Venice (/ˈvɛnɪs/, VEN-iss; Italian: Venezia,
[veˈnɛttsja] ( listen); Venetian: Venesia, [veˈnɛsja])
is a city in northeastern
Italy and the capital of the
It is situated across a group of 118 small islands that are
separated by canals and linked by bridges, of which there are
400. The islands are located in the shallow Venetian Lagoon, an
enclosed bay that lies between the mouths of the Po and the Piave
Rivers. Parts of
Venice are renowned for the beauty of their settings,
their architecture, and artwork. The lagoon and a part of the city
are listed as a World Heritage Site.
In 2014, 264,579 people resided in
Comune di Venezia, of whom around
55,000 live in the historic city of
Venice (Centro storico). Together
Padua and Treviso, the city is included in the
Padua-Treviso-Venice Metropolitan Area (PATREVE), with a total
population of 2.6 million. PATREVE is only a statistical metropolitan
The name is derived from the ancient Veneti people who inhabited the
region by the 10th century BCE. The city was historically the
capital of the Republic of Venice.
Venice has been known as the "La
Dominante," "Serenissima," "Queen of the Adriatic," "City of Water,"
"City of Masks," "City of Bridges," "The Floating City," and "City of
Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice was a major financial and maritime power during
Middle Ages and Renaissance, and a staging area for the Crusades
and the Battle of Lepanto, as well as a very important center of
commerce (especially silk, grain, and spice) and art in the 13th
century up to the end of the 17th century. The city-state of
considered to have been the first real international financial center
which gradually emerged from the 9th century to its peak in the 14th
century. This made
Venice a wealthy city throughout most of its
It is also known for its several important artistic movements,
Renaissance period. After the
Napoleonic Wars and the
Congress of Vienna, the Republic was annexed by the Austrian Empire,
until it became part of the Kingdom of
Italy in 1866, following a
referendum held as a result of the Third Italian War of Independence.
Venice has played an important role in the history of symphonic and
operatic music, and it is the birthplace of Antonio Vivaldi. Venice
has been ranked the most beautiful city in the world as of 2016.
The city is facing some major challenges, however, including financial
difficulties, erosion, pollution, subsidence, an excessive number of
tourists in peak periods and problems caused by oversized cruise ships
sailing close to the banks of the historical city.
2.4 Modern age
5.1.1 Minimising the effects of tourism
5.2 Foreign words of Venetian origin
6.1 In the historic centre
6.2 Public transport
6.2.1 Lagoon area
6.2.2 Lido and
10.1.1 In literature and adapted works
10.2 Art and printing
10.3 Venetian gothic architecture
Rococo architectural style
10.6 Cinema, media, and popular culture
10.7.1 In films
10.8.1 In popular music
10.8.2 In video games
10.11 Fashion and shopping
11 Notable people
12 International relations
12.1 Twin towns and sister cities
12.2 Cooperation agreements
13 See also
15 External links
The name of the city, deriving from Latin forms Venetia and Venetiae,
is most likely taken from "Venetia et Histria", the Roman name of
Regio X of Roman Italy, but applied to the coastal part of the region
that remained under Roman Empire outside of Gothic, Lombard, and
Frankish control. The name Venetia, however, derives from the Roman
name for the people known as the Veneti, and called by the Greeks
Astonio (Ἐνετοί). The meaning of the word is uncertain,
although there are other Indo-European tribes with similar-sounding
names, such as the Celtic Veneti, Baltic Veneti, and the Slavic Wends.
Linguists suggest that the name is based on an Indo-European root *wen
("love"), so that *wenetoi would mean "beloved", "lovable", or
"friendly". A connection with the Latin word venetus, meaning the
color 'sea-blue', is also possible. Supposed connections of Venetia
with the Latin verb venire (to come), such as Marin Sanudo's veni
etiam ("Yet, I have come!"), the supposed cry of the first refugees to
the Venetian lagoon from the mainland, or even with venia
("forgiveness") are fanciful. The alternative obsolete form is Vinegia
[viˈnɛːdʒa]; (Venetian: Venèxia [veˈnɛzja]; Latin:
Venetiae; Slovene: Benetke).
See also: History of the
Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice and Timeline of Venice
Grand Canal from
Rialto to Ca'Foscari
Venice view from the Bridge Foscari, to the Bridge Santa Margherita
Gondola Punta and Basilica Salute
Western Roman Empire
Western Roman Empire 421–476
Ostrogothic Kingdom 493–553
Eastern Roman Empire
Eastern Roman Empire 553–584
Exarchate of Ravenna
Exarchate of Ravenna 584–697
Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice 697–1797
Habsburg Monarchy 1797–1805
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia 1815–1866
Republic of San Marco
Republic of San Marco 1848–1849
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia
Kingdom of Lombardy–Venetia 1849–1866
Italian Republic 1946–present
Although no surviving historical records deal directly with the
founding of Venice, tradition and the available evidence have led
several historians to agree that the original population of Venice
consisted of refugees from Roman cities near
Venice such as Padua,
Aquileia, Treviso, Altino and Concordia (modern Portogruaro) and from
the undefended countryside, who were fleeing successive waves of
Germanic and Hun invasions. This is further supported by the
documentation on the so-called 'apostolic families', the twelve
founding families of
Venice who elected the first doge, who in most
cases trace their lineage back to Roman families. Some late
Roman sources also reveal the existence of fishermen on the islands in
the original marshy lagoons. They were referred to as incolae lacunae
("lagoon dwellers"). The traditional founding is identified with the
dedication of the first church, that of San Giacomo on the islet of
Rialto (Rivoalto, "High Shore") — said to have taken place at the
stroke of noon on 25 March 421 (the Feast of the
Beginning as early as AD 166 to 168, the
Quadi and Marcomanni
destroyed the main center in the area, the current Oderzo. The Roman
defences were again overthrown in the early 5th century by the
Visigoths and, some 50 years later, by the
Huns led by Attila. The
last and most enduring immigration into the north of the Italian
peninsula, that of the
Lombards in 568, left the Eastern Roman Empire
a small strip of coast in the current Veneto, including Venice. The
Byzantine territory was organized as the Exarchate of Ravenna,
administered from that ancient port and overseen by a viceroy (the
Exarch) appointed by the Emperor in Constantinople, but
Venice were connected only by sea routes; and with the Venetians'
isolated position came increasing autonomy. New ports were built,
including those at
Torcello in the Venetian lagoon. The
tribuni maiores, the earliest central standing governing committee of
the islands in the Lagoon, dated from c. 568.
The traditional first doge of Venice,
Paolo Lucio Anafesto (Anafestus
Paulicius), was elected in 697, as written in the oldest chronicle by
John, deacon of Venice in ca. 1008. Some modern historians claim Paolo
Lucio Anafesto was actually
Exarch Paul, and his successor, Marcello
Tegalliano, was Paul's magister militum (General: literally, "Master
of Soldiers"). In 726 the soldiers and citizens of the Exarchate rose
in a rebellion over the iconoclastic controversy at the urging of Pope
Gregory II. The Exarch, held responsible for the acts of his master
Byzantine Emperor Leo III, was murdered and many officials put to
flight in the chaos. At about this time, the people of the lagoon
elected their own independent leader for the first time, although the
relationship of this to the uprisings is not clear. Ursus was the
first of 117 "doges" (doge is the Venetian dialect development of the
Latin dux ("leader"); the corresponding word in English is duke, in
standard Italian duce.) Whatever his original views, Ursus supported
Emperor Leo III's successful military expedition to recover Ravenna,
sending both men and ships. In recognition of this,
"granted numerous privileges and concessions" and Ursus, who had
personally taken the field, was confirmed by Leo as dux and given
the added title of hypatus (Greek for "Consul".)
In 751 the Lombard King
Aistulf conquered most of the Exarchate of
Venice a lonely and increasingly autonomous Byzantine
outpost. During this period, the seat of the local
(the "duke/dux", later "doge"), was situated in Malamocco. Settlement
on the islands in the lagoon probably increased with the Lombard
conquest of other
Byzantine territories, as refugees sought asylum
there. In 775/6 the episcopal seat of Olivolo (San Pietro di Castello;
Helipolis) was created. During the reign of duke
Agnello Particiaco (811–827) the ducal seat moved from
the highly protected Rialto, the current location of Venice. The
monastery of St Zachary and the first ducal palace and basilica of St.
Mark, as well as a walled defense (civitatis murus) between Olivolo
and Rialto, were subsequently built here.
Charlemagne sought to subdue the city to his own rule. He ordered the
Pope to expel the Venetians from the
Pentapolis along the Adriatic
coast, and Charlemagne's own son Pepin of Italy, king of the
Lombards under the authority of his father, embarked on a siege of
Venice itself. This, however, proved a costly failure. The siege
lasted six months, with Pepin's army ravaged by the diseases of the
local swamps and eventually forced to withdraw (810). A few months
later, Pepin himself died, apparently as a result of a disease
contracted there. In the aftermath, an agreement between Charlemagne
Byzantine Emperor Nicephorus in 814 recognized
Byzantine territory and granted the city trading rights along the
In 828 the new city's prestige increased with the acquisition of the
claimed relics of St
Mark the Evangelist
Mark the Evangelist from Alexandria, which were
placed in the new basilica. (Winged lions, visible throughout Venice,
symbolise St Mark.) The patriarchal seat also moved to Rialto. As the
community continued to develop and as
Byzantine power waned, its
autonomy grew, leading to eventual independence.
Piazza San Marco
Piazza San Marco in Venice, with St Mark's Campanile and
Basilica in the background
From the 9th to the 12th century,
Venice developed into a city state
(an Italian thalassocracy or Repubblica Marinara: the other three of
these were Genoa, Pisa, and Amalfi). Its strategic position at the
head of the Adriatic made Venetian naval and commercial power almost
invulnerable. With the elimination of pirates along
the Dalmatian coast, the city became a flourishing trade center
between Western Europe and the rest of the world (especially the
Byzantine Empire and Asia) with a naval power protecting sea routes
Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice seized a number of places on the eastern shores
of the Adriatic before 1200, mostly for commercial reasons, because
pirates based there were a menace to trade. The Doge already carried
the titles of
Duke of Istria. Later mainland
possessions, which extended across
Lake Garda as far west as the Adda
River, were known as the "Terraferma", and were acquired partly as a
buffer against belligerent neighbours, partly to guarantee Alpine
trade routes, and partly to ensure the supply of mainland wheat, on
which the city depended. In building its maritime commercial empire,
the Republic dominated the trade in salt, acquired control of most
of the islands in the Aegean, including Crete, and
Cyprus in the
Mediterranean, and became a major power-broker in the Near East. By
the standards of the time, Venice's stewardship of its mainland
territories was relatively enlightened and the citizens of such towns
Verona rallied to the defence of Venetian
sovereignty when it was threatened by invaders.
Venice remained closely associated with Constantinople, being twice
granted trading privileges in the Eastern Roman Empire, through the
so-called Golden Bulls or "chrysobulls" in return for aiding the
Eastern Empire to resist Norman and Turkish incursions. In the first
Venice acknowledged its homage to the Empire; but not in
the second, reflecting the decline of
Byzantium and the rise of
Venice became an imperial power following the Fourth Crusade, which,
having veered off course, culminated in 1204 by capturing and sacking
Constantinople and establishing the Latin Empire. As a result of this
Byzantine plunder was brought back to Venice.
This plunder included the gilt bronze horses from the Hippodrome of
Constantinople, which were originally placed above the entrance to the
cathedral of Venice, St Mark's Basilica, although the originals have
been replaced with replicas and are now stored within the basilica.
After the fall of Constantinople, the former Roman Empire was
partitioned among the Latin crusaders and the Venetians. Venice
subsequently carved out a sphere of influence in the Mediterranean
known as the Duchy of the Archipelago, and captured Crete.
The seizure of
Constantinople proved as decisive a factor in ending
Byzantine Empire as the loss of the Anatolian themes after
Manzikert. Although the Byzantines recovered control of the ravaged
city a half-century later, the
Byzantine Empire was terminally
weakened, and existed as a ghost of its old self until Sultan Mehmet
The Conqueror took the city in 1453.
San Giorgio Maggiore
San Giorgio Maggiore Island from St. Mark's Campanile
Situated on the Adriatic Sea,
Venice always traded extensively with
Byzantine Empire and the Muslim world. By the late 13th century,
Venice was the most prosperous city in all of Europe. At the peak of
its power and wealth, it had 36,000 sailors operating 3,300 ships,
dominating Mediterranean commerce. Venice's leading families vied with
each other to build the grandest palaces and support the work of the
greatest and most talented artists. The city was governed by the Great
Council, which was made up of members of the noble families of Venice.
The Great Council appointed all public officials and elected a Senate
of 200 to 300 individuals. Since this group was too large for
efficient administration, a
Council of Ten
Council of Ten (also called the Ducal
Council or the Signoria), controlled much of the administration of the
city. One member of the great council was elected "Doge", or duke, the
chief executive, who usually held the title until his death; although
several Doges were forced by pressure from their oligarchical peers to
resign and retire into monastic seclusion when they were felt to have
been discredited by political failure.
The Venetian government structure was similar in some ways to the
republican system of ancient Rome, with an elected chief executive
(the Doge), a senate-like assembly of nobles, and a mass of citizens
with limited political power, who originally had the power to grant or
withhold their approval of each newly elected Doge. Church and various
private properties were tied to military service, although there was
no knight tenure within the city itself. The Cavalieri di San Marco
was the only order of chivalry ever instituted in Venice, and no
citizen could accept or join a foreign order without the government's
Venice remained a republic throughout its independent period,
and politics and the military were kept separate, except when on
occasion the Doge personally headed the military. War was regarded as
a continuation of commerce by other means (hence, the city's early
production of large numbers of mercenaries for service elsewhere, and
later its reliance on foreign mercenaries when the ruling class was
preoccupied with commerce).
San Marco basin
San Marco basin in 1697
The Grand Canal in
Venice from Palazzo Flangini to Campo San Marcuola,
Canaletto, circa 1738, J. Paul Getty Museum
Although the people of
Venice generally remained orthodox Roman
Catholics, the state of
Venice was notable for its freedom from
religious fanaticism and executed nobody for religious heresy during
the Counter-Reformation. This apparent lack of zeal contributed to
Venice's frequent conflicts with the Papacy. In this context, the
writings of the Anglican divine
William Bedell are particularly
Venice was threatened with the interdict on a number of
occasions, and twice suffered its imposition. The second, most noted,
occasion was in 1606, by order of Pope Paul V.
Venetian ambassadors sent home still-extant secret reports of the
politics and rumours of European courts, providing fascinating
information to modern historians.
The newly invented German printing press spread rapidly throughout
Europe in the 15th century, and
Venice was quick to adopt it. By 1482,
Venice was the printing capital of the world, and the leading printer
was Aldus Manutius, who invented paperback books that could be carried
in a saddlebag. His Aldine Editions included translations of nearly
all the known Greek manuscripts of the era.
Francesco Guardi, The Grand Canal, circa 1760 (Art Institute of
Venice's long decline started in the 15th century, when it first made
an unsuccessful attempt to hold
Thessalonica against the Ottomans
(1423–1430). It also sent ships to help defend Constantinople
against the besieging Turks (1453). After
Constantinople fell to
Sultan Mehmet II, he declared war on Venice. The war lasted thirty
years and cost
Venice much of its eastern Mediterranean possessions.
Next, Christopher Columbus discovered the New World in 1492. Then
Vasco da Gama of Portugal found a sea route to India by rounding the
Cape of Good Hope during his first voyage of 1497–99, destroying
Venice's land route monopoly. France, England and the Dutch Republic
followed. Venice's oared galleys were at a disadvantage when it came
to traversing the great oceans, and therefore
Venice was left behind
in the race for colonies.
Black Death devastated
Venice in 1348 and once again between 1575
and 1577. In three years, the plague killed some 50,000
people. In 1630, the
Italian plague of 1629–31
Italian plague of 1629–31 killed a third of
Venice's 150,000 citizens.
Venice began to lose its position as a
center of international trade during the later part of the Renaissance
as Portugal became Europe's principal intermediary in the trade with
the East, striking at the very foundation of Venice's great wealth;
Spain fought for hegemony over
Italy in the Italian
Wars, marginalising its political influence. However, the Venetian
empire was a major exporter of agricultural products, and until the
mid-18th century, a significant manufacturing center.
1870s panoramic view of Venice
During the 18th century,
Venice became perhaps the most elegant and
refined city in Europe, greatly influencing art, architecture and
literature. But the Republic lost its independence when Napoleon
Venice on 12 May 1797 during the War of the First
Napoleon was seen as something of a liberator by the city's
Jewish population, although it can be argued they had lived with fewer
restrictions in Venice. He removed the gates of the Ghetto and ended
the restrictions on when and where Jews could live and travel in the
Venice became Austrian territory when
Napoleon signed the Treaty of
Campo Formio on 12 October 1797. The Austrians took control of the
city on 18 January 1798. But
Venice was taken from
Austria by the
Treaty of Pressburg in 1805 and became part of Napoleon's Kingdom of
Italy; however it was returned to
Austria following Napoleon's defeat
in 1814, when it became part of the Austrian-held Kingdom of
Lombardy-Venetia. In 1848 and 1849, a revolt briefly re-established
the Venetian Republic under Daniele Manin. In 1866, after the Third
Italian War of Independence, Venice, along with the rest of the
Veneto, became part of the newly created Kingdom of Italy.
Morning Impression along a Canal in Venice, Veneto,
Italy by Rafail
View from the Bridge of Sighs
During the Second World War, the historic city was largely free from
attack, the only aggressive effort of note being Operation Bowler, a
Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force precision strike on the German naval
operations in the city in March 1945. The targets were destroyed with
virtually no architectural damage inflicted on the city itself.
However the industrial areas in
Marghera and the railway
lines to Padua,
Trento were repeatedly bombed. On 29
April 1945, New Zealand troops under Freyberg of the Eighth Army
Venice and relieved the city and the mainland, which were
already in partisan hands.
Acqua alta ("high water") in Venice, 2008
Venice and surroundings in false colour, from Terra. The picture is
oriented with North at the top.
Subsidence, the gradual lowering of the surface of Venice, has led to
Acqua alta when much of the city's surface is
occasionally covered at high tide.
The buildings of
Venice are constructed on closely spaced wooden
piles. Most of these piles are still intact after centuries of
submersion. The foundations rest on plates of Istrian limestone placed
on top of the piles, and buildings of brick or stone sit above
these footings. The piles penetrate a softer layer of sand and mud
until they reach a much harder layer of compressed clay.
Submerged by water, in oxygen-poor conditions, wood does not decay as
rapidly as on the surface.
Most of these piles were made from trunks of alder trees, a wood
noted for its water resistance. The alder came from the
westernmost part of today's
Slovenia (resulting in the barren land of
the Kras region), in two regions of Croatia,
Lika and Gorski kotar
(resulting in the barren slopes of Velebit) and south of
The city is often threatened by flood tides pushing in from the
Adriatic between autumn and early spring. Six hundred years ago,
Venetians protected themselves from land-based attacks by diverting
all the major rivers flowing into the lagoon and thus preventing
sediment from filling the area around the city. This created an
ever-deeper lagoon environment.
In 1604, to defray the cost of flood relief,
Venice introduced what
could be considered the first example of a 'stamp tax'.[citation
needed] When the revenue fell short of expectations in 1608, Venice
introduced paper with the superscription 'AQ' and imprinted
instructions, which was to be used for 'letters to officials'. At
first, this was to be a temporary tax, but it remained in effect until
the fall of the Republic in 1797. Shortly after the introduction of
Spain produced similar paper for general taxation purposes,
and the practice spread to other countries.
During the 20th century, when many artesian wells were sunk into the
periphery of the lagoon to draw water for local industry,
to subside. It was realized that extraction of water from the aquifer
was the cause. The sinking has slowed markedly since artesian wells
were banned in the 1960s. However, the city is still threatened by
more frequent low-level floods (called Acqua alta, "high water") that
creep to a height of several centimetres over its quays, regularly
following certain tides. In many old houses, the former staircases
used to unload goods are now flooded, rendering the former ground
Studies indicate that the city continues sinking at a relatively slow
rate of 1–2 mm per annum; therefore, the state of alert
has not been revoked. In May 2003, Italian Prime Minister Silvio
Berlusconi inaugurated the
MOSE project (Modulo Sperimentale
Elettromeccanico), an experimental model for evaluating the
performance of hollow floatable gates; the idea is to fix a series of
78 hollow pontoons to the sea bed across the three entrances to the
lagoon. When tides are predicted to rise above 110 centimetres, the
pontoons will be filled with air, causing them to float and block the
incoming water from the Adriatic Sea. This engineering work is due
to be completed by 2018.
The project is not guaranteed to be successful and the cost has been
very high, according to a spokesman for the FAI (similar to a National
Trust). "Mose is a pharaonic project that should have cost €800m
[£675m] but will cost at least €7bn [£6bn]. If the barriers are
closed at only 90cm of high water, most of St Mark’s will be flooded
anyway; but if closed at very high levels only, then people will
wonder at the logic of spending such sums on something that didn’t
solve the problem. And pressure will come from the cruise ships to
keep the gates open." Approximately €2 billion of the cost has
been lost to corruption.
Sestieri of Venice
Venice viewed from the International Space Station
The whole pensolon (municipality) is divided into 6 boroughs. One of
these (the historic city) is divided into six areas called sestieri:
Cannaregio, San Polo,
Dorsoduro (including the isla
Giudecca and Sacca
Fisola), Santa Croce,
San Marco (including San Giorgio Maggiore) and
San Pietro di Castello
San Pietro di Castello and Sant'Elena). Each
sestiere was administered by a procurator and his staff. Now, each
sestiere is a statistical and historical area without any degree of
autonomy. The six fingers or phalanges of the ferro on the bow of a
gondola represent the six sestieri.
The sestieri are divided into parishes – initially 70 in 1033, but
Napoleon and now numbering just 38. These parishes
predate the sestieri, which were created in about 1170. Each parish
exhibited unique characteristics but also belonged to an integrated
network. The community chose its own patron saint, staged its own
festivals, congregated around its own market center, constructed its
own bell towers and developed its own customs.
Other islands of the
Venetian Lagoon do not form part of any of the
sestieri, having historically enjoyed a considerable degree of
Each sestiere has its own house numbering system. Each house has a
unique number in the district, from one to several thousand, generally
numbered from one corner of the area to another, but not usually in a
readily understandable manner.
According to the Köppen climate classification,
Venice has a Humid
subtropical climate (Cfa), with cool winters and very warm summers.
The 24-hour average in January is 3.3 °C (37.9 °F), and
for July this figure is 23.0 °C (73.4 °F). Precipitation
is spread relatively evenly throughout the year, and averages 748
millimetres (29.4 in).
Climate data for
Average high °C (°F)
Daily mean °C (°F)
Average low °C (°F)
Average precipitation mm (inches)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)
Mean monthly sunshine hours
Source: MeteoAM (sun and humidity 1961–1990)
Average sea temperature:
9.9 °C (49.8 °F)
8.7 °C (47.7 °F)
9.9 °C (49.8 °F)
13.5 °C (56.3 °F)
18.6 °C (65.5 °F)
23.4 °C (74.1 °F)
25.4 °C (77.7 °F)
25.4 °C (77.7 °F)
23.6 °C (74.5 °F)
19.3 °C (66.7 °F)
16.0 °C (60.8 °F)
13.2 °C (55.8 °F)
17.2 °C (63.0 °F)
Mayor of Venice
The 6 boroughs of the whole comune of Venice
The whole comune (red) in the Metropolitan City of Venice
Ca' Loredan, Venice's City Hall
The legislative body of the municipality is the City Council
(Consiglio Comunale), which is composed of 45 councillors elected
every five years with a proportional system,
contextually[clarification needed] to the mayoral elections. The
executive body is the City Committee (Giunta Comunale), composed of 12
assessors nominated and presided over by a directly elected Mayor.
Venice was governed by center-left parties from the 1990s until the
2010s, when the mayor started to be elected directly. This is
Veneto has long been a conservative stronghold,
with the coalition between the regionalist
Lega Nord and the
center-right Forza Italia winning absolute majorities of the
electorate in many elections at communal, national, and regional
After a corruption scandal that forced the center-left mayor Giorgio
Orsoni to resign,
Venice voted for the first time in June 2015 for a
conservative directly elected mayor: the center-right businessman
Luigi Brugnaro won the election in the second round of voting with the
53% of the votes against the leftist magistrate and member of the
Italian Senate Felice Casson, who led in the first round with 38% of
The municipality of
Venice is subdivided into six administrative
Boroughs (Municipalità). Each Borough is governed by a Council
(Consiglio) and a President, elected contextually[clarification
needed] to the city Mayor. The urban organization is governed by the
Italian Constitution (art. 114). The Boroughs have the power to advise
Mayor with nonbinding opinions on a large spectrum of topics
(environment, construction, public health, local markets) and exercise
the functions delegated to them by the City Council; in addition they
are supplied with autonomous funding to finance local activities. The
Venezia (historic city)-Murano–
Burano (also known as Venezia
insulare); population: 69,136;
Pellestrina (also known as Venezia litorale); population:
Mainland (terraferma), annexed with a Royal Decree, in 1926, to the
municipality of Venezia:
Favaro Veneto; population: 23,615;
Mestre-Carpenedo (also known as
Mestre centro); population: 88,952;
Chirignago-Zelarino; population: 38;179;
Marghera; population: 28;466.
After the 2015 elections, five of the six boroughs are governed by the
Democratic Party and its allies, and one by the center-right mayoral
Venice's economy has changed throughout history. Although there is
little specific information about the earliest years, it is likely
that an important source of the city's prosperity was the trade in
slaves, captured in central Europe and sold to North Africa and the
Levant. Venice's location at the head of the Adriatic, and directly
south of the terminus of the Brenner Pass over the Alps, would have
given it a distinct advantage as a middleman in this important trade.
Middle Ages and the Renaissance,
Venice was a major center for
commerce and trade, as it controlled a vast sea-empire, and became an
extremely wealthy European city, a leader in political and economic
affairs and a centre for trade and commerce. From the 11th century
until the 15th century, pilgrimages to the
Holy Land were offered in
Venice. Other ports such as Genoa, Pisa, Marseille,
Dubrovnik were hardly able to make any competition to the well
organized transportation of pilgrims from Venice.
Burano is also a tourist destination, usually reached via
This all changed by the 17th century, when Venice's trade empire was
taken over by other countries such as Portugal, and its naval
importance was reduced. In the 18th century, then, it became a major
agricultural and industrial exporter. The 18th century's biggest
industrial complex was the
Venice Arsenal, and the Italian Army still
uses it today (even though some space has been used for major
theatrical and cultural productions, and spaces for art). Since
World War II
World War II many Venetians have moved to
employment as well as affordable housing.
Today, Venice's economy is mainly based on tourism, shipbuilding
(mainly done in the neighboring cities of
Mestre and Porto Marghera),
services, trade and industrial exports.
Murano glass production in
Murano and lace production in
Burano are also highly important to the
The city is facing financial challenges. In late 2016, it had a major
deficit in its budget and debts in excess of €400 million. "In
effect, the place is bankrupt", according to a report by The
Guardian. Many locals are leaving the historic center due to
rapidly increasing rental costs. The declining native population
affects the character of the city as an October 2016 National
Geographic article pointed out in its subtitle: "Residents are
abandoning the city, which is in danger of becoming an overpriced
In June 2017,
Italy was required to bail out two banks in
prevent bankruptcies of the
Banca Popolare di Vicenza and Veneto
Banca. Both companies will be wound down and their assets with
value will be taken over by another Italian bank, Intesa Sanpaolo
which received €5.2 billion as compensation. The Italian government
will be responsible for losses from any uncollectible loans from the
now closed banks. The cost may be as high as €5.2 billion but the
guarantees to cover bad loans total €12 billion.
Piazza San Marco. Doge's Palace.
Gondolas share the waterway with other types of craft (including the
Venice is an important tourist destination for its celebrated art and
architecture. The city gets up to 60,000 tourists per day (2017
estimate). Estimates as to the annual number of tourists vary from 22
million to 30 million. This 'overtourism' creates
overcrowding and environmental problems in its canal ecosystem. By
UNESCO was considering the addition of
Venice to its "In-Danger"
list which includes historical ruins in war-torn countries. To reduce
the number of visitors that are causing irreversible changes in
Venice, the agency supports limiting the number of cruise
ships as well as creating a full strategy for a more
Cruise ship passing bacino San Marco
Cruise ships access the port of
Venice through the
Tourism has been a major sector of Venetian industry since the 18th
century, when it was a major center for the Grand Tour, with its
beautiful cityscape, uniqueness, and rich musical and artistic
cultural heritage. In the 19th century, it became a fashionable centre
for the "rich and famous", often staying or dining at luxury
establishments such as the Danieli Hotel and the Caffè Florian. It
continued being a fashionable city in vogue right into the early 20th
century. In the 1980s, the
Carnival of Venice
Carnival of Venice was revived and the
city has become a major centre of international conferences and
festivals, such as the prestigious
Venice Biennale and the
Festival, which attract visitors from all over the world for their
theatrical, cultural, cinematic, artistic, and musical
Today, there are numerous attractions in Venice, such as St Mark's
Basilica, the Doge's Palace, the Grand Canal, and the Piazza San
Lido di Venezia
Lido di Venezia is also a popular international luxury
destination, attracting thousands of actors, critics, celebrities, and
mainly people in the cinematic industry. The city also relies heavily
on the cruise business. The Cruise
Venice Committee has estimated
that cruise ship passengers spend more than 150 million euros (US $193
million) annually in the city according to a 2015 report. Other
reports, however, point out that such day trippers spend relatively
little in the few hours of their visits to the city.
Venice is regarded by some as a tourist trap, and by others as a
"living museum". Unlike most other places in Western Europe, and
Venice has become widely known for its element of elegant
decay. The competition for foreigners to buy homes in
Venice has made
prices rise so high that numerous inhabitants are forced to move to
more affordable areas of
Veneto and Italy, the most notable being
Minimising the effects of tourism
The need to balance the jobs produced by cruise tourism with the
protection of the city's historic environment and fragile canals has
seen the Italian Transport Ministry attempt to introduce a ban on
large cruise ships visiting the city. A 2013 ban would have allowed
only cruise ships smaller than 40,000-gross tons to enter the Giudecca
Canal and St Mark's basin. In January, a regional court scrapped
the ban, but some global cruise lines indicated that they would
continue to respect it until a long-term solution for the protection
Venice is found.
For example, P&O Cruises removed
Venice from its summer schedule,
Holland America moved one of its ships from this area to Alaska and
Cunard is reducing (in 2017 and further in 2018) the number of visits
by its ships. As a result, the
Venice Port Authority estimated an 11.4
percent drop in cruise ships arriving in 2017 versus 2016, leading to
a similar reduction in income for Venice.
Gondoliers on the Grand Canal
The city also considered a ban on wheeled suitcases, but settled on
banning hard wheels for cargo from May 2015.
In addition to accelerating erosion of the ancient city's foundations
and creating some pollution in the lagoon, cruise ships
dropping an excessive number of day trippers can make St. Marks Square
and other popular attractions too crowded to walk through during the
peak season. Government officials see little value to the economy from
the "eat and flee" tourists who stay for less than a day, which is
typical of those from cruise ships.
Having failed in its 2013 bid to ban oversized cruise ships from the
Giudecca canal, the city switched to a new strategy in mid 2017,
banning the creation of any additional hotels; currently there are
over 24,000 hotel rooms. (The ban does not affect short term rentals
in the historic center which is causing an increase in rent for the
native residents of Venice.) The city had already banned any
additional fast food "take-away" outlets to retain the historic
character of the city; this was another reason for freezing the number
of hotel rooms. Less than half the millions of annual visitors
stay overnight, however.
Some locals were aggressively lobbying for new methods that would
reduce the number of cruise ship passengers; their estimate indicated
that there are up to 30,000 such sightseers per day at peak
periods, while other concentrate their effort on promoting a more
responsible way of visiting the city. An unofficial referendum to
ban the huge cruise ships was held in June 2017. More than 18,000
people voted at 60 polling booths set up by activists and 17,874 chose
to favor the ban the ships from the lagoon. The population of Venice
at the time was about 50,000. The organizers of the referendum
backed a plan to build a new cruise ship terminal at one of the three
entrances to the Venetian Lagoon. Passenger would be transferred to
smaller boats to take them to the historic area. In 2014, the
United Nations warned the city that it may be placed on UNESCO’s
list of World Heritage In Danger sites unless cruise ships are banned
from the canals near the historic centre.
In November 2017, an official Comitatone released a specific plan to
keep the largest cruise ships away from the
Piazza San Marco
Piazza San Marco and the
entrance to the Grand Canal.  Ships over 55,000 tons will be
required to follow a specified path through another canal to a new
passenger port to be built in Marghera, an industrial area of the
mainland. Work on the both aspects will take time, however, four years
according to officials. The work will take much longer however,
according to the lobby group No Grandi Navi (No Big Ships) which also
remains concerned that the level of pollution caused by the ships will
not be diminished.
Foreign words of Venetian origin
Some words with a Venetian etymology include arsenal, ciao, ghetto,
gondola, imbroglio, lagoon, lazaret, lido, Montenegro, and
regatta. The name "Venezuela" is a Spanish diminutive of Venice
(Veneziola). Many additional places around the world are named
after Venice, e.g., Venice, Los Angeles, home of
Venice Beach; Venice,
Alberta in Canada; Venice, Florida, a city in Sarasota County; Venice,
In the historic centre
Aerial view of
Venice including the
Ponte della Libertà
Ponte della Libertà bridge to the
Giudecca Canal. View from St Mark's Campanile.
Sandolo in a picture of
Paolo Monti of 1965. Fondo Paolo Monti, BEIC.
P & O steamer, circa 1870.
Venice is built on an archipelago of 118 islands formed by 177
canals in a shallow lagoon, connected by 409 bridges. In the old
centre, the canals serve the function of roads, and almost every form
of transport is on water or on foot. In the 19th century, a causeway
to the mainland brought the
Venezia Santa Lucia railway station
Venezia Santa Lucia railway station to
Venice, and the
Ponte della Libertà
Ponte della Libertà road causeway and parking
Tronchetto island and in piazzale Roma) were built
during the 20th century. Beyond the road and rail land entrances at
the northern edge of the city, transportation within the city remains
(as it was in centuries past) entirely on water or on foot.
Europe's largest urban car-free area.
Venice is unique in Europe, in
having remained a sizable functioning city in the 21st century
entirely without motorcars or trucks.
The classical Venetian boat is the gondola, (plural: gondole) although
it is now mostly used for tourists, or for weddings, funerals, or
other ceremonies, or as 'traghetti' (sing.: traghetto) to cross the
Canale Grande in the absence of a nearby bridge. The traghetti are
operated by two oarsmen; for some years there were seven such boats
but by 2017, only three remained.
There are approximately 400 licensed gondoliers in
Venice in their
distinctive regalia and a similar number of the boats, down from
10,000 that travelled the canals two centuries ago. Many
gondolas are lushly appointed with crushed velvet seats and Persian
rugs. Less well-known is the smaller sandolo. At the front of each
gondola that works in the city, there is a large piece of metal called
the fèro (iron). Its shape has evolved through the centuries, as
documented in many well-known paintings. Its form, topped by a
likeness of the Doge's hat, became gradually standardized, and was
then fixed by local law. It consists of six bars pointing forward
representing the Sestieri of the city, and one that points backward
representing the Giudecca.
Venice is a city of small islands, enhanced during the
Middle Ages by
the dredging of soils to raise the marshy ground above the tides. The
resulting canals encouraged the flourishing of a nautical culture
which proved central to the economy of the city. Today those canals
still provide the means for transport of goods and people within the
Gondolas from the
Bridge of Sighs
Bridge of Sighs (Ponte dei Sospiri)
The maze of canals threaded through the city requires the use of more
than 400 bridges to permit the flow of foot traffic. In 2011, the city
opened Ponte della Costituzione, the fourth bridge across the Grand
Canal, connecting the
Piazzale Roma bus terminal area with the
Stazione Ferroviaria (train station), the others being the original
Ponte di Rialto, the Ponte dell'Accademia, and the Ponte degli Scalzi.
Azienda del Consorzio Trasporti Veneziano
Azienda del Consorzio Trasporti Veneziano (ACTV) is a public company
responsible for public transportation in Venice.
A map of the waterbus routes in Venezia
The main public transportation means are motorised waterbuses
(vaporetti) which ply regular routes along the Grand Canal and between
the city's islands. The only gondole still in common use by Venetians
are the traghetti, foot passenger ferries crossing the Grand Canal at
certain points without bridges. Other gondole target tourists on an
Venice People Mover
Venice People Mover (managed by ASM) is a cable-operated public
transit system connecting
Tronchetto island with Piazzale Roma. Water
taxis are also active.
Pellestrina are two islands forming a barrier between the
Venetian Lagoon and the Adriatic Sea. In those islands, road
traffic is allowed. There are bus services on islands and waterbus
services linking islands with other islands (Venice, Murano, Burano)
and with the peninsula of Cavallino-Treporti.
The mainland of
Venice is composed of 5 boroughs: Mestre-Carpenedo,
Marghera, Chirignago-Zelarino and Favaro Veneto.
Mestre is the center
and the most populated urban area of the mainland of Venice. There are
several bus routes and two
Translohr tramway lines. Several bus routes
and one of the above tramway lines link the mainland with Piazzale
Roma, the main bus station in Venice, via Ponte della Libertà, a road
bridge connecting the mainland with the group of islands that comprise
the historic center of Venice. The average amount of time people spend
commuting with public transit in Venice, for example to and from work,
on a weekday is 52 min. 12.2% of public transit riders, ride for more
than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a
stop or station for public transit is 10 min, while 17.6% of riders
wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance
people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 7 km,
while 12% travel for over 12 km in a single direction.
Vaporetti (water buses) provide the primary means of transportation
People Mover in Venice
Bus in Mestre
Venice leaving Piazzale Roma
Venice St Lucia station
Venice has regional and national trains, including trains to Florence
Milan (2h13) and
Turin (3h10). In
addition there are international day trains to Zurich, Innsbruck,
Munich and Vienna, plus overnight sleeper services to Paris and Dijon
(Thello), Munich and
The St Lucia station is a few steps away from a vaporetti stop in the
historic city next to Piazzale Roma. As well as many more local
trains, this station is the terminus of the luxury
Orient Express from Paris and London.
Mestre station is on the mainland, on the border between the
Mestre and Marghera.
Both stations are managed by Grandi Stazioni; they are linked by the
Ponte della Libertà
Ponte della Libertà (Liberty Bridge) between the mainland and the
Others small stations in the municipality are: Venezia Porto Marghera,
Venezia Carpenedo, Venezia
Mestre Ospedale, Venezia
Cruise ships at the passenger terminal in the
Port of Venice
Port of Venice (Venezia
Marco Polo International Airport
Marco Polo International Airport (Aeroporto di Venezia Marco Polo)
Port of Venice
Port of Venice (Italian: Porto di Venezia) is the eighth-busiest
commercial port in
Italy and is one of the most important in the
Mediterranean concerning the cruise sector, as a major hub for cruise
ships. It is one of the major Italian ports and is included in the
list of the leading European ports which are located on the strategic
nodes of trans-European networks. In 2006, 30,936,931 tonnes passed
through the port, of which 14,541,961 was the commercial sector, and
saw 1,453,513 passengers. In 2002, the port handled 262,337
Venice is served by the
Marco Polo International Airport
Marco Polo International Airport (Aeroporto di
Venezia Marco Polo), named in honor of its noted citizen. The airport
is on the mainland and was rebuilt away from the coast. Public
transport from the airport takes one to:
Piazzale Roma by ATVO (provincial company) buses and by
ACTV (city company) buses (route 5 aerobus);
Venice, Lido and
Murano by Alilaguna (private company) motor boats;
Mestre, the mainland and
Mestre railway station (convenient for
connections to Milan, Padova, Trieste,
Verona and the rest of Italy)
by ACTV lines (route 15 and 45) and by ATVO lines;
regional destinations (Treviso, Padua, the beach, ...) by ATVO buses
and by Busitalia Sita Nord buses (national company).
Some airlines market
Treviso Airport in Treviso, 30 kilometres
(19 mi) from Venice, as a
Venice gateway. Some simply advertise
flights to "Venice", while naming the actual airport only in small
print. There are public buses from this airport to Venice.
Venezia-Lido "Giovanni Nicelli", a public airport suitable for
smaller aircraft, is at the NE end of Lido di Venezia. It has a
994-metre grass runway.
The most Venetian sport is probably the "Voga alla Veneta", also
commonly called, "Voga Veneta". The Venetian Rowing is a technique
invented in the
Venetian Lagoon which has the particularity to see the
rower(s), one or more, rowing standing looking forward. Today, the
Voga alla Veneta is not only the way the Gondolier row tourists around
Venice but also the way Venetians row for pleasure and sport. Many
races called regata(e) happen throughought the year. The
culminating event of the rowing season is the day of the "Regata
Storica", happening on the first Sunday of September each year.
The main football club in the city is Venezia F.C., founded in 1907,
which currently plays in the Serie B. Their ground, the Stadio
Pierluigi Penzo situated in Sant'Elena, is one of the oldest venues in
The local basketball club is Reyer Venezia Mestre, founded in 1872 as
gymnastics club Società Sportiva Costantino Reyer, and in 1907 as
basketball club. Reyer currently plays in the Lega Basket Serie A. The
men's team won the Italian Championships in 1942, 1943 and 2017. Their
arena is the
Palasport Giuseppe Taliercio situated in Mestre. Luigi
Brugnaro is both the president of the club and the mayor of the city.
Ca' Foscari University of Venice
Venice is a major international centre for higher education. The city
hosts the Ca' Foscari University of Venice, founded in 1868; the
IUAV University of Venice, founded in 1926; the Venice
International University, an international research center, founded in
1995 and located on the island of San Servolo; and the
EIUC-European Inter-University Centre for Human Rights and
Democratisation, located on the island of Lido di Venezia.
Other Venetian institutions of higher education are: the "Accademia di
Belle Arti" (Academy of Fine Arts), established in 1750, whose first
Chairman was Giovanni Battista Piazzetta; and the Benedetto
Marcello Conservatory of Music, which, established in 1876 as High
School and Musical Society, later (1915) became "Liceo Musicale" and
finally (1940), when its Director was Gian Francesco Malipiero, State
Conservatory of Music.
The city was one of the largest in Europe in the High Middle Ages,
with a population of 60,000 in AD 1000; 80,000 in 1200; and rising up
to 110,000–180,000 in 1300. In the mid 1500s the city's population
was 170,000, and by 1600 almost 200,000.
In 2009, there were 270,098 people residing in Venice's comune (the
population estimate of 272,000 inhabitants includes the population of
Comune of Venezia; around 60,000 in the historic city of
Venice (Centro storico); 176,000 in Terraferma (the Mainland); and
31,000 live on other islands in the lagoon), of whom 47.4% were male
and 52.6% were female. Minors (children ages 18 and younger) were
14.36% of the population compared to pensioners who numbered 25.7%.
This compared with the Italian average of 18.06% (minors) and 19.94%
(pensioners). The average age of
Venice residents was 46 compared to
the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007,
the population of
Venice declined by 0.2%, while
Italy as a whole grew
by 3.85%. The population in the historic old city declined much
faster: from about 120,000 in 1980 to about 60,000 in 2009, and
to below 55,000 in 2016.
As of 2009[update], 91% of the population was Italian. The largest
immigrant group came from other European nations: (Romanians, the
largest group: 3%, South Asia: 1.3%, and East Asia: 0.9%).
Venice is predominantly Roman Catholic (92.7% of resident population
in the area of the
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Venice in 2012),
but because of the long-standing relationship with Constantinople,
there is also a noticeable Orthodox presence, and as a result of
immigration, there are now some Muslim,
Hindu and Buddhist
There is also a historic Jewish community in Venice. The Venetian
Ghetto was the area in which Jews were compelled to live under the
Venetian Republic. The word ghetto, originally Venetian, is now used
in many languages. Shakespeare's play The Merchant of Venice, written
in the late 16th century, features Shylock, a Venetian Jew. The first
complete and uncensored printed edition of the
Talmud was printed in
Daniel Bomberg in 1523. During
World War II
World War II Jews were
rounded up in
Venice and deported to extermination camps. Since the
end of the war the Jewish population of
Venice has declined from 1500
to about 500. Only around 30 Jews live in the former ghetto which
houses the city's major Jewish institutions. In modern times,
Venice has an eruv, used by the Jewish community.
Main article: Venetian literature
The Travels of Marco Polo.
Venice has long been a source of inspiration for authors, playwrights,
and poets, and at the forefront of the technological development of
printing and publishing.
Two of the most noted Venetian writers were
Marco Polo in the Middle
Ages and later Giacomo Casanova. Polo (1254–1324) was a merchant who
voyaged to the Orient. His series of books, co-written by Rustichello
Pisa and titled Il Milione provided important knowledge of the
lands east of Europe, from the Middle East to China, Japan, and
Giacomo Casanova (1725–1798) was a prolific writer and
adventurer best remembered for his autobiography, Histoire De Ma Vie
(Story of My Life), which links his colourful lifestyle to the city of
Venetian playwrights followed the old Italian theatre tradition of
Commedia dell'arte. Ruzante (1502–1542), Carlo Goldoni
Carlo Gozzi (1720–1806) used the Venetian dialect
extensively in their comedies.
Venice has also inspired writers from abroad.
Shakespeare set Othello
The Merchant of Venice
The Merchant of Venice in the city, as did
Thomas Mann with his
Death in Venice
Death in Venice (1912). The French writer Philippe Sollers
spent most of his life in
Venice and published A Dictionary For Lovers
Venice in 2004.
The city features prominently in Henry James'
The Aspern Papers
The Aspern Papers and
The Wings of the Dove. It is also visited in Evelyn Waugh's Brideshead
Revisited and Marcel Proust's In Search of Lost Time. Perhaps the most
known children's book set in
Venice is The Thief Lord, written by the
German author Cornelia Funke.
Ugo Foscolo (1778–1827), born in Zante, an island that at
the time belonged to the Republic of Venice, was also a revolutionary
who wanted to see a free republic established in
Venice following its
fall to Napoleon.
Venice also inspired the poetry of Ezra Pound, who wrote his first
literary work in the city. Pound died in 1972, and his remains are
buried in Venice's cemetery island of San Michele.
Venice is also linked to the technological aspects of writing. The
city was the location of one of Italy's earliest printing presses,
Aldus Manutius (1449–1515). From
Venice developed as an important typographic center and
even as late as the 18th century was responsible for printing half of
Italy's published books.
In literature and adapted works
The city is a particularly popular setting for essays, novels, and
other works of fictional or non-fictional literature. Examples of
Casanova's autobiographical History of My Life,
Donna Leon's Commissario Guido Brunetti crime fiction series and
cookbook, and the German television seriws based on the novels
Cry to Heaven
Cry to Heaven (1982),
Kushiel's Chosen (historical fantasy or alternate
history) A large portion of the novel takes place in a city known as
La Serenissima. It is an alternative-history version of Venice,
complete with masquerades, canals and a Doge.
Merchant of Venice
Merchant of Venice (ca. 1596–1598) and Othello,
Philippe Sollers' Watteau in Venice, and
Additionally, Thomas Mann's novella,
Death in Venice
Death in Venice (1912), was the
basis for Benjamin Britten's eponymous opera.
Art and printing
An 18th-century view of
Venice by Venetian artist Canaletto.
Venice, especially during the
Middle Ages and the
Baroque periods, was a major centre of art and developed a unique
style known as the Venetian School. In the
Middle Ages and the
Renaissance, Venice, along with
Florence and Rome, became one of the
most important centres of art in Europe, and numerous wealthy
Venetians became patrons of the arts.
Venice at the time was a rich
and prosperous Maritime Republic, which controlled a vast sea and
Palazzo Cavalli-Franchetti is an example of Venetian Gothic
architecture alongside the Grand Canal.
Venice has a rich and diverse architectural style, the most prominent
of which is the Gothic style. Venetian
Gothic architecture is a term
given to a Venetian building style combining use of the Gothic lancet
Byzantine and Ottoman influences. The style originated in
14th-century Venice, where the confluence of
Byzantine style from
Constantinople met Arab influence from Islamic Spain. Chief examples
of the style are the
Doge's Palace and the
Ca' d'Oro in the city. The
city also has several
Baroque buildings, including the
Ca' Pesaro and the Ca' Rezzonico.
By the end of the 15th century,
Venice had become the European capital
of printing, being one of the first cities in
Italy (after Subiaco and
Rome) to have a printing press after those established in Germany,
having 417 printers by 1500. The most important printing office was
Aldine Press of Aldus Manutius, which in 1499 printed the
Hypnerotomachia Poliphili, considered the most beautiful book of the
Renaissance, and established modern punctuation, the page format and
italic type, and the first printed work of Aristotle.
In the 16th century, Venetian painting was developed through
influences from the Paduan School and Antonello da Messina, who
introduced the oil painting technique of the
Van Eyck brothers. It is
signified by a warm colour scale and a picturesque use of colour.
Early masters were the Bellini and Vivarini families, followed by
Giorgione and Titian, then
Tintoretto and Veronese. In the early 16th
century, there was rivalry in Venetian painting between the disegno
and colorito techniques.
Canvases (the common painting surface) originated in
Venice during the
early Renaissance. These early canvases were generally rough.
In the 18th century, Venetian painting had a revival with Giovanni
Battista Pittoni, Tiepolo's decorative painting and Canaletto's and
Guardi's panoramic views. In the 19th century with Antonio Rotta.
Main article: List of painters and architects of Venice
See also: Venetian School (art)
Venetian gothic architecture
Venetian Gothic is an architectural style combining use of the Gothic
lancet arch with
Byzantine and Moorish influences. The style
originated in 14th century
Venice with the confluence of Byzantine
styles from Constantinople, Moorish influences from Al-Andalus, and
early Gothic forms from mainland Italy. Chief
examples of the style are the
Doge's Palace and the
Ca' d'Oro in
See also: Venetian
Gothic architecture and Medieval architecture
Baroque Ca' Rezzonico.
Rococo architectural style
It can be argued that
Venice produced the best and most refined rococo
designs. At the time[when?],
Venice was in trouble. It had lost most
of its maritime power, was lagging behind its rivals in political
importance, and society had become decadent, with nobles wasting their
money in gambling and partying. But
Venice remained Italy's fashion
capital, and was a serious contender to Paris in terms of wealth,
architecture, luxury, taste, sophistication, trade, decoration, style,
and design. Venetian rococo was well known as rich and luxurious,
with usually very extravagant designs. Unique Venetian furniture
pieces included the divani da portego, and long rococo couches and
pozzetti, objects meant to be placed against the wall. Bedrooms of
rich Venetians were usually sumptuous and grand, with rich damask,
velvet, and silk drapery and curtains, and beautifully carved rococo
beds with statues of putti, flowers and angels.
especially known for its beautiful girandole mirrors, which remained
among, if not the, finest in Europe. Chandeliers were usually very
Murano glass to make them look more vibrant and stand
out from others, and precious stones and materials from abroad were
Venice still held a vast trade empire. Lacquer was very
common, and many items of furniture were covered with it, the most
noted being lacca povera (poor lacquer), in which allegories and
images of social life were painted. Lacquerwork and
particularly common in bureau cabinets.
Venetian glass and
Venetian glass goblet.
Venice is known for its ornate glass-work, known as Venetian glass. It
is world-renowned for being colourful, elaborate, and skilfully made.
Many of the important characteristics of these objects had been
developed by the 13th century. Toward the end of that century, the
center of the
Venetian glass industry moved to Murano, an offshore
island in Venice. The glass made there is known as
Byzantine craftsmen played an important role in the development of
Venetian glass, an art form for which the city is well known. When
Constantinople was sacked in the
Fourth Crusade in 1204, some fleeing
artisans came to Venice. This happened again when the
Constantinople in 1453, supplying
Venice with still more glassworkers.
By the 16th century, Venetian artisans had gained even greater control
over the color and transparency of their glass, and had mastered a
variety of decorative techniques.
Murano glass chandelier Ca' Rezzonico
Despite efforts to keep Venetian glassmaking techniques within Venice,
they became known elsewhere, and Venetian-style glassware was produced
in other Italian cities and other countries of Europe.
Some of the most important brands of glass in the world today are
still produced in the historical glass factories on Murano. They are:
Venini, Barovier & Toso, Pauly, Millevetri, Seguso. Barovier
& Toso is considered one of the 100 oldest companies in the world,
formed in 1295.
Cinema, media, and popular culture
Venice has been the setting or chosen location of numerous films,
games, works of fine art and literature (including essays, fiction,
non-fiction, and poems), music videos, television shows, and other
Masks at Carnival of Venice.
Typical masks worn during the Carnival of Venice.
Carnival of Venice
Carnival of Venice is held annually in the city, It lasts for
around two weeks and ends on Shrove Tuesday. Venetian masks are worn.
Venice Biennale is one of the most important events in the arts
calendar. In 1895 an Esposizione biennale artistica nazionale
(biennial exhibition of Italian art) was inaugurated. The
activities of the Biennale were interrupted by the war in September
1942, but resumed in 1948.
Festa del Redentore
Festa del Redentore is held in mid July. It began as a feast to
give thanks for the end of the plague of 1576. A bridge of barges is
Giudecca to the rest of Venice, and fireworks play an
Venice Film Festival
Venice Film Festival (Italian Mostra Internazionale d'Arte
Cinematografica di Venezia) is the oldest film festival in the world.
 Founded by Count
Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata
Giuseppe Volpi di Misurata in 1932 as the
Esposizione Internazionale d'Arte Cinematografica, the festival has
since taken place every year in late August or early September on the
island of the Lido. Screenings take place in the historic Palazzo del
Cinema on the Lungomare Marconi. It is one of the world's most
prestigious film festivals and is part of the
Carnival of Venice
Carnival of Venice and
Venice Film Festival
Examples of films set or at least partially filmed in Venice
The Comfort of Strangers (1990)
The Italian Job (2003)
Death in Venice
Death in Venice (1971)
James Bond films: From Russia with Love (1963), Moonraker
(1979), and Casino Royale (2006)
The Tourist (2010)
Summertime (1955), starring Katharine Hepburn
Everyone Says I Love You
Everyone Says I Love You (1996)
Don't Look Now
Don't Look Now (1973)
The Wings of the Dove
The Wings of the Dove (1997)
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade
Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989)
The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen (2003)
A Little Romance
A Little Romance (1979)
Lara Croft: Tomb Raider (2001)
The Talented Mr. Ripley (1999)
Dangerous Beauty (1988), the biography of Veronica Franco, the 16th
Penguins of Madagascar
Penguins of Madagascar (2014)
Pokémon Heroes (2002), is set inside a city based on Venice, although
it is titled differently and features sights not present within its
real-world equivalent. (The city is otherwise virtually identical to
Blame It on the Bellboy
Blame It on the Bellboy (1992)
Main article: Music of Venice
Venice in media, Venetian polychoral style, Music of Veneto,
and Venetian School (music)
La Fenice operahouse in the city.
The city of
Italy has played an important role in the
development of the music of Italy. The Venetian state – i.e., the
Republic of Venice
Republic of Venice – was often popularly called
the "Republic of Music", and an anonymous Frenchman of the 17th
century is said to have remarked that "In every home, someone is
playing a musical instrument or singing. There is music
During the 16th century,
Venice became one of the most important
musical centers of Europe, marked by a characteristic style of
composition (the Venetian school) and the development of the Venetian
polychoral style under composers such as Adrian Willaert, who worked
at St Mark's Basilica.
Venice was the early center of music printing;
Ottaviano Petrucci began publishing music almost as soon as this
technology was available, and his publishing enterprise helped to
attract composers from all over Europe, especially from
Flanders. By the end of the century,
Venice was known for the splendor
of its music, as exemplified in the "colossal style" of Andrea and
Giovanni Gabrieli, which used multiple choruses and instrumental
Venice was also the home of many noted composers during the
baroque period, such as Antonio Vivaldi, Ippolito Ciera, Giovanni
Picchi, and Girolamo Dalla Casa, to name but a few.
In popular music
The city has been the setting for music videos of such songs as
Madonna's "Like a Virgin" and Siouxsie and the Banshees' "Dear
In video games
The city is the setting for parts of such video games as Assassin's
Creed II and Tomb Raider II. It has also served as
inspiration for the fictional city of Altissia, in Final Fantasy
XV. The city also serves as a setting for The House of the Dead
2. The city appears as the first main level in Sly 3: Honor Among
Photograph of Guardi's Regatta in
Venice at the Frick Art Reference
Its splendid architecture, artworks, landscapes, gondolas, the
alternance of high and low tides, the reflections of light and colors,
and the unusual daily scenes in a city living on water, make of Venice
and its islands a paradise for photographers both professionals and
Fulvio Roiter has probably been the pioneer in artistic
photography in Venice, followed by a number of authors whose
works are often reproduced on postcards, thus reaching a widest
international popular exposure.
Venetian cuisine and
Hot chocolate was a fashionable drink in
Venice during the 1770s and
Venetian cuisine is characterized by seafood, but also includes garden
products from the islands of the lagoon, rice from the mainland, game,
Venice is not known for a peculiar cuisine of its own: it
combines local traditions with influences stemming from age-old
contacts with distant countries.[clarification needed] These include
sarde in saór (sardines marinated to preserve them for long voyages);
bacalà mantecato (a recipe based on Norwegian stockfish and
extra-virgin olive oil); bisàto (marinated eel); risi e bisi, rice,
peas and (not smoked) bacon; fegato alla veneziana,
Venetian-style veal liver; risòto col néro de sépe (risotto with
cuttlefish, blackened by their ink); cichéti, refined and delicious
tidbits (akin to tapas); antipasti (appetizers); and prosecco, an
effervescent, mildly sweet wine.
Venice is known for the golden, oval-shaped cookies
called baìcoli, and for other types of sweets, such as: pan del
pescaór (bread of the fisherman); cookies with almonds and pistachio
nuts; cookies with fried Venetian cream, or the bussolài (butter
biscuits and shortbread made in the shape of a ring or of an "S") from
the island of Burano; the galàni or cróstoli (angel wings); the
frìtole (fried spherical doughnuts); the fregolòtta (a crumbly cake
with almonds); a milk pudding called rosàda; and cookies called
zaléti, whose ingredients include yellow maize flour.
The dessert tiramisù is generally thought to have been invented in
Treviso in the 1970s, and is popular in the
Fashion and shopping
Luxury shops and boutiques along the
In the 14th century, many young Venetian men began wearing
tight-fitting multicoloured hose, the designs on which indicated the
Compagnie della Calza ("Trouser Club") to which they belonged. The
Venetian Senate passed sumptuary laws, but these merely resulted in
changes in fashion in order to circumvent the law. Dull garments were
worn over colourful ones, which then were cut to show the hidden
colours resulting in the wide spread of men's "slashed" fashions in
the 15th century.
Venice is a major fashion and shopping centre, not as important
as Milan, Florence, and Rome, but on a par with Verona, Turin,
Vicenza, Naples, and Genoa.
Roberta di Camerino
Roberta di Camerino is the only major
Italian fashion brand to be based in Venice. Founded in 1945, it
is renowned for its innovative handbags featuring
hardware[clarification needed] by Venetian artisans and often covered
in locally woven velvet, and has been credited with creating the
concept of the easily recognisable status bag. Many of the
fashion boutiques and jewelry shops in the city are located on or near
Rialto Bridge and in the Piazza San Marco. There are Louis Vuitton
Ermenegildo Zegna flagship stores in the city. If shopping for
venetian and Italian food specialties and wine you can head to Mascari
or Casa del Parmigiano near
Rialto and I Tre Mercanti flagship store
near Piazza San Marco.
The Doge Andrea Gritti, reigned 1523–1538, portrait by Titian.
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For people from Venice, see Category:People from Venice. Others
closely associated with the city include:
Pietro Cesare Alberti
Pietro Cesare Alberti (1608–1655), considered the first Italian –
American, arriving in New Amsterdam in 1635.
Tomaso Albinoni (8 June 1671 – 17 January 1751), a baroque composer.
Claudio Ambrosini (9 April 1948), composer and conductor.
Pietro Bembo (20 May 1470 – 18 January 1547), cardinal and scholar.
Giovanni Bellini (c. 1430–1516),
Renaissance painter, probably the
best known of the Bellini family of painters.
Francesco Borgato (5 September 1990, Venice), Italian recording artist
Marco Antonio Bragadin
Marco Antonio Bragadin (d.1571), general, flayed alive by the Turks
after a fierce resistance during the siege of Famagusta.
Sebastian Cabot (c. 1484–1557, or soon after), explorer.
Rosalba Carriera (7 October 1675 – 15 April 1757), known for her
Canaletto (28 October 1697 – 19 April 1768), known for his
landscapes or vedute of Venice, but not only.
Giacomo Casanova (1725–1798 in Dux, Bohemia, (now Duchcov, Czech
Republic)), a Venetian adventurer, writer and womanizer.
Francesco Cavalli (14 February 1602 – 14 January 1676), a baroque
Lorenzo Da Ponte
Lorenzo Da Ponte (1749–1838), opera librettist and poet, wrote the
librettos for 28 operas by 11 composers, including Wolfgang Amadeus
Enrico Dandolo (c. 1107, 1205),
Doge of Venice
Doge of Venice from 1192 to his death,
played a direct role in the Sack of
Constantinople during the Fourth
Vincenzo Dandolo (1758–1819), chemist, agronomist and politician of
the Enlightenment Era.
Ludovico de Luigi
Ludovico de Luigi (November 1933), Venetian Surrealistic artist.
Pellegrino Ernetti, Catholic priest and exorcist.
Dominic DeNucci, (1932–) Professional wrestler
Veronica Franco (1546–1591), poet and courtesan during the
Andrea Gabrieli (c. 1510–1586), Italian composer and organist at St
Giovanni Gabrieli (1554/1557–1612), composer and organist at St
Carlo Goldoni (25 February 1707 – 6 February 1793). Along with
Pirandello, Goldoni is probably the most notable name in Italian
theatre, in his country and abroad.
Carlo Gozzi (13 December 1720 – 4 April 1806), dramatist of the 18th
Pietro Guarneri (14 April 1695 – 7 April 1762), left Cremona in
1718, settled in Venice. "Peter of Venice" from the family of great
Baldassare Longhena (1598–18 February 1682), one of the greatest
Lorenzo Lotto (c. 1480–Loreto, 1556), painter, draughtsman, and
illustrator, traditionally placed in the Venetian school.
Bruno Maderna (21 April 1920 – 13 November 1973), an Italian-German
orchestra director and 20th-century music composer.
Aldus Manutius (1449–1515), one of the most important printers in
Leon Modena (1571–1648) preacher, author, poet, active in the
Venetian ghetto and beyond.
Claudio Monteverdi (1567–1643), composer, opera pioneer, and
director of music at San Marco.
Luigi Nono (29 January 1924 – 8 May 1990), a leading composer of
instrumental and electronic music.
Joseph Pardo (c. 1561–1619), rabbi and merchant.
Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia
Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia (5 June 1646 – 26 July 1684), the
first woman in the world to receive a doctorate degree.
Marco Polo (c. 1254–8 January 1324), trader and explorer, one of the
first Westerners to travel the
Silk Road to China. While a prisoner in
Genoa, he dictated in the tale of his travels known as Il Milione (The
Travels of Marco Polo).
Virgilio Ranzato (7 May 1883 – 20 April 1937), composer.
Frederick Rolfe (22 July 1860 – 25 October 1913), English author of
the Venetian novel The Desire and Pursuit of the Whole.
Carlo Scarpa (2 June 1906 – 1978, Sendai, Japan), an architect with
a profound understanding of materials.
Romano Scarpa (27 September 1927, Venice–23 April 2005, Málaga),
was one of the most noted Italian creators of Disney comics.
Giuseppe Sinopoli (2 November 1946 – 20 April 2001), conductor and
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo
Giovanni Battista Tiepolo (5 March 1696 – 27 March 1770), the last
"Grand Manner" fresco painter from the Venetian Republic.
Tintoretto (1518–31 May 1594), probably the last great painter of
Titian (c. 1488–90–27 August 1576), leader of the 16th-century
Venetian school of the Italian
Renaissance (he was born in Pieve di
Elisabetta Caminèr Turra
Elisabetta Caminèr Turra (1751–1796), writer.
Emilio Vedova (9 August 1919 – 25 October 2006), one of the most
important modern painters of Italy.
Sebastiano Venier, (c. 1496–3 March 1578),
Doge of Venice
Doge of Venice from 11
June 1577 to 1578.
Antonio Vivaldi (4 March 1678–28 July (or 27), 1741, Vienna),
composer and violinist of the
The City of
Venice and the Central Association of Cities and
Communities of Greece (KEDKE) established, in January 2000, in
pursuance of the EC Regulations n. 2137/85, the European Economic
Interest Grouping (E.E.I.G.)
Marco Polo System to promote and realise
European projects within transnational cultural and tourist field,
particularly referred to the artistic and architectural heritage
preservation and safeguard.
Twin towns and sister cities
See also: List of twin towns and sister cities in Italy
Venice is twinned with:
Yerevan, Armenia, since 2011
Dubrovnik, Croatia, since 2012
Venice ended the sister city relationship with St. Petersburg
in opposition to laws Russia had passed against homosexuals and those
who support gay rights.
Venice has cooperation agreements with the Greek city of Thessaloniki,
the German city of Nuremberg, signed on 25 September 1999, and the
Turkish city of Istanbul, signed on 4 March 1993, within the framework
of the 1991
Istanbul Declaration. It is also a Science and Technology
Partnership City with Qingdao, China.
European Union portal
History of the Jews in Venice
List of buildings and structures in Venice
List of painters and architects of Venice
List of places called
Venice of the East
Outline of Italy
Republic of Venice
Su e zo per i ponti
Venetic language (the ancient spoken language of the
Venetian language (the modern spoken vernacular of the region)
Mestre Rugby FC – rugby team
Venice of the North
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^ DEPARTMENTS: Asian and North African Studies; Economics;
Environmental Sciences, Informatics and Statistics; Humanities;
Linguistics and Comparative Cultural Studies; Management; Molecular
Sciences and Nanosystems; Philosophy and Cultural Heritage.
INTERDEPARTMENTAL SCHOOLS: School of Asian Studies and Business
Management; School of Cultural Production and Conservation of the
Cultural Heritage; School of International Relations; School of Social
Work and Public Policies. OTHER SCHOOLS: School of Economics; CFCS –
Ca’ Foscari Challenge School; CFSIE – Ca’ Foscari School for
International Education; Ca' Foscari Graduate School.
^ DEPARTMENTS: DACC – Architecture, Construction and Conservation;
Architecture and Arts; DPPAC – Design and Planning in
^ Courses. ITALY: History of Venice; Italian Contemporary History in
Films; Art and
Renaissance Venice; Italian Fashion and
Design. CULTURES OF THE WORLD: Intercultural Communication; Gender
Studies; Comparing East and West. GLOBAL CHALLENGES: Identity,
Heritage and Globalization; Globalization, Ethics, Welfare and Human
Rights; Global governance for peace and security, cooperation and
^ European Master's Degree in Human Rights and Democratisation.
^ DEPARTMENTS: Visual arts (Painting; Sculpture; Graphic Art;
Decoration); Scenography and Applied Arts (Scenography; New
Technologies for the Arts).
^ DEPARTMENTS: Theory and Analysis, Composition and Conducting:
Pre-polyphonic Music, Choral Music and Choir Conducting, Composition,
Experimental Composition, Conducting. New Technologies and Musical
Languages: Jazz, Electronic Music. Wind instruments: Recorder, Flute,
Trumpet, French Horn, Clarinet, Saxophone, Oboe, Bassoon. Singing and
Musical Theatre: Singing. Teaching: Teaching. Keyboards and Percussion
Instruments: Organ, Harpsichord, Piano, Percussion instruments.
Stringed Instruments: Harp, Lute, Guitar, Viola da Gamba, Baroque
violin, Violin, Viola, Cello, Double Bass.
^ "Urban World History". google.dk.
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^ Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250–1350 By Janet
^ The Sovereign State and Its Competitors: An Analysis of Systems
Change By Hendrik Spruyt.
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^ Weiner, Rebecca The Virtual Jewish History Tour,
Venice The Virtual
Jewish History Tour: Venice
Venetian Ghetto –
Eruv in Venice". Retrieved 2 August 2010.
Venice – Art History Basics on the Venetian
School – ca 1450–1600". Arthistory.about.com. 29 October 2009.
Retrieved 22 April 2010.
^ "Venetian art around 1500". Webexhibits.org. Retrieved 22 April
^ a b Miller (2005) p.82
^ Miller (2005) p.83
^ Carl I. Gable,
Murano Magic: Complete Guide to Venetian Glass, its
History and Artists (Schiffer, 2004). ISBN 978-0-7643-1946-4.
Venice Biennale: History of the
Labiennale.org. Archived from the original on 10 January 2009.
Retrieved 28 March 2009.
Venice Biennale: History From the beginnings until the Second
World War (1893–1945)". Labiennale.org. Archived from the original
on 10 January 2009. Retrieved 28 March 2009.
^ Morris, Roderick Conway (2012-08-29). "SPECIAL REPORT: VENICE FILM
FESTIVAL; World's Oldest Cinematic Fest Turns 80". The New York Times.
ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2018-01-17.
Venice in the movies: 10 films that feature the city".
Death in Venice
Death in Venice and a cocktail". The
Venice Lido. August
^ Touring Club p. 79
^ "Assassin's Creed and the Real Italia: Venezia (Part 2)".
^ Atkins, Barry (19 July 2013). "More than a game: The computer game
as fictional form". Oxford University Press – via Google
^ "Tabata Talks Chocobos, Tonberries, Cities and Story With Famitsu
Final Fantasy Union". Archived from the original on 23 April 2016.
^ Stefano Biolchini (19 April 2016). "Addio a Fulvio Roiter. Era sua
la più bella Venezia in bianco nero". Il Sole 24 Ore. Retrieved 19
^ Ranieri da Mosto, Il
Veneto in cucina, Firenze, Aldo
Martello-Giunti, 1974, p. 57; Mariù Salvatori de Zuliani, A tola co i
nostri veci. La cucina veneziana, Milano, Franco Angeli, 2008, p. 63
^ In other areas of
Italy similar sweets are known by many other
names, e.g. cénci (rags) (Florence), frappe (flounces) (Rome), bugìe
(lies) (Turin, Genoa, etc.), chiàcchiere (chatter) (
Milan and many
other places in northern, central and southern Italy). Vid.:
Pellegrino Artusi, La Scienza in cucina e l'Arte di mangiar bene, 93ª
ristampa, Firenze, Giunti, 1960, p. 387, #595; Ranieri da Mosto, Il
Veneto in cucina, Firenze, Aldo Martello-Giunti, 1974, p. 364; Luigi
Veronelli (edited by), Il Carnacina, 10th ed., Milano, Garzanti, 1975,
p. 656, #2013; to name but a few.
^ Mariù Salvatori de Zuliani, A tola co i nostri veci. La cucina
veneziana, Milano, Franco Angeli, 2008, pp. 449–450
^ Squires, Nick (17 May 2016). "
Italian regions battle over who
invented tiramisu" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
^ a b Patner, Josh (26 February 2006). "From Bags to Riches". The New
York Times. Retrieved 14 May 2010.
Yerevan – Twin Towns & Sister Cities".
Official Website. © 2005–2013 www.yerevan.am. Retrieved 4 November
^ www.ideafutura.com, Idea Futura srl -. "City of
Twinnings - Twinnings and Agreements - International and european
^ Morgan, Glennisha (30 January 2013). "
Venice To Cut Ties With St.
Petersburg Over Anti-Gay Law". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 17
October 2013. Venice_Russia
See also: Bibliography of the history of Venice
Bosio, Luciano. Le origini di Venezia. Novara: Istituto Geografico De
Brown, Horatio, Venice, chapter 8 of
Cambridge Modern History
Cambridge Modern History vol. I
Brown, Horatio, Calendar of State Papers (Venetian): 1581–1591,
1895; 1592–1603, 1897; 1603–1607, 1900; 1607–1610, 1904;
Brown, Horatio, Studies in the history of
Venice (London, 1907)
Chambers, D.S. (1970). The Imperial Age of Venice, 1380–1580.
London: Thames & Hudson. The best brief introduction in English,
still completely reliable.
Contarini, Gasparo (1599). The Commonwealth and Gouernment of Venice.
Lewes Lewkenor, trsl. London: "Imprinted by I. Windet for E. Mattes."
The most important contemporary account of Venice's governance during
the time of its blossoming. Also available in various reprint
Da Canal, Martin, "Les estoires de Venise" (13th-century chronicle),
translated by Laura Morreale. Padua, Unipress 2009.
Drechsler, Wolfgang (2002). "
Venice Misappropriated." Trames 6(2),
pp. 192–201. A scathing review of Martin & Romano 2000;
also a good summary on the most recent economic and political thought
Garrett, Martin, "Venice: a Cultural History" (2006). Revised edition
of "Venice: a Cultural and Literary Companion" (2001).
Grubb, James S. (1986). "When Myths Lose Power: Four Decades of
Venetian Historiography." Journal of Modern History 58,
pp. 43–94. The classic "muckraking" essay on the myths of
Lane, Frederic Chapin. Venice: Maritime Republic (1973)
(ISBN 978-0-8018-1445-7) standard scholarly history; emphasis on
economic, political and diplomatic history
Laven, Mary, "Virgins of Venice: Enclosed Lives and Broken Vows in the
Renaissance Convent (2002). The most important study of the life of
Renaissance nuns, with much on aristocratic family networks and the
life of women more generally.
Madden, Thomas F.
Enrico Dandolo and the Rise of
Venice Johns Hopkins
University Press. Probably the best book in English on medieval
Martin, John Jeffries and Dennis Romano (eds).
The History and Civilization of an Italian City-State, 1297–1797.
(2002) Johns Hopkins University Press. The most recent collection on
essays, many by prominent scholars, on Venice.
Muir, Edward (1981). Civic Ritual in
Renaissance Venice. Princeton UP.
The classic of Venetian cultural studies, highly sophisticated.
Oppenheimer, Gerald J. (2010). Venetian Palazzi and Case: A Guide to
the Literature. University of Washington, Seattle. Retrieved from
7 February 2010.
Rösch, Gerhard (2000). Venedig. Geschichte einer Seerepublik.
Stuttgart: Kohlhammer. In German, but the most recent top-level brief
history of Venice.
Miller, Judith (2005). Furniture: world styles from classical to
contemporary. DK Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7566-1340-2.
Ackroyd, Peter. Venice: Pure City. London, Chatto & Windus. 2009.
Brown, Horatio, Life on the Lagoons, 1884; revised ed. 1894; further
eds. 1900, 1904, 1909.
Cole, Toby. Venice: A Portable Reader, Lawrence Hill, 1979.
ISBN 978-0-88208-097-0 (hardcover); ISBN 978-0-88208-107-6
Madden, Thomas, Venice: A New History. New York: Viking, 2012.
ISBN 978-0-670-02542-8. A fascinating and approachable history by
a distinguished historian.
Morris, Jan (1993), Venice. 3rd revised edition. Faber & Faber,
ISBN 978-0-571-16897-2. A subjective and passionate written
introduction to the city and some of its history. Not illustrated.
Ruskin, John (1853). The Stones of Venice. Abridged edition Links, JG
(Ed), Penguin Books, 2001. ISBN 978-0-14-139065-9. Seminal work
on architecture and society
di Robilant, Andrea (2004). A Venetian Affair. HarperCollins.
ISBN 978-1-84115-542-5 Biography of Venetian nobleman and lover,
from correspondence in the 1750s.
Sethre, Janet. The Souls of
Venice McFarland & Company, Inc.,
2003. ISBN 978-0-7864-1573-1 (softcover). This book focuses on
people who have been shaped by
Venice and who have shaped the city in
their turn. Illustrated (photographs by Manuela Fardin).
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Official Site of the City of Venice
Fondazione Musei Civici di Venezia (Italian/English)
Venezia Autentica, a website about Life and travel in
Islands of the Venetian Lagoon
Buel del Lovo
Isola dei Laghi
Madonna del Monte
Motta dei Cunicci
Motta di San Lorenzo
San Francesco del Deserto
San Giàcomo in Paludo
San Giorgio Maggiore
San Pietro di Castello
Lido di Venezia
San Giorgio in Alga
San Lazzaro degli Armeni
San Marco in Boccalama
Sant'Angelo della Polvere
Santa Maria della Grazia
Comuni of the Metropolitan City of Venice
Fossalta di Piave
Fossalta di Portogruaro
Musile di Piave
Noventa di Piave
San Donà di Piave
San Michele al Tagliamento
San Stino di Livenza
Santa Maria di Sala
Torre di Mosto
Regional capitals of Italy
Trieste, Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Trento, Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
World Heritage Sites in Italy
Mantua and Sabbioneta
Monte San Giorgio1
Porto Venere, Palmaria, Tino and Tinetto, Cinque Terre
Monterosso al Mare
Residences of the Royal House of Savoy
Castle of Moncalieri
Castle of Racconigi
Castle of Rivoli
Castello del Valentino
Royal Palace of Turin
Palazzo Madama, Turin
Palace of Venaria
Palazzina di caccia of Stupinigi
Villa della Regina
Rhaetian Railway in the Albula / Bernina Landscapes1
Rock Drawings in Valcamonica
Sacri Monti of
Piedmont and Lombardy
Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan
Vineyard Landscape of Piedmont: Langhe-
Roero and Monferrato
Torre della Ghirlandina
Torre della Ghirlandina and Piazza Grande, Modena
Orto botanico di Padova
Vicenza and the Palladian Villas of the Veneto
Basilica of Saint Francis of Assisi
Etruscan Necropolises of
Cerveteri and Tarquinia
Piazza del Duomo, Pisa
Castel del Monte, Apulia
Vallo di Diano
Vallo di Diano National Park,
Paestum and Velia, Certosa
Oplontis and Villa Poppaea
Palace of Caserta,
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli
Aqueduct of Vanvitelli and
San Leucio Complex
Sassi di Matera
Palermo and the Cathedral Churches of Cefalù and Monreale
Archaeological Area of Agrigento
Syracuse and Necropolis of Pantalica
Val di Noto
Militello in Val di Catania
Villa Romana del Casale
Longobards in Italy, Places of Power (568–774 A.D.)
Cividale del Friuli
Temple of Clitumnus
Temple of Clitumnus located at Campello sul Clitunno
Santa Sofia located at Benevento
Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo
Sanctuary of Monte Sant'Angelo located at Monte Sant'Angelo
Prehistoric pile dwellings around the Alps3
Primeval Beech Forests of Europe4
Venetian Works of Defence between 15th and 17th centuries5
Peschiera del Garda
1 Shared with Switzerland
2 Shared with the Holy See
3 Shared with Austria, France, Germany, Slovenia, and Switzerland
4 Shared with Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany,
Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,
Spain and Ukraine
5 Shared with
Croatia and Montenegro
Italy by population
BNF: cb11933474v (data)