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Utagawa Hiroshige
Utagawa Hiroshige
(Japanese: 歌川 広重), also Andō Hiroshige (Japanese: 安藤 広重; 1797 – 12 October 1858), was a Japanese ukiyo-e artist, considered the last great master of that tradition. Hiroshige
Hiroshige
is best known for his landscapes, such as the series The Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō and The Sixty-nine Stations of the Kiso Kaidō; and for his depictions of birds and flowers. The subjects of his work were atypical of the ukiyo-e genre, whose typical focus was on beautiful women, popular actors, and other scenes of the urban pleasure districts of Japan's Edo
Edo
period (1603–1868). The popular Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
series by Hokusai
Hokusai
was a strong influence on Hiroshige's choice of subject, though Hiroshige's approach was more poetic and ambient than Hokusai's bolder, more formal prints. For scholars and collectors, Hiroshige's death marked the beginning of a rapid decline in the ukiyo-e genre, especially in the face of the westernization that followed the Meiji Restoration
Meiji Restoration
of 1868. Hiroshige's work came to have a marked influence on Western painting towards the close of the 19th century as a part of the trend in Japonism. Western artists closely studied Hiroshige's compositions, and some, such as van Gogh, painted copies of Hiroshige's prints.

Contents

1 Early life and apprenticeship 2 Landscapes, flora, and fauna

2.1 Hiroshige's students

3 Late life 4 Works 5 Influence 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References

9.1 Citations 9.2 Works cited

10 Further reading 11 External links

Early life and apprenticeship[edit]

Wind Blown Grass Across the Moon - by Hiroshige

Hiroshige
Hiroshige
studied under Toyohiro
Toyohiro
of the Utagawa school
Utagawa school
of artists. Returning Sails at Tsukuda, from Eight Views of Edo, early-19th century

Hiroshige
Hiroshige
was born in 1797 in the Yayosu Quay section of the Yaesu area in Edo
Edo
(modern Tokyo).[1] He was of a samurai background,[1] and was the great-grandson of Tanaka Tokuemon, who held a position of power under the Tsugaru clan
Tsugaru clan
in the northern province of Mutsu. Hiroshige's grandfather, Mitsuemon, was an archery instructor who worked under the name Sairyūken. Hiroshige's father, Gen'emon, was adopted into the family of Andō Jūemon, whom he succeeded as fire warden for the Yayosu Quay area.[1] Hiroshige
Hiroshige
went through several name changes as a youth: Jūemon, Tokubē, and Tetsuzō.[1] He had three sisters, one of whom died when he was three. His mother died in early 1809, and his father followed later in the year, but not before handing his fire warden duties to his twelve-year-old son.[2] He was charged with prevention of fires at Edo
Edo
Castle, a duty that left him much leisure time.[3] Not long after his parents' deaths, perhaps at around fourteen, Hiroshige—then named Tokutarō— began painting.[2] He sought the tutelage of Toyokuni of the Utagawa school, but Toyokuni had too many pupils to make room for him.[3] A librarian introduced him instead to Toyohiro
Toyohiro
of the same school.[4] By 1812 Hiroshige
Hiroshige
was permitted to sign his works, which he did under the art name Hiroshige.[2] He also studied the techniques of the well-established Kanō school, the nanga whose tradition began with the Chinese Southern School, and the realistic Shijō school, and likely the perspective techniques of Western art and uki-e.[5] Hiroshige's apprentice work included book illustrations and single-sheet ukiyo-e prints of female beauties and kabuki actors in the Utagawa style, sometimes signing them Ichiyūsai[6] or, from 1832, Ichiryūsai.[7] In 1823, he resigned his post as fire warden, though he still acted as an alternate.[a] He declined an offer to succeed Toyohiro
Toyohiro
upon the master's death in 1828.[3] Landscapes, flora, and fauna[edit] It was not until 1829–1830 that Hiroshige
Hiroshige
began to produce the landscapes he has come to be known for, such as the Eight Views of Ōmi series.[8] He also created an increasing number of bird and flower prints about this time.[7] About 1831, his Ten Famous Places in the Eastern Capital appeared, and seem to bear the influence of Hokusai, whose popular landscape series Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji had recently seen publication.[9]

An invitation to join an official procession to Kyoto in 1832 gave Hiroshige
Hiroshige
the opportunity to travel along the Tōkaidō route that linked the two capitals. He sketched the scenery along the way, and when he returned to Edo
Edo
he produced the series The Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō, which contains some of his best-known prints.[9] Hiroshige
Hiroshige
built on the series' success by following it with others, such as the Illustrated Places of Naniwa (1834), Famous Places of Kyoto (1835), another Eight Views of Ōmi
Eight Views of Ōmi
(1834). As he had never been west of Kyoto, Hiroshige-based his illustrations of Naniwa (modern Osaka) and Ōmi Province
Ōmi Province
on pictures found in books and paintings.[10]

Selections from ''The Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō''

Print 11: Hakone

Print 16: Kanbara

Print 46: Rain Shower at Shōno

Hiroshige's first wife helped finance his trips to sketch travel locations, in one instance selling some of her clothing and ornamental combs. She died in October 1838, and Hiroshige
Hiroshige
remarried to Oyasu,[b] sixteen years his junior, daughter of a farmer named Kaemon from Tōtōmi Province.[11] Around 1838 Hiroshige
Hiroshige
produced two series entitled Eight Views of the Edo
Edo
Environs, each print accompanied by a humorous kyōka poem. The Sixty-nine Stations of the Kiso Kaidō saw print between about 1835 and 1842, a joint production with Keisai Eisen, of which Hiroshige's share was forty-six of the seventy prints.[12] Hiroshige
Hiroshige
produced 118 sheets for the One Hundred Famous Views of Edo[13] over the last decade of his life, beginning about 1848.[14]

Selections from One Hundred Famous Views of Edo
Edo
and Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji

Edo, print 30: The Plum Garden in Kameido

Edo, print 63: Suidō Bridge and the Surugadai Quarter

Thirty-six Views, print 3: Sukiyagashi in the Eastern Capital

Thirty-six Views, print 27: Futami Bay in Ise Province

Hiroshige
Hiroshige
lived in the barracks until the age of 43. Gen'emon and his wife died in 1809, when Hiroshige
Hiroshige
was 12 years old, just a few months after his father had passed the position on to him. Although his duties as a fire-fighter were light, he never shirked these responsibilities, even after he entered training in Utagawa Toyohiro's studio. He eventually turned his firefighter position over to his brother, Tetsuzo, in 1823, who in turn passed on the duty to Hiroshige's son in 1832.

View of the Whirlpools at Awa triptych, 1857, part of the series "Snow, Moon and Flowers"

Hiroshige's students[edit] Hiroshige II
Hiroshige II
was a young print artist, Chinpei Suzuki, who married Hiroshige's daughter, Otatsu. He was given the artist name of "Shigenobu". Hiroshige
Hiroshige
intended to make Shigenobu his heir in all matters, and Shigenobu adopted the name "Hiroshige" after his master's death in 1858, and thus today is known as Hiroshige
Hiroshige
II. However, the marriage to Otatsu was troubled and in 1865 they separated. Otatsu was remarried to another former pupil of Hiroshige, Shigemasa, who appropriated the name of the lineage and today is known as Hiroshige III. Both Hiroshige II
Hiroshige II
and Hiroshige III
Hiroshige III
worked in a distinctive style based on that of Hiroshige, but neither achieved the level of success and recognition accorded to their master. Other students of Hiroshige I include Utagawa Shigemaru, Utagawa Shigekiyo, and Utagawa Hirokage.

Followers of Hiroshige

Suō Iwakuni, Hiroshige
Hiroshige
II, 1859

Teppōzu Akashi-bashi, Hiroshige
Hiroshige
III, c. 1870

Dog stealing a workman's meal from a snow Daruma, Hirokage, c. 1855–56

Late life[edit]

View of Kagurazaka
Kagurazaka
and Ushigome
Ushigome
bridge to Edo
Edo
Castle (牛込神楽坂の図), by Utagawa Hiroshige, 1840.

In his declining years, Hiroshige
Hiroshige
still produced thousands of prints to meet the demand for his works, but few were as good as those of his early and middle periods. He never lived in financial comfort, even in old age. In no small part, his prolific output stemmed from the fact that he was poorly paid per series, although he was still capable of remarkable art when the conditions were right — his great One Hundred Famous Views of Edo
Edo
(名所江戸百景 Meisho Edo
Edo
Hyakkei) was paid for up-front by a wealthy Buddhist priest in love with the daughter of the publisher, Uoya Eikichi (a former fishmonger). In 1856, Hiroshige
Hiroshige
"retired from the world," becoming a Buddhist monk; this was the year he began his One Hundred Famous Views of Edo. He died aged 62 during the great Edo
Edo
cholera epidemic of 1858 (whether the epidemic killed him is unknown) and was buried in a Zen Buddhist temple in Asakusa. Just before his death, he left a poem:

"I leave my brush in the East And set forth on my journey. I shall see the famous places in the Western Land."

(The Western Land in this context refers to the strip of land by the Tōkaidō between Kyoto and Edo, but it does double duty as a reference to the paradise of the Amida Buddha). Despite his productivity and popularity, Hiroshige
Hiroshige
was not wealthy—his commissions were less than those of other in-demand artists, amounting to an income of about twice the wages of a day labourer. His will left instructions for the payment of his debts.[15] Works[edit]

A rather dark printing of the view sometimes dubbed "Man on Horseback Crossing a Bridge." From the series The Sixty-nine Stations of the Kiso Kaidō, this is View 28 and Station 27 at Nagakubo-shuku, depicting the Wada Bridge across the Yoda River.[16]

Hiroshige
Hiroshige
produced over 8,000 works.[17] He largely confined himself in his early work to common ukiyo-e themes such as women (美人画 bijin-ga) and actors (役者絵 yakusha-e). Then, after the death of Toyohiro, Hiroshige
Hiroshige
made a dramatic turnabout, with the 1831 landscape series Famous Views of the Eastern Capital (東都名所 Tōto Meisho) which was critically acclaimed for its composition and colors. This set is generally distinguished from Hiroshige's many print sets depicting Edo
Edo
by referring to it as Ichiyūsai Gakki, a title derived from the fact that he signed it as Ichiyūsai Hiroshige. With The Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō (1833–1834), his success was assured.[13] These designs were drawn from Hiroshige's actual travels of the full distance of 490 kilometers (300 mi). They included details of date, location, and anecdotes of his fellow travelers, and were immensely popular. In fact, this series was so popular that he reissued it in three versions, one of which was made jointly with Kunisada.[18] Hiroshige
Hiroshige
went on to produce more than 2000 different prints of Edo
Edo
and post stations Tōkaidō, as well as series such as The Sixty-nine Stations of the Kisokaidō
The Sixty-nine Stations of the Kisokaidō
(1834–1842) and his own Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
(1852–1858).[13] Of his estimated total of 5000 designs, these landscapes comprised the largest proportion of any genre. He dominated landscape printmaking with his unique brand of intimate, almost small-scale works compared against the older traditions of landscape painting descended from Chinese landscape painters such as Sesshu. The travel prints generally depict travelers along famous routes experiencing the special attractions of various stops along the way. They travel in the rain, in snow, and during all of the seasons. In 1856, working with the publisher Uoya Eikichi, he created a series of luxury edition prints, made with the finest printing techniques including true gradation of color, the addition of mica to lend a unique iridescent effect, embossing, fabric printing, blind printing, and the use of glue printing (wherein ink is mixed with glue for a glittery effect). Hiroshige
Hiroshige
pioneered the use of the vertical format in landscape printing in his series Famous Views of the Sixty-odd Provinces. One Hundred Famous Views of Edo
Edo
(issued serially between 1856 and 1859) was immensely popular. The set was published posthumously and some prints had not been completed — he had created over 100 on his own, but two were added by Hiroshige II
Hiroshige II
after his death. Influence[edit]

Keisai Eisen
Keisai Eisen
was influenced by and worked with Hiroshige. Oiwake, from The Sixty-nine Stations of the Kiso Kaidō, 1830s

Hiroshige
Hiroshige
was a member of the Utagawa school, along with Kunisada
Kunisada
and Kuniyoshi. The Utagawa school
Utagawa school
comprised dozens of artists, and stood at the forefront of 19th century woodblock prints. Particularly noteworthy for their actor and historical prints, members of the Utagawa school
Utagawa school
were nonetheless well-versed in all of the popular genres. During Hiroshige’s time, the print industry was booming, and the consumer audience for prints was growing rapidly. Prior to this time, most print series had been issued in small sets, such as ten or twelve designs per series. Increasingly large series were produced to meet demand, and this trend can be seen in Hiroshige’s work, such as The Sixty-nine Stations of the Kisokaidō and One Hundred Famous Views of Edo. In terms of style, Hiroshige
Hiroshige
is especially noted for using unusual vantage points, seasonal allusions, and striking colors. In particular, he worked extensively within the realm of meisho-e (名所絵) pictures of famous places. During the Edo
Edo
period, tourism was also booming, leading to increased popular interest in travel. Travel guides abounded, and towns appeared along routes such as the Tōkaidō, a road that connected Edo
Edo
with Kyoto. In the midst of this burgeoning travel culture, Hiroshige
Hiroshige
drew upon his own travels, as well as tales of others’ adventures, for inspiration in creating his landscapes. For example, in The Fifty-three Stations on the Tōkaidō (1833), he illustrates anecdotes from Travels on the Eastern Seaboard (東海道中膝栗毛 Tōkaidōchū Hizakurige, 1802–1809) by Jippensha Ikku, a comedy describing the adventures of two bumbling travelers as they make their way along the same road. Hiroshige’s The Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō
The Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō
(1833–1834) and One Hundred Famous Views of Edo
Edo
(1856–1858) greatly influenced French Impressionists
Impressionists
such as Monet. Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
copied two of the One Hundred Famous Views of Edo
Edo
which were among his collection of ukiyo-e prints. Hiroshige's style also influenced the Mir iskusstva, a 20th-century Russian art movement in which Ivan Bilibin
Ivan Bilibin
was a major artist.[citation needed] Cézanne and Whistler were also amongst those under Hiroshige's influence.[19] Hiroshige
Hiroshige
was regarded by Louise Gonse, director of the influential Gazette des Beaux-Arts
Gazette des Beaux-Arts
and author of the two volume L'Art Japonais in 1883, as the greatest painter of landscapes of the 19th century.[20]

Van Gogh copies of Hiroshige's prints

Sudden Shower Over Shin-Ohashi Bridge and Atake, Hiroshige, 1857 One of the One Hundred Famous Views of Edo

Bridge in the rain (after Hiroshige), Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
(from Japonaiserie), oil on canvas, 1887

The Plum Garden in Kameido (1857), from Hiroshige's One Hundred Famous Views of Edo

Flowering Plum Tree (after Hiroshige) (1887) by Vincent van Gogh, from his Japonaiserie, in the collection of the Van Gogh Museum
Van Gogh Museum
in Amsterdam

Gallery[edit]

Moonlight View of Tsukuda with Lady on a Balcony

Sumida River, the Wood of the Water god

Moon over Ships Moored at Tsukuda Island from Eitai Bridge

Evening on the Sumida river

Enjoying the fireworks and the cool of the evening at Ryogoku bridge

Moon Bridge in Meguro, from One Hundred Famous Views of Edo

The Sea at Satta, Suruga Province, from Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji

Kozuke Province, from Famous Views of the Sixty-odd Provinces

Horikiri Iris Garden (Horikiri no hanashōbu), from One Hundred Famous Views of Edo

Fudo Falls, Oji, 1857, from One Hundred Famous Views of Edo

View from Massaki of Suijin Shrine, Uchigawa Inlet, and Sekiya, from One Hundred Famous Views of Edo

Yoroi Ferry, Koami-cho, from One Hundred Famous Views of Edo

Heavy rain on a pine tree, from Eight Views of Ōmi

Fishing boats on a lake, from Eight Views of Ōmi

Full moon over a mountain landscape, from Eight Views of Ōmi

Sokokura, from Seven Hot Springs of Hakone

View of a long bridge across a lake, from Eight Views of Ōmi

A shrine among trees on a moor

See also[edit]

List of Utagawa school
Utagawa school
members Category:Print series by Hiroshige

Notes[edit]

^ Hiroshige's resignation has led to conjecture: nominally, he passed the position to his son Nakajirō, but it may have been that Nakajirō was actually the son of his adoptive grandfather. Hiroshige, as adopted heir, may have been made to give up the position to the purported legitimate heir.[3] ^ When Hiroshige
Hiroshige
and Oyasu married is not known.[11]

References[edit] Citations[edit]

^ a b c d Oka 1992, p. 69. ^ a b c Oka 1992, p. 70. ^ a b c d Oka 1992, p. 71. ^ Oka 1992, pp. 70–71. ^ Oka 1992, pp. 71–72. ^ Oka 1992, pp. 72–73. ^ a b Oka 1992, p. 74. ^ Oka 1992, pp. 73–74. ^ a b Oka 1992, p. 75. ^ Oka 1992, p. 79. ^ a b Noguchi 1992, p. 177. ^ Oka 1992, p. 81. ^ a b c Forbes & Henley (2014). Full series ^ Oka 1992, p. 83. ^ Oka 1992, p. 68. ^ "Kisokaido Road". Hiroshige. Archived from the original on 2011-12-13. Retrieved 2011-12-26.  ^ Oka 1992, pp. 67–68. ^ Christine Guth, Art of Edo
Edo
Japan: The Artist and the City, 1615–1868 (Harry Abrams, 1996). ISBN 0-8109-2730-6 ^ Oka 1992, p. 67. ^ G.P. Weisberg; P.D. Cate; G. Needham; M. Eidelberg; W.R. Johnston. Japonisme - Japanese Influence on French Art 1854-1910. London: Cleveland Museum of Art, Walters Art Gallery, Robert G. Sawyers Publications. ISBN 0-910386-22-6. 

Works cited[edit]

Forbes, Andrew; Henley, David (2014). 100 Famous Views of Edo. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN: B00HR3RHUY Forbes, Andrew; Henley, David (2014). Utagawa Hiroshige’s 36 Views of Mount Fuji. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN: B00KD7CZ9O Forbes, Andrew; Henley, David (2014). Utagawa Hiroshige's 53 Stations of the Tokaido. Chiang Mai: Cognoscenti Books. ASIN: B00LM4APAI Noguchi, Yoné (1992). Selected English Writings of Yone Noguchi: Prose. Associated University Presse. ISBN 978-0-8386-3422-6.  Oka, Isaburo (1992). Hiroshige: Japan's Great Landscape Artist. Kodansha. ISBN 9784770016584. 

Further reading[edit]

Hiroshige: One Hundred Famous Views of Edo
Edo
(1986). Smith II, Henry D.; Poster, G Amy; Lehman, L. Arnold. Publisher: George Braziller Inc, plates from the Brooklyn Museum. Paperback: ISBN 0-87273-141-3; hardcover: ISBN 0-8076-1143-3 Ukiyo-e: 250 years of Japanese Art (1979). Toni Neuer, Herbert Libertson, Susugu Yoshida; W. H. Smith. ISBN 0-8317-9041-5 Friese, Gordon: Keisai Eisen
Keisai Eisen
- Utugawa Hiroshige. Die 69 Stationen des Kisokaidô. Eine vollständige Serie japanischer Farbholzschnitte und ihre Druckvarianten. Verlag im Bücherzentrum, Germany, Unna 2008. ISBN 978-3-9809261-3-3 Tom Rassieur, "Degas and Hiroshige", Print Quarterly XXVIII, 2011, pp. 429–31 Calza, Gian Carlo (2009). Hiroshige: The Master of Nature. Skira. ISBN 978-88-572-0106-1.  Uspensky, Mikhail (2011). Hiroshige. Parkstone International. ISBN 978-1-78042-183-4. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Utagawa Hiroshige.

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Hiroshige.

Shizuoka City Tokaido Hiroshige
Hiroshige
Museum of Art (in Japanese) Ando Hiroshige
Hiroshige
Catalogue Ukiyo-e
Ukiyo-e
Prints by Utagawa Hiroshige Brooklyn Museum: Exhibitions: One Hundred Famous Views of Edo Hiroshige's works at Tokyo
Tokyo
Digital Museum Nakagawa-machi Bato Hiroshige
Hiroshige
Museum of Art

v t e

Hiroshige

Woodblock prints

Sudden Shower over Shin-Ōhashi bridge and Atake
Sudden Shower over Shin-Ōhashi bridge and Atake
(1857) Plum Park in Kameido

Series

The Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō
The Fifty-three Stations of the Tōkaidō
(1833–34) Famous Views of the Sixty-odd Provinces
Famous Views of the Sixty-odd Provinces
(1853–56) One Hundred Famous Views of Edo
Edo
(1856–58) Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji
(1859) The Sixty-nine Stations of the Kiso Kaidō Eight Views of Ōmi

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 19678928 LCCN: n50044379 ISNI: 0000 0001 2021 9980 GND: 118551469 SELIBR: 175588 SUDOC: 027405362 BNF: cb11907554v (data) ULAN: 500019641 MusicBrainz: ec48797a-12eb-4c77-9504-026d6a997114 NLA: 35006801 NDL: 00272450 NKC: jx20100915004 ICCU: ITICCUSBLV176716 BNE: XX996656 CiNii: DA02812947 RKD: 259

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