VICTOR ALMON MCKUSICK (October 21, 1921 – July 22, 2008) was an
American internist and medical geneticist , and Professor of Medicine
Johns Hopkins Hospital
* 1 Personal life
* 2 Medical career
* 2.1 Education
* 2.2 Work at Hopkins
* 2.3 Organizations
* 2.4 Publications and research
* 2.5 Study of genes among the
* 3 Awards and honors * 4 Death * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 Further reading * 8 External links
Victor and his identical twin
Vincent L. McKusick were born on
October 21, 1921. Victor was one of five children. His father was a
During the summer of 1937, Victor suffered a severe microaerophilic Streptococcus infection in his axilla . As a result, Victor spent time in two hospitals, one of which was Massachusetts General Hospital . He finally saw a successful diagnosis and course of treatment, using sulfanilamide during his ten weeks at Massachusetts General. Since none of his close family were doctors, the events of 1937 represented McKusick's first substantial experience with the medical community. He stated, "Perhaps I would have ended up a lawyer if it weren't for the microaerophilic streptococcus."
Victor married Anne Bishop McKusick in 1949. Anne served Johns Hopkins Hospital as Associate Professor of Medicine in the Division of Rheumatology. The couple had two sons, Victor and Kenneth, and a daughter, Carol.
After high school,Victor chose to study at Tufts University , and studied there for six semesters from the fall of 1940 to the summer of 1942. Although Tufts had an associated medical school, Victor was fascinated by Johns Hopkins and by its dedication to medical research, and chose to attend Hopkins Medical School instead.
The history and research environment of Hopkins excited McKusick, and
World War II
WORK AT HOPKINS
In 1956 McKusick traveled to
In 1960, McKusick founded and co-directed the Annual Short Course in
Medical and Experimental Mammalian Genetics at the Jackson Laboratory
Bar Harbor, Maine . He published Mendelian Inheritance in Man
(MIM), which was the first published catalog of all known genes and
genetic disorders, in 1996. The complete text of MIM was made
available online free of charge beginning in 1987, and titled Online
Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM). The 12th and final print edition
was published in 1998. The online database is continually updated, and
linked with the
National Center for Biotechnology Information
PUBLICATIONS AND RESEARCH
McKusick wrote extensively on the history of medicine, genetics, medical genetics, and about Parkman, Maine. He co-founded Genomics in 1987 with Dr. Frank Ruddle, and served as an editor. He led a Congressionally-chartered committee examining the ethics of testing Abraham Lincoln\'s tissue for the presence of Marfan syndrome genes.
His well-known published articles include:
* Probable Assignment of the Duffy Blood Group Locus to Chromosome 1 in Man (1968) * The Anatomy of the Human Genome: a Neo-Vesalian Basis for Medicine in the 21st Century (2001) * "On lumpers and splitters, or the nosology of genetic disease."
In a 2005 paper presented by M.I. Poling, McKusick said:
"I have always told my students, residents, and fellows, if you want
to really get on top of some topic, you need to know how it got from
where it was to how it is now. I was always strong on eponyms,
Marfan syndrome ,
Freeman–Sheldon syndrome , Down
Tay–Sachs disease , etc. On rounds, the resident or
student would present a patient with some particular condition, and I
would always ask, so who is so and so for whom the disease was named.
This prompts thought and research into the disease or condition itself
to find out who first described it and, therefore, for whom it was
named." Victor McKusick taking a picture of an
STUDY OF GENES AMONG THE AMISH
McKusick's study of genetics among the
McKusick listed fifteen advantages to studying genetics among the
Amish. Today, these fifteen reasons are argued to be true as well.
McKusick's findings led many other researchers to study hereditary
related diseases in the 1960s and 1970s. Other researchers and
McKusick cite the
AWARDS AND HONORS
McKusick has more than 20 honorary degrees throughout and after his career.
Some of the awards he won are listed below:
* Gairdner International Award from The Gairdner Foundation in 1977.
William Allan Award from The American Society of Human Genetics in
NAS Award for Scientific Reviewing from the National Academy of
Sciences in 1982.
* George M. Kober Medal from the Association of American Physicians
* Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the
Sciences from the
American Philosophical Society
McKusick died of cancer at the age of 86, on July 22, 2008. He died at his home right outside of Baltimore, in Towson, Maryland . On the 21st, the day before he died, he watched a live-stream of a course on medical genetics from Bar Harbor, Maine , which he helped found and direct in 1960.
* ^ A B C D E F G H The
Victor A. McKusick Papers: Biographical
Information. Profiles.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved on May 9, 2016.
* ^ A B C D E F G Comfort, Nathaniel. The Science of Human
Perfection: How Genes Became the Heart of American Medicine. Yale
* ^ A B C Mahesh, M (1 December 2014). "Victor A McKusick: From
"musical murmurs" to "medical genetics"" (PDF). Journal, Indian
Academy of Clinical Medicine.
* ^ A B Altman, Lawrence K. (July 24, 2008). "Victor McKusick, 86,
Dies; Medical Genetics Pioneer". New York Times. Retrieved April 23,
* ^ A B C D E Weisfeldt, M. L.; Ross, R. S. (2009). "Victor A. Mc
Kusick, M.D.: 1921–2008" . Transactions of the American Clinical and
Climatological Association. 120: civ–cviii. PMC 2744554 .
* ^ A B Luminaries, M – Z. Tufts Alumni. Retrieved on May 9,
* ^ A B C Kazazian, Haig (October 2008). "Remembering Victor
McKusick". Genomics. 92 (4): 185–186. doi
:10.1016/j.ygeno.2008.08.009 . Retrieved September 20, 2013.
* ^ Romeo, Giovanni (October 1, 2008). "Victor McKusick,
1921–2008: the founder of medical genetics as we know it". European
Journal of Human Genetics. 16 (10): 1161–1163. PMID 18818718 . doi
* ^ Leery, Warren L. (May 3, 1991). "Panel Backs DNA Tests on
Lincoln\'s Tissue". New York Times. Retrieved April 23, 2015.
* ^ McKusick, Victor (September 5, 1988). "Probable Assignment of
the Duffy Blood Group Locus to Chromosome 1 in Man" . Proc. Natl.
Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 61 (3): 949–55. PMC 305420 . PMID 5246559 . doi
* ^ McKusick, Victor (November 14, 2001). "The Anatomy of the Human
Genome: a Neo-Vesalian Basis for Medicine in the 21st Century". The
Journal of the American Medical Association. 286 (18): 2289–95. PMID
11710895 . doi :10.1001/jama.286.18.2289 .
* ^ McKusick, Victor (Winter 1969). "On lumpers and splitters, or
the nosology of genetic disease". Perspect Biol Med. 12 (2):
298–312. PMID 4304823 . doi :10.1353/pbm.1969.0039 .
* ^ A B C Francomano, Clair (August 15, 2003). "Medical Genetic
Studies in the Amish: Historical Perspective". American Journal of
Medical Genetics. 121C (1): 1–4. PMID 12888981 . doi
* ^ Past Recipients. Gairdner. Retrieved on May 9, 2016.
* ^ "Past Recipients". American Society of Human Genetics.
* ^ NAS Award for Scientific Reviewing. nasonline.org
* ^ AAP » George M. Kober Medal and Lectureship. Aap-online.org.
Retrieved on May 9, 2016.
* ^ Benjamin Franklin Medal for Distinguished Achievement in the
Sciences American Philosophical Society. Amphilsoc.org. Retrieved on
May 9, 2016.
* ^ Albert
Lasker Award for
Wikimedia Commons has media related to VICTOR A. MCKUSICK .
* "McKusick, Victor Almon in Marquis Who Was Who In America 1985–present". Harvard. Retrieved September 23, 2013. * "Victor A. McKusick." World of Genetics. 2 vols. Gale Group, 2001. Reproduced in Biography Resource Center. Farmington Hills, Mich.: Thomson Gale. 2005. * McKusick, V. A. "Structural and Functional Studies of Genomes," (Genomics. 45: 444–449, 1997). * Crow, E. W., and J. F. Crow. "100 Years Ago: Walter Sutton and the Chromosome Theory of Heredity," (Genetics 160:1–4, 2002). * McKusick, V. A. "Medical Genetics: A 40-Year Perspective on the Evolution of a Medical Specialty from a Basic Science," (Journal of the American Medical Association, 270:2351–2356, 1993). * McKusick, V. A. Medical Genetic Studies of the Amish: Selected Papers, Assembled with Commentary, (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1978). * McKusick, V. A. A Synopsis of Clinical Auscultation, Being a Treatise on Cardiovascular and Respiratory Sound, Introduced by an Historical Survey, Illustrated by Sound Spectrograms (Spectral Phonocardiograms), and Supplemented by a Comprehensive Bibliography. Privately printed and bound, in limited numbers, (Baltimore: January 1, 1956). * McKusick, V. A. "Biographical Memoirs: A. McGehee Harvey (30 July 1911 – 8 May 1998)," (Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 144:85–94, 2000). * McKusick, V. A. "Marcella O’Grady Boveri (1865–1950) and the Chromosome Theory of Cancer," (Journal of Medical Genetics. 22: 431–440, 1985). * McKusick, V. A. "The Anatomy of the Human Genome: a Neo-Vesalian Basis for Medicine in the 21st Century," (Journal of the American Medical Association. 286(18):2289–2295, 2001). * McKusick, V. A. "Mapping the Human Genome: Retrospective, Perspective and Prospective," (Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society. 141(4):417–424, 1997). * McKusick, V. A. "The Human Genome Project: Status, Prospects, and Implications for Ethics, Society, and the Law," (Presented at: 7th International Association of Catholic Medical Schools, Santiago, Chile. January 1994).
* The Victor McKusick collection (personal