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  Pakistan
Pakistan
(national and official)   India
India
(official as per the 8th Schedule of the Constitution and in the following states/union territories) Official:

Jammu and Kashmir Telangana

Secondary Official:

National Capital Territory of Delhi Bihar Uttar Pradesh Jharkhand West Bengal

Recognised minority language in

 United Arab Emirates[6]  Guyana[7] (as Guyanese Hindustani)  Suriname[7] (as Sarnami Hindoestani)  Trinidad and Tobago[7] (as Trinidadian Hindustani)

Language codes

ISO 639-1 ur

ISO 639-2 urd

ISO 639-3 urd

Glottolog urdu1245[8]

Linguasphere 59-AAF-q

  Areas where Urdu
Urdu
is either official or co-official   Areas where Urdu
Urdu
is neither official nor co-official

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This article contains Urdu
Urdu
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Urdu
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Urdu
Urdu
(/ˈʊərduː/;[9] Urdu: اُردُو‬‎ ALA-LC: Urdū [ˈʊrd̪uː] ( listen), or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised and standardised register of the Hindustani language.[10][11] It is the official national language and lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the five states of Jammu and Kashmir, Telangana, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Jharkhand, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi. Apart from specialized vocabulary, Urdu
Urdu
is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani. The Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India.[12][13][14] Religious, social, and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi
Hindi
in India, leading to the Hindi– Urdu
Urdu
controversy.[15]

Contents

1 Origin 2 Speakers and geographic distribution 3 Cultural identity and Islam

3.1 Colonial India 3.2 Pakistan

4 Official status 5 Dialects

5.1 Code switching

6 Comparison with Modern Standard Hindi 7 Phonology

7.1 Consonants 7.2 Vowels

8 Vocabulary

8.1 Levels of formality

9 Writing system 10 Literature

10.1 Prose

10.1.1 Religious 10.1.2 Literary

10.2 Poetry

10.2.1 Terminology 10.2.2 Urdu poetry example

10.2.2.1 Transliteration 10.2.2.2 Translation

11 Sample text

11.1 Urdu
Urdu
text 11.2 Transliteration (ALA-LC) 11.3 IPA transcription 11.4 Gloss (word-for-word) 11.5 Translation (grammatical)

12 See also 13 Notes 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Origin[edit] Main article: History
History
of Hindustani Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani.[16] It evolved from the medieval (6th to 13th century) Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language that is also the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages, including the Punjabi dialects. Around 75% of Urdu
Urdu
words have their etymological roots in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Prakrit,[17][18][19] and approximately 99% of Urdu
Urdu
verbs have their roots in Sanskrit
Sanskrit
and Prakrit.[20] Because Persian-speaking sultans ruled the Indian subcontinent for a number of years,[21] Urdu was influenced by Persian and to a lesser extent, Arabic, which have contributed to about 25% of Urdu's formal vocabulary.[17][22][23][24][25][26][27] Although the word Urdu
Urdu
is derived from the Turkic word ordu (army) or orda, from which English horde is also derived,[28] Turkic borrowings in Urdu
Urdu
are minimal[29] and Urdu
Urdu
is also not genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu
Urdu
words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words. For instance, the Arabic
Arabic
ta' marbuta ( ة ) changes to he ( ه‬ ) or te ( ت‬ ).[30] [note 1] Nevertheless, contrary to popular belief, Urdu
Urdu
did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai, a Turkic language
Turkic language
from Central Asia. Urdu
Urdu
and Turkish borrowed from Arabic
Arabic
and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu
Urdu
and Turkish words.[31] Arabic
Arabic
influence in the region began with the late first-millennium Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent. The Persian language
Persian language
was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries later by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni.[32][33] The Turko-Afghan Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate established Persian as its official language, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on the developing Hindustani.[citation needed] With the advent of the British Raj, Persian was no longer the language of administration but Hindustani, still written in the Persian script, continued to be used by both Hindus
Hindus
and Muslims.[citation needed] The name Urdu
Urdu
was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780.[34][35](p18) From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century Urdu
Urdu
was commonly known as Hindi.[35](p1) The language was also known by various other names such as Hindavi and Dehlavi.[35](pp21–22) The communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the official language in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. Hindustani was promoted in British India
India
by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian.[36] This triggered a Brahman backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari
Devanagari
script. Thus a new literary register, called "Hindi", replaced traditional Hindustani as the official language of Bihar
Bihar
in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims
Muslims
and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide that was formalized with the division of India
India
and Pakistan
Pakistan
after independence (though there are Hindu poets who continue to write in Urdu
Urdu
to this day, with post-independence examples including Gopi Chand Narang
Gopi Chand Narang
and Gulzar). There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu
Urdu
and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words, and Hindi
Hindi
of Persian loanwords, and new vocabulary draws primarily from Persian and Arabic
Arabic
for Urdu
Urdu
and from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
for Hindi. English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language.[37] Speakers and geographic distribution[edit] See also: Languages of Pakistan
Pakistan
and Languages of India

The phrase Zabān-i Urdū-yi Muʿallā ("The language of the exalted camp") written in Nastaʿlīq script.

There are over 100 million native speakers of Urdu
Urdu
in India
India
(more than 80% of it) and Pakistan
Pakistan
together: there were 52 million and 80.5 million Urdu
Urdu
speakers in India
India
some 5% and 6.5% of the total population of India
India
as per the 2001 and 2011 censuses respectively;[38] approximately 10 million in Pakistan
Pakistan
or 7.57% as per the 1998 census and 16 million in 2006 estimates;[39] and several hundred thousand in the United Kingdom, Saudi Arabia, United States, and Bangladesh
Bangladesh
(where it is called "Bihari").[40] However, a knowledge of Urdu
Urdu
allows one to speak with far more people than that, because Hindustani, of which Urdu
Urdu
is one variety, is the third most commonly spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English .[41] Because of the difficulty in distinguishing between Urdu
Urdu
and Hindi
Hindi
speakers in India
India
and Pakistan, as well as estimating the number of people for whom Urdu
Urdu
is a second language, the estimated number of speakers is uncertain and controversial.[citation needed] Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu
Urdu
has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan. Urdu
Urdu
in Pakistan
Pakistan
has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from regional languages, thus allowing speakers of the language in Pakistan to distinguish themselves more easily and giving the language a decidedly Pakistani flavour. Similarly, the Urdu
Urdu
spoken in India
India
can also be distinguished into many dialects like Dakhni
Dakhni
(Deccan) of South India, and Khariboli
Khariboli
of the Punjab region. Because of Urdu's similarity to Hindi, speakers of the two languages can easily understand one another if both sides refrain from using specialized vocabulary. The syntax (grammar), morphology, and the core vocabulary are essentially identical. Thus linguists usually count them as one single language and contend that they are considered as two different languages for socio-political reasons.[42] In Pakistan, Urdu
Urdu
is mostly learned as a second or a third language as nearly 93% of Pakistan's population has a native language other than Urdu. Despite this, Urdu
Urdu
was chosen as a token of unity and as a lingua franca so as not to give any native Pakistani language preference over the other. Urdu
Urdu
is therefore spoken and understood by the vast majority in some form or another, including a majority of urban dwellers in such cities as Karachi, Lahore, Okara District, Sialkot, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Multan, Faisalabad, Hyderabad, Peshawar, Quetta, Jhang, Sargodha
Sargodha
and Skardu. It is written, spoken and used in all provinces/territories of Pakistan
Pakistan
although the people from differing provinces may have different indigenous languages, as from the fact that it is the "base language" of the country. For this reason, it is also taught as a compulsory subject up to higher secondary school in both English and Urdu
Urdu
medium school systems. This has produced millions of Urdu
Urdu
speakers from people whose native language is one of the other languages of Pakistan, who can read and write only Urdu. It is absorbing many words from the regional languages of Pakistan. This variation of Urdu
Urdu
is sometimes referred to as Pakistani Urdu.[citation needed] Although most of the population is conversant in Urdu, it is the first language of only an estimated 7% of the population who are mainly Muslim immigrants (known as Muhajir in Pakistan) from different parts of South Asia. The regional languages are also being influenced by Urdu
Urdu
vocabulary. There are millions of Pakistanis whose native language is not Urdu, but because they have studied in Urdu
Urdu
medium schools, they can read and write Urdu
Urdu
along with their native language. Most of the nearly five million Afghan refugees
Afghan refugees
of different ethnic origins (such as Pashtun, Tajik, Uzbek, Hazarvi, and Turkmen) who stayed in Pakistan
Pakistan
for over twenty-five years have also become fluent in Urdu. With such a large number of people(s) speaking Urdu, the language has acquired a peculiar Pakistani flavour further distinguishing it from the Urdu
Urdu
spoken by native speakers and diversifying the language even further. Many newspapers are published in Urdu
Urdu
in Pakistan, including the Daily Jang, Nawa-i-Waqt, Millat, among many others (see List of newspapers in Pakistan# Urdu language
Urdu language
Newspapers). In India, Urdu
Urdu
is spoken in places where there are large Muslim minorities or cities that were bases for Muslim Empires in the past. These include parts of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra
Maharashtra
(Marathwada), Karnataka
Karnataka
and cities such as Lucknow, Delhi, Bareilly, Meerut, Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Roorkee, Deoband, Moradabad, Azamgarh, Bijnor, Najibabad, Rampur, Aligarh, Allahabad, Gorakhpur, Agra, Kanpur, Badaun, Bhopal, Hyderabad, Aurangabad, Bangalore, Kolkata, Mysore, Patna, Gulbarga, Parbhani, Nanded, Malegaon, Bidar, Ajmer, and Ahmedabad.[43] Some Indian schools teach Urdu
Urdu
as a first language and have their own syllabi and exams. Indian madrasahs also teach Arabic as well as Urdu. India
India
has more than 3,000 Urdu
Urdu
publications, including 405 daily Urdu
Urdu
newspapers. Newspapers such as Neshat News Urdu, Sahara Urdu, Daily Salar, Hindustan Express, Daily Pasban, Siasat Daily, The Munsif Daily
The Munsif Daily
and Inqilab are published and distributed in Bangalore, Malegaon, Mysore, Hyderabad, and Mumbai
Mumbai
(see List of newspapers in India). Outside South Asia, it is spoken by large numbers of migrant South Asian workers in the major urban centres of the Persian Gulf countries. Urdu
Urdu
is also spoken by large numbers of immigrants and their children in the major urban centres of the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Germany, Norway, and Australia. Along with Arabic, Urdu
Urdu
is among the immigrant languages with the most speakers in Catalonia.[44] Cultural identity and Islam[edit] Colonial India[edit] Religious and social atmospheres in early nineteenth century India played significant roles in the development of the Urdu
Urdu
register. In addition to Islam, India
India
was characterized by a number of tribal religions which each represented different spiritual outlooks and maintained different languages. These tribal religions were later categorized by British colonialists as Hinduism. Under British rule, the dispersed tribes associated with Hinduism pushed for unification by means of a common language. Hindi
Hindi
became the distinct register spoken by those who sought to construct a Hindu identity in the face of colonial rule.[15] As Hindi
Hindi
separated from Hindustani to create a distinct spiritual identity, Urdu, which was originally spoken by both Hindu and Muslim elites, was employed to create a definitive Islamic identity for the Muslim population in India.[45] As Urdu
Urdu
and Hindi
Hindi
became means of religious and social construction for Muslims
Muslims
and Hindus
Hindus
respectively, each register developed its own script. According to Islamic tradition, Arabic, the language spoken by the prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
and uttered in creation of the Qur'an, holds spiritual significance and power.[46] Because Urdu
Urdu
was intentioned as means of unification for Muslims
Muslims
in Northern India
India
and later Pakistan, it adopted an Arabic
Arabic
script.[47][15]

Pakistan[edit] Urdu
Urdu
continued its role in developing a Muslim identity as the Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Pakistan
was established with the intent to construct a homeland for Islamic believers. Several languages and dialects spoken throughout the regions of Pakistan
Pakistan
produced an imminent need for a uniting language. Because Urdu
Urdu
was the symbol of Islamic identity in Northern India, it was selected as the national language for Pakistan. While Urdu
Urdu
and Islam together played important roles in developing the national identity of Pakistan, disputes in the 1950s (particularly those in East Pakistan), challenged the necessity for Urdu
Urdu
as a national symbol and its practicality as the lingua franca. The significance of Urdu
Urdu
as a national symbol was downplayed by these disputes when English and Bengali were also accepted as official languages in East Pakistan
Pakistan
(now Bangladesh). Official status[edit]

A trilingual signboard in Arabic, English and Urdu
Urdu
in the UAE

A multilingual New Delhi
Delhi
railway station board

Urdu
Urdu
is the national and one of the two official languages of Pakistan, along with English, and is spoken and understood throughout the country, whereas the state-by-state languages (languages spoken throughout various regions) are the provincial languages. Only 7.57% of Pakistanis have Urdu
Urdu
as their first language,[48] but Urdu
Urdu
is mostly understood and spoken all over Pakistan
Pakistan
as a second or third language. It is used in education, literature, office and court business.[49] It holds in itself a repository of the cultural and social heritage of the country.[50] Although English is used in most elite circles, and Punjabi has a plurality of native speakers, Urdu
Urdu
is the lingua franca and national language of Pakistan. In practice English is used instead of Urdu
Urdu
in the higher echelons of government.[51] Urdu
Urdu
is also one of the officially recognized languages in India
India
and the official language of Jammu and Kashmir, one of the two official languages of Telangana
Telangana
and also has the status of "additional official language" in the Indian states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, West Bengal
West Bengal
and the national capital, New Delhi.[52] In Jammu and Kashmir, section 145 of the Kashmir Constitution provides: "The official language of the State shall be Urdu
Urdu
but the English language
English language
shall unless the Legislature by law otherwise provides, continue to be used for all the official purposes of the State for which it was being used immediately before the commencement of the Constitution."[53] Dialects[edit] Urdu
Urdu
has a few recognised dialects, including Dakhni, Rekhta, and Modern Vernacular Urdu
Urdu
(based on the Khariboli dialect
Khariboli dialect
of the Delhi region). Dakhni
Dakhni
(also known as Dakani, Deccani, Desia, Mirgan) is spoken in Deccan region of southern India. It is distinct by its mixture of vocabulary from Marathi and Konkani, as well as some vocabulary from Arabic, Persian and Chagatai that are not found in the standard dialect of Urdu. Dakhini
Dakhini
is widely spoken in all parts of Maharashtra, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Karnataka. Urdu
Urdu
is read and written as in other parts of India. A number of daily newspapers and several monthly magazines in Urdu
Urdu
are published in these states. In terms of pronunciation, the easiest way to recognize native speakers is by their pronunciation of the letter "qāf" (ق‬) as "k̲h̲e" (خ‬). Code switching[edit] Many bilingual or multi-lingual Urdu
Urdu
speakers, being familiar with both Urdu
Urdu
and English, display code-switching (referred to as "Urdish") in certain localities and between certain social groups. On 14 August 2015, the Government of Pakistan
Pakistan
launched the Ilm Pakistan
Pakistan
movement, with a uniform curriculum in Urdish. Ahsan Iqbal, Federal Minister of Pakistan, said, "Now the government is working on a new curriculum to provide a new medium to the students which will be the combination of both Urdu
Urdu
and English and will name it Urdish."[54][55][56] Comparison with Modern Standard Hindi[edit]

Urdu
Urdu
and Hindi
Hindi
on a road sign in India

Further information: Hindi– Urdu
Urdu
controversy, Hindustani phonology, and Hindustani grammar Standard Urdu
Standard Urdu
is often contrasted with Standard Hindi.[57] Apart from religious associations, the differences are largely restricted to the standard forms: Standard Urdu
Standard Urdu
is conventionally written in the Nastaliq
Nastaliq
style of the Persian alphabet
Persian alphabet
and relies heavily on Persian and Arabic
Arabic
as a source for technical and literary vocabulary,[58] whereas Standard Hindi
Standard Hindi
is conventionally written in Devanāgarī and draws on Sanskrit.[59] However, both have large numbers of Arabic, Persian and Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words, and most linguists consider them to be two standardised forms of the same language,[60][61] and consider the differences to be sociolinguistic,[62] though a few classify them separately.[63] Old Urdu
Urdu
dictionaries also contain most of the Sanskrit
Sanskrit
words now present in Hindi.[64][65] Mutual intelligibility decreases in literary and specialized contexts that rely on educated vocabulary. Further, it is quite easy in a longer conversation to distinguish differences in vocabulary and pronunciation of some Urdu phonemes. As a result of religious nationalism since the partition of British India
India
and continued communal tensions, native speakers of both Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
frequently assert them to be distinct languages, despite the numerous similarities between the two in a colloquial setting. The barrier created between Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu
Urdu
is eroding: Hindi
Hindi
speakers are comfortable with using Persian- Arabic
Arabic
borrowed words[66] and Urdu speakers are also comfortable with using Sanskrit
Sanskrit
terminology.[67][68] Phonology[edit] Main article: Hindustani phonology Consonants[edit]

Urdu
Urdu
consonant phonemes[69][70]

Bilabial Dental/ Alveolar Retroflex Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal

Nasal plain m n

ŋ

voiced aspirated (mʱ) (nʱ)

Plosive/ Affricate voiceless p t̪ ʈ tʃ k q (ʔ)

voiceless aspirated pʰ t̪ʰ ʈʰ tʃʰ kʰ

voiced b d̪ ɖ dʒ ɡ ɢ

voiced aspirated bʱ d̪ʱ ɖʱ dʒʱ ɡʱ

Fricative voiceless f s

ʃ x

(h)

voiced v z

ʒ ɣ

ɦ

Flap plain

ɾ ɽ

voiced aspirated

(ɾʱ) ɽʱ

Approximant plain ʋ l

j

voiced aspirated

(lʱ)

Notes

Marginal and non-universal phonemes are in parentheses. /ɣ/ is post-velar.[71]

Vowels[edit]

The oral vowel phonemes of Urdu
Urdu
according to Ohala (1999:102)

Urdu
Urdu
vowels[69][70]

Front Central Back

short long short long short long

Close oral ɪ iː

ʊ uː

nasal ɪ̃ ĩː

ʊ̃ ũː

Close-mid oral (e) eː ə

(o) oː

nasal

ẽː ə̃

õː

Open-mid oral (ɛ) ɛː

(ɔ) ɔː

nasal

ɛ̃ː

ɔ̃ː

Open oral

æː

ɑː

nasal

ɑ̃ː

Note

Marginal and non-universal vowels are in parentheses.

Vocabulary[edit] Main article: Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
vocabulary Further information: Hindustani etymology The author of Farhang-i-Aasifiya, considered to be the most reliable and comprehensive Urdu
Urdu
dictionary, stated that Urdu
Urdu
vocabulary has a 75% core of Prakrit
Prakrit
and Sanskrit-derived words,[17][18][19] with approximately 25% of its vocabulary being Persian and Arabic loanwords.[17][18][19] However, a paper published in the Journal of Pakistan
Pakistan
Vision places Urdu
Urdu
vocabularly as being composed of 29.9% of Arabic
Arabic
loanwords and 21.7% Persian loanwords.[72][73] Many of the words of Arabic
Arabic
origin have been adopted through Persian,[17] and have different pronunciations and nuances of meaning and usage than they do in Arabic. There are also a smaller number of borrowings from Chagatai, and Portuguese. Levels of formality[edit] Urdu
Urdu
in its less formalised register has been referred to as a rek̤h̤tah (ریختہ‬, [reːxt̪aː]), meaning "rough mixture". The more formal register of Urdu
Urdu
is sometimes referred to as zabān-i Urdū-yi muʿallá (زبانِ اُردُوئے معلّٰى‬ [zəbaːn eː ʊrd̪u eː moəllaː]), the "Language of the Exalted Camp", referring to the Imperial army.[74] The etymology of the word used in the Urdu language
Urdu language
for the most part decides how polite or refined one's speech is. For example, Urdu speakers would distinguish between پانی‬ pānī and آب‬ āb, both meaning "water"; the former is used colloquially and has older Indic origins, whereas the latter is used formally and poetically, being of Persian origin. If a word is of Persian or Arabic
Arabic
origin, the level of speech is considered to be more formal and grand. Similarly, if Persian or Arabic
Arabic
grammar constructs, such as the izafat, are used in Urdu, the level of speech is also considered more formal and grand. If a word is inherited from Sanskrit, the level of speech is considered more colloquial and personal.[75] This distinction is similar to the division in English between words of Latin, French and Old English origins.[citation needed] Writing system
Writing system
[edit] Main articles: Urdu alphabet
Urdu alphabet
and Urdu
Urdu
braille Further information: Hindustani orthography

The Urdu
Urdu
Nastaʿliq
Nastaʿliq
alphabet, with names in the Devanāgarī and Latin alphabets

Urdu
Urdu
is written right-to left in an extension of the Persian alphabet, which is itself an extension of the Arabic
Arabic
alphabet. Urdu
Urdu
is associated with the Nastaʿlīq style of Persian calligraphy, whereas Arabic
Arabic
is generally written in the Naskh or Ruq'ah styles. Nasta’liq is notoriously difficult to typeset, so Urdu
Urdu
newspapers were hand-written by masters of calligraphy, known as kātib or khush-nawīs, until the late 1980s.[citation needed] One handwritten Urdu
Urdu
newspaper, The Musalman, is still published daily in Chennai.[76] Urdu
Urdu
has also historically been written in the Kaithi
Kaithi
script. A highly Persianized and technical form of Urdu
Urdu
was the lingua franca of the law courts of the British administration in Bengal, Bihar, and the North-West Provinces & Oudh. Until the late 19th century, all proceedings and court transactions in this register of Urdu
Urdu
were written officially in the Persian script. In 1880, Sir Ashley Eden, the Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal
Bengal
abolished the use of the Persian alphabet in the law courts of Bengal
Bengal
and Bihar
Bihar
and ordered the exclusive use of Kaithi, a popular script used for both Urdu
Urdu
and Hindi.[77] Kaithi's association with Urdu
Urdu
and Hindi
Hindi
was ultimately eliminated by the political contest between these languages and their scripts, in which the Persian script
Persian script
was definitively linked to Urdu. More recently in India, Urdu
Urdu
speakers have adopted Devanagari
Devanagari
for publishing Urdu
Urdu
periodicals and have innovated new strategies to mark Urdu
Urdu
in Devanagari
Devanagari
as distinct from Hindi
Hindi
in Devanagari. Such publishers have introduced new orthographic features into Devanagari for the purpose of representing the Perso- Arabic
Arabic
etymology of Urdu words. One example is the use of अ ( Devanagari
Devanagari
a) with vowel signs to mimic contexts of ع‬ (‘ain), in violation of Hindi orthographic rules. For Urdu
Urdu
publishers, the use of Devanagari
Devanagari
gives them a greater audience, whereas the orthographic changes help them preserve a distinct identity of Urdu.[78] Literature[edit] Main article: Urdu
Urdu
literature Urdu
Urdu
has become a literary language only in recent centuries, as Persian was formerly the idiom of choice for the Muslim courts of North India. However, despite its relatively late development, Urdu literature boasts of some world-recognised artists and a considerable corpus. Prose[edit] Urdu
Urdu
afsana is a kind of Urdu
Urdu
prose in which many experiments have been done by short story writers from Munshi Prem Chand to Naeem Baig. Religious[edit] Urdu
Urdu
holds the largest collection of works on Islamic literature
Islamic literature
and Sharia.[citation needed] These include translations and interpretation of the Qur'an
Qur'an
as well as commentary on Hadith, Fiqh, history, and Sufism. A great number of classical texts from Arabic
Arabic
and Persian have also been translated into Urdu. Relatively inexpensive publishing, combined with the use of Urdu
Urdu
as a lingua franca among Muslims
Muslims
of South Asia, has meant that Islam-related works in Urdu
Urdu
far outnumber such works in any other South Asian language. Popular Islamic books are also written in Urdu. It is interesting to note that a treatise on Astrology was penned in Urdu
Urdu
by Pandit Roop Chand Joshi in the eighteenth century. The book, known as Lal Kitab, is widely popular in North India
India
among astrologers. Literary[edit] Secular prose includes all categories of widely known fiction and non-fiction work, separable into genres. The dāstān, or tale, a traditional story that may have many characters and complex plotting. This has now fallen into disuse. The afsāna or short story is probably the best-known genre of Urdu fiction. The best-known afsāna writers, or afsāna nigār, in Urdu are Munshi Premchand, Saadat Hasan Manto, Rajinder Singh Bedi, Krishan Chander, Qurratulain Hyder
Qurratulain Hyder
(Qurat-ul-Ain Haider), Ismat Chughtai, Ghulam Abbas, Rashid ul Khairi and Ahmad Nadeem Qasimi. Towards the end of last century Paigham Afaqui's novel Makaan appeared with a reviving force for Urdu
Urdu
novel resulting into writing of novels getting a boost in Urdu literature
Urdu literature
and a number of writers like Ghazanfer, Abdus Samad, Sarwat Khan and Musharraf Alam Zauqi have taken the move forward. Munshi Premchand, became known as a pioneer in the afsāna, though some contend that his were not technically the first as Sir Ross Masood had already written many short stories in Urdu. Novels form a genre of their own, in the tradition of the English novel. Other genres include saférnāma (travel story), mazmoon (essay), sarguzisht (account/narrative), inshaeya (satirical essay), murasela (editorial), and khud navvisht (autobiography). Poetry[edit] Main article: Urdu
Urdu
poetry Further information: Urdu
Urdu
poets

Mir Taqi Mir
Mir Taqi Mir
(1723–1810) (Urdu: میر تقی میر‬‎) was the leading Urdu
Urdu
poet of the 18th century in the courts of Mughal Empire and Nawabs of Awadh

An illustrated manuscript of one of Amir Khusrau's (1253–1325 CE) Persian poems

Allama Muhammad
Muhammad
Iqbal, the national poet of Pakistan

Urdu
Urdu
has been one of the premier languages of poetry in South Asia
South Asia
for two centuries, and has developed a rich tradition in a variety of poetic genres. The Ghazal
Ghazal
in Urdu
Urdu
represents the most popular form of subjective music and poetry, whereas the Nazm exemplifies the objective kind, often reserved for narrative, descriptive, didactic or satirical purposes. Under the broad head of the Nazm we may also include the classical forms of poems known by specific names such as Masnavi
Masnavi
(a long narrative poem in rhyming couplets on any theme: romantic, religious, or didactic), Marsia (an elegy traditionally meant to commemorate the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali, grandson of Muhammad, and his comrades of the Karbala
Karbala
fame), or Qasida
Qasida
(a panegyric written in praise of a king or a nobleman), for all these poems have a single presiding subject, logically developed and concluded. However, these poetic species have an old world aura about their subject and style, and are different from the modern Nazm, supposed to have come into vogue in the later part of the nineteenth century. Probably the most widely recited, and memorised genre of contemporary Urdu poetry is nāt—panegyric poetry written in praise of Muhammad. Nāt can be of any formal category, but is most commonly in the ghazal form. The language used in Urdu
Urdu
nāt ranges from the intensely colloquial to a highly persified formal language. The great early 20th century scholar Ala Hazrat, Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi, who wrote many of the most well known nāts in Urdu
Urdu
(the collection of his poetic work is Hadaiq-e-Baqhshish), epitomised this range in a ghazal of nine stanzas (bayt) in which every stanza contains half a line each of Arabic, Persian, formal Urdu, and colloquial Hindi. Another important genre of Urdu
Urdu
prose are the poems commemorating the martyrdom of Husayn ibn Ali
Husayn ibn Ali
at the Battle of Karbala, called noha (نوحہ) and marsia. Anees and Dabeer are famous in this regard. Terminology[edit] As̱ẖʿār (اشعار‬, verse, couplets): It consists of two hemistiches (lines) called Miṣraʿ (مصرع‬); first hemistich (line) is called مصرعِ اولٰی‬ (Miṣraʿ-i ūlá) and the second is called (مصرعِ ثانی‬) (Miṣraʿ-i s̱ānī). Each verse embodies a single thought or subject (singular) شِعر‬ shiʿr. In the Urdu
Urdu
poetic tradition, most poets use a pen name called the takhalluṣ. This can be either a part of a poet's given name or something else adopted as an identity. The traditional convention in identifying Urdu poets
Urdu poets
is to mention the takhalluṣ at the end of the name. Thus Ghalib, whose official name and title was Mirza Asadullah Beg Khan, is referred to formally as Mirza Asadullah Khan Ghalib, or in common parlance as just Mirza Ghalib. Because the takhalluṣ can be a part of their actual name, some poets end up having that part of their name repeated, such as Faiz Ahmad Faiz. The word takhalluṣ is derived from Arabic, meaning "ending". This is because in the ghazal form, the poet would usually incorporate his or her pen name into the final couplet (maqt̤aʿ) of each poem as a type of "signature". Urdu poetry example[edit] This is Ghalib's famous couplet in which he compares himself to his great predecessor, the master poet Mir:[79]

         

ریختے کے تمہیں استاد نہیں ہو غالبؔ‬

         

؎‬

کہتے ہیں اگلے زمانے میں کوئی میرؔ بھی تھا‬

Transliteration[edit]

Reḵẖtah ke tumhī ustād nahīṉ ho G̱ẖālib Kahte haiṉ Agle zamāne meṉ ko'ī Mīr bhī thā

Translation[edit]

You are not the only master of Rekhta,[note 2] Ghalib (They) say that in the past there also was someone (named) Mir.

Sample text[edit] See also: Hindi
Hindi
§ Sample text The following is a sample text in Urdu, of the Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
(by the United Nations): Urdu
Urdu
text[edit]

دفعہ ۱: تمام انسان آزاد اور حقوق و عزت کے اعتبار سے برابر پیدا ہوئے ہیں۔ انہیں ضمیر اور عقل ودیعت ہوئی ہے۔ اس لئے انہیں ایک دوسرے کے ساتھ بھائی چارے کا سلوک کرنا چاہئے۔

Transliteration (ALA-LC)[edit]

Dafʿah 1: Tamām insān āzād aur ḥuqūq o ʿizzat ke iʿtibār se barābar paidā hūʾe haiṉ. Unheṉ ẓamīr aur ʿaql wadīʿat hūʾī hai. Is liʾe unheṉ ek dūsre ke sāth bhāʾī chāre kā sulūk karnā cāhiʾe.

IPA transcription[edit]

d̪əfɑː eːk: t̪əmɑːm ɪnsɑːn ɑːzɑːd̪ ɔːr hʊquːq oː ɪzzət̪ keː et̪ɪbɑːr seː bərɑːbər pɛːd̪ɑː ɦuːeː ɦɛ̃ː. ʊnɦẽː zəmiːr ɔːr əql ʋəd̪iːət̪ huːiː hɛː. ɪs lieː ʊnɦẽː eːk d̪uːsreː keː sɑːt̪ʰ bʱaːiː t͡ʃɑːreː kɑː sʊluːk kərnɑː t͡ʃɑːɦieː.

Gloss (word-for-word)[edit]

Article 1: All humans free[,] and rights and dignity *('s) consideration from equal born are. Them to conscience and intellect endowed is. This for, they one another *('s) with brotherhood *('s) treatment do should.

Translation (grammatical)[edit]

Article 1: All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience. Therefore, they should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

Note: *('s) represents a possessive case that, when written, is preceded by the possessor and followed by the possessed, unlike the English "of". See also[edit]

Urdu
Urdu
portal

Hindi– Urdu
Urdu
controversy List of Urdu-language poets List of Urdu-language writers National Translation Mission
National Translation Mission
(NTM) Persian and Urdu States of India
India
by Urdu
Urdu
speakers Urdu
Urdu
in the United Kingdom Uddin and Begum Hindustani Romanisation Urdu
Urdu
Digest Urdu
Urdu
in Aurangabad Urdu
Urdu
Informatics Urdu
Urdu
keyboard Glossary of the British Raj

Notes[edit]

^ An example can be seen in the word "need" in Urdu. Urdu
Urdu
uses the Persian version ضرورت rather than the original Arabic
Arabic
ضرورة. See: John T. Platts "A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English" (1884) Page 749. Urdu
Urdu
also use Persian pronunciation – for instance rather than pronouncing ض as "ḍ" an emphatic consonant, the original sound in Arabic, Urdu
Urdu
uses the Persian pronunciation "z". See: John T. Platts "A dictionary of Urdu, classical Hindi, and English" (1884) Page 748 ^ Rekhta was the name for the Urdu language
Urdu language
in Ghalib's days.

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

Henry Blochmann (1877). English and Urdu
Urdu
dictionary, romanized (8 ed.). CALCUTTA: Printed at the Baptist mission press for the Calcutta school-book society. p. 215. Retrieved 6 July 2011. the University of Michigan John Dowson (1908). A grammar of the Urdū or Hindūstānī language (3 ed.). LONDON: K. Paul, Trench, Trübner & Co., ltd. p. 264. Retrieved 6 July 2011. the University of Michigan John Dowson (1872). A grammar of the Urdū or Hindūstānī language. LONDON: Trübner & Co. p. 264. Retrieved 6 July 2011. Oxford University John Thompson Platts (1874). A grammar of the Hindūstānī or Urdū language. Volume 6423 of Harvard College Library preservation microfilm program. LONDON: W.H. Allen. p. 399. Retrieved 6 July 2011. Oxford University John Thompson Platts (1892). A grammar of the Hindūstānī or Urdū language. LONDON: W.H. Allen. p. 399. Retrieved 6 July 2011. the New York Public Library John Thompson Platts (1884). A dictionary of Urdū, classical Hindī, and English (reprint ed.). LONDON: H. Milford. p. 1259. Retrieved 6 July 2011. Oxford University Ahmad, Rizwan. 2006. "Voices people write: Examining Urdu
Urdu
in Devanagari" Alam, Muzaffar. 1998. "The Pursuit of Persian: Language in Mughal Politics." In Modern Asian Studies, vol. 32, no. 2. (May, 1998), pp. 317–349. Asher, R. E. (Ed.). 1994. The Encyclopedia of language and linguistics. Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-035943-4. Azad, Muhammad
Muhammad
Husain. 2001 [1907]. Aab-e hayat (Lahore: Naval Kishor Gais Printing Works) 1907 [in Urdu]; (Delhi: Oxford University Press) 2001. [In English translation] Azim, Anwar. 1975. Urdu
Urdu
a victim of cultural genocide. In Z. Imam (Ed.), Muslims
Muslims
in India
India
(p. 259). Bhatia, Tej K. 1996. Colloquial Hindi: The Complete Course for Beginners. London, UK & New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-11087-4 (Book), 0415110882 (Cassettes), 0415110890 (Book & Cassette Course) Bhatia, Tej K. and Koul Ashok. 2000. "Colloquial Urdu: The Complete Course for Beginners." London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-13540-0 (Book); ISBN 0-415-13541-9 (cassette); ISBN 0-415-13542-7 (book and casseettes course) Chatterji, Suniti K. 1960. Indo-Aryan and Hindi
Hindi
(rev. 2nd ed.). Calcutta: Firma K.L. Mukhopadhyay. Dua, Hans R. 1992. "Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
as a pluricentric language". In M. G. Clyne (Ed.), Pluricentric languages: Differing norms in different nations. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 3-11-012855-1. Dua, Hans R. 1994a. Hindustani. In Asher, 1994; pp. 1554. Dua, Hans R. 1994b. Urdu. In Asher, 1994; pp. 4863–4864. Durrani, Attash, Dr. 2008. Pakistani Urdu.Islamabad: National Language Authority, Pakistan. Gumperz, J.J. (1982). "Discourse Strategies". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Hassan, Nazir and Omkar N. Koul 1980. Urdu
Urdu
Phonetic Reader. Mysore: Central Institute of Indian Languages. Syed Maqsud Jamil (16 June 2006). "The Literary Heritage of Urdu". Daily Star.  Kelkar, A. R. 1968. Studies in Hindi-Urdu: Introduction and word phonology. Poona: Deccan College. Khan, M. H. 1969. Urdu. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Current trends in linguistics (Vol. 5). The Hague: Mouton. King, Christopher R. 1994. One Language, Two Scripts: The Hindi Movement in Nineteenth Century North India. Bombay: Oxford University Press. Koul, Ashok K. 2008. Urdu
Urdu
Script and Vocabulary. Delhi: Indian Institute of Language Studies. Koul, Omkar N. 1994. Hindi
Hindi
Phonetic Reader. Delhi: Indian Institute of Language Studies. Koul, Omkar N. 2008. Modern Hindi
Hindi
Grammar. Springfield: Dunwoody Press. Narang, G. C.; Becker, D. A. (1971). "Aspiration and nasalization in the generative phonology of Hindi-Urdu". Language. 47: 646–767. doi:10.2307/412381.  Ohala, M. 1972. Topics in Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
phonology. (PhD dissertation, University of California, Los Angeles). "A Desertful of Roses", a site about Ghalib's Urdu
Urdu
ghazals by Dr. Frances W. Pritchett, Professor of Modern Indic Languages at Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. Phukan, S. 2000. The Rustic Beloved: Ecology of Hindi
Hindi
in a Persianate World, The Annual of Urdu
Urdu
Studies, vol 15, issue 5, pp. 1–30 The Comparative study of Urdu
Urdu
and Khowar. Badshah Munir Bukhari National Language Authority Pakistan
Pakistan
2003. Rai, Amrit. 1984. A house divided: The origin and development of Hindi-Hindustani. Delhi: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-561643-X. Snell, Rupert Teach yourself Hindi: A complete guide for beginners. Lincolnwood, IL: NTC Pimsleur, Dr. Paul, "Free Urdu
Urdu
Audio Lesson" The poisonous potency of script: Hindi
Hindi
and Urdu, ROBERT D. KING

External links[edit]

Urdu
Urdu
edition of, the free encyclopedia

Wikibooks has more on the topic of: Urdu

Wikivoyage has a phrasebook for Urdu.

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Urdu.

Directory of Urdu
Urdu
websites. Urdu's origin: it's not a ‘camp language’ Dawn News Urdu
Urdu
Scholarship-Maldonado Garcia UrdueBooks Open Source

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Urdu

History Alphabet Grammar Phonology Vocabulary Nastaliq Braille

Varieties

Dialects

Standard Urdu Dakhini Hyderabadi Rekhta

Forms

Aurangabad Urdu British Urdu Roman Urdu

Politics

Urdu
Urdu
movement Hindi- Urdu
Urdu
controversy

Arts

Awards Literature Informatics Cinema Poetry Music Writers Poets Progressive Writers' Movement Uddin & Begum Romanisation

Links to related articles

v t e

Modern Indo-Aryan languages

Dardic

Dameli Domaaki Gawar-Bati Indus Kohistani Kalami Kalash Kashmiri Khowar Kundal Shahi Mankiyali Nangalami Palula Pashayi Sawi Shina Shumashti Torwali Ushoji

Northern

Eastern

Doteli Jumli Nepali Palpa

Central

Garhwali Kumaoni

Western

Dogri Kangri Mandeali

North- western

Punjabi

Punjabi

dialects

Lahnda

Hindko Khetrani Pahari-Pothwari Saraiki

Sindhi

Jadgali Kutchi Luwati Memoni Sindhi

Western

Gujarati

Aer Gujarati Jandavra Koli Lisan ud-Dawat Parkari Koli Saurashtra Vaghri

Bhil

Bhili Gamit Kalto Vasavi

Rajasthani

Bagri Goaria Gujari Jaipuri Malvi Marwari Mewari Dhatki

Others

Domari Khandeshi Romani

list of languages

Central

Western

Braj Bhasha Bundeli Haryanvi Hindustani

Hindi

Bombay Hindi

Urdu

Dakhini Hyderabadi Urdu Rekhta

Khariboli Kannauji Sansi Sadhukadi

Eastern

Awadhi Bagheli Chhattisgarhi Fiji Hindi

Others

Danwar Parya

Eastern

Bihari

Angika Bhojpuri Caribbean Hindustani Vajjika Magahi Maithili Majhi Sadri

Bengali– Assamese

Assamese Bengali

dialects

Bishnupriya Manipuri Chakma Chittagonian Goalpariya Hajong Kamrupi Kharia Thar Kurmukar Rangpuri Rohingya Sylheti Tanchangya

Odia

Odia Kosli Bodo Parja Kupia Reli

Halbic

Halbi Bhatri Kamar Mirgan Nahari

Others

Mal Paharia

Southern

Marathi–Konkani

Konkani Kukna Marathi others..

Insular

Maldivian Sinhalese

Unclassified

Chinali Sheikhgal

Pidgins/ creoles

Andaman Creole Hindi Haflong Hindi Nagamese Nefamese Vedda

See also: Old and Middle Indo-Aryan; Indo-Iranian languages; Nuristani languages; Iranian languages

v t e

Languages of India

Official languages

Union-level

Hindi English

8th schedule to the Constitution of India

Assamese Bengali Bodo Dogri Gujarati Hindi Kannada Kashmiri Konkani Maithili Malayalam Meitei (Manipuri) Marathi Nepali Odia Punjabi Sanskrit Sindhi Santali Tamil Telugu Urdu

State-level only

Garo Gurung Khasi Kokborok Lepcha Limbu Mangar Mizo Newari Rai Sherpa Sikkimese Sunwar Tamang

Major unofficial languages

Over 1 million speakers

Angika Awadhi Bagheli Bagri Bajjika Bhili Bhojpuri Bundeli Chhattisgarhi Dhundhari Garhwali Gondi Harauti Haryanvi Ho Kangri Khandeshi Khortha Kumaoni Kurukh Lambadi Magahi Malvi Marwari Mewari Mundari Nimadi Rajasthani Sadri Surjapuri Tulu Wagdi Varhadi

100,000 – 1 million speakers

Adi Angami Ao Dimasa Halbi Karbi Kharia Kodava Kolami Konyak Korku Koya Kui Kuvi Ladakhi Lotha Malto Mishing Nishi Phom Rabha Sema Sora Tangkhul Thadou

v t e

Languages of Pakistan

Official languages

Urdu English

Provincial languages

Punjabi Pashto Sindhi Balochi

Minority languages (by administrative unit)

Azad Kashmir

Dogri Gujari Kashmiri Kundal Shahi Pahari-Pothwari

Balochistan

Brahui Dehwari Hazaragi Jadgali Khetrani Wanetsi

FATA

Ormuri Wazir

Gilgit-Baltistan‎

Balti Purgi Burushaski Domaaki Khowar Munji Shina Wakhi

‎Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

Burushaski Badeshi Bateri Chilisso Dameli Gawar-Bati Gowro Hindko Kalami Kalasha Kalkoti Kamviri Khowar Indus Kohistani Mankiyali Palula Torwali Ushoji Yidgha

Punjab

Bagri Dogri Pahari-Pothwari Punjabi dialects Saraiki Rajasthani

Sindh

Aer Bagri Bhaya Dhatki Goaria Gujarati Jandavra Jogi Koli

Parkari

Kutchi Loarki Marwari Memoni Mewari Od Rajasthani Vaghri

Related topics

Indo-Aryan languages Dardic languages Iranic languages Pakistani Sign Language Arabic Persian Persian and Urdu Chagatai

v t e

National symbols of Pakistan

Main symbols

Qaumi Taranah
Qaumi Taranah
(national anthem) State emblem of Pakistan Flag of Pakistan Iman, Ittihad, Nazm (motto) Lahore
Lahore
Resolution (national document) Urdu
Urdu
(national language)

People

Muhammad
Muhammad
Ali Jinnah (Father of the Nation) Muhammad
Muhammad
Iqbal (National poet) Fatima Jinnah
Fatima Jinnah
(Mother of the Nation)

Other symbols

Cedrus deodara
Cedrus deodara
(national tree) Chukar partridge
Chukar partridge
(national bird) Jasminum officinale
Jasminum officinale
(national flower) Markhor
Markhor
(national animal)

Structures

Bab-e-Khyber
Bab-e-Khyber
(monument) Faisal Mosque Mazar-e-Quaid
Mazar-e-Quaid
(mausoleum) Minar-e- Pakistan
Pakistan
(monument) Pakistan
Pakistan
Monument (monument) Quaid-e-Azam Residency

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Languages of South Africa

Pan South African Language Board Commission for Cultural, Religious and Linguistic Community Rights Department of Arts and Culture

Official

West Germanic

Afrikaans English

Southern Bantu

Sotho-Tswana

Northern Sotho (Sesotho sa Leboa) Southern Sotho (Sesotho) Tswana (Setswana)

Nguni

Southern Ndebele (isiNdebele) Swazi (siSwati) Xhosa (isiXhosa) Zulu (isiZulu)

Tswa-Ronga

Tsonga (Xitsonga)

Venda

Venda (Tshivenḓa)

Recognised unofficial languages mentioned in the 1996 constitution

Indigenous

Bhaca Khoi Lala Lozi Nama Nhlangwini Northern Ndebele Phuthi San Tuu

Foreign

German Greek Gujarati Hindi Portuguese Malay (historical) Tamil Telugu Urdu

Religious

Arabic Hebrew Sanskrit

Other

LGBT slang

Gayle IsiNgqumo

Other

Tsotsitaal and Camtho Oorlams Creole Fanagalo Pretoria Sotho Scamto SA Sign Language

Authority control

.