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The Vatican Apostolic Library
Library
(Latin: Bibliotheca Apostolica Vaticana), more commonly called the Vatican Library
Library
or simply the Vat,[1] is the library of the Holy See, located in Vatican City. Formally established in 1475, although it is much older, it is one of the oldest libraries in the world and contains one of the most significant collections of historical texts. It has 75,000 codices from throughout history,[2] as well as 1.1 million printed books, which include some 8,500 incunabula. The Vatican Library
Library
is a research library for history, law, philosophy, science and theology. The Vatican Library
Library
is open to anyone who can document their qualifications and research needs. Photocopies for private study of pages from books published between 1801 and 1990 can be requested in person or by mail. Pope
Pope
Nicholas V (1447-1455) envisioned a new Rome
Rome
with extensive public works to lure pilgrims and scholars to the city to begin its transformation. Nicolas decided that he wanted create a 'public library' for these of all scholars and was meant to be seen as an institution for humanist scholarship. His death prevented him from carrying out his identity of a public library, but his idea lived on with his successor Pope
Pope
Sixtus IV (1471-1484) who established what is now known as the Vatican Library. In March 2014, the Vatican Library
Library
began an initial four-year project of digitising its collection of manuscripts, to be made available online. The Vatican Secret Archives
Vatican Secret Archives
were separated from the library at the beginning of the 17th century; they contain another 150,000 items.

Contents

1 Historical periods

1.1 Pre-Lateran 1.2 Lateran 1.3 Avignon 1.4 Pre-Vatican 1.5 Vatican

2 Location and building

2.1 Architecture and art

3 Library
Library
organization

3.1 Catalogue 3.2 Reading and lending

4 Collections

4.1 Manuscripts

4.1.1 Manuscripts relating to Christianity 4.1.2 Classic Greek and Latin
Latin
texts 4.1.3 Others

4.2 Digitization projects 4.3 Gallery of holdings

5 Related libraries

5.1 Vatican Secret Archives 5.2 Vatican Film Library

6 Staff

6.1 List of librarians

7 See also 8 Notes 9 References

9.1 Works cited

10 Further reading 11 External links

Historical periods[edit] Scholars have traditionally divided the history of the library into five periods, Pre-Lateran, Lateran, Avignon, Pre-Vatican and Vatican.[3] Pre-Lateran[edit] The Pre-Lateran period, comprising the initial days of the library, dated from the earliest days of the Church. Only a handful of volumes survive from this period, though some are very significant. Lateran[edit] The Lateran era began when the library moved to the Lateran Palace
Lateran Palace
and lasted until the end of the 13th century and the reign of Pope Boniface VIII, who died in 1303, by which time he possessed one of the most notable collections of illuminated manuscripts in Europe. However, in that year, the Lateran Palace
Lateran Palace
was burnt and the collection plundered by Philip IV of France.[4] Avignon[edit] The Avignon
Avignon
period was during the Avignon
Avignon
Papacy, when seven successive popes resided in Avignon, France. This period saw a great growth in book collection and record keeping by the popes in Avignon, between the death of Boniface and the 1370s when the Papacy returned to Rome. Pre-Vatican[edit] The Pre-Vatican period ranged from about 1370 to 1446. The library was scattered during this time, with parts in Rome, Avignon
Avignon
and elsewhere. Vatican[edit] In 1451, bibliophile Pope
Pope
Nicholas V sought to establish a public library at the Vatican, in part to re-establish Rome
Rome
as a destination for scholarship.[5][6] Nicholas combined some 350 Greek, Latin
Latin
and Hebrew
Hebrew
codices inherited from his predecessors with his own collection and extensive acquisitions, among them manuscripts from the imperial Library
Library
of Constantinople. Pope
Pope
Nicholas also expanded his collection by employing Italian and Byzantine scholars to translate the Greek classics into Latin
Latin
for his library.[6] The knowledgeable Pope
Pope
already encouraged the inclusion of pagan classics.[1] Nicolas was important in saving many of the Greek works and writings during this time period that he had collected while traveling and acquired from others. In 1455, the collection had grown to 1200 books, of which 400 were in Greek language.[7] Nicholas' death in 1455 prevented the completion of his vision of a public library, but it was finished in 1475 by his successor Pope Sixtus IV, and named the Palatine Library.[6] During the papacy of Sixtus IV, acquisitions were made in "theology, philosophy and atristic literature".[4] The number of manuscripts is variously counted as 3,500 in 1475[4] or 2,527 in 1481, when librarian Bartolomeo Platina
Bartolomeo Platina
produced a signed listing.[8] At the time it was the largest collection of books in the Western world.[7] During his reign, Pope
Pope
Julius II commissioned the expansion of the building.[6] Around 1587, Pope
Pope
Sixtus V commissioned the architect Domenico Fontana
Domenico Fontana
to construct a new building for the library, which is still used today. It was after this the library became known as the Vatican Library.[6] During the Counter-Reformation, access to the library's collections was limited following the introduction of the Index of banned books. Scholars' access to the library was restricted, particularly Protestant
Protestant
scholars. Restrictions were lifted during the course of the 17th century, and Pope
Pope
Leo XIII formally reopened the library to scholars in 1883.[5][6] In 1756, Abbot
Abbot
Piaggio conserver of ancient manuscripts in the Vatican Library
Library
used a machine he also invented,[9] to unroll the first Herculaneum papyri, which took him months.[10] In 1809, Napoleon Bonaparte
Napoleon Bonaparte
arrested Pope
Pope
Pius VII, and removed the contents of the library to Paris. The contents were returned in 1817, three years after the defeat of Napoleon.[6] In 1992 the library had almost 2 million catalogued items.[5] In 1995 art history teacher Anthony Melnikas from Ohio State University stole three leaves from a medieval manuscript once owned by Francesco Petrarch.[11][12] One of the stolen leaves contains an exquisite miniature of a farmer threshing grain. A fourth leaf from an unknown source was also discovered in his possession by the U.S. Customs agents. Melnikas was trying to sell the pages to an art dealer, who then alerted Father Leonard E. Boyle, the librarian director.[12] Location and building[edit]

Ancient Roman sculpture, maybe of Saint Hippolytus
Saint Hippolytus
of Rome, found in 1551 at Via Tiburtina, Rome, and now at the Vatican Library

The Library
Library
is located inside the Vatican Palace, and the entrance is through the Belvedere Courtyard.[13] When Pope
Pope
Sixtus V (1585-1590) commissioned the expansion and the new building of the Vatican Library, he had a three-story wing built right across Bramante's Cortile del Belvedere, thus bisecting it and changing Bramante's work significantly.[1] At the bottom of a grand staircase a large statue of Hippolytus decorates the La Galea entrance hall.[14] In the first semi-basement there is a papyrus room and a storage area for manuscripts.[14] The first floor houses the restoration laboratory, and the photographic archives are on the second floor.[14] The Library
Library
has 42 kilometres (26 mi) of shelving.[15] The Library
Library
closed for renovations on 17 July 2007[16] and reopened 20 September 2010.[17] The three year, 9 million euro renovation involved the complete shut down of the library to install climate controlled rooms.[18] Architecture and art[edit] In the Sala di Consultazione or main reference room of the Vatican Library
Library
looms a statue of St Thomas Aquinas
St Thomas Aquinas
(c. 1910), sculpted by Cesare Aureli. A second version of this statue (c. 1930) stands under the entrance portico of the Pontifical University of St Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum.[a][20]

The Sistine Hall of the Vatican Library.

Golden Rose stored in the Vatican Library.

Ceiling fresco of the sistine hall, photograph by Jean-Pol Grandmont

Library
Library
organization[edit] Catalogue[edit] The collection was originally organized through notebooks used to index the manuscripts. As the collection grew to more than a few thousand, shelf lists were used.[6] The first modern catalogue system was put in place under Father Franz Ehrle
Franz Ehrle
between 1927 and 1939, using the Library
Library
of Congress card catalogue system. Ehrle also set up the first program to take photographs of important works or rare works.[6] The library catalogue was further updated by Rev. Leonard E. Boyle when it was computerized in the early 1990s.[6] Reading and lending[edit]

Bookcase
Bookcase
in the Vatican Library

Historically, during the Renaissance
Renaissance
era, most books were not shelved but stored in wooden benches, which had tables attached to them. Each bench was dedicated to a specific topic. The books were chained to these benches, and if a reader took out a book, the chain remained attached to it. Until the early 17th century, academics were also allowed to borrow books. For important books, the pope himself would issue a reminder slip.[6] Privileges to use the library could be withdrawn for breaking the house rules, for instance by climbing over the tables. Most famously Pico della Mirandola
Pico della Mirandola
lost the right to use the library when he published a book on theology that the Papal
Papal
curia did not approve of.[21] In the 1760s, a bill issued by Clement XIII heavily restricted access to the library's holdings.[1] The Vatican Library
Library
can only be accessed by 200 scholars at a time,[22] and it sees 4,000 to 5,000 scholars a year, mostly academics doing post-graduate research.[18] Collections[edit]

A miniature from the Syriac Gospel Lectionary (Vat. Syr. 559), created ca. 1220 near Mosul
Mosul
and exhibiting a strong Islamic influence.

While the Vatican Library
Library
has always included Bibles, canon law texts and theological works, it specialized in secular books from the beginning. Its collection of Greek and Latin
Latin
classics was at the center of the revival of classical culture during the Renaissance age.[7] The oldest documents in the library date back to the first century.[15] The library was founded primarily as a manuscript library, a fact reflected in the comparatively high ratio of manuscripts to printed works in its collection. Such printed books as have made their way into the collection are intended solely to facilitate the study of the much larger collection of manuscripts.[23] The collection also includes 330,000 Greek, Roman, and papal coins and medals.[5] Every year about 6,000 new books are acquired.[5] The library was enriched by several bequests and acquisitions over the centuries. In 1623, the hereditary Palatine Library
Library
of Heidelberg
Heidelberg
containing about 3,500 manuscripts was given to the Vatican by Maximilian I, Duke of Bavaria (who had just acquired it as booty in the Thirty Years' War) in thanks for the adroit political maneuvers of Pope
Pope
Gregory XV that had sustained him in his contests with Protestant
Protestant
candidates for the electoral seat. A token 39 of the Heidelberg
Heidelberg
manuscripts were sent to Paris
Paris
in 1797 and were returned to Heidelberg
Heidelberg
at the Peace of Paris in 1815, and a gift from Pope
Pope
Pius VII of 852 others was made in 1816 to the University of Heidelberg, including the Codex
Codex
Manesse. Aside from that, the Palatine Library
Library
remains in the Vatican Library
Library
to this day. In 1657, the manuscripts of the Dukes of Urbino
Urbino
were acquired. In 1661, the Greek scholar Leo Allatius
Leo Allatius
was made librarian. Queen Christina of Sweden's important library (mostly amassed by her generals as booty from Habsburg Prague
Prague
and German cities during the Thirty Years War) was bought by Pope
Pope
Alexander VIII on her death in 1689. It represented, for all practical purposes, the entire royal library of Sweden at the time. If it had remained where it was in Stockholm, it would all have been lost in the destruction of the royal palace by fire in 1697. Among the most famous holdings of the library is the Codex
Codex
Vaticanus Graecus 1209, the oldest known nearly complete manuscript of the Bible. The Secret History of Procopius
Procopius
was discovered in the library and published in 1623. Pope
Pope
Clement XI sent scholars into the Orient to bring back manuscripts, and is generally accepted as the founder of the Oriental section.[6] A School of library science is associated with the Vatican Library. In 1959, a Film Library
Library
was established.[24] This is not to be confused with the Vatican Film Library, which was established in 1953 at Saint Louis University
Saint Louis University
in St. Louis, Missouri. The Library
Library
has a large collection of texts related to Hinduism, with the oldest editions dating to 1819.[25] During the library's restoration between 2007 and 2010, all of the 70,000 volumes in the library were tagged with electronic chips to prevent theft.[18] Manuscripts[edit]

The Abyss of Hell, coloured drawing on parchment by Sandro Botticelli (1480s)

Wandalbert von Prüm, July, Martyrologium (c860)

Main page: Category:Manuscripts of the Vatican Library Notable manuscripts in the Library
Library
include: Illuminated manuscripts: Manuscripts relating to Christianity[edit]

Barberini Gospels Gelasian Sacramentary, one of the oldest books on Christian liturgy Joshua Roll Lorsch Gospels, an illuminated gospel book written and illustrated from 778 to 820, which is spread up between various museums. The carved ivory rear cover and the Gospels of Luke and John are kept in the Vatican Library. Menologion of Basil II[26] Vatican Croatian Prayer Book Vergilius Vaticanus

Classic Greek and Latin
Latin
texts[edit]

Vergilius Romanus, Virgil's Aeneid Codex
Codex
Vaticanus Ottobonianus Latinus 1829, an important 14th-century manuscript of Catullus' poems Codex
Codex
Vaticanus Latinus 3868, a 9th-century facsimile of Terence's comedies[27] Parts of Euclid's Elements, most notable Book
Book
I, Proposition 47, one of the oldest Greek texts on the Pythagorean Theorem[1]

Others[edit]

Codex
Codex
Borgia, a mesoamerican ritual and divinatory manuscript made of animal skins Codex
Codex
Vat. Arabo 368, the sole manuscript of the Hadith Bayad wa Riyad, an Arabic
Arabic
love story[28] Codex
Codex
Vaticanus 3738, the Codex
Codex
Ríos,[29] an accordion folded Italian translation of a Spanish colonial-era manuscript, with copies of the Aztec
Aztec
paintings from the original Codex
Codex
Telleriano-Remensis, believed to be written by the Dominican friar Ríos in 1566. De arte venandi cum avibus, a Latin
Latin
treatise on falconry in the format of a two-column parchment codex of 111 folios written in the 1240s.

Texts:

Codex
Codex
Vaticanus Latinus 3256, four leaves of the Vergilius Augusteus[30] Codex
Codex
Vaticano Rossi 215, fragments of the Rossi Codex[31] Codex
Codex
Vaticanus Graecus 1209, one of the oldest extant Bibles in Greek language Libri Carolini Vaticanus Graecus 1001, the original manuscript of the Secret History[32] One fragment of Heliand
Heliand
and three fragments of the Old Saxon Genesis comprise the Palatinus Latinus 1447.[33]

Digitization projects[edit] In 2012, plans were announced to digitize, in collaboration with the Bodleian Library, a million pages of material from the Vatican Library. A grant was provided by the London-based Polonsky Foundation.[34] On 20 March 2014, the Holy See
Holy See
announced that NTT Data
NTT Data
Corporation and the Library
Library
concluded an agreement to digitize approximately 3,000 of the Library's manuscripts within four years.[35] NTT is donating the equipment and technicians, estimated to be worth 18 million Euros.[36] It noted that there is the possibility of subsequently digitizing another 79,000 of the Library's holdings. These will be high-definition images available on the Library's Internet site. Storage for the holdings will be on a three petabyte server provided by EMC.[37] It is expected that the initial phase will take 4 years.[38] DigiVatLib is the name of the Vatican Library's digital library service. It provides free access to the Vatican Library’s digitized collections of manuscripts and incunabula.[39] The scanning of documents is impacted by the material used to produce the texts. Books using gold and silver in the illuminations require special scanning equipment.[22] Digital copies are being stored in the CIFS file format.[15] Gallery of holdings[edit]

Gospel of Matthew
Gospel of Matthew
in Persian, the first Persian manuscript to enter the Vatican Library

Manuscript
Manuscript
page with the five-voice "Kyrie" of the Missa Virgo Parens Christi by Jacques Barbireau

Mappamondo Borgiano, also known as "Tavola di Velletri", consisting of two copper tablets (1430)

Month of May from in the Chronography of 354 by the 4th century kalligrapher Filocalus

Anton Raphael Mengs, The Triumph of History over Time (Allegory of the Museum Clementinum), ceiling fresco in the Camera dei Papiri, Vatican Library

Illumination from the legend of Sain Emerich of Hungary's, c. 1335

Battle between David and Goliath, Book
Book
of Psalms, c. 1059

The ivory panels from the back cover of Codex
Codex
Aureus of Lorsch

Related libraries[edit] Vatican Secret Archives[edit] Main article: Vatican Secret Archives The Vatican Secret Archives, located in Vatican City, is the central archive for all of the acts promulgated by the Holy See, as well as the state papers, correspondence, papal account books,[40] and many other documents which the church has accumulated over the centuries. In the 17th century, under the orders of Pope
Pope
Paul V, the Secret Archives were separated from the Vatican Library, where scholars had some very limited access to them, and remained absolutely closed to outsiders until 1881, when Pope
Pope
Leo XIII opened them to researchers, more than a thousand of whom now examine its documents each year.[41] Vatican Film Library[edit] Main article: Vatican Film Library The Vatican Film Library
Library
in St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis, Missouri
is the only collection, outside the Vatican itself, of microfilms of more than 37,000 works from the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, the Vatican Library
Library
in Europe. It is located in the Pius XII Library
Library
on the campus of Saint Louis University.[42] The Library
Library
was created by Lowrie J. Daly (1914–2000), with funding from the Knights of Columbus.[43] The goal was to make Vatican and other documents more available to researchers in North America.[44] Microfilming of Vatican manuscripts began in 1951, and according to the Library's website, was the largest microfilming project that had been undertaken up to that date.[45] The Library
Library
opened in 1953, and moved to the St. Louis University campus, in the Pius XII Memorial Library, in 1959. The first librarian was Charles J. Ermatinger, who served until 2000. As of 2007[update], the Library
Library
has microfilmed versions of over 37,000 manuscripts, with material in Greek, Latin, Arabic, Hebrew
Hebrew
and Ethiopic, as well as several more common Western European languages. There are reproductions of many works from the Biblioteca Palatina and Biblioteca Cicognara at the Vatican, as well as Papal
Papal
letter registers from the Archivio Segreto Vaticano (Vatican Secret Archives) from the 9th to 16th centuries, in the series Registra Vaticana and Registra Supplicationium.[2] Staff[edit] Originally the director of the library was appointed a Cardinal, and given the title Cardinal Librarian.[6] Individual library staff were called "Custodians".[6] After the reopening of the library in 1883, Pope
Pope
Leo XIII declared that the Librarian
Librarian
be regarded as a Prefect.[6] The Cardinal Librarian
Librarian
and Archivist of the Holy Roman Church is assisted by two prelates, who are the Prefect of the Vatican Apostolic Library
Library
(the everyday manager of the Library), and the Prefect of the Vatican Secret Archives
Vatican Secret Archives
(who handles the daily affairs of the Archives). They are each assisted by a Vice-Prefect. The office of Librarian
Librarian
of Vatican Library
Library
has been held at the same time as that of Archivist of Vatican Secret Archives
Vatican Secret Archives
since 1957. The current Prefect of the Vatican Apostolic Library
Library
is Monsignor Cesare Pasini (who is also the Director of the Vatican School of Library
Library
Science). The Vice Prefect of the Vatican Apostolic Library
Library
is Doctor Ambrogio M. Piazzoni. The Prefect of the Vatican Secret Archives is a Barnabite
Barnabite
Bishop
Bishop
by the name of Sergio Pagano. The Vice Prefect of the Vatican Secret Archives
Vatican Secret Archives
is Father Marcel Chappin, S.J. The Archives also is responsible for the Vatican School of Paleography.[46][47] The library currently has 80 staff who work in five departments: manuscripts and archival collections, printed books/drawings, acquisitions/cataloguing, coin collections/museums and restoration/photography.[5] List of librarians[edit] (P) Indicates time spent as Pro-Librarian. This is the role of acting librarian, often a librarian who is not a Cardinal.[48]

Name Lifetime Title Duration as Librarian[49][50]

Marcello Cervini 1501–1555 Bibliothecarius I 000000001550-05-24-000024 May 1550–000000001555-04-09-00009 April 1555

Roberto de' Nobili 1541–1559 Bibliothecarius II 1555–000000001559-01-18-000018 January 1559

Alfonso Carafa 1540–1565 Bibliothecarius III 1559–000000001565-08-29-000029 August 1565

Marcantonio da Mula 1506–1572 Bibliothecarius IV 1565–000000001572-03-17-000017 March 1572[51]

Guglielmo Sirleto 1514–1585 Bibliothecarius V 000000001572-03-18-000018 March 1572–000000001585-10-16-000016 October 1585

Antonio Carafa 1538–1591 Bibliothecarius VI 000000001585-10-16-000016 October 1585–000000001591-01-13-000013 January 1591

Marco Antonio Colonna 1523 ca.–1597 Bibliothecarius VII 1591–000000001597-03-13-000013 March 1597

Cesare Baronio 1538–1607 Bibliothecarius VIII 000000001597-05-01-0000May 1597–000000001607-06-30-000030 June 1607[52]

Ludovico de Torres 1552–1609 Bibliothecarius IX 000000001607-07-04-00004 July 1607–000000001609-07-08-00008 July 1609

Scipione Borghese
Scipione Borghese
Caffarelli 1576–1633 Bibliothecarius X 000000001609-06-11-000011 June 1609–000000001618-02-17-000017 February 1618[53]

Scipione Cobelluzzi 1564–1626 Bibliothecarius XI 000000001618-02-17-000017 February 1618–000000001626-06-29-000029 June 1626

Francesco Barberini 1597–1679 Bibliothecarius XII 000000001626-07-01-00001 July 1626–000000001633-12-13-000013 December 1633

Antonio Barberini 1569–1646 Bibliothecarius XIII 000000001633-12-13-000013 December 1633–000000001646-09-11-000011 September 1646

Orazio Giustiniani 1580–1649 Bibliothecarius XIV 000000001646-09-25-000025 September 1646–000000001649-07-25-000025 July 1649

Luigi Capponi 1583–1659 Bibliothecarius XV 000000001649-08-04-00004 August 1649–000000001659-04-06-00006 April 1659

Flavio Chigi 1631–1693 Bibliothecarius XVI 000000001659-06-21-000021 June 1659–000000001681-09-19-000019 September 1681[54]

Lorenzo Brancati 1612–1693 Bibliothecarius XVII 000000001681-09-19-000019 September 1681–000000001693-11-30-000030 November 1693

Girolamo Casanate 1620–1700 Bibliothecarius XVIII 000000001693-12-02-00002 December 1693–000000001700-03-03-00003 March 1700

Enrico Noris 1631–1704 Bibliothecarius XIX 000000001700-03-26-000026 March 1700–000000001704-02-23-000023 February 1704

Benedetto Pamphili 1653–1730 Bibliothecarius XX 000000001704-02-26-000026 February 1704–000000001730-03-22-000022 March 1730

Angelo Maria Querini 1680–1755 Bibliothecarius XXI 000000001730-09-04-00004 September 1730–000000001755-01-06-00006 January 1755

Domenico Passionei 1682–1761 Bibliothecarius XXII 000000001741-07-10-000010 July 1741–000000001755-01-12-000012 January 1755(P) 000000001755-01-12-000012 January 1755–000000001761-07-05-00005 July 1761

Alessandro Albani 1692–1779 Bibliothecarius XXIII 000000001761-08-12-000012 August 1761–000000001779-12-11-000011 December 1779

Francesco Saverio de Zelada 1717–1801 Bibliothecarius XXIV 000000001779-12-15-000015 December 1779–000000001801-12-29-000029 December 1801

Luigi Valenti Gonzaga 1725–1808 Bibliothecarius XXV 000000001802-01-12-000012 January 1802–000000001808-12-29-000029 December 1808

Giulio Maria della Somaglia 1744–1830 Bibliothecarius XXVI 000000001827-01-26-000026 January 1827–000000001830-04-02-00002 April 1830

Giuseppe Albani 1750–1834 Bibliothecarius XXVII 000000001830-04-23-000023 April 1830–000000001834-12-03-00003 December 1834

Luigi Lambruschini 1776–1854 Bibliothecarius XXVIII 000000001834-12-11-000011 December 1834–000000001853-06-27-000027 June 1853

Angelo Mai 1782–1854 Bibliothecarius XXIX 000000001853-06-27-000027 June 1853–000000001854-09-09-00009 September 1854

Antonio Tosti 1776–1866 Bibliothecarius XXX 000000001860-01-13-000013 January 1860–000000001866-03-20-000020 March 1866

Jean-Baptiste Pitra 1812–1889 Bibliothecarius XXXI 000000001869-01-19-000019 January 1869–000000001889-02-09-00009 February 1889[55]

Placido Maria Schiaffino (it) 1829–1889 Bibliothecarius XXXII 000000001889-02-20-000020 February 1889–000000001889-09-23-000023 September 1889

Alfonso Capecelatro 1824–1912 Bibliothecarius XXXIII 000000001890-08-29-000029 August 1890–000000001912-11-14-000014 November 1912[56]

Mariano Rampolla del Tindaro 1843–1913 Bibliothecarius XXXIV 000000001912-11-26-000026 November 1912–000000001913-12-16-000016 December 1913

Francesco di Paola Cassetta 1841–1919 Bibliothecarius XXXV 000000001914-01-03-00003 January 1914–000000001919-03-23-000023 March 1919

Aidan [Francis Neil] Gasquet 1845–1929 Bibliothecarius XXXVI 000000001919-05-09-00009 May 1919–000000001929-04-05-00005 April 1929

Franz Ehrle 1845–1934 Bibliothecarius XXXVII 000000001929-04-17-000017 April 1929–000000001934-03-31-000031 March 1934

Giovanni Mercati 1866–1957 Bibliothecarius XXXVIII 000000001936-06-18-000018 June 1936–000000001957-08-23-000023 August 1957

Eugène Tisserant 1884–1972 Bibliothecarius XXXIX 000000001957-09-14-000014 September 1957–000000001971-03-27-000027 March 1971

Antonio Samoré 1905–1983 Bibliothecarius XL 000000001974-01-25-000025 January 1974–000000001983-02-03-00003 February 1983

Alfons Maria Stickler 1910–2007 Bibliothecarius XLI 000000001983-09-07-00007 September 1983–000000001985-05-27-000027 May 1985(P) 000000001985-05-27-000027 May 1985–000000001988-07-01-00001 July 1988

Antonio María Javierre Ortas 1921–2007 Bibliothecarius XLII 000000001988-07-01-00001 July 1988–000000001992-01-24-000024 January 1992

Luigi Poggi 1917-2010[57] Bibliothecarius XLIII 000000001992-04-09-00009 April 1992–000000001994-11-29-000029 November 1994(P) 000000001994-11-29-000029 November 1994–000000001997-11-25-000025 November 1997

Jorge María Mejía 1923-2014 Bibliothecarius XLIV 000000001998-03-07-00007 March 1998–000000002003-11-24-000024 November 2003

Jean-Louis Tauran 1943- Bibliothecarius XLV 000000002003-11-24-000024 November 2003–000000002007-06-25-000025 June 2007

Raffaele Farina 1933- Bibliothecarius XLVI 000000002007-06-25-000025 June 2007–000000002012-06-09-00009 June 2012

Jean-Louis Bruguès 1943- Bibliothecarius XLVII 000000002012-06-26-000026 June 2012–

See also[edit]

Vatican City
Vatican City
portal Library
Library
and information science portal Catholicism portal

Index of Vatican City-related articles The Vatican Splendors Vatican Secret Archives Vatican Film Library Archive of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith

Notes[edit]

^ This sculpture is described in the following words: "S. Tommaso seduto, nella sinistra tiene il libro della Summa theologica, mentre stende la destra in atto di proteggere la scienza cristiana. Quindi non siede sulla cattedra di dottore, ma sul trono di sovrano protettore; stende il braccio a rassicurare, non a dimostrare. Ha in testa il dottorale berretto, e conservando il suo tipo tradizionale, rivela nel volto e nell'atteggiamento l'uomo profondamente dotto. L'autore non ha avuto da ispirarsi in altr'opera che esistesse sul soggetto, quindi ha dovuto, può dirsi, creare questo tipo, ed è riuscito originale e felice nella sua creazione."[19]

References[edit]

^ a b c d e Mendelsohn, Daniel (3 January 2011). "God's Librarians". The New Yorker. 86 (42). p. 24. ISSN 0028-792X. Retrieved 3 August 2014.  ^ a b Vatican Film Library
Library
informational pamphlet[full citation needed] ^ Strayer, Joseph, ed. (1989). Dictionary of the Middle Ages. Scribner. ISBN 0684190737.  ^ a b c Wiegand, Wayne A.; Davis, Donald G., eds. (1994). Encyclopedia of Library
Library
History. New York: Garland. p. 653. ISBN 0824057872.  ^ a b c d e f Bloom, Ocker. "The Vatican Library
Library
and its History". Ibiblio. Retrieved 1 August 2014.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Meert, Deborah. "A History of the Vatican Library". capping.slis.ualberta.ca. University of Alberta. Retrieved 31 July 2014.  ^ a b c "The Library
Library
of Congress: Rome
Rome
Reborn: The Vatican Library & Renaissance
Renaissance
Culture - The Vatican Library
Library
- The City Reborn: How the City Came Back to Life". Retrieved 2 August 2014.  ^ Clark, John Willis (1899). On the Vatican Library
Library
of Sixtus IV.  ^ Giacomo Castrucci (1856). "Tesoro letterario di Ercolano, ossia, La reale officina dei papiri ercolanesi".  ^ "Herculaneum Papyri in the National Library
Library
in Naples". The Phraser. 2015.  ^ HONAN, WILLIAM H. "Teacher Tied to Stolen Manuscript
Manuscript
Pages Faced Prior
Prior
Ethics Questions, Colleagues Say". NYTimes. Retrieved 1 August 2014.  ^ a b MONTALBANO, WILLIAM D. "U.S. Scholar Suspected in Theft of Manuscript
Manuscript
Pages". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 1 August 2014.  ^ "Vatican Apostolic Library". Vaticanstate.va. Retrieved 28 July 2014.  ^ a b c The Pope’s Visit to the Vatican Library
Library
19 December 2010 In: L'Osservatore Romano. Retrieved 2 August 2014 ^ a b c Del Nibletto, Paolo. "The Vatican Library
Library
CIO's sacred mission: To digitize everything". itworldcanada.com. IT World Canada. Retrieved 28 July 2014.  ^ Willey, David (17 July 2007). "Vatican Library
Library
closure irks scholars". BBC News. Retrieved 17 July 2007.  ^ "Vatican Library
Library
Homepage". Retrieved 13 September 2010.  ^ a b c Winfield, Nicole (15 November 2010). "Vatican library reopens after 3-year restoration". NBC News. Retrieved 28 July 2014.  ^ Hendrix, John (2003). History and culture in Italy. University Presss of America. ISBN 9780761826286. Retrieved 9 September 2012.  ^ Vaticana, Biblioteca Apostolica (1893). Nel giubileo episcopale di Leone XIII. omaggio della Biblioteca vaticana XIX febbraio anno MDCCCXCIII. Retrieved 9 September 2012.  ^ "The Library
Library
of Congress: Rome
Rome
Reborn: The Vatican Library
Library
& Renaissance
Renaissance
Culture - The Vatican Library
Library
- A Library
Library
Takes Shape: Books, Benches, and Borrowers". Retrieved 2 August 2014.  ^ a b Taylor, Lesley Ciarula (2 May 2013). "Digitizing history: 82,000-manuscript collection Vatican Library
Library
goes online". Toronto Star. Retrieved 28 July 2014.  ^ "The Vatican Palace, as a Scientific Institute". Catholic Encyclopedia. New Advent. Retrieved 2 August 2014.  ^ "Statute of the Vatican Film Library". vatican.va. Retrieved 28 July 2014.  ^ "Vatican Library
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carries extensive collection of ancient Hindu scriptures". eurasia review. 29 June 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.  ^ John W. Wohlfarth (1 September 2001). Elysium. AuthorHouse. p. 128. ISBN 978-0-7596-5406-8.  ^ C. R. Dodwell (2000). Anglo-Saxon Gestures and the Roman Stage. Cambridge University Press. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-521-66188-1.  ^ D’Ottone, Arianna (2010). "Il manoscritto Vaticano arabo 368: Hadith Bayad wa Riyad. Il codice, il testo, le immagini". Rivista di Storia della Miniatura (in Italian). Centro Di. 14: 55. Retrieved 25 July 2014.  ^ "FAMSI - Akademische Druck - u. Verlagsanstalt - Graz - Codex Vaticanus 3738". Akademische Druck - u. Verlagsanstalt - Graz CODICES. FAMSI. Retrieved 29 July 2014.  ^ "Vergilius Augusteus : vollst. Faks.-Ausg. im Originalformat : Codex
Codex
Vaticanus Latinus 3256 d. Biblioteca apostolica vaticana u. Codex
Codex
Latinus fol. 416 d. Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz". Catalog - UW-Madison Libraries. University of Wisconsin Madison Libraries. Retrieved 29 July 2014.  ^ Christopher Kleinhenz (8 January 2004). Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia. Routledge. p. 136. ISBN 978-1-135-94880-1.  ^ Charney, Noah (16 November 2011). "Vatican Mysteries: What's So Secret about Procopius' "Secret History?"". Blouinartinfo. Louise Blouin Media. Retrieved 28 July 2014.  ^ John M. Jeep (2001). Medieval Germany: An Encyclopedia. Psychology Press. p. 57. ISBN 978-0-8240-7644-3.  ^ Wooden, Cindy (12 April 2012). "Vatican Library, Oxford's Bodleian launch major digitization project". Catholic News Service. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ McKenna, Josephine (20 March 2014). "Vatican library plans to digitise 82,000 of its most valuable manuscripts". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 24 March 2014. Retrieved 23 March 2014.  ^ Denti, Antonio (20 March 2014). "Vatican library will digitize its archives and put them online". Vatican library will digitize its archives and put them online. Reuters. Retrieved 28 July 2014.  ^ Greiner, Lynn (23 July 2014). "Storage giant EMC looks to ease concerns about Flash technology". Storage giant EMC looks to ease concerns about Flash technology. Financial Post.com. Retrieved 28 July 2014.  ^ Denti, Antonio (20 March 2014). "Vatican library will digitize its archives and put them online". Reuters. Retrieved 1 August 2014.  ^ "DigiVatLib". digi.vatlib.it. Retrieved 2017-01-17.  ^ von Pastor, Ludwig Freiherr (1906). The History of the Popes: From the Close of the Middle Ages. Drawn from the Secret Archives of the Vatican and Other Original Sources, Volume 3. Trübner & Company Ltd. p. 31. Retrieved 28 July 2014.  ^ "Table of Admittances to the Vatican Secret Archives
Vatican Secret Archives
in the Last Years". Archived from the original on 6 May 2011.  ^ " Knights of Columbus
Knights of Columbus
Vatican Film Library
Library
- Home Page". slu.edu. Retrieved 13 November 2007.  ^ "LOWRIE J. DALY, S.J., MEMORIAL LECTURE ON MANUSCRIPT STUDIES". Libraries at Saint Louis University. Saint Louis University. Retrieved 29 July 2014.  ^ C. Krohn, Ernst (June 1957). Notes Second Series, Vol. 14, No. 3. Music Library
Library
Association. p. 317. JSTOR 891821.  ^ " Kentucky New Era - Aug 14, 1954". Kentucky New Era. 14 August 1954. Retrieved 30 July 2014.  ^ "Government Sito ufficiale dell'Archivio Segreto Vaticano – Città del Vaticano". Archiviosegretovaticano.va. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ "BAV - Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana". Vaticanlibrary.va. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ Guruge, Anura. "Replacement For Cardinal Farina As The Archivist; Cardinal Antonelli's Replacement, Vincenzo Paglia, Immediately A Cardinalabili". Popes and Papacy. Retrieved 2 August 2014.  ^ "Vatican Library
Library
History". Vaticanlibrary.va. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ "Vatican Apostolic Library
Library
- Institute Connected with the Holy See". GCatholic.org. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ "Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church - Consistory of February 26, 1561 (II)". 5 August 2006. Retrieved 2013-07-10.  ^ "Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church - Consistory of September June 5, 1596 (II)". 15 April 2007. Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ "Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church - Consistory of July 18, 1605 (I)". Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ "Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church - Consistory of April 9, 1657 (I)". Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ "Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church - Consistory of March 16, 1863 (XIII)". Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ "Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church - Consistory of July 27, 1885 (VIII)". Retrieved 7 October 2013.  ^ "Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church - Luigi Poggi". Retrieved 7 October 2013. 

Works cited[edit]

Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church - Miranda, Salvador. "The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church". Florida International University Libraries. 

Further reading[edit]

Rome
Rome
Reborn: The Vatican Library
Library
& Renaissance
Renaissance
Culture, an online exhibition from the Library
Library
of Congress. Vatican to digitize Apostolic Library
Library
of 1.6 million volumes for general perusal, PCWorld.com, October 29, 2002. A joint effort between the Vatican and Hewlett-Packard.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana.

Official website Vatican Library
Library
old home page, with online catalog search History of the Vatican Library, from the Library's site Treasures of the Vatican Library
Library
Exposed via The European Library Toward On-line, worldwide access to Vatican Library
Library
materials (1996). A collaborative effort (pioneered by Fr. Leonard Boyle OP Prefect of the Vatican Library) between the Vatican Library
Library
and IBM, the primary goal of which is to "provide access via the Internet to some of the Library's most valuable manuscripts, printed books, and other sources to a scholarly community around the world." Knights of Columbus
Knights of Columbus
Vatican Film Library. Saint Louis University library that focuses on the collection of the Vatican Library. The Secret History of Art by Noah Charney
Noah Charney
on the Vatican Library
Library
and Procopius. An article by art historian Noah Charney
Noah Charney
about the Vatican Library
Library
and its famous manuscript, Historia Arcana by Procopius. The Vatican: spirit and art of Christian Rome, a book from The Metropolitan Museum of Art Libraries (fully available online as PDF), which contains material on the library (p. 280-290)

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