Frederick Giles Gloucester Goochland Grayson Greene Greensville Halifax Hanover Henrico Henry Highland Isle of Wight James City King and Queen King George King William Lancaster Lee Loudoun Louisa Lunenburg Madison Mathews Mecklenburg Middlesex Montgomery Nelson New Kent Northampton Northumberland Nottoway Orange Page Patrick Pittsylvania Powhatan Prince Edward Prince George Prince William Pulaski Rappahannock Richmond Roanoke Rockbridge Rockingham Russell Scott Shenandoah Smyth Southampton Spotsylvania Stafford Surry Sussex Tazewell Warren Washington Westmoreland Wise Wythe York

Independent cities

Alexandria Bristol Buena Vista Charlottesville Chesapeake Colonial Heights Covington Danville Emporia Fairfax Falls Church Franklin Fredericksburg Galax Hampton Harrisonburg Hopewell Lexington Lynchburg Manassas Manassas Park Martinsville Newport News Norfolk Norton Petersburg Poquoson Portsmouth Radford Richmond Roanoke Salem Staunton Suffolk Virginia
Virginia
Beach Waynesboro Williamsburg Winchester

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Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Virginia

Will Sessoms ( Virginia
Virginia
Beach) Kenny Alexander (Norfolk) Rick West (Chesapeake) Katie Cristola (Arlington) Levar Stoney (Richmond) McKinley Price (Newport News) Allison Silberberg (Alexandria) Donnie Tuck (Hampton)

^a Chair of the County Board

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Protected areas of Virginia

Federal

National Parks

Shenandoah

National Historical Parks, Historic Sites & Monuments

Appomattox Court House NHP Arlington House Booker T. Washington NM Cedar Creek and Belle Grove NHP Claude Moore Colonial Farm Colonial NHP Cumberland Gap NHP Fort Monroe
Fort Monroe
NM George Washington
George Washington
Birthplace NM Harpers Ferry NHP Maggie L. Walker NHS

National Military Parks, Battlefields & Battlefield Parks

Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania NMP Manassas NBP Petersburg NB Richmond NBP

National Cemeteries

Alexandria Arlington Balls Bluff City Point Cold Harbor Culpeper Danville Fort Harrison Fredericksburg Glendale Hampton Hampton VA Poplar Grove Quantico Richmond Seven Pines Staunton Winchester Yorktown

National Parkways

Blue Ridge Parkway George Washington
George Washington
Memorial Parkway

National Trails

Appalachian Trail Captain John Smith Chesapeake NHT Overmountain Victory NHT Potomac Heritage Trail Star-Spangled Banner NHT

National Wildlife Refuges

Back Bay Chincoteague Eastern Shore of Virginia Mason Neck Featherstone Fisherman Island Glenn Martin Great Dismal Swamp James River Nansemond Occoquan Bay Plum Tree Island Presquile Rappahannock River
Rappahannock River
Valley Wallops Island

National Forests

George Washington
George Washington
and Jefferson

USFS National Recreation Areas

Mount Rogers
Mount Rogers
National Recreation Area

Other NPS Areas

Assateague Island National Seashore Chesapeake Bay
Chesapeake Bay
Gateways Network Prince William Forest Park Wolf Trap NP for the Performing Arts

Wilderness Areas

Barbours Creek James River
James River
Face Mountain Lake Priest Ramsey's Draft Rich Hole Rough Mountain Saint Mary's Three Ridges

National Estuarine Research Reserves

Chesapeake Bay

State

State parks

Bear Creek Lake Belle Isle Biscuit Run Breaks Interstate Caledon Chippokes Plantation Claytor Lake Douthat Fairy Stone False Cape First Landing Grayson Highlands High Bridge Trail Holliday Lake Hungry Mother James River Kiptopeke Lake Anna Leesylvania Mason Neck Natural Bridge Natural Tunnel New River Trail Occoneechee Pocahontas Powhatan Sailor's Creek Battlefield Shot Tower Shenandoah River Sky Meadows Smith Mountain Lake Southwest Virginia
Southwest Virginia
Museum Staunton River Staunton River Battlefield Tabb Monument Twin Lakes Westmoreland Wilderness Road York River

State forests

Appomattox-Buckingham Big Woods Bourassa Browne Channels Chilton Woods Conway-Robinson Crawfords Cumberland Devil's Backbone Dragon Run Hawks Lesesne Matthews Moore's Creek Niday Place Paul Prince Edward-Gallion Sandy Point Whitney Zoar

Natural Area Preserves

Antioch Pines Bethel Beach Big Spring Bog Blackwater Buffalo Mountain Bull Run Mountains Bush Mill Stream Camp Branch Wetlands Cape Charles Coastal Habitat The Cedars The Channels Cherry Orchard Bog Chestnut Creek Wetlands Chestnut Ridge Chotank Creek Chub Sandhill Cleveland Barrens Clover Hollow Cowbane Prairie Crow's Nest Cumberland Marsh Dameron Marsh Deep Run Ponds Dendron Swamp Difficult Creek Elklick Woodlands False Cape Folly Mills Creek Fen Goshen Pass Grafton Ponds Grassy Hill Grayson Glades Hickory Hollow Hughlett Point Johnsons Creek Magothy Bay Mark's and Jack's Island Mount Joy Pond Mutton Hunk Fen Naked Mountain New Point Comfort North Landing River Northwest River Ogdens Cave Parkers Marsh Parramore Island Pedlar Hills Glades Pinnacle Poor Mountain Redrock Mountain Savage Neck Dunes Unthanks Cave William B. Trower Bayshore Wreck Island

Wildlife Management Areas

Amelia Big Survey Big Woods Briery Creek Chester F. Phelps Cavalier Chickahominy Clinch Mountain Crooked Creek Dick Cross Fairystone Farms Featherfin G. Richard Thompson Game Farm Marsh Goshen and Little North Mountain Hardware River Havens Hidden Valley Highland Hog Island Horsepen Lake James River Land's End Mattaponi Mockhorn Island Pettigrew Powhatan Princess Anne Ragged Island Rapidan Saxis Short Hills Smith Mountain Cooperative Stewarts Creek T. M. Gathright Turkeycock Weston White Oak Mountain

Other

Registered Historic Places in Virginia

Virginia
Virginia
Landmarks Register National Register of Historic Places
National Register of Historic Places
listings in Virginia Bridges National Historic Landmarks

Virginia
Virginia
Department of Conservation and Recreation Virginia
Virginia
Department of Forestry Virginia
Virginia
Department of Game and Inland Fisheries Virginia
Virginia
Department of Historic Resources

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Southern United States

Topics

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States

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Major cities

Atlanta Birmingham Charleston Charlotte Columbia Dallas Fort Worth Greensboro Houston Jacksonville Little Rock Memphis Miami Nashville New Orleans Norfolk Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Orlando Raleigh Richmond Tampa Tulsa

State capitals

Atlanta Austin Baton Rouge Charleston Columbia Jackson Little Rock Montgomery Nashville Raleigh Richmond Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Tallahassee

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Political divisions of the Confederate States (1861–65)

States

Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia

West Virginia1

States in exile

Kentucky Missouri

Territory

Arizona2

1 Admitted to the Union June 20, 1863. 2 Organized January 18, 1862.

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Political divisions of the United States

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

Indian reservations

List of Indian reservations

Coordinates: 37°30′N 79°00′W / 37.5°N 79°W / 37.5; -79

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 128935789 LCCN: n79022909 ISNI: 0000 0004 0458 885X GND: 4063592-2 SELIBR: 16

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