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(i)

Tufts University Johns Hopkins University

Known for Mendelian Inheritance in Man, OMIM and McKusick–Kaufman syndrome

Awards William Allan Award (1977) Lasker Award (1997) Japan Prize
Japan Prize
(2008)

Victor Almon McKusick (October 21, 1921 – July 22, 2008) was an American internist and medical geneticist, and Professor of Medicine at the Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore.[1] He was a proponent of the mapping of the human genome due to its use for studying congenital diseases. He is well known for his studies of the Amish
Amish
and, what he called, "little people". He was the original author and, until his death, remained chief editor of Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) and its online counterpart Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). He is widely known as the "father of medical genetics".[2]

Contents

1 Personal life 2 Medical career

2.1 Education 2.2 Work at Hopkins 2.3 Organizations 2.4 Publications and research 2.5 Study of genes among the Amish

3 Awards and honors 4 Death 5 See also 6 References 7 Further reading 8 External links

Personal life[edit] Victor and his identical twin Vincent L. McKusick were born on October 21, 1921. Victor was one of five children. His father was a graduate of Bates College.[1] Before deciding to work as a dairy farmer, Victor's father served as a high school principal in Chester, Vermont. Victor's mother had been an elementary school teacher before marrying. Victor and his siblings were raised on a dairy farm in Parkman, Maine.[2] During the summer of 1937, Victor suffered a severe microaerophilic Streptococcus
Streptococcus
infection in his axilla.[3] As a result, Victor spent time in two hospitals, one of which was Massachusetts General Hospital. He finally saw a successful diagnosis and course of treatment, using sulfanilamide during his ten weeks at Massachusetts General.[1] Since none of his close family were doctors, the events of 1937 represented McKusick's first substantial experience with the medical community. He stated, "Perhaps I would have ended up a lawyer if it weren't for the microaerophilic streptococcus."[2] Victor married Anne Bishop McKusick in 1949. Anne served Johns Hopkins Hospital as Associate Professor of Medicine in the Division of Rheumatology.[1] The couple had two sons, Victor and Kenneth, and a daughter, Carol.[4] Medical career[edit] Education[edit] After high school, Victor chose to study at Tufts University, and studied there for six semesters from the fall of 1940 to the summer of 1942.[5] Although Tufts had an associated medical school, Victor was fascinated by Johns Hopkins and by its dedication to medical research, and chose to attend Hopkins Medical School instead. The history and research environment of Hopkins excited McKusick, and during World War II
World War II
The Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
School of Medicine could not fill its classes. Therefore, the school temporarily discontinued requiring a baccalaureate degree as for admission for the first time since the school's founding in 1893.[1] Victor applied during his sixth semester at Tufts, and began in the fall of 1942, as one of the first, of very few, who ever entered the school without a bachelor's degree. Victor never earned a baccalaureate degree, although he has been awarded over 20 honorary degrees.[6] He earned his Doctor of Medicine through an accelerated program in only three years.[5] He was offered the prestigious William Osler
William Osler
Internship in Internal Medicine at Johns Hopkins Hospital, and chose to remain at Hopkins for his residency.[1] He completed his residency training as a cardiologist, since the department of genetics did not exist at the time. McKusick specialized in heart murmurs, and utilized spectroscopy to analyze heart sounds.[2] Work at Hopkins[edit] In 1956 McKusick traveled to Copenhagen
Copenhagen
to speak about the heritable disorders of connective tissue at the first international congress of human genetics. The meeting looms as the birthplace of the medical genetics field.[2] In the following decades, McKusick went on to head the Chronic Disease Clinic and created and chaired a new Division of Medical Genetics at Hopkins beginning in 1957. In 1973, he served as Physician-in-Chief, William Osler
William Osler
Professor of Medicine, and Chairman of the Department of Medicine at Johns Hopkins Hospital
Johns Hopkins Hospital
and School of Medicine.[7] McKusick resigned the appointments in 1985, but continued to teach, conduct research, and practice medicine in the Departments of Medicine and Medical Genetics. He held concurrent appointments as University Professor of Medical Genetics at the McKusick–Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine, Professor of Medicine at the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Professor of Epidemiology
Epidemiology
at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, and Professor of Biology at Johns Hopkins University.[5] He held numerous faculty appointments while remaining at Johns Hopkins until his death in 2008.[1] Organizations[edit] In 1960, McKusick founded and co-directed the Annual Short Course in Medical and Experimental Mammalian Genetics at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine.[2] He published Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM), which was the first published catalog of all known genes and genetic disorders, in 1966.[7] The complete text of MIM was made available online free of charge beginning in 1987, and titled Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM).[2] The 12th and final print edition was published in 1998. The online database is continually updated, and linked with the National Center for Biotechnology Information.[5] OMIM is distributed through the National Library of Medicine, and has been a part of the Entrez
Entrez
database network system since 1995. At the time of McKusick's death, OMIM contained 18,847 entries. He also led the Annual Course in Medical Genetics at the University of Bologna
University of Bologna
Residential Center in Bertinoro di Romagna, Italy in 1987.[8] McKusick was founding president of the Human Genome Organization in 1989.[4] Publications and research[edit] McKusick wrote extensively on the history of medicine, genetics, medical genetics, and about Parkman, Maine. He co-founded Genomics in 1987 with Dr. Frank Ruddle, and served as an editor.[7] He led a Congressionally-chartered committee examining the ethics of testing Abraham Lincoln's tissue for the presence of Marfan syndrome
Marfan syndrome
genes.[9] His well-known published articles include:

Probable Assignment of the Duffy Blood Group Locus to Chromosome 1 in Man (1968)[10] The Anatomy of the Human Genome: a Neo-Vesalian Basis for Medicine in the 21st Century (2001)[11] "On lumpers and splitters, or the nosology of genetic disease."[12]

In a 2005 paper presented by M.I. Poling, McKusick said:

"I have always told my students, residents, and fellows, if you want to really get on top of some topic, you need to know how it got from where it was to how it is now. I was always strong on eponyms, too—like Marfan syndrome, Freeman–Sheldon syndrome, Down syndrome, Tay–Sachs disease, etc. On rounds, the resident or student would present a patient with some particular condition, and I would always ask, so who is so and so for whom the disease was named. This prompts thought and research into the disease or condition itself to find out who first described it and, therefore, for whom it was named."[3]

Victor McKusick taking a picture of an Amish
Amish
child's hands during his study of the Amish.

Study of genes among the Amish[edit] McKusick's study of genetics among the Amish
Amish
is perhaps his most famous research. On his first trip to Amish
Amish
homes, he was accompanied by Dr. David Krusen who had an extensive medical practice among the Amish
Amish
in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. McKusick spoke about his introduction to Krusen's work, stating, "He [Krusen] indicated to the author of the article—in a slick-paper, pharma-ceutical company 'throw-away’—that achondroplasia is frequent among the Amish.[13] Initial study led to the identification of two recessive conditions named Ellis-van Creveldsyndrome syndrome and cartilage-hair hypoplasia (later named metaphyseal chondrodysplasia, McKusick type).[13] McKusick listed fifteen advantages to studying genetics among the Amish. Today, these fifteen reasons are argued to be true as well. McKusick's findings led many other researchers to study hereditary related diseases in the 1960s and 1970s. Other researchers and McKusick cite the Amish
Amish
as working cooperatively with researchers to determine the reason for inherited diseases. McKusick published his official findings from working with the Amish
Amish
in 1978, titled Medical Genetic Studies of the Amish.[13] Awards and honors[edit] McKusick has more than 20 honorary degrees throughout and after his career.[6] Some of the awards he won are listed below:

Gairdner International Award from The Gairdner Foundation in 1977.[14] William Allan Award from The American Society of Human Genetics in 1977.[15] NAS Award for Scientific Reviewing from the National Academy of Sciences in 1982.[16] George M. Kober Medal from the Association of American Physicians in 1990.[17] Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Sciences from the American Philosophical Society
American Philosophical Society
in 1996.[18] Albert Lasker Award for Special
Special
Achievement in Medical Science from The Lasker Foundation in 1997.[19] Japan Prize
Japan Prize
for Medical Genetics, for pioneering the field of medical genetics, in 2008 from The Japan Prize
Japan Prize
Foundation.[20] McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine at Johns Hopkins Hospital named after McKusick and fellow distinguished geneticist Daniel Nathans.[21]

Death[edit] McKusick died of cancer at the age of 86, on July 22, 2008.[3] He died at his home right outside of Baltimore, in Towson, Maryland.[1] On the 21st, the day before he died, he watched a live-stream of a course on medical genetics from Bar Harbor, Maine, which he helped found and direct in 1960.[5] See also[edit]

McKusick–Kaufman syndrome

References[edit]

^ a b c d e f g h The Victor A. McKusick
Victor A. McKusick
Papers: Biographical Information. Profiles.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved on May 9, 2016. ^ a b c d e f g Comfort, Nathaniel. The Science of Human Perfection: How Genes Became the Heart of American Medicine. Yale University Press.  ^ a b c Mahesh, M (1 December 2014). "Victor A McKusick: From "musical murmurs" to "medical genetics"" (PDF). Journal, Indian Academy of Clinical Medicine.  ^ a b Altman, Lawrence K. (July 24, 2008). "Victor McKusick, 86, Dies; Medical Genetics Pioneer". New York Times. Retrieved April 23, 2015.  ^ a b c d e Weisfeldt, M. L.; Ross, R. S. (2009). "Victor A. Mc Kusick, M.D.: 1921–2008". Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association. 120: civ–cviii. PMC 2744554 .  ^ a b Luminaries, M – Z. Tufts Alumni. Retrieved on May 9, 2016. ^ a b c Kazazian, Haig (October 2008). "Remembering Victor McKusick". Genomics. 92 (4): 185–186. doi:10.1016/j.ygeno.2008.08.009. Retrieved September 20, 2013.  ^ Romeo, Giovanni (October 1, 2008). "Victor McKusick, 1921–2008: the founder of medical genetics as we know it". European Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (10): 1161–1163. doi:10.1038/ejhg.2008.166. PMID 18818718.  ^ Leery, Warren L. (May 3, 1991). "Panel Backs DNA Tests on Lincoln's Tissue". New York Times. Retrieved April 23, 2015.  ^ McKusick, Victor (September 5, 1988). "Probable Assignment of the Duffy Blood Group Locus to Chromosome 1 in Man". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 61 (3): 949–55. doi:10.1073/pnas.61.3.949. PMC 305420 . PMID 5246559.  ^ McKusick, Victor (November 14, 2001). "The Anatomy of the Human Genome: a Neo-Vesalian Basis for Medicine in the 21st Century". The Journal of the American Medical Association. 286 (18): 2289–95. doi:10.1001/jama.286.18.2289. PMID 11710895.  ^ McKusick, Victor (Winter 1969). "On lumpers and splitters, or the nosology of genetic disease". Perspect Biol Med. 12 (2): 298–312. doi:10.1353/pbm.1969.0039. PMID 4304823.  ^ a b c Francomano, Clair (August 15, 2003). "Medical Genetic Studies in the Amish: Historical Perspective". American Journal of Medical Genetics. 121C (1): 1–4. doi:10.1002/ajmg.c.20001. PMID 12888981.  ^ Past Recipients. Gairdner. Retrieved on May 9, 2016. ^ "Past Recipients". American Society of Human Genetics.  ^ NAS Award for Scientific Reviewing. nasonline.org ^ AAP » George M. Kober Medal and Lectureship. Aap-online.org. Retrieved on May 9, 2016. ^ Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the Sciences American Philosophical Society. Amphilsoc.org. Retrieved on May 9, 2016. ^ Albert Lasker Award for Special
Special
Achievement in Medical Science. laskerfoundation.org ^ "Laureates of the Japan Prize". japanprize.jp.  ^ McKusick-Nathans Institute of Genetic Medicine. Hopkinsmedicine.org. Retrieved on May 9, 2016.

Further reading[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Victor A. McKusick.

"McKusick, Victor Almon in Marquis Who Was Who In America 1985–present". Harvard. Retrieved September 23, 2013.  "Victor A. McKusick." World of Genetics. 2 vols. Gale Group, 2001. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale. 2005. McKusick, V. A. "Structural and Functional Studies of Genomes," (Genomics. 45: 444–449, 1997). Crow, E. W., and J. F. Crow. "100 Years Ago: Walter Sutton and the Chromosome Theory of Heredity," (Genetics 160:1–4, 2002). McKusick, V. A. "Medical Genetics: A 40-Year Perspective on the Evolution of a Medical Specialty from a Basic Science," (Journal of the American Medical Association, 270:2351–2356, 1993). McKusick, V. A. Medical Genetic Studies of the Amish: Selected Papers, Assembled with Commentary, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University
Johns Hopkins University
Press, 1978). McKusick, V. A. A Synopsis of Clinical Auscultation, Being a Treatise on Cardiovascular and Respiratory Sound, Introduced by an Historical Survey, Illustrated by Sound Spectrograms (Spectral Phonocardiograms), and Supplemented by a Comprehensive Bibliography. Privately printed and bound, in limited numbers, (Baltimore: January 1, 1956). McKusick, V. A. "Biographical Memoirs: A. McGehee Harvey (30 July 1911 – 8 May 1998)," (Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 144:85–94, 2000). McKusick, V. A. "Marcella O’Grady Boveri (1865–1950) and the Chromosome Theory of Cancer," (Journal of Medical Genetics. 22: 431–440, 1985). McKusick, V. A. "The Anatomy of the Human Genome: a Neo-Vesalian Basis for Medicine in the 21st Century," (Journal of the American Medical Association. 286(18):2289–2295, 2001). McKusick, V. A. "Mapping the Human Genome: Retrospective, Perspective and Prospective," (Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 141(4):417–424, 1997). McKusick, V. A. "The Human Genome Project: Status, Prospects, and Implications for Ethics, Society, and the Law," (Presented at: 7th International Association of Catholic Medical Schools, Santiago, Chile. January 1994).

External links[edit]

The Victor McKusick collection (personal papers) The Victor A. McKusick
Victor A. McKusick
Papers – Profiles in Science, National Library of Medicine Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (to search OMIM)

v t e

United States National Medal of Science
National Medal of Science
laureates

Behavioral and social science

1960s

1964: Roger Adams Othmar H. Ammann Theodosius Dobzhansky Neal Elgar Miller

1980s

1986: Herbert A. Simon 1987: Anne Anastasi George J. Stigler 1988: Milton Friedman

1990s

1990: Leonid Hurwicz Patrick Suppes 1991: Robert W. Kates George A. Miller 1992: Eleanor J. Gibson 1994: Robert K. Merton 1995: Roger N. Shepard 1996: Paul Samuelson 1997: William K. Estes 1998: William Julius Wilson 1999: Robert M. Solow

2000s

2000: Gary Becker 2001: George Bass 2003: R. Duncan Luce 2004: Kenneth Arrow 2005: Gordon H. Bower 2008: Michael I. Posner 2009: Mortimer Mishkin

2010s

2011: Anne Treisman 2014: Robert Axelrod 2015: Albert Bandura

Biological sciences

1960s

1963: C. B. van Niel 1964: Marshall W. Nirenberg 1965: Francis P. Rous George G. Simpson Donald D. Van Slyke 1966: Edward F. Knipling Fritz Albert Lipmann William C. Rose Sewall Wright 1967: Kenneth S. Cole Harry F. Harlow Michael Heidelberger Alfred H. Sturtevant 1968: Horace Barker Bernard B. Brodie Detlev W. Bronk Jay Lush Burrhus Frederic Skinner 1969: Robert Huebner Ernst Mayr

1970s

1970: Barbara McClintock Albert B. Sabin 1973: Daniel I. Arnon Earl W. Sutherland Jr. 1974: Britton Chance Erwin Chargaff James V. Neel James Augustine Shannon 1975: Hallowell Davis Paul Gyorgy Sterling B. Hendricks Orville Alvin Vogel 1976: Roger Guillemin Keith Roberts Porter Efraim Racker E. O. Wilson 1979: Robert H. Burris Elizabeth C. Crosby Arthur Kornberg Severo Ochoa Earl Reece Stadtman George Ledyard Stebbins Paul Alfred Weiss

1980s

1981: Philip Handler 1982: Seymour Benzer Glenn W. Burton Mildred Cohn 1983: Howard L. Bachrach Paul Berg Wendell L. Roelofs Berta Scharrer 1986: Stanley Cohen Donald A. Henderson Vernon B. Mountcastle George Emil Palade Joan A. Steitz 1987: Michael E. DeBakey Theodor O. Diener Harry Eagle Har Gobind Khorana Rita Levi-Montalcini 1988: Michael S. Brown Stanley Norman Cohen Joseph L. Goldstein Maurice R. Hilleman Eric R. Kandel Rosalyn Sussman Yalow 1989: Katherine Esau Viktor Hamburger Philip Leder Joshua Lederberg Roger W. Sperry Harland G. Wood

1990s

1990: Baruj Benacerraf Herbert W. Boyer Daniel E. Koshland Jr. Edward B. Lewis David G. Nathan E. Donnall Thomas 1991: Mary Ellen Avery G. Evelyn Hutchinson Elvin A. Kabat Salvador Luria Paul A. Marks Folke K. Skoog Paul C. Zamecnik 1992: Maxine Singer Howard Martin Temin 1993: Daniel Nathans Salome G. Waelsch 1994: Thomas Eisner Elizabeth F. Neufeld 1995: Alexander Rich 1996: Ruth Patrick 1997: James Watson Robert A. Weinberg 1998: Bruce Ames Janet Rowley 1999: David Baltimore Jared Diamond Lynn Margulis

2000s

2000: Nancy C. Andreasen Peter H. Raven Carl Woese 2001: Francisco J. Ayala Mario R. Capecchi Ann Graybiel Gene E. Likens Victor A. McKusick Harold Varmus 2002: James E. Darnell Evelyn M. Witkin 2003: J. Michael Bishop Solomon H. Snyder Charles Yanofsky 2004: Norman E. Borlaug Phillip A. Sharp Thomas E. Starzl 2005: Anthony S. Fauci Torsten N. Wiesel 2006: Rita R. Colwell Nina Fedoroff Lubert Stryer 2007: Robert J. Lefkowitz Bert W. O'Malley 2008: Francis S. Collins Elaine Fuchs J. Craig Venter 2009: Susan L. Lindquist Stanley B. Prusiner

2010s

2010: Ralph L. Brinster Shu Chien Rudolf Jaenisch 2011: Lucy Shapiro Leroy Hood Sallie Chisholm 2014: May Berenbaum Bruce Alberts 2015: Stanley Falkow Rakesh K. Jain Mary-Claire King Simon Levin

Chemistry

1980s

1982: F. Albert Cotton Gilbert Stork 1983: Roald Hoffmann George C. Pimentel Richard N. Zare 1986: Harry B. Gray Yuan Tseh Lee Carl S. Marvel Frank H. Westheimer 1987: William S. Johnson Walter H. Stockmayer Max Tishler 1988: William O. Baker Konrad E. Bloch Elias J. Corey 1989: Richard B. Bernstein Melvin Calvin Rudolph A. Marcus Harden M. McConnell

1990s

1990: Elkan Blout Karl Folkers John D. Roberts 1991: Ronald Breslow Gertrude B. Elion Dudley R. Herschbach Glenn T. Seaborg 1992: Howard E. Simmons Jr. 1993: Donald J. Cram Norman Hackerman 1994: George S. Hammond 1995: Thomas Cech Isabella L. Karle 1996: Norman Davidson 1997: Darleane C. Hoffman Harold S. Johnston 1998: John W. Cahn George M. Whitesides 1999: Stuart A. Rice John Ross Susan Solomon

2000s

2000: John D. Baldeschwieler Ralph F. Hirschmann 2001: Ernest R. Davidson Gábor A. Somorjai 2002: John I. Brauman 2004: Stephen J. Lippard 2006: Marvin H. Caruthers Peter B. Dervan 2007: Mostafa A. El-Sayed 2008: Joanna Fowler JoAnne Stubbe 2009: Stephen J. Benkovic Marye Anne Fox

2010s

2010: Jacqueline K. Barton Peter J. Stang 2011: Allen J. Bard M. Frederick Hawthorne 2014: Judith P. Klinman Jerrold Meinwald 2015: A. Paul Alivisatos Geraldine L. Richmond

Engineering sciences

1960s

1962: Theodore von Kármán 1963: Vannevar Bush John Robinson Pierce 1964: Charles S. Draper 1965: Hugh L. Dryden Clarence L. Johnson Warren K. Lewis 1966: Claude E. Shannon 1967: Edwin H. Land Igor I. Sikorsky 1968: J. Presper Eckert Nathan M. Newmark 1969: Jack St. Clair Kilby

1970s

1970: George E. Mueller 1973: Harold E. Edgerton Richard T. Whitcomb 1974: Rudolf Kompfner Ralph Brazelton Peck Abel Wolman 1975: Manson Benedict William Hayward Pickering Frederick E. Terman Wernher von Braun 1976: Morris Cohen Peter C. Goldmark Erwin Wilhelm Müller 1979: Emmett N. Leith Raymond D. Mindlin Robert N. Noyce Earl R. Parker Simon Ramo

1980s

1982: Edward H. Heinemann Donald L. Katz 1983: William Redington Hewlett George M. Low John G. Trump 1986: Hans Wolfgang Liepmann T. Y. Lin Bernard M. Oliver 1987: R. Byron Bird H. Bolton Seed Ernst Weber 1988: Daniel C. Drucker Willis M. Hawkins George W. Housner 1989: Harry George Drickamer Herbert E. Grier

1990s

1990: Mildred Dresselhaus Nick Holonyak Jr. 1991: George H. Heilmeier Luna B. Leopold H. Guyford Stever 1992: Calvin F. Quate John Roy Whinnery 1993: Alfred Y. Cho 1994: Ray W. Clough 1995: Hermann A. Haus 1996: James L. Flanagan C. Kumar N. Patel 1998: Eli Ruckenstein 1999: Kenneth N. Stevens

2000s

2000: Yuan-Cheng B. Fung 2001: Andreas Acrivos 2002: Leo Beranek 2003: John M. Prausnitz 2004: Edwin N. Lightfoot 2005: Jan D. Achenbach Tobin J. Marks 2006: Robert S. Langer 2007: David J. Wineland 2008: Rudolf E. Kálmán 2009: Amnon Yariv

2010s

2010: Shu Chien 2011: John B. Goodenough 2014: Thomas Kailath

Mathematical, statistical, and computer sciences

1960s

1963: Norbert Wiener 1964: Solomon Lefschetz H. Marston Morse 1965: Oscar Zariski 1966: John Milnor 1967: Paul Cohen 1968: Jerzy Neyman 1969: William Feller

1970s

1970: Richard Brauer 1973: John Tukey 1974: Kurt Gödel 1975: John W. Backus Shiing-Shen Chern George Dantzig 1976: Kurt Otto Friedrichs Hassler Whitney 1979: Joseph L. Doob Donald E. Knuth

1980s

1982: Marshall Harvey Stone 1983: Herman Goldstine Isadore Singer 1986: Peter Lax Antoni Zygmund 1987: Raoul Bott Michael Freedman 1988: Ralph E. Gomory Joseph B. Keller 1989: Samuel Karlin Saunders Mac Lane Donald C. Spencer

1990s

1990: George F. Carrier Stephen Cole Kleene John McCarthy 1991: Alberto Calderón 1992: Allen Newell 1993: Martin David Kruskal 1994: John Cocke 1995: Louis Nirenberg 1996: Richard Karp Stephen Smale 1997: Shing-Tung Yau 1998: Cathleen Synge Morawetz 1999: Felix Browder Ronald R. Coifman

2000s

2000: John Griggs Thompson Karen K. Uhlenbeck 2001: Calyampudi R. Rao Elias M. Stein 2002: James G. Glimm 2003: Carl R. de Boor 2004: Dennis P. Sullivan 2005: Bradley Efron 2006: Hyman Bass 2007: Leonard Kleinrock Andrew J. Viterbi 2009: David B. Mumford

2010s

2010: Richard A. Tapia S. R. Srinivasa Varadhan 2011: Solomon W. Golomb Barry Mazur 2014: Alexandre Chorin David Blackwell 2015: Michael Artin

Physical sciences

1960s

1963: Luis W. Alvarez 1964: Julian Schwinger Harold Clayton Urey Robert Burns Woodward 1965: John Bardeen Peter Debye Leon M. Lederman William Rubey 1966: Jacob Bjerknes Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar Henry Eyring John H. Van Vleck Vladimir K. Zworykin 1967: Jesse Beams Francis Birch Gregory Breit Louis Hammett George Kistiakowsky 1968: Paul Bartlett Herbert Friedman Lars Onsager Eugene Wigner 1969: Herbert C. Brown Wolfgang Panofsky

1970s

1970: Robert H. Dicke Allan R. Sandage John C. Slater John A. Wheeler Saul Winstein 1973: Carl Djerassi Maurice Ewing Arie Jan Haagen-Smit Vladimir Haensel Frederick Seitz Robert Rathbun Wilson 1974: Nicolaas Bloembergen Paul Flory William Alfred Fowler Linus Carl Pauling Kenneth Sanborn Pitzer 1975: Hans A. Bethe Joseph O. Hirschfelder Lewis Sarett Edgar Bright Wilson Chien-Shiung Wu 1976: Samuel Goudsmit Herbert S. Gutowsky Frederick Rossini Verner Suomi Henry Taube George Uhlenbeck 1979: Richard P. Feynman Herman Mark Edward M. Purcell John Sinfelt Lyman Spitzer Victor F. Weisskopf

1980s

1982: Philip W. Anderson Yoichiro Nambu Edward Teller Charles H. Townes 1983: E. Margaret Burbidge Maurice Goldhaber Helmut Landsberg Walter Munk Frederick Reines Bruno B. Rossi J. Robert Schrieffer 1986: Solomon J. Buchsbaum H. Richard Crane Herman Feshbach Robert Hofstadter Chen-Ning Yang 1987: Philip Abelson Walter Elsasser Paul C. Lauterbur George Pake James A. Van Allen 1988: D. Allan Bromley Paul Ching-Wu Chu Walter Kohn Norman F. Ramsey Jack Steinberger 1989: Arnold O. Beckman Eugene Parker Robert Sharp Henry Stommel

1990s

1990: Allan M. Cormack Edwin M. McMillan Robert Pound Roger Revelle 1991: Arthur L. Schawlow Ed Stone Steven Weinberg 1992: Eugene M. Shoemaker 1993: Val Fitch Vera Rubin 1994: Albert Overhauser Frank Press 1995: Hans Dehmelt Peter Goldreich 1996: Wallace S. Broecker 1997: Marshall Rosenbluth Martin Schwarzschild George Wetherill 1998: Don L. Anderson John N. Bahcall 1999: James Cronin Leo Kadanoff

2000s

2000: Willis E. Lamb Jeremiah P. Ostriker Gilbert F. White 2001: Marvin L. Cohen Raymond Davis Jr. Charles Keeling 2002: Richard Garwin W. Jason Morgan Edward Witten 2003: G. Brent Dalrymple Riccardo Giacconi 2004: Robert N. Clayton 2005: Ralph A. Alpher Lonnie Thompson 2006: Daniel Kleppner 2007: Fay Ajzenberg-Selove Charles P. Slichter 2008: Berni Alder James E. Gunn 2009: Yakir Aharonov Esther M. Conwell Warren M. Washington

2010s

2011: Sidney Drell Sandra Faber Sylvester James Gates 2014: Burton Richter Sean C. Solomon 2015: Shirley Ann Jackson

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 108609266 LCCN: n85363833 ISNI: 0000 0001 1081 1833 GND: 106492586 SELIBR: 315249 SUDOC: 031681530 BNF: cb12285036n (da

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