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Left valve dentition of the shell of the venerid Mercenaria
Mercenaria
mercenaria

The Veneridae
Veneridae
or venerids, common name the venus clams, are a very large family of minute to large, saltwater clams, marine bivalve molluscs. Over 500 living species of venerid bivalves are known, most of which are edible, and many of which are exploited as food sources. Many of the most important edible species are commonly known (in the USA) simply as "clams". Venerids make up a significant proportion of the world fishery of edible bivalves. The family includes some species that are important commercially, such as (in the USA) the hard clam or quahog, Mercenaria
Mercenaria
mercenaria.

Contents

1 Classification 2 Description 3 Subfamilies according to Keen (1969) 4 List of genera in the family Veneridae 5 References 6 Gallery 7 External links

Classification[edit] The classification within the family Veneridae
Veneridae
has been controversial at least since the 1930s. The most used classification is that of Keen (1969) which recognises 12 subfamilies, listed below. Some common species have been moved between genera (including genera in different subfamilies) because of repeated attempts to bring a more valid organization to the classification or taxonomy of the family, therefore changes in the generic name of species are frequently encountered. The characters used for classifying this group still tend to be superficial, focusing on external features, especially those of the shell. Venerid clams are characterized as bivalves with an external posterior ligament, usually a well demarcated anterior area known as the lunule, and three interlocking structures (called cardinal teeth) in the top of each valve; several of the subfamilies also have anterior lateral teeth, anterior to the cardinal teeth: one in the left valve, and two (sometimes obscure) in the right valve. The inner lower peripheries of the valves can be finely toothed or smooth. Description[edit]

Venerid bivalve; Wadi Umm Ghudran Formation (Late Cretaceous, early Campanian), near Amman, Jordan

Dentition of venerid bivalve; Wadi Umm Ghudran Formation (Late Cretaceous, early Campanian), near Amman, Jordan

Shell sculpture tends to be primarily concentric, but radial and divaricating ornamentation (see Gafrarium), and rarely spines (Pitar lupanaria for example) occur on some. One small subfamily, the Samarangiinae, is created for a unique and rare clam found in coral reefs with an outer covering of cemented sand or mud that texturally camouflages it while enhancing the thickness of the shell. Several venerid clams have overall shell shapes adapted to their environments. Tivela
Tivela
species, for example, have the triangular outline of the surf clams in other bivalve families, and occur often in surf zones. Some Dosinia
Dosinia
species are almost disc-like in shape and reminiscent of lucinid bivalves; both types of circular bivalves tend to burrow relatively deeply into the sediment. Further reclassification is to be expected as the results of current research in molecular systematics on the group appear in the literature. Venerids have rounded or oval solid shells with the umbones (projections) inturned towards the anterior end. Three or four cardinal teeth are on each valve. The siphons are short and united, except at the tip, and are not very long. The foot is large.[1] Subfamilies according to Keen (1969)[edit]

Chioninae Circinae Clementinae Cyclininae Dosiniinae Gemminae Meretricinae Pitarinae Samarangiinae Sunettinae Tapetinae Venerinae

List of genera in the family Veneridae[edit]

Extended content

Marcia marmorata

Sunetta meroe

Agriopoma Dall, 1902 Amiantis Carpenter, 1884 Anomalocardia Schumacher, 1817 Anomalodiscus Dall, 1902 Antigona Schumacher, 1817 Aphrodora Jukes-Browne, 1914 Asaphinoides F. Hodson, 1931 †Atamarcia Marwick, 1927 Austrovenus
Austrovenus
Finlay,1927 Bassina
Bassina
Jukes-Browne, 1914 Callista Poli, 1791 Callithaca Dall, 1902 Callocardia A. Adams, 1864 Callpita M. Huber, 2010 Chamelea
Chamelea
Mörch, 1853 Chione Megerle von Mühlfeld, 1811 †Chionella Cossmann, 1886 Chioneryx Iredale, 1924 Chionista Keen, 1958 Chionopsis Olsson, 1932 Choristodon Jonas, 1844 Circe Schumacher, 1817 Circenita Jousseaume, 1888 Circomphalus
Circomphalus
Klein, 1853 Clausinella
Clausinella
J. E. Gray, 1851 Clementia
Clementia
Gray, 1842 Compsomyax Stewart, 1930 Comus
Comus
Cox, 1930 Cooperella Carpenter, 1864 Costacallista Palmer, 1927 Costellipitar Habe, 1951 Cryptonema
Cryptonema
Jukes-Browne, 1914 Cyclina Deshayes, 1850 Cyclinella Dall, 1902 Dorisca Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938 Dosina Gray, 1835 Dosinia
Dosinia
Scopoli, 1777 Egesta
Egesta
Conrad, 1845 Eumarcia Iredale, 1924 Eurhomalea Cossmann, 1920 Ezocallista Kira, 1959 †Frigichione Fletcher, 1938 Gafrarium Röding, 1798 Gemma Deshayes, 1853 Globivenus Coen, 1934 Gomphina Mörch, 1853 Gomphinella Marwick, 1927 Gouldia C. B. Adams, 1847 Gouldiopa Iredale, 1924 Granicorium Hedley, 1906 †Grateloupia [anonymous], 1830 †Hinemoana Marwick, 1927 Humilaria Grant and Gale, 1931 Hyphantosoma Dall, 1902 Hysteroconcha Dall, 1902 Iliochione Olsson, 1961 Irus Schmidt, 1818 Irusella Hertlein and Grant, 1972 Jukesena Iredale, 1915 Katelysia Römer, 1857

†Katherinella Tegland, 1929 Kyrina Jousseaume, 1894 Laevicirce Habe, 1951 Lajonkairia Deshayes, 1854 Lamelliconcha Dall, 1902 Lepidocardia Dall, 1902 Leukoma
Leukoma
Römer, 1857 Lioconcha
Lioconcha
Morch, 1853 Liocyma Dall, 1870 Lirophora Conrad, 1883 Macridiscus Dall, 1902 Macrocallista Meek, 1876 Marcia H. Adams & A. Adams, 1857 †Marwickia Finlay, 1930 Megapitaria Grant & Gale, 1931 Mercenaria
Mercenaria
Schumacher, 1817 Meretrix Linnaeus, 1758 †Meroena Jukes-Browne, 1908 Microcirce Habe, 1951 Mysia
Mysia
Lamarck, 1818 Notocallista
Notocallista
Iredale, 1924 Nutricola Bernard, 1982 †Paleomarcia Fletcher, 1938 Panchione Olsson, 1964 Paphia
Paphia
Born, 1778 Paphonotia Hertlein & Strong, 1948 Parastarte Conrad, 1862 Paratapes
Paratapes
Stoliczka, 1870 Parvicirce Cosel, 1995 Pelecyora
Pelecyora
Dall, 1902 Periglypta
Periglypta
Jukes-Browne, 1914 Petricola
Petricola
Lamarck, 1801 Petricolaria
Petricolaria
Stoliczka, 1870 Pitar
Pitar
Römer, 1857 Pitarenus Rehder & Abbott, 1951 Placamen Iredale, 1925 Polititapes
Polititapes
Chiamenti, 1900 Privigna Dall, Bartsch & Rehder, 1938 Protapes Dall, 1902 Protocallithaca Nomura, 1937 Proxichione Iredale, 1929 Psephidia Dall, 1902 Redicirce Iredale, 1924 †Rohea Marwick, 1938 Ruditapes
Ruditapes
Chiamenti, 1900 Samarangia Dall, 1902 Saxidomus Conrad, 1837 Sunetta Link, 1807 Sunettina Pfeiffer, 1869 Tapes Muhlfeld, 1811 Tawera Marwick, 1927 Timoclea Brown, 1827 Tivela
Tivela
Link, 1807 Transennella Dall, 1883 Transenpitar Fischer-Piette & Testud, 1967 †Turia Marwick, 1927 Turtonia Alder, 1848 Veneriglossa Dall, 1886 [temporary name] Venerupis
Venerupis
Lamarck, 1818 Venus Linnaeus, 1758

References[edit]

^ Barrett, J. H. and C. M. Yonge, 1958. Collins Pocket Guide to the Sea Shore. P. 158. Collins, London

Keen, A. M. (1969). Superfamily Veneracea. pp. 670–690, in: Leslie Reginald Cox et al., Part N [Bivalvia], Mollusca
Mollusca
6, vols. 1 and 2: xxxvii + 952 pp. Part of Raymond C. Moore, ed., Treatise on Invertebrate Paleontology. Lawrence, Kansas (Geological Society of America & University of Kansas). Powell A. W. B., New Zealand
New Zealand
Mollusca, William Collins Publishers Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand
New Zealand
1979 ISBN 0-00-216906-1

Gallery[edit]

Dosinia
Dosinia
anus from New Zealand, a member of the Dosiniinae

Austrovenus
Austrovenus
stutchburyi from New Zealand

Chamelea
Chamelea
striatula

Irus elegans
Irus elegans
from New Zealand

Mercenaria
Mercenaria
mercenaria

Pitar lupanaria
Pitar lupanaria
from Costa Rica

Venerupis
Venerupis
senegalensis

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Veneridae.

Taxonomy on the half shell A major project of the Chicago Field Museum of Natural History and the American Museum of Natural History
American Museum of Natural History
on Venerid classification Bibliography of venerid taxonomy VENERIDAE - www.chez.com ZipCodeZoo

v t e

Edible mollusks

Bivalves

Clams

Atlantic jackknife Atlantic surf Geoduck Grooved carpet shell Hard clam Horse Mactra stultorum Blunt gaper Ocean quahog Pacific razor Venus California butterclam Senilia senilis Smooth clam Soft-shell Triangle shell Tuatua Japanese littleneck Razor clam Pod razor Ensis
Ensis
(razor genus) Paphies

Cockles

Common Blood Goolwa New Zealand Sydney

Mussels

Blue Mediterranean New Zealand
New Zealand
green-lipped California Brown Asian/Philippine green Date Mytilidae
Mytilidae
(mussel family)

Oysters

Auckland Eastern Olympia Southern mud Colchester native Pacific Portuguese Windowpane Rock Sydney rock Ostra chilena/Bluff Gillardeau oysters Crassostrea
Crassostrea
("true oyster" genus)

Scallops

Atlantic bay Great/king New Zealand Pecten jacobaeus Peruvian calico Yesso Placopecten magellanicus

Gastropods

Abalone

White Red Black Green Pink Blacklip Greenlip Green ormer Pāua
Pāua
(group of three species) South African abalone Chilean

Conches

Queen Elegant Dog

Limpets

Black-foot opihi/Hawaiian Turtle/talc Yellow-foot opihi China Common European Rayed Mediterranean Ribbed Mediterranean Rustic

Periwinkles

Common Banded Littorina sitkana

Whelks

Common Kellet's Knobbed Lightning Channeled

Other snails

Sea

Mud-flat Korean mud Chorus giganteus

Land

Cornu aspersum Helix lucorum Helix pomatia

Freshwater

Nerites

Inkfish

Cuttlefish

Spineless Bottletail

Octopus

Common Atlantic white-spotted Big blue Pacific giant Southern red Mimic Amphioctopus fangsiao

Squid

New Zealand
New Zealand
arrow Japanese flying Humboldt Neon flying

Chitons

Chiton
Chiton
magnificus Acanthopleura granulata

Related topics Oyster
Oyster
farming Land snail
Land snail
farming Gastropod anatomy Bivalve
Bivalve
anatomy

Taxon identifiers

Wd: Q1233703 ADW: Veneridae EoL: 2310 EPPO: 1VENEF Fossilworks: 62779 GBIF: 3445 ITIS: 81439 NCB

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