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Tyramine
Tyramine
(/ˈtaɪrəmin/ TY-rə-meen) (also spelled tyramin), also known by several other names[note 1], is a naturally occurring trace amine derived from the amino acid tyrosine.[2] Tyramine
Tyramine
acts as a catecholamine releasing agent. Notably, it is unable to cross the blood-brain barrier, resulting in only non-psychoactive peripheral sympathomimetic effects following ingestion. A hypertensive crisis can result, however, from ingestion of tyramine-rich foods in conjunction with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).

Contents

1 Occurrence 2 Physical effects and pharmacology 3 Biosynthesis 4 Chemistry 5 Legal status

5.1 United States

5.1.1 Status in Florida

6 Notes 7 References

Occurrence[edit] Tyramine
Tyramine
occurs widely in plants[3] and animals, and is metabolized by various enzymes, including monoamine oxidases. In foods, it often is produced by the decarboxylation of tyrosine during fermentation or decay. Foods containing considerable amounts of tyramine include meats that are potentially spoiled or pickled, aged, smoked, fermented, or marinated (some fish, poultry, and beef); most pork (except cured ham). Other foods containing considerable amounts of tyramine are chocolate; alcoholic beverages; and fermented foods, such as most cheeses (except ricotta, cottage, cream and Neufchâtel cheeses), sour cream, yogurt, shrimp paste, soy sauce, soybean condiments, teriyaki sauce, tempeh, miso soup, sauerkraut, kimchi, broad (fava) beans, green bean pods, Italian flat (Romano) beans, snow peas, edamame, avocados, bananas, pineapple, eggplants, figs, red plums, raspberries, peanuts, Brazil nuts, coconuts, processed meat, yeast, an array of cacti and the holiday plant mistletoe. Physical effects and pharmacology[edit] Evidence for the presence of tyramine in the human brain has been confirmed by postmortem analysis.[4] Additionally, the possibility that tyramine acts directly as a neuromodulator was revealed by the discovery of a G protein-coupled receptor with high affinity for tyramine, called TAAR1.[5][6] The TAAR1
TAAR1
receptor is found in the brain, as well as peripheral tissues, including the kidneys.[7] Tyramine
Tyramine
binds to both TAAR1
TAAR1
and TAAR2
TAAR2
as an agonist in humans.[8] Tyramine
Tyramine
is physiologically metabolized by monoamine oxidases (primarily MAO-A), FMO3, PNMT, DBH, and CYP2D6.[9][10][11][12][13] In humans, if monoamine metabolism is compromised by the use of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and foods high in tyramine are ingested, a hypertensive crisis can result, as tyramine also can displace stored monoamines, such as dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, from pre-synaptic vesicles. The first signs of this were discovered by a British pharmacist who noticed his wife, who at the time was on MAOI medication, had severe headaches when eating cheese.[14] For this reason, the crisis is still called the "cheese effect" or "cheese crisis", though other foods can cause the same problem.[15]:30–31 Most processed cheeses do not contain enough tyramine to cause hypertensive effects, although some aged cheeses (such as Stilton) do.[16][17] A large dietary intake of tyramine (or a dietary intake of tyramine while taking MAO inhibitors) can cause the tyramine pressor response, which is defined as an increase in systolic blood pressure of 30 mmHg or more. The increased release of norepinephrine (noradrenaline) from neuronal cytosol or storage vesicles is thought to cause the vasoconstriction and increased heart rate and blood pressure of the pressor response. In severe cases, adrenergic crisis can occur.[medical citation needed] Although the mechanism is unclear, tyramine ingestion also triggers migraines in sensitive individuals. Vasodilation, dopamine, and circulatory factors are all implicated in migraine. Double-blind trials suggest that the effects of tyramine on migraines may be adrenergic.[18] Migraineurs are over-represented among those with inadequate natural monoamine oxidase, resulting in similar problems individuals taking MAO inhibitors. Many migraine triggers are high in tyramine.[19] If one has had repeated exposure to tyramine, however, there is a decreased pressor response; tyramine is degraded to octopamine, which is subsequently packaged in synaptic vesicles with norepinephrine (noradrenaline).[citation needed] Therefore, after repeated tyramine exposure, these vesicles contain an increased amount of octopamine and a relatively reduced amount of norepinephrine. When these vesicles are secreted upon tyramine ingestion, there is a decreased pressor response, as less norepinephrine is secreted into the synapse, and octopamine does not activate alpha or beta adrenergic receptors.[medical citation needed] :) When using a MAO inhibitor (MAOI), the intake of approximately 10 to 25 mg of tyramine is required for a severe reaction compared to 6 to 10 mg for a mild reaction.[medical citation needed] Research reveals a possible link between migraine and elevated levels of tyramine. A 2007 review published in Neurological Sciences[20] presented data showing migraine and cluster headaches are characterised by an increase of circulating neurotransmitters and neuromodulators (including tyramine, octopamine and synephrine) in the hypothalamus, amygdala and dopaminergic system. Biosynthesis[edit] Biochemically, tyramine is produced by the decarboxylation of tyrosine via the action of the enzyme tyrosine decarboxylase.[21] Tyramine
Tyramine
can, in turn, be converted to methylated alkaloid derivatives N-methyltyramine, N,N-dimethyltyramine (hordenine), and N,N,N-trimethyltyramine (candicine).

Tyramine

N-Methyltyramine

N,N-Dimethyltyramine (hordenine)

N,N,N-Trimethyltyramine (candicine)

In humans, tyramine is produced from tyrosine, as shown in the following diagram.

Biosynthetic pathways for catecholamines and trace amines in the human brain[11][12][13]

L-Phenylalanine L-Tyrosine L-DOPA Epinephrine Phenethylamine p-Tyramine Dopamine Norepinephrine N-Methylphenethylamine N-Methyltyramine p-Octopamine Synephrine 3-Methoxytyramine AADC AADC AADC primary pathway PNMT PNMT PNMT PNMT AAAH AAAH brain CYP2D6 minor pathway COMT DBH DBH

In humans, catecholamines and phenethylaminergic trace amines are derived from the amino acid L-phenylalanine.

Chemistry[edit] In the laboratory, tyramine can be synthesized in various ways, in particular by the decarboxylation of tyrosine.[22][23][24]

Tyrosine
Tyrosine
decarboxylation

Legal status[edit] United States[edit] Tyramine
Tyramine
is not scheduled at the federal level in the United States and is therefore legal to buy, sell, or possess.[25] Status in Florida[edit] Tyramine
Tyramine
is a Schedule I controlled substance, categorized as a hallucinogen, making it illegal to buy, sell, or possess in the state of Florida
Florida
without a license at any purity level or any form whatsoever. The language in the Florida
Florida
statute says tyramine is illegal in "any material, compound, mixture, or preparation that contains any quantity of [tyramine] or that contains any of [its] salts, isomers, including optical, positional, or geometric isomers, and salts of isomers, if the existence of such salts, isomers, and salts of isomers is possible within the specific chemical designation".[26] This ban is likely the product of lawmakers overly eager to ban substituted phenethylamines, which tyramine is, in the mistaken belief that ring-substituted phenethylamines are hallucinogenic drugs like the 2C series of psychedelic substituted phenethylamines. The further banning of tyramine's optical isomers, positional isomers, or geometric isomers, and salts of isomers where they exist, means that meta-tyramine and phenylethanolamine, a substance found in every living human body, and other common, non-hallucinogenic substances are also illegal to buy, sell or possess in Florida.[citation needed] Given that tyramine occurs naturally in many foods and drinks (most commonly as a by-product of bacterial fermentation) e.g. wine, cheese, chocolate, Florida's total ban on the substance may prove difficult to enforce.[27] Notes[edit]

^ Synonyms and alternative names include: 4-hydroxyphenethylamine, para-tyramine, mydrial, and uteramin; the latter two names are not commonly used. The IUPAC name is 4-(2-aminoethyl)phenol.

References[edit]

^ a b The Merck Index, 10th Ed. (1983), p.1405, Rahway: Merck & Co. ^ "tyramine C8H11NO". PubChem. Retrieved 2017-04-08.  ^ T. A. Smith (1977) Phytochemistry 16 9-18. ^ Philips, Rozdilsky Boulton (Feb 1978). "Evidence for the presence of m-tyramine, p-tyramine, tryptamine, and phenylethylamine in the rat brain and several areas of the human brain". Biological Psychiatry. 13 (1): 51–57. PMID 623853.  ^ Navarro, Gilmour Lewin (10 July 2006). "A Rapid Functional Assay for the Human
Human
Trace Amine-Associated Receptor 1 Based on the Mobilization of Internal Calcium". J Biomol Screen. 11 (6): 668–693. doi:10.1177/1087057106289891. PMID 16831861.  ^ Liberles, Buck (10 August 2006). "A second class of chemosensory receptors in the olfactory epithelium". Nature. 442 (7103): 645–650. doi:10.1038/nature05066. PMID 16878137.  ^ Xie, Westmoreland Miller (May 2008). "Modulation of monoamine transporters by common biogenic amines via trace amine-associated receptor 1 and monoamine autoreceptors in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and brain synaptosomes". J. Pharm. 325 (2): 629–640. doi:10.1124/jpet.107.135079. PMID 18310473.  ^ Khan MZ, Nawaz W (October 2016). "The emerging roles of human trace amines and human trace amine-associated receptors (hTAARs) in central nervous system". Biomed. Pharmacother. 83: 439–449. doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2016.07.002. PMID 27424325.  ^ " Trimethylamine
Trimethylamine
monooxygenase (Homo sapiens)". BRENDA. Technische Universität Braunschweig. July 2016. Retrieved 18 September 2016.  ^ Krueger SK, Williams DE (June 2005). "Mammalian flavin-containing monooxygenases: structure/function, genetic polymorphisms and role in drug metabolism". Pharmacol. Ther. 106 (3): 357–387. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2005.01.001. PMC 1828602 . PMID 15922018.  Table 5: N-containing drugs and xenobiotics oxygenated by FMO ^ a b Broadley KJ (March 2010). "The vascular effects of trace amines and amphetamines". Pharmacol. Ther. 125 (3): 363–375. doi:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2009.11.005. PMID 19948186.  ^ a b Lindemann L, Hoener MC (May 2005). "A renaissance in trace amines inspired by a novel GPCR family". Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 26 (5): 274–281. doi:10.1016/j.tips.2005.03.007. PMID 15860375.  ^ a b Wang X, Li J, Dong G, Yue J (February 2014). "The endogenous substrates of brain CYP2D". Eur. J. Pharmacol. 724: 211–218. doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2013.12.025. PMID 24374199.  ^ Sathyanarayana Rao TS and Vikram K. Yeragani VK (2009) Hypertensive crisis and cheese Indian J Psychiatry. 51(1): 65–66. ^ E. Siobhan Mitchell Antidepressants, chapter in Drugs, the Straight Facts, edited by David J. Triggle. 2004, Chelsea House Publishers ^ Stahl SM, Felker A (2008). " Monoamine oxidase
Monoamine oxidase
inhibitors: a modern guide to an unrequited class of antidepressants". Cns Spectrums. 13 (10): 855–870. PMID 18955941.  ^ Tyramine-restricted Diet 1998, W.B. Saunders Company. ^ Ghose, K.; Coppen, A.; Carrol, D. (1977-05-07). "Intravenous tyramine response in migraine before and during treatment with indoramin". Br Med J. 1 (6070): 1191–1193. doi:10.1136/bmj.1.6070.1191. ISSN 0007-1447. PMC 1606859 . PMID 324566.  ^ "Headache Sufferer's Diet National Headache Foundation". National Headache Foundation. Retrieved 2017-04-08.  ^ D'Andrea, G; Nordera, GP; Perini, F; Allais, G; Granella, F (May 2007). "Biochemistry of neuromodulation in primary headaches: focus on anomalies of tyrosine metabolism". Neurological Sciences. 28, Supplement 2 (S2): S94–S96. doi:10.1007/s10072-007-0758-4. PMID 17508188  ^ Tyrosine
Tyrosine
metabolism - Reference pathway, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) ^ G. Barger (1909). "CXXVII.?Isolation and synthesis of p-hydroxyphenylethylamine, an active principle of ergot soluble in water". J. Chem. Soc. 95: 1123. doi:10.1039/ct9099501123.  ^ Waser, Ernst (1925). "Untersuchungen in der Phenylalanin-Reihe VI. Decarboxylierung des Tyrosins und des Leucins". Helvetica Chimica Acta. 8: 758–773. doi:10.1002/hlca.192500801106.  ^ Buck, Johannes S. (1933). "Reduction of Hydroxymandelonitriles. A New Synthesis of Tyramine". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 55 (8): 3388–3390. doi:10.1021/ja01335a058.  ^ §1308.11 Schedule I ^ Florida
Florida
Statutes - Chapter 893 - DRUG ABUSE PREVENTION AND CONTROL ^ Suzzi, Giovanna; Torriani, Sandra (2015-05-18). "Editorial: Biogenic amines in foods". Frontiers in Microbiology. 6. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.00472. ISSN 1664-302X. PMC 4435245 . PMID 26042107. 

v t e

Neurotransmitters

Amino acid-derived

Major excitatory/inhibitory systems: Glutamate system: Agmatine Aspartic acid
Aspartic acid
(aspartate) Cycloserine Glutamic acid
Glutamic acid
(glutamate) Glutathione Glycine GSNO GSSG Kynurenic acid NAA NAAG Proline Serine; GABA system: GABA GABOB GHB; Glycine
Glycine
system: α-Alanine β-Alanine Glycine Hypotaurine Proline Sarcosine Serine Taurine; GHB system: GHB T-HCA (GHC)

Biogenic amines: Monoamines: 6-OHM Dopamine Epinephrine
Epinephrine
(adrenaline) NAS (normelatonin) Norepinephrine
Norepinephrine
(noradrenaline) Serotonin
Serotonin
(5-HT); Trace amines: 3-Iodothyronamine N-Methylphenethylamine N-Methyltryptamine m-Octopamine p-Octopamine Phenylethanolamine Phenethylamine Synephrine Tryptamine m-Tyramine p-Tyramine; Others: Histamine

Neuropeptides: See here instead.

Lipid-derived

Endocannabinoids: 2-AG 2-AGE (noladin ether) 2-ALPI 2-OG AA-5-HT Anandamide
Anandamide
(AEA) DEA LPI NADA NAGly OEA Oleamide PEA RVD-Hpα SEA Virodhamine
Virodhamine
(O-AEA)

Neurosteroids: See here instead.

Nucleobase-derived

Nucleosides: Adenosine
Adenosine
system: Adenosine ADP AMP ATP

Vitamin-derived

Cholinergic system: Acetylcholine

Miscellaneous

Gasotransmitters: Carbon monoxide
Carbon monoxide
(CO) Hydrogen sulfide
Hydrogen sulfide
(H2S) Nitric oxide
Nitric oxide
(NO); Candidates: Acetaldehyde Ammonia
Ammonia
(NH3) Carbonyl sulfide
Carbonyl sulfide
(COS) Nitrous oxide
Nitrous oxide
(N2O) Sulfur dioxide
Sulfur dioxide
(SO2)

v t e

Monoamine releasing agents

DRAs

Morpholines: Fenbutrazate Fenmetramide Morazone Morforex Phendimetrazine Phenmetrazine Pseudophenmetrazine

Oxazolines: 4-MAR Aminorex Clominorex Cyclazodone Fenozolone Fluminorex Pemoline Thozalinone

Phenethylamines: 2-OH-PEA 4-CAB 4-FA 4-FMA 4-MA 4-MMA Alfetamine Amfecloral Amfepentorex Amfepramone Amphetamine
Amphetamine
(Dextroamphetamine Levoamphetamine) Amphetaminil β-Me-PEA BDB BOH Benzphetamine Buphedrone Butylone Cathine Cathinone Clobenzorex Clortermine D-Deprenyl DMA DMMA Dimethylamphetamine Ephedrine Ethcathinone EBDB Ethylone Etilamfetamine Famprofazone Fenethylline Fenproporex Flephedrone Fludorex Furfenorex Hordenine 4-Hydroxyamphetamine Iofetamine
Iofetamine
(123I) Lophophine Mefenorex Mephedrone Metamfepramone Methamphetamine

Dextromethamphetamine Levomethamphetamine

Methcathinone Methedrone MMDA MMDMA MBDB MDA (tenamfetamine) MDEA MDMA
MDMA
(midomafetamine) MDMPEA MDOH MDPEA Methylone Morforex Ortetamine pBA pCA pIA Pholedrine Phenethylamine Pholedrine Phenpromethamine Prenylamine Propylamphetamine Pseudoephedrine Tiflorex Tyramine Xylopropamine Zylofuramine

Piperazines: 2C-B-BZP BZP MBZP MDBZP MeOPP oMPP

Others: 2-ADN 2-AI 2-AT 4-BP 5-APDI 5-IAI Amineptine Clofenciclan Cyclopentamine Cypenamine Cyprodenate Feprosidnine Gilutensin Heptaminol Hexacyclonate Indanorex Isometheptene Methylhexanamine Naphthylaminopropane Octodrine Phthalimidopropiophenone Phenylbiguanide Propylhexedrine

Levopropylhexedrine

NRAs

Morpholines: Fenbutrazate Fenmetramide Morazone Morforex Phendimetrazine Phenmetrazine Pseudophenmetrazine

Oxazolines: 4-MAR Aminorex Clominorex Cyclazodone Fenozolone Fluminorex Pemoline Thozalinone

Phenethylamines: 2-OH-PEA 4-CAB 4-FA 4-FMA 4-MA 4-MMA Alfetamine Amfecloral Amfepentorex Amfepramone Amphetamine

Dextroamphetamine Levoamphetamine

Amphetaminil β-Me-PEA BDB Benzphetamine BOH Buphedrone Butylone Cathine Cathinone Clobenzorex Clortermine Dimethylamphetamine DMA DMMA EBDB Ephedrine Ethcathinone Ethylone Etilamfetamine Famprofazone Fenethylline Fenproporex Flephedrone Fludorex Furfenorex Hordenine 4-Hydroxyamphetamine 5-APDI
5-APDI
(IAP) 5-MAPDI
5-MAPDI
(IMP) Iofetamine
Iofetamine
(123I) Lisdexamfetamine Lophophine MBDB MDA (tenamfetamine) MDEA MDMA
MDMA
(midomafetamine) Metamfepramone MDMPEA MDOH MDPEA Mefenorex Mephedrone Mephentermine Methamphetamine

Dextromethamphetamine Levomethamphetamine

Methcathinone Methedrone Methylone Morforex Naphthylaminopropane Ortetamine pBA pCA Pentorex Phenethylamine Pholedrine Phenpromethamine Phentermine Phenylpropanolamine pIA Prenylamine Propylamphetamine Pseudoephedrine Selegiline
Selegiline
(also D-Deprenyl) Tiflorex Tyramine Xylopropamine Zylofuramine

Piperazines: 2C-B-BZP BZP MBZP mCPP MDBZP MeOPP oMPP pFPP

Others: 2-ADN 2-AI 2-AT 2-BP 4-BP 5-IAI Clofenciclan Cyclopentamine Cypenamine Cyprodenate Feprosidnine Gilutensin Heptaminol Hexacyclonate Indanorex Isometheptene Methylhexanamine Octodrine Phthalimidopropiophenone Propylhexedrine
Propylhexedrine
(Levopropylhexedrine) Tuaminoheptane

SRAs

Aminoindanes: 5-IAI AMMI ETAI MDAI MDMAI MMAI TAI

Aminotetralins: 6-CAT 8-OH-DPAT MDAT MDMAT

Oxazolines: 4-Methylaminorex Aminorex Clominorex Fluminorex

Phenethylamines: 2-Methyl-MDA 4-CAB 4-FA 4-FMA 4-HA 4-MTA 5-APDB 5-Methyl-MDA 6-APDB 6-Methyl-MDA AEMMA Amiflamine BDB BOH Brephedrone Butylone Chlorphentermine Cloforex Amfepramone Metamfepramone DCA Dexfenfluramine DFMDA DMA DMMA EBDB EDMA Ethylone Etolorex Fenfluramine Flephedrone Flucetorex IAP IMP Iofetamine Levofenfluramine Lophophine MBDB MDA (tenamfetamine) MDEA MDHMA MDMA
MDMA
(midomafetamine) MDMPEA MDOH MDPEA Mephedrone Methedrone Methylone MMA MMDA MMDMA MMMA NAP Norfenfluramine 4-TFMA pBA pCA pIA PMA PMEA PMMA TAP

Piperazines: 2C-B-BZP 3-MeOPP BZP DCPP MBZP mCPP MDBZP MeOPP Mepiprazole oMPP pCPP pFPP pTFMPP TFMPP

Tryptamines: 4-Methyl-αET 4-Methyl-αMT 5-CT 5-MeO-αET 5-MeO-αMT 5-MT αET αMT DMT Tryptamine

Others: Indeloxazine Viqualine

Others

Monoamine activity enhancers: BPAP PPAP

DAT modulators: Agonist-like: SoRI-9804 SoRI-20040; Antagonist-like: SoRI-20041

Adrenergic release blockers: Bethanidine Bretylium Guanadrel Guanazodine Guanethidine Guanoxan

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Monoamine reuptake inhibitors • Adrenergics • Dopaminergics • Serotonergics • Monoamine metabolism modulators • Monoamine neurotoxins

v t e

Human
Human
trace amine-associated receptor ligands

TAAR1

Agonists

Endogenous†

Classical monoamine neurotransmitters

Dopamine Histamine Norepinephrine Serotonin

Trace amines

3-Iodothyronamine 3-Methoxytyramine N-Methylphenethylamine N-Methyltyramine m-Octopamine p-Octopamine Phenethylamine Phenylethanolamine Synephrine Tryptamine m-Tyramine p-Tyramine

Synthetic‡

Amphetamine DOB DOET 4-Hydroxyamphetamine Isoprenaline MDA (tenamfetamine) MDMA
MDMA
(midomafetamine) 2-Methylphenethylamine 3-Methylphenethylamine 4-Methylphenethylamine β-Methylphenethylamine Methamphetamine 3-MMA Norfenfluramine Phentermine o-PIT Propylhexedrine RO5166017 N,N-Dimethylphenethylamine

Neutral antagonists

 

Inverse agonists

EPPTB
EPPTB
(RO5212773)

TAAR2

Agonists‡

3-Iodothyronamine Phenethylamine Tyramine

Neutral antagonists

 

TAAR5

Agonists‡

Dimethylethylamine Trimethylamine

Neutral antagonists

 

Inverse agonists‡

3-Iodothyronamine

† References for all endogenous human TAAR1
TAAR1
ligands are provided at List of trace amines

‡ References for synthetic TAAR1
TAAR1
agonists can be found at TAAR1
TAAR1
or in the associated compound articles. For TAAR2
TAAR2
and TAAR5
TAAR5
agonists and inverse agonists, see TAAR for references.

See also: Receptor/signaling modulators

v t e

Phenethylamines

Phenethylamines

Psychedelics: 25B-NBOMe 25C-NBOMe 25D-NBOMe 25I-NBOMe 25N-NBOMe

2C-B 2C-B-AN 2C-Bn 2C-Bu 2C-C 2C-CN 2C-CP 2C-D 2C-E 2C-EF 2C-F 2C-G 2C-G-1 2C-G-2 2C-G-3 2C-G-4 2C-G-5 2C-G-6 2C-G-N 2C-H 2C-I 2C-iP 2C-N 2C-NH2 2C-O 2C-O-4 2C-P 2C-Ph 2C-SE 2C-T 2C-T-2 2C-T-3 2C-T-4 2C-T-5 2C-T-6 2C-T-7 2C-T-8 2C-T-9 2C-T-10 2C-T-11 2C-T-12 2C-T-13 2C-T-14 2C-T-15 2C-T-16 2C-T-17 2C-T-18 2C-T-19 2C-T-20 2C-T-21 2C-T-22 2C-T-22.5 2C-T-23 2C-T-24 2C-T-25 2C-T-27 2C-T-28 2C-T-30 2C-T-31 2C-T-32 2C-T-33 2C-TFE 2C-TFM 2C-YN 2C-V

Allylescaline DESOXY Escaline Isoproscaline Jimscaline Macromerine MEPEA Mescaline Metaescaline Methallylescaline Proscaline Psi-2C-T-4 TCB-2 Stimulants: Phenylethanolamine Hordenine Phenethylamine α-Methylphenethylamine (amphetamine) β-Methylphenethylamine m-Methylphenethylamine N-Methylphenethylamine o-Methylphenethylamine p-Methylphenethylamine

Entactogens: Lophophine MDPEA MDMPEA Others: BOH DMPEA

Amphetamines

Psychedelics: 3C-BZ 3C-E 3C-P Aleph Beatrice Bromo-DragonFLY D-Deprenyl DMA DMCPA DMMDA DOB DOC DOEF DOET DOI DOM DON DOPR DOTFM Ganesha MMDA MMDA-2 Psi-DOM TMA TeMA Stimulants: 2-FA 2-FMA 3-FA 3-FMA Acridorex Alfetamine Amfecloral Amfepentorex Amphetamine
Amphetamine
(Dextroamphetamine, Levoamphetamine) Amphetaminil Benfluorex Benzphetamine Cathine Clobenzorex Dimethylamphetamine Ephedrine Etilamfetamine Fencamfamin Fencamine Fenethylline Fenfluramine
Fenfluramine
(Dexfenfluramine, Levofenfluramine) Fenproporex Flucetorex Fludorex Formetorex Furfenorex Gepefrine 4-Hydroxyamphetamine Iofetamine Isopropylamphetamine Lefetamine Lisdexamfetamine Mefenorex Metaraminol Methamphetamine
Methamphetamine
(Dextromethamphetamine, Levomethamphetamine) Methoxyphenamine MMA Morforex Norfenfluramine L -Norpseudoephedrine N,alpha-Diethylphenylethylamine Oxifentorex Oxilofrine Ortetamine PBA PCA Phenpromethamine PFA PFMA PIA PMA PMEA PMMA Phenylpropanolamine Pholedrine Prenylamine Propylamphetamine Pseudoephedrine Sibutramine Tiflorex Tranylcypromine Xylopropamine Zylofuramine Entactogens: 4-FA 4-FMA 4-MA 4-MMA 4-MTA 5-APB 5-APDB 5-EAPB 5-IT 5-MAPB 5-MAPDB 6-APB 6-APDB 6-Chloro-MDMA 6-EAPB 6-IT 6-MAPB 6-MAPDB EDA IAP 2,3-MDA 3,4-MDA (tenamfetamine) MDEA MDHMA MDMA
MDMA
(midomafetamine) MDOH Methamnetamine MMDMA Naphthylaminopropane TAP Others: 3,4-DCA Amiflamine DiFMDA Selegiline
Selegiline
(also D -Deprenyl)

Phentermines

Stimulants: Chlorphentermine Cloforex Clortermine Etolorex Mephentermine Pentorex Phentermine Entactogens: MDPH MDMPH Others: Cericlamine

Cathinones

Stimulants: 3-FMC 4-MC 4-BMC 4-CMC 4-EMC 4-FMC 4-MEC 4-MeMABP 4-MPD Amfepramone Benzedrone Brephedrone Buphedrone Bupropion Cathinone Dimethylcathinone Ethcathinone Eutylone Hydroxybupropion Methcathinone Methedrone NEB Pentedrone Pentylone Radafaxine Entactogens: 3,4-DMMC 3-MMC Butylone Ethylone Methylone Methylenedioxycathinone Mephedrone

Phenylisobutylamines

Entactogens: 4-CAB 4-MAB Ariadne BDB Butylone EBDB Eutylone MBDB Stimulants: Phenylisobutylamine

Phenylalkylpyrrolidines

Stimulants: α-PBP α-PHP α-PPP α-PVP MDPBP MDPPP MDPV 4-MePBP 4-MePHP 4-MePPP MOPPP MOPVP MPBP MPHP MPPP Naphyrone PEP Prolintane Pyrovalerone

Catecholamines (and close relatives)

6-FNE 6-OHDA a-Me-DA a-Me-TRA Adrenochrome Ciladopa D -DOPA (Dextrodopa) Dimetofrine Dopamine Epinephrine Epinine Etilefrine Ethylnorepinephrine Fenclonine Ibopamine Isoprenaline Isoetarine L -DOPA (Levodopa) L -DOPS (Droxidopa) L -Phenylalanine L -Tyrosine m-Tyramine Metanephrine Metaraminol Metaterol Metirosine Methyldopa N,N-Dimethyldopamine Nordefrin
Nordefrin
(Levonordefrin) Norepinephrine Norfenefrine
Norfenefrine
(m-Octopamine) Normetanephrine Orciprenaline p-Octopamine p-Tyramine Phenylephrine Synephrine

Miscellaneous

AL-LAD Amidephrine Arbutamine Cafedrine Denopamine Desvenlafaxine Diphenidine Dizocilpine Dobutamine Dopexamine Ephenidine Etafedrine ETH-LAD Famprofazone Fluorolintane Hexapradol IP-LAD Lysergic acid amide Lysergic acid 2-butyl amide Lysergic acid 2,4-dimethylazetidide Lysergic acid diethylamide Methoxamine Methoxphenidine MT-45 PARGY-LAD Phenibut PRO-LAD Pronethalol Salbutamol
Salbutamol
(Levosalbutamol) Solriamfetol Theodrenaline Thi

.