HOME
ListMoto - UNESCO


--- Advertisement ---



(i)

The United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO;[2] French: Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris. Its declared purpose is to contribute to peace and security by promoting international collaboration through educational, scientific, and cultural reforms in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations
United Nations
Charter.[1] It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation. UNESCO
UNESCO
has 195 member states[3] and ten associate members.[4][5] Most of its field offices are "cluster" offices covering three or more countries; national and regional offices also exist. UNESCO
UNESCO
pursues its objectives through five major programs: education, natural sciences, social/human sciences, culture and communication/information. Projects sponsored by UNESCO
UNESCO
include literacy, technical, and teacher-training programs, international science programs, the promotion of independent media and freedom of the press, regional and cultural history projects, the promotion of cultural diversity, translations of world literature, international cooperation agreements to secure the world's cultural and natural heritage (World Heritage Sites) and to preserve human rights, and attempts to bridge the worldwide digital divide. It is also a member of the United Nations
United Nations
Development Group.[6] UNESCO's aim is "to contribute to the building of peace, the eradication of poverty, sustainable development and intercultural dialogue through education, the sciences, culture, communication and information".[7] Other priorities of the organization include attaining quality Education
Education
For All and lifelong learning, addressing emerging social and ethical challenges, fostering cultural diversity, a culture of peace and building inclusive knowledge societies through information and communication.[8] The broad goals and objectives of the international community—as set out in the internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals
Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs)—underpin all UNESCO
UNESCO
strategies and activities.

Contents

1 History 2 Activities 3 Media 4 Official UNESCO
UNESCO
NGOs 5 Institutes and centres 6 Prizes

6.1 Inactive prizes

7 International Days observed at UNESCO 8 Member states 9 Governing bodies

9.1 Director-General 9.2 General Conference 9.3 Executive Board

10 Offices

10.1 Field offices by region

10.1.1 Africa 10.1.2 Arab States 10.1.3 Asia and Pacific 10.1.4 Europe and North America 10.1.5 Latin America and the Caribbean

11 Controversies

11.1 New World Information and Communication order 11.2 Israel

11.2.1 Occupied Palestine Resolution

11.3 Palestine

11.3.1 Palestinian youth magazine controversy 11.3.2 Islamic University of Gaza
Islamic University of Gaza
controversy

11.4 Wikileaks 11.5 Che Guevara 11.6 Listing Nanjing Massacre documents 11.7 US withdrawals

12 Products or services

12.1 Information processing tools

13 See also 14 References 15 External links

History

Flag of UNESCO

UNESCO
UNESCO
and its mandate for international cooperation can be traced back to a League of Nations
League of Nations
resolution on 21 September 1921, to elect a Commission to study feasibility.[9][10] On 18 December 1925, the International Bureau of Education
Education
(IBE) began work as a non-governmental organization in the service of international educational development.[11] However, the onset of World War II largely interrupted the work of these predecessor organizations. After the signing of the Atlantic Charter
Atlantic Charter
and the Declaration of the United Nations, the Conference of Allied Ministers of Education
Education
(CAME) began meetings in London which continued between 16 November 1942 to 5 December 1945. On 30 October 1943, the necessity for an international organization was expressed in the Moscow Declaration, agreed upon by China, the United Kingdom, the United States
United States
and the USSR. This was followed by the Dumbarton Oaks Conference
Dumbarton Oaks Conference
proposals of 9 October 1944. Upon the proposal of CAME and in accordance with the recommendations of the United Nations
United Nations
Conference on International Organization (UNCIO), held in San Francisco in April–June 1945, a United Nations Conference for the establishment of an educational and cultural organization (ECO/CONF) was convened in London 1–16 November 1945 with 44 governments represented. A prominent[clarification needed] figure in the initiative for UNESCO
UNESCO
was Rab Butler, the Minister of Education
Education
for the United Kingdom.[12] At the ECO/CONF, the Constitution of UNESCO
UNESCO
was introduced and signed by 37 countries, and a Preparatory Commission was established.[13] The Preparatory Commission operated between 16 November 1945, and 4 November 1946—the date when UNESCO's Constitution came into force with the deposit of the twentieth ratification by a member state.[14] The first General Conference took place between 19 November to 10 December 1946, and elected Dr. Julian Huxley
Julian Huxley
to Director-General.[15] The Constitution was amended in November 1954 when the General Conference resolved that members of the Executive Board would be representatives of the governments of the States of which they are nationals and would not, as before, act in their personal capacity.[16] This change in governance distinguished UNESCO
UNESCO
from its predecessor, the CICI, in how member states would work together in the organization's fields of competence. As member states worked together over time to realize UNESCO's mandate, political and historical factors have shaped the organization's operations in particular during the Cold War, the decolonization process, and the dissolution of the USSR. Among the major achievements of the organization is its work against racism, for example through influential statements on race starting with a declaration of anthropologists (among them was Claude Lévi-Strauss) and other scientists in 1950[17] and concluding with the 1978 Declaration on Race and Racial Prejudice.[18] In 1956, the Republic of South Africa
South Africa
withdrew from UNESCO
UNESCO
claiming that some of the organization's publications amounted to "interference" in the country's "racial problems."[19] South Africa
South Africa
rejoined the organization in 1994 under the leadership of Nelson Mandela. UNESCO's early work in the field of education included the pilot project on fundamental education in the Marbial Valley, Haiti, started in 1947.[20] This project was followed by expert missions to other countries, including, for example, a mission to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in 1949.[21] In 1948, UNESCO
UNESCO
recommended that Member States should make free primary education compulsory and universal.[22] In 1990, the World Conference on Education
Education
for All, in Jomtien, Thailand, launched a global movement to provide basic education for all children, youths and adults.[23] Ten years later, the 2000 World Education
Education
Forum held in Dakar, Senegal, led member governments to commit to achieving basic education for all by 2015.[24] UNESCO's early activities in culture included, for example, the Nubia Campaign, launched in 1960.[25] The purpose of the campaign was to move the Great Temple of Abu Simbel to keep it from being swamped by the Nile after construction of the Aswan Dam. During the 20-year campaign, 22 monuments and architectural complexes were relocated. This was the first and largest in a series of campaigns including Mohenjo-daro
Mohenjo-daro
(Pakistan), Fes
Fes
(Morocco), Kathmandu
Kathmandu
(Nepal), Borobudur (Indonesia) and the Acropolis
Acropolis
(Greece). The organization's work on heritage led to the adoption, in 1972, of the Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.[26] The World Heritage Committee
World Heritage Committee
was established in 1976 and the first sites inscribed on the World Heritage List
World Heritage List
in 1978.[27] Since then important legal instruments on cultural heritage and diversity have been adopted by UNESCO
UNESCO
member states in 2003 (Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage[28]) and 2005 (Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions[29]). An intergovernmental meeting of UNESCO
UNESCO
in Paris
Paris
in December 1951 led to the creation of the European Council for Nuclear Research, which was responsible for establishing the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)[30] in 1954. Arid Zone programming, 1948–1966, is another example of an early major UNESCO
UNESCO
project in the field of natural sciences.[31] In 1968, UNESCO
UNESCO
organized the first intergovernmental conference aimed at reconciling the environment and development, a problem which continues to be addressed in the field of sustainable development. The main outcome of the 1968 conference was the creation of UNESCO's Man and the Biosphere Programme.[32] In the field of communication, the "free flow of ideas by word and image" has been in UNESCO's constitution from its beginnings, following the experience of the Second World War when control of information was a factor in indoctrinating populations for aggression.[33] In the years immediately following World War II, efforts were concentrated on reconstruction and on the identification of needs for means of mass communication around the world. UNESCO started organizing training and education for journalists in the 1950s.[34] In response to calls for a "New World Information and Communication Order" in the late 1970s, UNESCO
UNESCO
established the International Commission for the Study of Communication Problems,[35] which produced the 1980 MacBride report (named after the Chair of the Commission, the Nobel Peace Prize laureate Seán MacBride).[36] The same year, UNESCO
UNESCO
created the International Programme for the Development of Communication (IPDC), a multilateral forum designed to promote media development in developing countries.[37][38] In 1991, UNESCO's General Conference endorsed the Windhoek Declaration on media independence and pluralism, which led the UN General Assembly to declare the date of its adoption, 3 May, as World Press Freedom Day.[39] Since 1997, UNESCO
UNESCO
has awarded the UNESCO
UNESCO
/ Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize every 3 May. In the lead up to the World Summit on the Information Society in 2003 (Geneva) and 2005 (Tunis), UNESCO
UNESCO
introduced the Information for All Programme. [40][41] Laws passed in the United States
United States
in 1990 and 1994 mean that it cannot contribute financially to any UN organisation that accepts Palestine as a full member.[42] As a result, it withdrew its funding which accounted for about 22% of UNESCO's budget.[43] Israel
Israel
also reacted to Palestine's admittance to UNESCO
UNESCO
by freezing Israel payments to the UNESCO
UNESCO
and imposing sanctions to the Palestinian Authority,[44] claiming that Palestine's admittance would be detrimental "to potential peace talks".[45] Two years after they stopped paying their dues to UNESCO, US and Israel
Israel
lost UNESCO
UNESCO
voting rights in 2013 without losing the right to be elected; thus, the US was elected as a member of the Executive Board for the period 2016–19.[46] Activities

UNESCO
UNESCO
offices in Brasília

UNESCO
UNESCO
implements its activities through the five programme areas: education, natural sciences, social and human sciences, culture, and communication and information.

Education: UNESCO
UNESCO
supports research in comparative education; and provide expertise and fosters partnerships to strengthen national educational leadership and the capacity of countries to offer quality education for all. This includes the

UNESCO
UNESCO
Chairs, an international network of 644 UNESCO
UNESCO
Chairs, involving over 770 institutions in 126 countries. Environmental Conservation Organisation Convention against Discrimination in Education
Education
adopted in 1960 Organization of the International Conference on Adult Education (CONFINTEA) in an interval of 12 years Publication of the Education
Education
for All Global Monitoring Report Publication of the Four Pillars of Learning seminal document UNESCO
UNESCO
ASPNet, an international network of 8,000 schools in 170 countries.

UNESCO
UNESCO
does not accredit institutions of higher learning.[47]

UNESCO
UNESCO
also issues public statements to educate the public:

Seville Statement on Violence: A statement adopted by UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1989 to refute the notion that humans are biologically predisposed to organised violence.

Designating projects and places of cultural and scientific significance, such as:

Global Geoparks Network Biosphere reserves, through the Programme on Man and the Biosphere (MAB), since 1971 City of Literature; in 2007, the first city to be given this title was Edinburgh, the site of Scotland's first circulating library.[48] In 2008, Iowa City, Iowa became the City of Literature. Endangered languages and linguistic diversity projects Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity Memory of the World
Memory of the World
International Register, since 1997 Water resources management, through the International Hydrological Programme (IHP), since 1965 World Heritage Sites World Digital Library

Encouraging the "free flow of ideas by images and words" by:

Promoting freedom of expression, including freedom of the press and freedom of information legislation, through the Division of Freedom of Expression and Media Development,[49] including the International Programme for the Development of Communication[50] Promoting the safety of journalists and combatting impunity for those who attack them,[51] through coordination of the UN Plan of Action on the Safety of Journalists and the Issue of Impunity[52] Promoting universal access to and preservation of information and open solutions for sustainable development through the Knowledge Societies Division,[53] including the Memory of the World
Memory of the World
Programme[54] and Information for All Programme[55] Promoting pluralism, gender equality and cultural diversity in the media Promoting Internet Universality
Internet Universality
and its principles, that the Internet should be (I) human Rights-based, (ii) Open, (iii) Accessible to all, and (iv) nurtured by Multi-stakeholder participation (summarized as the acronym R.O.A.M.)[56] Generating knowledge through publications such as World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development,[57] the UNESCO
UNESCO
Series on Internet Freedom,[58] and the Media Development Indicators,[59] as well as other indicator-based studies.

Promoting events, such as:

International Decade for the Promotion of a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World: 2001–2010, proclaimed by the UN in 1998 World Press Freedom Day, 3 May each year, to promote freedom of expression and freedom of the press as a basic human right and as crucial components of any healthy, democratic and free society. Criança Esperança in Brazil, in partnership with Rede Globo, to raise funds for community-based projects that foster social integration and violence prevention. International Literacy
Literacy
Day International Year for the Culture of Peace Health Education
Education
for Behavior Change program in partnership with the Ministry of Education
Education
of Kenya
Kenya
which was financially supported by the Government of Azerbaijan
Azerbaijan
to promote health education among 10-19-year-old young people who live in informal camp in Kibera, Nairobi. The project was carried out between September 2014 - December 2016.[60]

Founding and funding projects, such as:

Migration Museums Initiative: Promoting the establishment of museums for cultural dialogue with migrant populations.[61] UNESCO-CEPES, the European Centre for Higher Education: established in 1972 in Bucharest, Romania, as a de-centralized office to promote international co-operation in higher education in Europe as well as Canada, USA and Israel. Higher Education
Education
in Europe is its official journal. Free Software Directory: since 1998 UNESCO
UNESCO
and the Free Software Foundation have jointly funded this project cataloguing free software. FRESH Focussing Resources on Effective School Health.[62] OANA, Organization of Asia-Pacific News Agencies International Council of Science UNESCO
UNESCO
Goodwill Ambassadors ASOMPS, Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices, a series of scientific conferences held in Asia Botany 2000, a programme supporting taxonomy, and biological and cultural diversity of medicinal and ornamental plants, and their protection against environmental pollution The UNESCO
UNESCO
Collection of Representative Works, translating works of world literature both to and from multiple languages, from 1948 to 2005 GoUNESCO, an umbrella of initiatives to make heritage fun supported by UNESCO, New Delhi
New Delhi
Office[63]

The UNESCO
UNESCO
transparency portal has been designed to enable public access to information regarding Organization's activities, such as its aggregate budget for a biennium, as well as links to relevant programmatic and financial documents. These two distinct sets of information are published on the IATI registry, respectively based on the IATI Activity Standard and the IATI Organization Standard. There have been proposals to establish two new UNESCO
UNESCO
lists. The first proposed list will focus on movable cultural heritage such as artifacts, paintings, and biofacts. The list may include cultural objects, such as the Jōmon Venus
Jōmon Venus
of Japan, the Mona Lisa
Mona Lisa
of France, the Gebel el-Arak Knife
Gebel el-Arak Knife
of Egypt, The Ninth Wave
The Ninth Wave
of Russia, the Seated Woman of Çatalhöyük of Turkey, the David (Michelangelo)
David (Michelangelo)
of Italy, the Mathura Herakles
Mathura Herakles
of India, the Manunggul Jar
Manunggul Jar
of the Philippines, the Crown of Baekje
Crown of Baekje
of South Korea, The Hay Wain
The Hay Wain
of the United Kingdom and the Benin Bronzes
Benin Bronzes
of Nigeria. The second proposed list will focus on the world's living species, such as the Komodo Dragon
Komodo Dragon
of Indonesia, the Panda
Panda
of China, the Bald eagle
Bald eagle
of North American countries, the Aye-aye
Aye-aye
of Madagascar, the Asiatic Lion
Asiatic Lion
of India, the Kakapo
Kakapo
of New Zealand, and the Mountain tapir
Mountain tapir
of Colombia, Ecuador
Ecuador
and Peru.[64][65] Media UNESCO
UNESCO
and its specialized institutions issue a number of magazines. The UNESCO
UNESCO
Courier magazine states its mission to "promote UNESCO’s ideals, maintain a platform for the dialogue between cultures and provide a forum for international debate." Since March 2006 it is available online, with limited printed issues. Its articles express the opinions of the authors which are not necessarily the opinions of UNESCO. As of 2016, the latest issue posted was October–December 2011.[66] In 1950, UNESCO
UNESCO
initiated the quarterly review Impact of Science on Society (also known as Impact) to discuss the influence of science on society.[67] UNESCO
UNESCO
also publish museum international quarterly from the year 1948. Official UNESCO
UNESCO
NGOs UNESCO
UNESCO
has official relations with 322 international non-governmental organizations (NGOs).[68] Most of these are what UNESCO
UNESCO
calls "operational"; a select few are "formal".[69] The highest form of affiliation to UNESCO
UNESCO
is "formal associate", and the 22 NGOs[70] with formal associate (ASC) relations occupying offices at UNESCO
UNESCO
are:

Abbr Organization

IB International Baccalaureate

CCIVS Co-ordinating Committee for International Voluntary Service

EI Education
Education
International

IAU International Association of Universities

IFTC International Council for Film, Television and Audiovisual Communication

ICPHS International Council for Philosophy and Humanistic Studies which publishes Diogenes

ICSU International Council for Science

ICOM International Council of Museums

ICSSPE International Council of Sport Science and Physical Education

ICA International Council on Archives

ICOMOS International Council on Monuments and Sites

IFJ International Federation of Journalists

IFLA International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions

IFPA International Federation of Poetry Associations

IMC International Music Council

IPA International Police Association

INSULA International Scientific Council for Island Development

ISSC International Social Science Council

ITI International Theatre Institute

IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature
International Union for Conservation of Nature
and Natural Resources

IUTAO International Union of Technical Associations and Organizations

UIA Union of International Associations

WAN World Association of Newspapers

WFEO World Federation of Engineering Organizations

WFUCA World Federation of UNESCO
UNESCO
Clubs, Centres and Associations

UNESCO
UNESCO
Institute for Water Education
Education
in Delft

Institutes and centres The institutes are specialized departments of the organization that support UNESCO's programme, providing specialized support for cluster and national offices.

Abbr Name Location

IBE International Bureau of Education Geneva[71]

UIL UNESCO
UNESCO
Institute for Lifelong Learning Hamburg[72]

IIEP UNESCO
UNESCO
International Institute for Educational Planning Paris
Paris
(headquarters) and Buenos Aires
Buenos Aires
(regional office)[73]

IITE UNESCO
UNESCO
Institute for Information Technologies in Education Moscow[74]

IICBA UNESCO
UNESCO
International Institute for Capacity Building
Capacity Building
in Africa Addis Ababa[75]

IESALC UNESCO
UNESCO
International Institute for Higher Education
Education
in Latin America and the Caribbean Caracas[76]

UNESCO-UNEVOC UNESCO-UNEVOC
UNESCO-UNEVOC
International Centre for Technical and Vocational Education
Education
and Training Bonn[77]

CEPES UNESCO
UNESCO
European Centre for Higher Education Bucharest[78]

UNESCO-IHE UNESCO-IHE
UNESCO-IHE
Institute for Water Education Delft[79]

ICTP International Centre for Theoretical Physics Trieste[80]

UIS UNESCO
UNESCO
Institute for Statistics Montreal[81]

Prizes UNESCO
UNESCO
awards 22 prizes[82] in education, science, culture and peace:

Félix Houphouët-Boigny Peace Prize L'Oréal- UNESCO
UNESCO
Awards for Women in Science UNESCO/King Sejong Literacy
Literacy
Prize UNESCO/Confucius Prize for Literacy UNESCO/Emir Jaber al-Ahmad al-Jaber al-Sabah Prize to promote Quality Education
Education
for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities UNESCO King Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa Prize
UNESCO King Hamad Bin Isa Al-Khalifa Prize
for the Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Education UNESCO/Hamdan Bin Rashid Al-Maktoum Prize for Outstanding Practice and Performance in Enhancing the Effectiveness of Teachers UNESCO/ Kalinga Prize
Kalinga Prize
for the Popularization of Science UNESCO/Institut Pasteur Medal for an outstanding contribution to the development of scientific knowledge that has a beneficial impact on human health UNESCO/Sultan Qaboos Prize for Environmental Preservation Great Man-Made River International Water Prize for Water Resources in Arid Zones presented by UNESCO
UNESCO
(title to be reconsidered) Michel Batisse Award for Biosphere Reserve Management UNESCO/Bilbao Prize for the Promotion of a Culture of Human Rights UNESCO
UNESCO
Prize for Peace Education UNESCO-Madanjeet Singh Prize for the Promotion of Tolerance and Non-Violence UNESCO/International José Martí Prize UNESCO/ Avicenna Prize for Ethics in Science UNESCO/Juan Bosch Prize for the Promotion of Social Science Research in Latin America and the Caribbean Sharjah Prize for Arab Culture Melina Mercouri International Prize for the Safeguarding and Management of Cultural Landscapes (UNESCO-Greece) IPDC- UNESCO
UNESCO
Prize for Rural Communication UNESCO/Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize UNESCO/Jikji Memory of the World
Memory of the World
Prize UNESCO-Equatorial Guinea
Guinea
International Prize for Research in the Life Sciences Carlos J. Finlay Prize for Microbiology

Inactive prizes

International Simón Bolívar Prize (inactive since 2004) UNESCO
UNESCO
Prize for Human Rights Education UNESCO/Obiang Nguema Mbasogo International Prize for Research in the Life Sciences (inactive since 2010) UNESCO
UNESCO
Prize for the Promotion of the Arts

International Days observed at UNESCO International Days[83]

Date Name

27 January International Day of Commemoration in Memory of the Victims of the Holocaust

13 February World Radio Day

21 February International Mother Language Day

8 March International Women's Day

20 March International Francophonie Day

21 March International Day of Nowruz

21 March World Poetry Day

21 March International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination

22 March World Day for Water

23 April World Book and Copyright Day

30 April International Jazz Day

3 May World Press Freedom Day

21 May World Day for Cultural Diversity for Dialogue and Development

22 May International Day for Biological Diversity

25 May Africa Day / Africa Week

5 June World Environment Day

8 June World Oceans Day

21 June International Yoga Day

9 August International Day of the World's Indigenous People

12 August International Youth Day

23 August International Day for the Remembrance of the Slave Trade and its Abolition

8 September International Literacy
Literacy
Day

15 September International Day of Democracy

21 September International Day of Peace

28 September International Day for the Universal Access to Information

2nd October International Day of Non-Violence

5th October World Teachers' Day

2nd Wednesday in October International Day for Disaster Reduction

17 October International Day for the Eradication of Poverty

20 October World Statistics Day

27 October World Day for Audiovisual Heritage

2 November International Day to End Impunity for Crimes Against Journalists[84]

10 November World Science Day for Peace and Development

3rd Thursday in November World Philosophy Day

16 November International Day for Tolerance

19 November International Men's Day

25 November International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women

29 November International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People

1 December World AIDS Day

10 December Human Rights Day

18 December International Migrants Day

Member states Main article: Member states of UNESCO UNESCO
UNESCO
counts 195 member states and 10 associate members.[85] Some members are not independent states and some members have additional National Organizing Committees from some of their dependent territories.[86] UNESCO
UNESCO
state parties are the United Nations
United Nations
member states (except Liechtenstein), Cook Islands, Niue, and the State of Palestine.[87][88] The USA and Israel
Israel
plan to leave UNESCO
UNESCO
on 31 December 2018 over anti- Israel
Israel
bias.[89][90] Governing bodies Director-General There has been no elected UNESCO
UNESCO
Director-General from Southeast Asia, South Asia, Central and North Asia, Middle East, North Africa, East Africa, Central Africa, South Africa, Australia-Oceania, and South America since inception. The Director-Generals of UNESCO
UNESCO
came from West Europe (5), Central America (1), North America
North America
(2), West Africa (1), East Asia (1), and East Europe (1). Out of the 11 Director-Generals since inception, women have held the position only twice. Qatar, the Philippines, and Iran
Iran
are proposing for a Director-General bid by 2021 or 2025. There have never been a Middle Eastern or Southeast Asian UNESCO Director-General since inception. The ASEAN
ASEAN
bloc and some Pacific and Latin American nations support the possible bid of the Philippines, which is culturally Asian, Oceanic, and Latin. Qatar
Qatar
and Iran, on the other hand, have fragmented support in the Middle East. Egypt, Israel, and Madagascar
Madagascar
are also vying for the position but have yet to express a direct or indirect proposal. Both Qatar
Qatar
and Egypt
Egypt
lost in the 2017 bid against France. The list of the Directors-General of UNESCO
UNESCO
since its establishment in 1946 is as follows:[91]

Audrey Azoulay  France 2017–present

Irina Bokova  Bulgaria 2009–2017

Koïchiro Matsuura  Japan 1999–2009

Federico Mayor Zaragoza  Spain 1987–99

Amadou-Mahtar M'Bow  Senegal 1974–87

René Maheu  France 1961–74; acting 1961

Vittorino Veronese  Italy 1958–61

Luther Evans  United States 1953–58

John Wilkinson Taylor  United States acting 1952–53

Jaime Torres Bodet  Mexico 1948–52

Julian Huxley  United Kingdom 1946–48

General Conference This is the list of the sessions of UNESCO
UNESCO
General Conference held since 1946:[92]

Session Location Year Chaired by from

39th Paris 2017 Zohour Alaoui[93]  Morocco

38th Paris 2015 Stanley Mutumba Simataa[94]  Namibia

37th[95] Paris 2013 Hao Ping  China

36th Paris 2011 Katalin Bogyay  Hungary

35th Paris 2009 Davidson Hepburn  Bahamas

34th Paris 2007 George N. Anastassopoulos  Greece

33rd Paris 2005 Musa Bin Jaafar Bin Hassan  Oman

32nd Paris 2003 Michael Omolewa  Nigeria

31st Paris 2001 Ahmad Jalali  Iran

30th Paris 1999 Jaroslava Moserová  Czech Republic

29th Paris 1997 Eduardo Portella  Brazil

28th Paris 1995 Torben Krogh  Denmark

27th Paris 1993 Ahmed Saleh Sayyad  Yemen

26th Paris 1991 Bethwell Allan Ogot  Kenya

25th Paris 1989 Anwar Ibrahim  Malaysia

24th Paris 1987 Guillermo Putzeys Alvarez  Guatemala

23rd Sofia 1985 Nikolai Todorov  Bulgaria

22nd Paris 1983 Saïd Tell  Jordan

4th extraordinary Paris 1982

21st Belgrade 1980 Ivo Margan  Yugoslavia

20th Paris 1978 Napoléon LeBlanc  Canada

19th Nairobi 1976 Taaita Toweett  Kenya

18th Paris 1974 Magda Jóború  Hungary

3rd extraordinary Paris 1973

17th Paris 1972 Toru Haguiwara  Japan

16th Paris 1970 Atilio Dell'Oro Maini  Argentina

15th Paris 1968 William Eteki Mboumoua  Cameroon

14th Paris 1966 Bedrettin Tuncel  Turkey

13th Paris 1964 Norair Sisakian  Soviet Union

12th Paris 1962 Paulo de Berrêdo Carneiro  Brazil

11th Paris 1960 Akale-Work Abte-Wold  Ethiopia

10th Paris 1958 Jean Berthoin  France

9th New Delhi 1956 Abul Kalam Azad  India

8th Montevideo 1954 Justino Zavala Muñiz  Uruguay

2nd extraordinary Paris 1953

7th Paris 1952 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan  India

6th Paris 1951 Howland H. Sargeant  United States

5th Florence 1950 Stefano Jacini  Italy

4th Paris 1949 Edward Ronald Walker  Australia

1st extraordinary Paris 1948

3rd Beirut 1948 Hamid Bey Frangie  Lebanon

2nd Mexico
Mexico
City 1947 Manuel Gual Vidal  Mexico

1st Paris 1946 Léon Blum  France

Executive Board

Term Group I (9 seats) Group II (7 seats) Group III (10 seats) Group IV (12 seats) Group V(a) (13 seats) Group V(b) (7 seats)

2017–19[96]

 France  Greece  Italy  Spain  United Kingdom

 Lithuania  Russia  Serbia  Slovenia

 Brazil  Haiti  Mexico  Nicaragua  Paraguay

 India  Iran  Malaysia  Pakistan  South Korea  Sri Lanka  Vietnam

 Cameroon  Ivory Coast  Ghana  Kenya  Nigeria  Senegal  South Africa

 Lebanon  Oman  Qatar  Sudan

2014–17[97]

 Germany  Netherlands  Sweden

 Albania  Estonia  Ukraine

 Argentina  Belize  Dominican Republic  El Salvador  Saint Kitts and Nevis  Trinidad and Tobago

 Bangladesh  China  India  Japan    Nepal  Turkmenistan

 Chad  Guinea  Mauritius  Mozambique  Togo  Uganda

 Algeria  Egypt  Kuwait  Morocco

2012–15

 Austria  France  Italy  India  Spain  United Kingdom  United States

 Czech Republic  Montenegro  Russia  Macedonia

 Brazil  Cuba  Ecuador  Mexico

 Afghanistan  Indonesia  Pakistan  Papua New Guinea  South Korea  Thailand

 Angola  Ethiopia  Gabon  Gambia  Malawi  Mali  Namibia  Nigeria

 Tunisia  United Arab Emirates

Offices

The Garden of Peace, UNESCO
UNESCO
headquarters, Paris. Donated by the Government of Japan, this garden was designed by American-Japanese sculptor artist Isamu Noguchi
Isamu Noguchi
in 1958 and installed by Japanese gardener Toemon Sano.

UNESCO
UNESCO
headquarters are located at Place de Fontenoy
Place de Fontenoy
in Paris, France. UNESCO's field offices across the globe are categorized into four primary office types based upon their function and geographic coverage: cluster offices, national offices, regional bureaus and liaison offices. Field offices by region The following list of all UNESCO
UNESCO
Field Offices is organized geographically by UNESCO
UNESCO
Region and identifies the members states and associate members of UNESCO
UNESCO
which are served by each office.[98] Africa

Abidjan
Abidjan
– National Office to Côte d'Ivoire Abuja
Abuja
– National Office to Nigeria Accra
Accra
– Cluster Office for Benin, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
and Togo Addis Ababa
Addis Ababa
– Liaison Office with the African Union
African Union
and with the Economic Commission for Africa Bamako
Bamako
– Cluster Office for Burkina Faso, Guinea, Mali
Mali
and Niger Brazzaville
Brazzaville
– National Office to the Republic of the Congo Bujumbura
Bujumbura
– National Office to Burundi Dakar
Dakar
– Regional Bureau for Education
Education
in Africa and Cluster Office for Cape Verde, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, and Senegal Dar es Salaam
Dar es Salaam
– Cluster Office for Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles
Seychelles
and Tanzania Harare
Harare
– Cluster Office for Botswana, Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia
Zambia
and Zimbabwe Juba
Juba
– National Office to South Sudan Kinshasa
Kinshasa
– National Office to the Democratic Republic of the Congo Libreville
Libreville
– Cluster Office for the Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon
Gabon
and Sao Tome and Principe Maputo
Maputo
– National Office to Mozambique Nairobi
Nairobi
– Regional Bureau for Sciences in Africa and Cluster Office for Burundi, Djibouti, Eritrea, Kenya, Rwanda, Somalia, South Sudan and Uganda Windhoek
Windhoek
– National Office to Namibia Yaoundé
Yaoundé
– Cluster Office to Cameroon, Central African Republic
Central African Republic
and Chad

Arab States

Amman
Amman
– National Office to Jordan Beirut
Beirut
– Regional Bureau for Education
Education
in the Arab States and Cluster Office to Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, Iraq
Iraq
and Palestine Cairo
Cairo
– Regional Bureau for Sciences in the Arab States and Cluster Office for Egypt, Libya
Libya
and Sudan Doha
Doha
– Cluster Office to Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates
United Arab Emirates
and Yemen Iraq
Iraq
– National Office for Iraq
Iraq
(currently located in Amman, Jordan) Khartoum
Khartoum
– National Office to Sudan Manama
Manama
- Arab Regional Centre for World Heritage Rabat
Rabat
– Cluster Office to Algeria, Mauritania, Morocco
Morocco
and Tunisia Ramallah
Ramallah
– National Office to the Palestinian Territories

Asia and Pacific See also: UNESCO
UNESCO
Asia Pacific Heritage Awards

Apia
Apia
– Cluster Office to Australia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Federated States of Micronesia, Nauru, New Zealand, Niue, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu
Vanuatu
and Tokelau
Tokelau
(Associate Member) Bangkok
Bangkok
– Regional Bureau for Education
Education
in Asia and the Pacific and Cluster Office to Thailand, Burma, Laos, Singapore
Singapore
and Vietnam Beijing – Cluster Office to North Korea, Japan, Mongolia, the People's Republic of China
China
and South Korea Dhaka
Dhaka
– National Office to Bangladesh Hanoi
Hanoi
– National Office to Vietnam Islamabad
Islamabad
– National Office to Pakistan Jakarta
Jakarta
– Regional Bureau for Sciences in Asia and the Pacific and Cluster Office to the Philippines, Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, and East Timor Manila
Manila
- National Office to the Philippines Kabul
Kabul
– National Office to Afghanistan Kathmandu
Kathmandu
– National Office to Nepal New Delhi
New Delhi
– Cluster Office to Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal
Nepal
and Sri Lanka Phnom Penh
Phnom Penh
– National Office to Cambodia Tashkent
Tashkent
– National Office to Uzbekistan Tehran
Tehran
– Cluster Office to Afghanistan, Iran, Pakistan
Pakistan
and Turkmenistan

Europe and North America

Almaty
Almaty
– Cluster Office to Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Uzbekistan Brussels
Brussels
– Liaison Office to the European Union
European Union
and its subsidiary bodies in Brussels Geneva
Geneva
– Liaison Office to the United Nations
United Nations
in Geneva New York City – Liaison Office to the United Nations
United Nations
in New York Moscow – Cluster Office to Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Moldova
Moldova
and Russia Venice
Venice
– Regional Bureau for Sciences and Culture in Europe

Latin America and the Caribbean

Carondelet Palace, Presidential Palace – with changing of the guards. The Historic Center of Quito, Ecuador, is one of the largest, least-altered and best-preserved historic centers in the Americas.[99] This center was, together with the historic centre of Kraków
Kraków
in Poland, the first to be declared World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO
UNESCO
on 18 September 1978.

Brasilia
Brasilia
– National Office to Brazil[100] Guatemala
Guatemala
City – National Office to Guatemala Havana
Havana
– Regional Bureau for Culture in Latin America and the Caribbean
Caribbean
and Cluster Office to Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti
Haiti
and Aruba Kingston – Cluster Office to Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname
Suriname
and Trinidad and Tobago as well as the associate member states of British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Curaçao
Curaçao
and Sint Maarten Lima
Lima
– National Office to Peru Mexico
Mexico
City – National Office to Mexico Montevideo
Montevideo
– Regional Bureau for Sciences in Latin America and the Caribbean
Caribbean
and Cluster Office to Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay
Paraguay
and Uruguay Port-au-Prince
Port-au-Prince
– National Office to Haiti Quito
Quito
– Cluster Office to Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador
Ecuador
and Venezuela[101] San José – Cluster Office to Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
and Panama Santiago de Chile
Chile
– Regional Bureau for Education
Education
in Latin America and the Caribbean
Caribbean
and National Office to Chile

Controversies New World Information and Communication order UNESCO
UNESCO
has been the centre of controversy in the past, particularly in its relationships with the United States, the United Kingdom, Singapore
Singapore
and the former Soviet Union. During the 1970s and 1980s, UNESCO's support for a "New World Information and Communication Order" and its MacBride report calling for democratization of the media and more egalitarian access to information was condemned in these countries as attempts to curb freedom of the press. UNESCO
UNESCO
was perceived as a platform for communists and Third World dictators to attack the West, in contrast to accusations made by the USSR in the late 1940s and early 1950s.[102] In 1984, the United States
United States
withheld its contributions and withdrew from the organization in protest, followed by the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
in 1985.[103] Singapore
Singapore
withdrew also at the end of 1985, citing rising membership fees.[104] Following a change of government in 1997, the UK rejoined. The United States rejoined in 2003, followed by Singapore
Singapore
on 8 October 2007.[105] Israel Israel
Israel
was admitted to UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1949, one year after its creation. Israel
Israel
has maintained its membership since 1949. In 2010, Israel designated the Cave of the Patriarchs, Hebron
Hebron
and Rachel's Tomb, Bethlehem
Bethlehem
as National Heritage Sites and announced restoration work, prompting criticism from the United States
United States
and protests from Palestinians.[106] In October 2010, UNESCO's Executive Board voted to declare the sites as "al-Haram al-Ibrahimi/Tomb of the Patriarchs" and "Bilal bin Rabah Mosque/Rachel's Tomb" and stated that they were "an integral part of the occupied Palestinian Territories" and any unilateral Israeli action was a violation of international law.[107] UNESCO
UNESCO
described the sites as significant to "people of the Muslim, Christian and Jewish traditions", and accused Israel
Israel
of highlighting only the Jewish character of the sites.[108] Israel
Israel
in turn accused UNESCO
UNESCO
of "detach[ing] the Nation of Israel
Israel
from its heritage", and accused it of being politically motivated.[109] The Rabbi of the Western Wall claimed that Rachel's tomb had not previously been declared a holy Muslim site.[110] Israel
Israel
partially suspended ties with UNESCO. Israeli Deputy Foreign Minister Danny Ayalon
Danny Ayalon
declared that the resolution was a "part of Palestinian escalation". Zevulun Orlev, chairman of the Knesset
Knesset
Education
Education
and Culture Committee, referred to the resolutions as an attempt to undermine the mission of UNESCO
UNESCO
as a scientific and cultural organization that promotes cooperation throughout the world.[111][112] On 28 June 2011, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee, at Jordan's insistence, censured[clarification needed] Israel's decision to demolish and rebuild the Mughrabi Gate Bridge in Jerusalem for safety reasons. Israel
Israel
stated that Jordan
Jordan
had signed an agreement with Israel stipulating that the existing bridge must be dismantled for safety reasons; Jordan
Jordan
disputed the agreement, saying that it was only signed under U.S. pressure. Israel
Israel
was also unable to address the UNESCO committee over objections from Egypt.[113] In January 2014, days before it was scheduled to open, UNESCO Director-General, Irina Bokova, "indefinitely postponed" and effectively cancelled an exhibit created by the Simon Wiesenthal Center entitled "The People, The Book, The Land: The 3,500-year relationship between the Jewish people and the Land of Israel." The event was scheduled to run from 21 January through 30 January in Paris. Bokova cancelled the event after representatives of Arab states at UNESCO
UNESCO
argued that its display would "harm the peace process".[114] The author of the exhibition, Professor Robert Wistrich
Robert Wistrich
of the Hebrew University's Vidal Sassoon International Center for the Study of Anti-Semitism, called the cancellation an "appalling act," and characterized Bokova's decision as "an arbitrary act of total cynicism and, really, contempt for the Jewish people and its history." UNESCO amended the decision to cancel the exhibit within the year, and it quickly achieved popularity and was viewed as a great success.[115] Occupied Palestine Resolution Main article: Occupied Palestine Resolution On 13 October 2016, UNESCO
UNESCO
passed a resolution on East Jerusalem that condemned Israel
Israel
for "aggressions" by Israeli police and soldiers and "illegal measures" against the freedom of worship and Muslims' access to their holy sites, while also recognizing Israel
Israel
as the occupying power. Palestinian leaders welcomed the decision.[116] While the text acknowledged the "importance of the Old City of Jerusalem and its walls for the three monotheistic religions", it referred to the sacred hilltop compound in Jerusalem's Old City only by its Muslim name "Al-Haram al-Sharif", Arabic for Noble Sanctuary. In response, Israel denounced the UNESCO
UNESCO
resolution for its omission of the words "Temple Mount" or "Har HaBayit," stating that it denies Jewish ties to the key holy site.[116][117] After receiving criticism from numerous Israeli politicians and diplomats, including Benjamin Netanyahu
Benjamin Netanyahu
and Ayelet Shaked, Israel
Israel
froze all ties with the organization.[118][119] The resolution was condemned by Ban ki-Moon
Ban ki-Moon
and the Director-General of UNESCO, Irina Bokova, who said that Judaism, Islam and Christianity have clear historical connections to Jerusalem and "to deny, conceal or erase any of the Jewish, Christian or Muslim traditions undermines the integrity of the site.[120][121] Al-Aqsa Mosque is also Temple Mount, whose Western Wall is the holiest place in Judaism."[122] It was also rejected by the Czech Parliament which said the resolution reflects a "hateful anti- Israel
Israel
sentiment",[123] and hundreds of Italian Jews demonstrated in Rome over Italy's abstention.[123] On 26 October, UNESCO
UNESCO
approved a reviewed version of the resolution, which also criticized Israel
Israel
for its continuous "refusal to let the body's experts access Jerusalem's holy sites to determine their conservation status."[124] Despite containing some softening of language following Israeli protests over a previous version, Israel
Israel
continued to denounce the text.[125] The resolution refers to the site Jews and Christians refer to as the Temple Mount, or Har HaBayit in Hebrew, only by its Arab name — a significant semantic decision also adopted by UNESCO's executive board, triggering condemnation from Israel
Israel
and its allies. U.S. Ambassador Crystal Nix Hines stated: "This item should have been defeated. These politicized and one-sided resolutions are damaging the credibility of UNESCO."[126] In October 2017, the United States
United States
and Israel
Israel
announced they would withdraw from the organization, citing in-part anti- Israel
Israel
bias.[127] Palestine Palestinian youth magazine controversy In February 2011, an article was published in a Palestinian youth magazine in which a teenage girl described one of her four role-models as Adolf Hitler. In December 2011, UNESCO, which partly funded the magazine, condemned the material and subsequently withdrew support.[128] Islamic University of Gaza
Islamic University of Gaza
controversy In 2012, UNESCO
UNESCO
decided to establish a chair at the Islamic University of Gaza in the field of astronomy, astrophysics, and space sciences,[129] fueling controversy and criticism. Israel
Israel
bombed the school in 2008 claiming they develop and store weapons there, a claim Israel
Israel
restated in criticizing UNESCO's move.[130][131] The head, Kamalain Shaath, defended UNESCO, stating that "the Islamic University is a purely academic university that is interested only in education and its development".[132][133][134] Israeli ambassador to UNESCO
UNESCO
Nimrod Barkan
Nimrod Barkan
planned to submit a letter of protest with information about the university's ties to Hamas, especially angry that this was the first Palestinian university that UNESCO
UNESCO
chose to cooperate with.[135] The Jewish organization B'nai B'rith
B'nai B'rith
criticized the move as well.[136] Wikileaks On 16 and 17 February 2012, UNESCO
UNESCO
held a conference entitled "The Media World after WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks
and News of the World."[137] Despite all six panels being focused on WikiLeaks, no member of WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks
staff was invited to speak. After receiving a complaint from WikiLeaks spokesman Kristinn Hrafnsson, UNESCO
UNESCO
invited him to attend, but did not offer a place on any panels.[138] The offer also came only a week before the conference, which was held in Paris, France. Many of the speakers featured, including David Leigh and Heather Brooke, had spoken out openly against WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks
and its founder Julian Assange
Julian Assange
in the past.[139] WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks
released a press statement on 15 February 2012 denouncing UNESCO
UNESCO
which stated, " UNESCO
UNESCO
has made itself an international human rights joke. To use 'freedom of expression' to censor WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks
from a conference about WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks
is an Orwellian absurdity beyond words."[140] Che Guevara In 2013, UNESCO
UNESCO
announced that the collection "The Life and Works of Ernesto Che Guevara" became part of the Memory of the World
Memory of the World
Register. US Congresswoman Ileana Ros-Lehtinen
Ileana Ros-Lehtinen
condemned this decision, saying that the organization acts against its own ideals:[141]

This decision is more than an insult to the families of those Cubans who were lined up and summarily executed by Che and his merciless cronies but it also serves as a direct contradiction to the UNESCO ideals of encouraging peace and universal respect for human rights.

UN Watch
UN Watch
also condemned this selection by UNESCO.[142] Listing Nanjing Massacre documents In 2015, Japan
Japan
threatened to halt funding for UNESCO
UNESCO
over the organization's decision to include documents relating to the 1937 Nanjing massacre
Nanjing massacre
in the latest listing for its "Memory of the World" program.[143] In October 2016, Japanese Foreign Minister Fumio Kishida confirmed that Japan's 2016 annual funding of ¥4.4 billion had been suspended although denied any direct link with the Nanjing document controversy.[144] US withdrawals After withdrawing from UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1984, the United States
United States
rejoined in 2002.[145] Former U.S. Congressman Jim Leach
Jim Leach
stated before a Congressional subcommittee:[146]

The reasons for the withdrawal of the United States
United States
from UNESCO
UNESCO
in 1984 are well-known; my view is that we overreacted to the calls of some who wanted to radicalize UNESCO, and the calls of others who wanted the United States
United States
to lead in emasculating the UN system. The fact is UNESCO
UNESCO
is one of the least dangerous international institutions ever created. While some member countries within UNESCO attempted to push journalistic views antithetical to the values of the west, and engage in Israel
Israel
bashing, UNESCO
UNESCO
itself never adopted such radical postures. The U.S. opted for empty-chair diplomacy, after winning, not losing, the battles we engaged in… It was nuts to get out, and would be nuttier not to rejoin.

He concluded that the record showed Israel
Israel
bashing, a call for a new world information order, money management, and arms control policy to be the impetus behind the withdrawal; he asserted that before the UNESCO
UNESCO
withdrawal, a withdrawal from the IAEA[147] had been pushed on him. The United States
United States
rejoined UNESCO
UNESCO
shortly thereafter. On 12 October 2017, the United States
United States
notified UNESCO
UNESCO
that it will again withdraw from the organization on 31 December 2018 and will seek to establish a permanent observer mission beginning in 2019. The Department of State cited "mounting arrears at UNESCO, the need for fundamental reform in the organization, and continuing anti-Israel bias at UNESCO."[148] The United States
United States
has not paid its $80 million annual UNESCO
UNESCO
dues since Palestine became a full member in 2011. Israel
Israel
and the US were among only 14 votes against the membership, of 194 member countries.[149] Products or services

UNESDOC[150] – Contains over 146,000 UNESCO
UNESCO
documents in full text published since 1945 as well as metadata from the collections of the UNESCO
UNESCO
Library and documentation centres in field offices and institutes.

Information processing tools UNESCO
UNESCO
develops, maintains and disseminates, free of charge, two interrelated software packages for database management (CDS/ISIS [not to be confused with UK police software package ISIS]) and data mining/statistical analysis (IDAMS).[151]

CDS/ISIS – a generalised information storage and retrieval system. The Windows version may run on a single computer or in a local area network. The JavaISIS client/server components allow remote database management over the Internet and are available for Windows, Linux and Macintosh. Furthermore, GenISIS allows the user to produce HTML Web forms for CDS/ISIS database searching. The ISIS_DLL provides an API for developing CDS/ISIS based applications. OpenIDAMS – a software package for processing and analysing numerical data developed, maintained and disseminated by UNESCO. The original package was proprietary but UNESCO
UNESCO
has initiated a project to provide it as open-source.[152] IDIS – a tool for direct data exchange between CDS/ISIS and IDAMS

See also

United Nations
United Nations
portal

Academic Mobility Network WikiProject UNESCO

References

^ a b " UNESCO
UNESCO
history". UNESCO. Retrieved 23 April 2010.  ^ "UNESCO". UNESCO. Retrieved 25 September 2015.  ^ UNESCO's General Conference voted on 31 October 2011 "to admit Palestine as a member State". However, it notes that, for "its membership to take effect, Palestine must sign and ratify UNESCO's Constitution". " UNESCO
UNESCO
" Media Services " General Conference admits Palestine as UNESCO
UNESCO
Member State". UNESCO.  ^ "Member States United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 8 September 2010.  ^ "The Faroes become associated <ny specialized institutes and centres throughout the world". Archived from the original on 23 August 2011.  ^ "UNDG Members". United Nations
United Nations
Development Group. Archived from the original on 11 May 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011.  ^ "Introducing UNESCO". UNESCO. Retrieved 8 August 2011.  ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
• General Conference; 34th; Medium-term Strategy, 2008–2013; 2007" (PDF). Retrieved 8 August 2011.  ^ Plenary Meetings, Records of the Second Assembly, Geneva: League of Nations, 5 September – 5 October 1921 . ^ A Chronology of UNESCO: 1947–1987 (PDF)format= requires url= (help), UNESDOC database, Paris, December 1987, LAD.85/WS/4 Rev, The International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation (ICIC) was officially created on 4 January 1922, as a consultative organ composed of individuals elected based on their personal qualifications. The International Institute for Intellectual Cooperation (IIIC) was then created in Paris
Paris
on 9 August 1925, to act as the executing agency for the ICIC . ^ UNESCO
UNESCO
1987. ^ The work of U.N.E.S.C.O. (Hansard, 26 January 1949). Millbank systems. Retrieved 12 July 2013. ^ " United Nations
United Nations
Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation. Conference for the Establishment of an Educational and Cultural Organisation" (PDF). UNESDOC database. The Institute of Civil Engineers, London. 1 to 16 November 1945. ECO/Conf./29. Retrieved 8 June 2012.  Check date values in: date= (help) ^ Unesco 1945. ^ "General Conference, First Session" (PDF). UNESDOC database. UNESCO House, Paris, from 20 November to 10 December 1946. UNESCO/C/30 [1 C/Resolutions] Item 14, p. 73: UNESCO. 1947. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ "Records of the General Conference, Eighth Session" (PDF). unesdoc.unesco.org.  ^ "UNESCO. (1950). Statement by experts on race problems. Paris, 20 July 1950. UNESCO/SS/1. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 20th Session. (1979). Records of the General Conference, Twentieth Session, Paris, 24 October to 28 November 1978. 20 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution 3/1.1/2, p. 61. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ UNESCO. Executive Board, 42nd Session. (1955). Report of the Director-General on the Activities of the Organization (March–November 1955). Paris, 9 November 1955. 42 EX/43. Part I Relations with Member States, paragraph 3. ^ The Haiti
Haiti
pilot project: phase one, 1947–1949. (1951). Monographs on Fundamental Education
Education
IV. UNESCO: Paris. ^ "Debiesse, J., Benjamin, H. and Abbot, W. (1952). Report of the mission to Afghanistan. Educational Missions IV. ED.51/VIII.A. (Paris.) UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 2nd Session. (1948). Resolutions adopted by the General Conference during its second session, Mexico, November–December 1947. 2 C/Resolutions. (Paris.) Resolution 3.4.1, p. 17. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ "UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF, and The World Bank. (1990). Final Report. World Conference on Education
Education
for All: Meeting Basic Education
Education
Needs. 5–9 March 1990, Jomtien, Thailand. (WCEFA Inter-agency Commission: New York). UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ "UNESCO. (2000). The Dakar
Dakar
Framework for Action. Education
Education
for All: meeting our collective commitments (including six regional frameworks for action). World Education
Education
Forum, Dakar, Senegal, 26–28 April 2000. ED.2000/WS/27. (Paris). UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 21st Session. (1980). International Campaign to Save the Monuments of Nubia: Report of the Executive Committee of the Campaign and of the Director-General. 26 August 1980. 21 C/82. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ "Convention concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage. Paris, 16 November 1972. UNESCO. General Conference, 17th Session. Records of the General Conference, Seventeenth Session, Paris, 17 October to 21 November 1972. Volume I: Resolutions, Recommendations. 17 C/Resolution 29. Chapter IX Conventions and Recommendations, p. 135. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ "UNESCO. Intergovernmental Committee for the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage, Second Session. Final Report. Washington, DC, 5–8 September 1978. CC-78/CONF.010/10 Rev. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ "Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage. Paris, 17 October 2003. UNESCO. General Conference, 32nd Session. Records of the General Conference, Thirty-second Session, Paris, 29 September to 17 October 2003. Volume I: Resolutions. 32 C/Resolution 32. Chapter IV Programme for 2004–2005, Major Programme IV – Culture, p. 53. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ "Convention on the Protection and Promotion of the Diversity of Cultural Expressions. Paris, 20 October 2005. UNESCO. General Conference, 33rd Session. Records of the General Conference. Thirty-third Session, Paris, 3–21 October 2005. Volume I: Resolutions. 33 C/Resolution 41. Chapter V Programme for 2006–2007, p. 83. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ "UNESCO. Executive Board, 26th Session. Resolutions and decisions adopted by the Executive Board at its twenty-sixth session. (7 June to 9 July 1951). Paris, 27 July 1951. 26 EX/Decisions. Item 7 Programme, Resolution 7.2.2.1, p. 9. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 3rd Session. (1949). Records of the General Conference of the United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. Third Session. Beirut, 1948. Volume II: Resolutions. (UNESCO: Paris). 2 C/Resolution 3.7, page 23. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ ""Use and conservation of the biosphere: Proceedings of the intergovernmental conference of experts on the scientific basis for rational use and conservation of the resources of the biosphere. Paris, 4–13 September 1968." (1970.) In Natural Resources Research, Volume X. SC.69/XIL.16/A. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ "Constitution of the United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization" (PDF).  ^ "UNESCO. (1955). International Expert Meeting on Professional Training for Journalism. Unesco House, 9–13 April 1956. Purpose and Scope. Paris, 18 November 1955. UNESCO/MC/PT.1. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ "UNESCO. General Conference, 19th Session. (1977). Approved Programme and budget for 1977–1978. Paris, February 1977. 19 C/5, p. 332, paragraphs 4154 and 4155. UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ "MacBride, S. (1980). Many voices, one world: towards a new, more just, and more efficient world information and communication order. (UNESCO: Paris). UNESDOC database" (PDF). Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ "About IPDC United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2016-12-15.  ^ " International Programme for the Development of Communication
International Programme for the Development of Communication
(IPDC) United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2016-12-19.  ^ " World Press Freedom Day 2016". UNESCO. Retrieved 2016-12-19.  ^ "General Conference admits Palestine as UNESCO
UNESCO
Member". 31 October 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011.  ^ Blomfield, Adrian (31 October 2011). "US withdraws Unesco funding after it accepts Palestinian membership". The Telegraph. Retrieved 31 October 2011.  ^ "Limitation on Contributions to the United Nations
United Nations
and Affiliated Organizations" (PDF). The New York Times. Retrieved 12 October 2017.  ^ Erlanger, Steven; Sayare, Scott (31 October 2011). "Unesco Approves Full Membership for Palestinians". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 October 2011.  ^ "After UNESCO
UNESCO
vote, Israeli sanctions on Palestinian Authority anger U.S." Haaretz. 4 November 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011.  ^ " Israel
Israel
freezes UNESCO
UNESCO
funds". CNN. 3 December 2011. Archived from the original on 6 November 2011. Retrieved 11 December 2011.  ^ "U.S., Israel
Israel
lose voting rights at UNESCO
UNESCO
over Palestine row". Reuters. 8 November 2013. Retrieved 29 June 2014.  ^ Because diploma mills have claimed false UNESCO
UNESCO
accreditation, UNESCO
UNESCO
itself has published warnings against education organizations that claim UNESCO
UNESCO
recognition or affiliation. See Luca Lantero, Degree Mills: non-accredited and irregular higher education institutions Archived 13 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine., Information Centre on Academic Mobility and Equivalence (CIMEA), Italy. and UNESCO
UNESCO
"Alert: Misuse of UNESCO
UNESCO
Name by Bogus Institutions"[dead link] ^ Varga, Susan (2006). Edinburgh
Edinburgh
Old Town (Images of Scotland). The History Press Ltd. ISBN 0-7524-4083-7.  ^ "Fostering Freedom of Expression". UNESCO. Retrieved 2016-12-19.  ^ " International Programme for the Development of Communication
International Programme for the Development of Communication
(IPDC) United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2016-12-19.  ^ "Safety of Journalists". UNESCO. Retrieved 2016-12-19.  ^ "UN Plan of Action United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2016-12-19.  ^ "Building Knowledge Societies". UNESCO. Retrieved 2016-12-19.  ^ " Memory of the World
Memory of the World
United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2016-12-19.  ^ " Information for All Programme (IFAP) United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2016-12-19.  ^ " Internet Universality
Internet Universality
United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2016-12-19.  ^ "World Trends in Freedom of Expression and Media Development United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2016-12-19.  ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
Series on Internet Freedom United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2016-12-19.  ^ "Media Development Indicators (MDIs) United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2016-12-19.  ^ "Promouvoir l'éducation à la santé chez les jeunes du campement informel de Kibera
Kibera
à Nairobi
Nairobi
Organisation des Nations Unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture". unesco.org (in French). Retrieved 2017-08-18.  ^ "Migration Institutions – Home". Migrationmuseums.org. Archived from the original on 5 March 2007. Retrieved 23 April 2010.  ^ " Education
Education
EDUCATION –". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 6 October 2009. Retrieved 23 April 2010.  ^ Reddy, A (2014) 'Official support for GoUNESCO
GoUNESCO
from UNESCO
UNESCO
New Delhi – GoUNESCO', GoUNESCO. Uniform Resource Locator: http://www.gounesco.com/unesco-new-delhi-support-gounesco. ^ "Tangible Cultural Heritage - United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org.  ^ Centre, UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage. " UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage Centre - Document - Discovered artifacts under preservation, Archaeological Site, 18 Hoang Dieu street". whc.unesco.org.  ^ "The magazine - United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization".  ^ "Science and technology education – Unesco", a UNESCO
UNESCO
brochure ^ "Quoted on UNESCO
UNESCO
official site". Ngo-db.unesco.org. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ "Full list of NGOs that have official relations with UNESCO". UNESCO. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
Headquarters Committee 107th session 13 Feb 2009". Ngo-db.unesco.org. Archived from the original on 25 June 2012. Retrieved 1 July 2012.  ^ admin (27 May 2015). "The IBE Team".  ^ "UIL - UNESCO
UNESCO
Institute for Lifelong Learning".  ^ "IIEP UNESCO".  ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
IITE".  ^ "IICBA official site".  ^ "Inicio".  ^ " UNESCO-UNEVOC
UNESCO-UNEVOC
- Promoting learning for the world of work".  ^ "CEPES official site". Archived from the original on 29 September 2010.  ^ "Home - UNESCO-IHE".  ^ "ICTP - International Centre for Theoretical Physics".  ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
Institute for Statistics: UNESCO
UNESCO
Institute for Statistics".  ^ UNESCO
UNESCO
Executive Board Document 185 EX/38, Paris, 10 September 2010 ^ International Days United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. UNESCO. Retrieved 12 July 2013. ^ "International Day to End Impunity for Crimes against Journalists". UNESCO. Retrieved 2016-12-19.  ^ "List of UNESCO
UNESCO
members and associates". UNESCO. Retrieved 3 November 2011.  ^ "Summary update on Government progress to become a State Party to the UNESCO
UNESCO
International Convention against Doping in Sport" (PDF). WADA. p. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 January 2013. Retrieved 28 July 2009.  ^ "State Parties". UNESCO. Retrieved 31 October 2011.  ^ "Member States of the United Nations". United Nations. Retrieved 31 October 2011.  ^ "Vereinigte Staaten treten aus der Unesco aus" [ United States
United States
is leaving the Unesco]. Frankfurter Allgemeine (in German). 2017-10-12. Retrieved 2017-10-12.  ^ Rajamanickam Antonimuthu (12 October 2017). "U.S. withdraws from UNESCO
UNESCO
over 'anti- Israel
Israel
bias'" – via YouTube.  ^ UNESCO
UNESCO
official site: Directors-General ^ UNESCO
UNESCO
official site: Previous Sessions of the General Conference ^ "President of the 39th session of the General Conference". UNESCO. Retrieved 12 November 2017.  ^ "President of the 38th session of the General Conference". UNESCO. Retrieved 11 November 2015.  ^ "General Conference 37th United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 25 September 2015.  ^ Executive Board – Results of elections. UNESCO
UNESCO
General Conference, November 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015. ^ Table_2013-2015.pdf UNESCO
UNESCO
Membership by Electoral Groups. Retrieved 12 November 2015. ^ "List of All UNESCO
UNESCO
Field Offices by Region with Descriptions of Member State Coverage". UNESCO.  ^ "City of Quito
Quito
UNESCO
UNESCO
World Heritage". UNESCO. Retrieved 30 April 2010.  ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
Office in Brasilia
Brasilia
United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ "Oficina de la UNESCO
UNESCO
en Quito
Quito
Organización de las Naciones Unidas para la Educación, la Ciencia y la Cultura". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 24 September 2015.  ^ Grahm, S. E. (April 2006). "The (Real)politiks of Culture: U.S. Cultural Diplomacy in UNESCO, 1946–1954". Diplomatic History. 30 (2): 231–51. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7709.2006.00548.x.  ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
asks states considering withdrawal to 'reconsider their position'", UN Chronicle, January 1986  ^ " Singapore
Singapore
to withdraw from UNESCO", The Telegraph, 28 December 1984 . ^ "UNESCO", Encyclopedia Britannica, 14 February 2018  ^ " Hebron
Hebron
clashes over Israel's West Bank heritage list". BBC News. 26 February 2010.  ^ "Executive Board adopts five decisions concerning UNESCO's work in the occupied Palestinian and Arab Territories". UNESCO. 21 October 2010.  ^ "THE TWO PALESTINIAN SITES OF AL-HARAM AL-IBRAHIMI/TOMB OF THE PATRIARCHS IN AL-KHALIL/HEBRON AND THE BILAL BIN RABAH MOSQUE/RACHEL'S TOMB IN BETHLEHEM" (PDF).  ^ Hillel Fendel (1 November 2010). " UNESCO
UNESCO
Erases Israeli Protests from Rachel's Tomb
Rachel's Tomb
Protocol". Arutz Sheva.  ^ Maayana Miskin (29 October 2010). "UN Org.: Rachel's Tomb
Rachel's Tomb
is a Mosque". Arutz Sheva.  ^ "Ayalon: Israel
Israel
will no longer cooperate with UNESCO". The Jerusalem Post. 3 November 2010.  ^ Shalom, Rabbi. "Cooperation with UNESCO
UNESCO
only partially suspended". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 8 August 2011.  ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
censures Israel
Israel
over Mughrabi Bridge – Israel
Israel
News, Ynetnews". Ynetnews. 20 June 1995. Retrieved 8 August 2011.  ^ Berman, Lazar (17 January 2014). " UNESCO
UNESCO
cancels event on Jewish ties to Land of Israel". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 21 January 2014.  ^ Ahren, Raphael (21 January 2014). "Author of UNESCO's nixed Israel exhibit decries 'appalling betrayal'". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 21 January 2014.  ^ a b " UNESCO
UNESCO
adopts anti- Israel
Israel
resolution on al-Aqsa Mosque". aljazeera.com.  ^ "Commission report" (PDF). unesdoc.unesco.org.  ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
fails to acknowledge Jewish ties to Temple Mount".  ^ "Netanyahu leads angry denunciations of 'absurd' UNESCO decision".  ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
chief 'received death threats' for opposing Jerusalem motion". Times of Israel. 17 October 2016.  ^ "Statement by the Director-General of UNESCO
UNESCO
on the Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls on the occasion of the 40th session of the World Heritage Committee
World Heritage Committee
of UNESCO
UNESCO
in Istanbul - United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization".  ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
Director Criticizes Resolution: Temple Mount Sacred to Both Jews, Muslims". Haaretz. Retrieved 14 October 2016.  ^ a b "Czech MPs slam 'hateful' UNESCO
UNESCO
Jerusalem resolution".  ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
approves new Jerusalem resolution". www.aljazeera.com.  ^ Beaumont, Peter (26 October 2016). "Unesco adopts controversial resolution on Jerusalem holy sites". The Guardian.  ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
resolution on Jerusalem holy sites draws criticism from U.S., Israel". CBC/Radio-Canada. 26 October 2016.  ^ "The United States
United States
Withdraws From UNESCO". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2017-10-12.  ^ "Unesco cuts funding for Palestinian youth magazine over Hitler praise". The Daily Telegraph. 23 December 2011. Retrieved 12 January 2012.  ^ " UNESCO
UNESCO
Chair in Astronomy, Astrophysics
Astrophysics
and Space Sciences (964), established in 2012 at The Islamic University of Gaza
Islamic University of Gaza
(Palestine)". UNESCO. Retrieved 15 July 2012.  ^ The Goldstone Report: The Legacy of the Landmark Investigation of the Gaza Conflict By Adam Horowitz, Lizzy Ratner and Philip Weiss (2011). Google Books. ^ " Israel
Israel
shocked by UNESCO
UNESCO
Chair at Gaza Islamic University" (Press release). Israel
Israel
ministry of foreign affairs. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 15 July 2012.  ^ Higgins, Michael (12 July 2012). " UNESCO
UNESCO
establishes chair at Gaza university accused of housing Hamas bomb labs". National Post. Retrieved 15 July 2012.  ^ "Fatah: Shalit was held at Gaza Islamic University". Yedioth Ahronot. 6 February 2007. Retrieved 15 July 2012.  ^ Cambanis, Thanassis (28 February 2010). "Hamas University". Boston Globe. Retrieved 15 July 2012.  ^ Ravid, Barak (12 July 2012). " Israel
Israel
furious at UNESCO
UNESCO
decision to back science chair at Islamic University of Gaza". Haaretz. Retrieved 15 July 2012.  ^ Yaakov, Yifa (14 July 2012). "B'nai Brith slams UNESCO
UNESCO
affiliation with Gaza University". The Times of Israel. Retrieved 15 July 2012.  ^ "News journalism in a digital world". UNESCO. 10 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012.  ^ "UNESCO-leaks to refute wikileaks accusation". UNESCO. 16 February 2012. Retrieved 16 February 2012.  ^ "The Guardian's hatchet job on Julian Assange". World Socialist Web Site. 10 March 2011. Retrieved 15 February 2012.  ^ " WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks
denounces UNESCO
UNESCO
after WikiLeaks
WikiLeaks
banned from UNESCO conference on WikiLeaks". WikiLeaks. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 15 February 2012.  ^ UNESCO
UNESCO
Once Again Makes a Mockery of its Own Ideals by Glorifying Mass Murderer Che Guevara, Says Ros-Lehtinen (press release), House of representatives, 22 July 2013 . ^ UNESCO
UNESCO
honors executioner Che Guevara, UN Watch, 21 July 2013 (retrieved 11 July 2016) ^ (www.dw.com), Deutsche Welle. " Japan
Japan
furious at UNESCO
UNESCO
listing Nanjing Massacre documents - Asia - DW.COM - 19.10.2015".  ^ " Japan
Japan
halts Unesco funding following Nanjing massacre
Nanjing massacre
row". The Guardian. Agence France-Presse. 14 October 2016. Retrieved 30 October 2016.  ^ " United States
United States
Rejoins UNESCO". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2017-10-15.  ^ "Expert Witness Statement transcript". Congressional subcommittee on International operations. Library of Congress. September 19, 1989.  Missing or empty url= (help). ^ " United States
United States
& UNESCO
UNESCO
Part 1, Sep 19 1989 - Video - C-SPAN.org". C-SPAN.org.  ^ "The United States
United States
Withdraws From UNESCO". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 2017-10-12.  ^ John Irish (October 13, 2017). "U.S., Israel
Israel
quit UNESCO
UNESCO
over alleged bias". Globe and Mail. p. A12.  ^ "UNESDOC Database - United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org.  ^ "Information Processing Tools". Unesco. [permanent dead link] ^ "OpenIDAMS". Unesco. [permanent dead link]

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to UNESCO.

Official website

v t e

 United Nations

António Guterres, Secretary-General Amina J. Mohammed, Deputy Secretary-General Miroslav Lajčák, General Assembly President

United Nations
United Nations
System

United Nations
United Nations
Charter

Preamble

Principal organs

General Assembly

President

Security Council

Members

Economic and Social Council Secretariat

Secretary-General Deputy Secretary-General Under-Secretary-General

International Court of Justice

statute

Trusteeship Council

Secretariat Offices and Departments

Headquarters Envoy on Youth Spokesperson for the Secretary-General Geneva Palace of Nations Nairobi Vienna Economic and Social Affairs Political Affairs Public Information

Dag Hammarskjöld Library

Safety and Security Palestinian Rights Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Operations Internal Oversight Legal Affairs Developing Countries Sport for Development and Peace Disarmament Affairs Outer Space Affairs Partnerships Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs UN organizations by location United Nations
United Nations
Office for Developing Countries Sexual Violence in Conflict

Programmes and specialized agencies

FAO ICAO IFAD ILO IMO ITC IPCC IAEA MINURSO UNIDO ITU UNAIDS SCSL UNCTAD UNCITRAL UNCDF UNDG UNDP UNDPI UNDPKO

peacekeeping

UNEP

OzonAction UNEP/GRID-Arendal UNEP-WCMC

UNESCO UNFIP UNFPA UN-HABITAT OHCHR UNHCR UNHRC UNICEF UNICRI UNIDIR UNITAR UN-Oceans UNODC UNOPS UNOSAT UNRISD UNRWA UNSSC UNU

UNU-OP UNU-CRIS

UNV UN Women UNWTO UPU WFP WHO WIPO WMO

Members / observers

Full members Founding members

UNSC Permanent members

Observers

European Union

History

League of Nations Four Policemen Declaration by United Nations Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
missions

history timeline

Enlargement

Resolutions

Security Council vetoes General Assembly

66th 67th

Security Council

Cyprus Iran Iraq Israel Lebanon Nagorno-Karabakh North Korea Palestine Syria Western Sahara

Elections

Secretary-General (2006 2016) International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
2011 General Assembly President (2012 2016) Security Council (2015 2016)

Related

Bretton Woods system Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Criticism Delivering as One Flag

Honour Flag

Four Nations Initiative Genocide Convention UN Global Compact ICC International Decade for a Culture of Peace and Non-Violence for the Children of the World International Years UN laissez-passer Military Staff Committee Official languages Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons Peacekeeping Treaty Series UN Day Universal Declaration of Human Rights Millennium Declaration

Summit Development Goals

Security Council veto power UN reform

Security Council reform

UN Art Collection UN Memorial Cemetery Korea

Other

Outline UN television film series (1964–1966) In popular culture

v t e

United Nations
United Nations
Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC)

Membership

List of members of the United Nations
United Nations
Economic and Social Council

Functional commissions

UN Commission for Social Development (CsocD) Commission on Narcotic Drugs Commission on Science and Technology for Development (CSTD) UN Commission on the Status of Women (UN CSW) Commission on Population and Development UN Statistical Commission United Nations
United Nations
Forum on Forests

Regional commissions

Europe (ECE) Africa (ECA) Latin America and the Caribbean
Caribbean
(ECLAC) Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) Western Asia (ESCWA)

Specialized agencies

International Labour Organization
International Labour Organization
(ILO) Food and Agriculture Organization
Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO) United Nations
United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) World Health Organization
World Health Organization
(WHO) International Monetary Fund
International Monetary Fund
(IMF) International Civil Aviation Organization
International Civil Aviation Organization
(ICAO) International Maritime Organization
International Maritime Organization
(IMO) International Telecommunication Union
International Telecommunication Union
(ITU) Universal Postal Union
Universal Postal Union
(UPU) World Meteorological Organization
World Meteorological Organization
(WMO) World Intellectual Property Organization
World Intellectual Property Organization
(WIPO) International Fund for Agricultural Development
International Fund for Agricultural Development
(IFAD) United Nations
United Nations
Children's Fund (UNICEF) United Nations
United Nations
Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme (UNDP) United Nations
United Nations
Office of Project Services (UNOPS) International Refugee Organisation
International Refugee Organisation
(IRO – ceased to exist in 1952) International Narcotics Control Board (INCB)

World Bank Group

International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
(IBRD) International Development Association
International Development Association
(IDA) International Finance Corporation
International Finance Corporation
(IFC) Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency
(MIGA) International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes
(ICSID)

Other entities

United Nations
United Nations
Development Group (UNDG) United Nations
United Nations
Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) United Nations
United Nations
International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) High-level Political Forum on Sustainable Development (HLPF)

Disbanded entities

Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD - Disbanded 2013 into UNHLPF) UN Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR - Disbanded 2006 in to UNHRC)

Category United Nations
United Nations
Portal

v t e

United Nations
United Nations
Charter

Text

Preamble Chapter I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI XVII XVIII XIX Amendments

History

1919 Paris
Paris
Peace Conference Treaty of Versailles Covenant of the League of Nations 1943 Moscow Conference 1943 Tehran
Tehran
Conference 1944 Dumbarton Oaks Conference 1945 Conference on International Organization Signatories

Organs created

Security Council General Assembly Economic and Social Council Trusteeship Council International Court of Justice
International Court of Justice
(statute) Secretariat Military Staff Committee

Complete text UN portal

v t e

Global governance and identity

Proposals

United Nations
United Nations
Parliamentary Assembly World government

Theories

Anti-nationalism Cosmopolitanism Counter-hegemonic globalization Democratic globalization Democratic mundialization Global citizenship Global governance Globalism Internationalism Transnational governance World currency World taxation system

Organisations

Democratic World Federalists Global citizens movement World Federalist Movement World Service Authority

Education
Education
portal Science portal Culture portal United Nations
United Nations
portal

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 139500314 LCCN: n79054523 ISNI: 0000 0001 2291 4215 GND: 2023755-8 SELIBR: 271969 SUDOC: 026402696 BNF: cb11865674b (data) ULAN: 500218573 HDS: 30729 NLA: 35561043 NDL: 00288564 NKC: kn2001071

.

Time at 25408886.65, Busy percent: 30
***************** NOT Too Busy at 25408886.65 3../logs/periodic-service_log.txt
1440 = task['interval'];
25409906.466667 = task['next-exec'];
25408466.466667 = task['last-exec'];
daily-work.php = task['exec'];
25408886.65 Time.

10080 = task['interval'];
25418546.516667 = task['next-exec'];
25408466.516667 = task['last-exec'];
weekly-work.php = task['exec'];
25408886.65 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25409906.55 = task['next-exec'];
25408466.55 = task['last-exec'];
PeriodicStats.php = task['exec'];
25408886.65 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25409906.566667 = task['next-exec'];
25408466.566667 = task['last-exec'];
PeriodicBuild.php = task['exec'];
25408886.65 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25409906.566667 = task['next-exec'];
25408466.566667 = task['last-exec'];
cleanup.php = task['exec'];
25408886.65 Time.

1440 = task['interval'];
25409906.75 = task['next-exec'];
25408466.75 = task['last-exec'];
build-sitemap-xml.php = task['exec'];
25408886.65 Time.