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TypeScript
TypeScript
is an open-source programming language developed and maintained by Microsoft. It is a strict syntactical superset of JavaScript, and adds optional static typing to the language. Anders Hejlsberg, lead architect of C# and creator of Delphi and Turbo Pascal, has worked on the development of TypeScript.[4][5][6][7] TypeScript
TypeScript
may be used to develop JavaScript
JavaScript
applications for client-side or server-side (Node.js) execution. TypeScript
TypeScript
is designed for development of large applications and transpile to JavaScript.[8] As TypeScript
TypeScript
is a superset of JavaScript, existing JavaScript
JavaScript
programs are also valid TypeScript
TypeScript
programs. TypeScript
TypeScript
supports definition files that can contain type information of existing JavaScript
JavaScript
libraries, much like C++
C++
header files can describe the structure of existing object files. This enables other programs to use the values defined in the files as if they were statically typed TypeScript
TypeScript
entities. There are third-party header files for popular libraries such as jQuery, MongoDB, and D3.js. TypeScript
TypeScript
headers for the Node.js
Node.js
basic modules are also available, allowing development of Node.js
Node.js
programs within TypeScript.[9] The TypeScript
TypeScript
compiler is itself written in TypeScript
TypeScript
and compiled to JavaScript. It is licensed under the Apache 2 License. TypeScript
TypeScript
is included as a first-class programming language in Microsoft
Microsoft
Visual Studio 2013
Visual Studio 2013
Update 2 and later, beside C# and other Microsoft
Microsoft
languages.[10] An official extension allows Visual Studio 2012 to support TypeScript
TypeScript
as well.[11]

Contents

1 History 2 Language design

2.1 ECMAScript 2015 support

3 Language features

3.1 Compatibility with JavaScript 3.2 Type annotations

3.2.1 Declaration files

3.3 Classes 3.4 Generics 3.5 Modules and namespaces

4 Development tools

4.1 Compiler 4.2 IDE and editor support 4.3 Integration with build automation tools

5 See also 6 References 7 External links

History[edit] TypeScript
TypeScript
was first made public in October 2012 (at version 0.8), after two years of internal development at Microsoft.[12][13] Soon after the announcement, Miguel de Icaza
Miguel de Icaza
praised the language itself, but criticized the lack of mature IDE support apart from Microsoft Visual Studio, which was not available on Linux and OS X at that time.[14][15] As of 2013[update] there is support in other IDEs, particularly in Eclipse, via a plug-in contributed by Palantir Technologies.[16][17] Various text editors, including Emacs, Vim, Sublime, Webstorm, Atom[18] and Microsoft's own Visual Studio
Visual Studio
Code also support TypeScript.[19] TypeScript
TypeScript
0.9, released in 2013, added support for generics.[20] TypeScript
TypeScript
1.0 was released at Microsoft's Build developer conference in 2014.[21] Visual Studio 2013
Visual Studio 2013
Update 2 provides built-in support for TypeScript.[22] In July 2014, the development team announced a new TypeScript compiler, claiming 5× performance gains. Simultaneously, the source code, which was initially hosted on CodePlex, was moved to GitHub.[23] On 22 September 2016, TypeScript
TypeScript
2.0 was released; it introduced several features, including the ability for programmers to optionally prevent variables from being assigned null values.[24] Language design[edit] TypeScript
TypeScript
originated from the perceived shortcomings of JavaScript for the development of large-scale applications both at Microsoft
Microsoft
and among their external customers.[25] Challenges with dealing with complex JavaScript
JavaScript
code led to demand for custom tooling to ease developing of components in the language.[26] TypeScript
TypeScript
developers sought a solution that would not break compatibility with the standard and its cross-platform support. Knowing that the current ECMAScript standard proposal promised future support for class-based programming, TypeScript
TypeScript
was based on that proposal. That led to a JavaScript
JavaScript
compiler with a set of syntactical language extensions, a superset based on the proposal, that transforms the extensions into regular JavaScript. In this sense TypeScript
TypeScript
was a preview of what to expect of ECMAScript 2015. A unique aspect not in the proposal, but added to TypeScript, is optional static typing[27] that enables static language analysis, which facilitates tooling and IDE support. ECMAScript 2015 support[edit] Main article: ECMAScript § 6th Edition - ECMAScript 2015 TypeScript
TypeScript
adds support for features such as classes, modules and an arrow function syntax as proposed in the ECMAScript 2015 standard. Language features[edit] TypeScript
TypeScript
is a language extension that adds features to ECMAScript 5. Additional features include:

Type annotations and compile-time type checking Type inference Type erasure Interfaces Enumerated type Mixin Generic Namespaces Tuple Await

The following features are backported from ECMAScript 2015:

Classes Modules[28] Abbreviated "arrow" syntax for anonymous functions Optional parameters and default parameters

Syntactically, TypeScript
TypeScript
is very similar to JScript .NET, another Microsoft
Microsoft
implementation of the ECMA-262 language standard that added support for static typing and classical object-oriented language features such as classes, inheritance, interfaces, and namespaces. Compatibility with JavaScript[edit] TypeScript
TypeScript
is a strict superset of ECMAScript 2015, which is itself a superset of ECMAScript 5, commonly referred to as JavaScript.[29] As such, a JavaScript
JavaScript
program is also a valid TypeScript
TypeScript
program, and a TypeScript
TypeScript
program can seamlessly consume JavaScript. By default the compiler targets ECMAScript 5, the current prevailing standard, but is also able to generate constructs used in ECMAScript 3 or 2015. With TypeScript, it is possible to use existing JavaScript
JavaScript
code, incorporate popular JavaScript
JavaScript
libraries, and call TypeScript-generated code from other JavaScript.[30] Type declarations for these libraries are provided with the source code. Type annotations[edit] TypeScript
TypeScript
provides static typing through type annotations to enable type checking at compile time. This is optional and can be ignored to use the regular dynamic typing of JavaScript.

function add(left: number, right: number): number

return left + right;

The annotations for the primitive types are number, boolean and string. Weakly- or dynamically-typed structures are of type any. Type annotations can be exported to a separate declarations file to make type information available for TypeScript
TypeScript
scripts using types already compiled into JavaScript. Annotations can be declared for an existing JavaScript
JavaScript
library, as has been done for Node.js
Node.js
and jQuery. The TypeScript
TypeScript
compiler makes use of type inference to infer types when types are not given. For example, the add method in the code above would be inferred as returning a number even if no return type annotation had been provided. This is based on the static types of left and right being numbers, and the compiler's knowledge that the result of adding two numbers is always a number. However, explicitly declaring the return type allows the compiler to verify correctness. If no type can be inferred because of lack of declarations, then it defaults to the dynamic any type. A value of the any type supports the same operations as a value in JavaScript
JavaScript
and minimal static type checking is performed for operations on any values.[31] Declaration files[edit] When a TypeScript
TypeScript
script gets compiled there is an option to generate a declaration file (with the extension .d.ts) that functions as an interface to the components in the compiled JavaScript. In the process the compiler strips away all function and method bodies and preserves only the signatures of the types that are exported. The resulting declaration file can then be used to describe the exported virtual Type Large collections of declaration files for popular JavaScript libraries are hosted on GitHub
GitHub
in DefinitelyTyped and the Typings Registry. A command-line utility called typings is provided to help search Classes[edit] TypeScript
TypeScript
supports ECMAScript 2015 classes that integrate the optional type annotations support.

class Person private name: string; private age: number; private salary: number;

constructor(name: string, age: number, salary: number) this.name = name; this.age = age; this.salary = salary;

toString(): string return `$ this.name ($ this.age ) ($ this.salary )`; // As of version 1.4

Generics[edit] TypeScript
TypeScript
supports generic programming.[32] Modules and namespaces[edit] TypeScript
TypeScript
distinguishes between modules and namespaces. Both features in TypeScript
TypeScript
support encapsulation of classes, interfaces, functions and variables into containers. Namespaces (formerly internal modules) utilize immediately-invoked function expression of JavaScript
JavaScript
to encapsulate code, whereas modules (formerly external modules) leverage JavaScript
JavaScript
library patterns to do so (AMD or CommonJS).[33] Development tools[edit] Compiler[edit] The TypeScript
TypeScript
compiler, named tsc, is written in TypeScript. As a result, it can be compiled into regular JavaScript
JavaScript
and can then be executed in any JavaScript
JavaScript
engine (e.g. a browser). The compiler package comes bundled with a script host that can execute the compiler. It is also available as a Node.js
Node.js
package that uses Node.js as a host. There is also an alpha version of a client-side compiler in JavaScript, which executes TypeScript
TypeScript
code on the fly, upon page load.[34] The current version of the compiler supports ECMAScript 5 by default. An option is allowed to target ECMAScript 2015 to make use of language features exclusive to that version (e.g. generators). Classes, despite being part of the ECMAScript 2015 standard, are available in both modes. IDE and editor support[edit]

Microsoft
Microsoft
provides a plug-in for Visual Studio
Visual Studio
2012 and WebMatrix, full integrated support in Visual Studio
Visual Studio
2013, Visual Studio
Visual Studio
2015, and basic text editor support for Sublime Text, Emacs
Emacs
and Vim.[35] Visual Studio Code
Visual Studio Code
is an open-source, cross-platform source code editor developed by Microsoft
Microsoft
based on Electron. It supports TypeScript
TypeScript
in addition to several other languages, and offers features like debugging and intelligent code completion. alm.tools is an open source cloud IDE for TypeScript
TypeScript
built using TypeScript, ReactJS and TypeStyle. JetBrains
JetBrains
supports TypeScript
TypeScript
with code completion, refactoring and debugging in its IDEs built on IntelliJ platform, such as PhpStorm
PhpStorm
6, WebStorm
WebStorm
6, and IntelliJ IDEA,[36] as well as their Visual Studio Add-in and extension, ReSharper 8.1.[37] Atom has a TypeScript
TypeScript
Plugin by Basarat with support for code completion, navigation, formatting, and fast compilation. The online Cloud9 IDE
Cloud9 IDE
and Codenvy
Codenvy
support TypeScript. A plugin is available for the NetBeans
NetBeans
IDE. A plugin is available for the Eclipse IDE (version Kepler) TypEcs is available for the Eclipse IDE. Microsoft
Microsoft
provides a TypeScript
TypeScript
Plugin for Sublime Text. The Cross Platform Cloud IDE Codeanywhere
Codeanywhere
supports TypeScript. Webclipse An Eclipse plugin designed to develop TypeScript
TypeScript
and Angular 2. Angular IDE A standalone IDE available via npm to develop TypeScript and Angular 2 applications, with integrated terminal support. Tide — TypeScript
TypeScript
Interactive Development Environment for Emacs. Tsuquyomi - a Vim plugin which uses TSServer and provides features like code completion, navigation and syntax and semantic error checking.

Integration with build automation tools[edit] Using plug-ins, TypeScript
TypeScript
can be integrated with build automation tools, including Grunt (grunt-ts[38]), Apache Maven
Apache Maven
( TypeScript
TypeScript
Maven Plugin[39]), Gulp (gulp-typescript[40]) and Gradle
Gradle
( TypeScript
TypeScript
Gradle Plugin[41]). See also[edit]

Free software portal

Closure Compiler Dart CoffeeScript Elm (programming language), a compile-to- JavaScript
JavaScript
functional language with static typing

References[edit]

^ "TypeScript". CodePlex. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ " TypeScript
TypeScript
2.8.1". TypeScript. Retrieved 27 March 2018.  ^ "Type Compatibility". TypeScript. Retrieved 21 March 2018.  ^ Foley, Mary Jo (1 October 2012). " Microsoft
Microsoft
takes the wraps off TypeScript, a superset of JavaScript". ZDNet. CBS Interactive. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ Somasegar, S. (1 October 2012). "Somasegar's blog". Somasegar’s blog. Microsoft. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ Baxter-Reynolds, Matt (1 October 2012). " Microsoft
Microsoft
TypeScript: Can the father of C# save us from the tyranny of JavaScript?". ZDNet. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ Jackson, Joab (1 October 2012). " Microsoft
Microsoft
Augments Javascript for Large-scale Development". CIO. IDG Enterprise. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ Bright, Peter (3 October 2012). " Microsoft
Microsoft
TypeScript: the JavaScript
JavaScript
we need, or a solution looking for a problem?". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ "borisyankov/DefinitelyTyped". GitHub. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ TypeScript
TypeScript
Homepage, " Visual Studio
Visual Studio
includes TypeScript
TypeScript
in the box, starting with Visual Studio 2013
Visual Studio 2013
Update 2" ^ TypeScript
TypeScript
1.0 Tools for Visual Studio
Visual Studio
2012 ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
augments JavaScript
JavaScript
for large-scale development". InfoWorld. IDG. 1 October 2012. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ Turner, Jonathan (2 April 2014). "Announcing TypeScript
TypeScript
1.0". TypeScript
TypeScript
Language team blog. Microsoft. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ Miguel de Icaza
Miguel de Icaza
(2012-10-01). "TypeScript: First Impressions". Retrieved 2012-10-12. But TypeScript
TypeScript
only delivers half of the value in using a strongly typed language to Unix developers: strong typing. Intellisense, code completion and refactoring are tools that are only available to Visual Studio
Visual Studio
Professional users on Windows. There is no Eclipse, MonoDevelop or Emacs
Emacs
support for any of the language features  ^ " Microsoft
Microsoft
TypeScript: Can the father of C# save us from the tyranny of JavaScript?". ZDNet. 2012-10-01. Retrieved 2012-10-12. And I think this is a pretty big misstep. If you're building web apps that run on anything other than Windows, you're likely using a Mac and most likely not using Visual Studio. You need the Visual Studio
Visual Studio
plug-in to get the IntelliSense. All you get without Visual Studio
Visual Studio
is the strong-typing. You don't get the productivity benefits you get from IntelliSense..  ^ "TypeScript-Unterstützung für Eclipse". heise Developer. 6 August 2013. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ "TypeScript". Eclipse Marketplace. Eclipse Foundation. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ "TypeStrong: The only TypeScript
TypeScript
package you will ever need". Retrieved 21 July 2016.  ^ Hillar, Gastón (14 May 2013). "Working with TypeScript
TypeScript
in Visual Studio 2012". Dr. Dobb's Journal. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ " TypeScript
TypeScript
0.9 arrives with new compiler, support for generics". The Register. 18 June 2013. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ Hejlsberg, Anders (2 April 2014). "TypeScript". Channel 9. Microsoft. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ Jackson, Joab (25 February 2014). " Microsoft
Microsoft
TypeScript
TypeScript
graduates to Visual Studio". PC World. IDG. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ Turner, Jonathan (21 July 2014). "New Compiler and Moving to GitHub". TypeScript
TypeScript
Language team blog. Microsoft. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ Bright, Peter (22 September 2016). "TypeScript, Microsoft's JavaScript
JavaScript
for big applications, reaches version 2.0". Ars Technica. Condé Nast. Retrieved 22 September 2016.  ^ Anders Hejlsberg
Anders Hejlsberg
(2012-10-05). "What is TypeScript
TypeScript
and why with Anders Hejlsberg". www.hanselminutes.com. Retrieved 2014-01-15.  ^ S. Somasegar (2012-10-01). "TypeScript: JavaScript
JavaScript
Development at Application Scale". msdn.com. Retrieved 2013-11-27.  ^ optional static typing is called gradual typing ^ Klint Finley (2012-10-01). " Microsoft
Microsoft
Previews New JavaScript-Like Programming Language TypeScript". TechCrunch. Retrieved 2013-11-27.  ^ "Angular 2". angular.io. Retrieved 2016-05-04.  ^ "Welcome to TypeScript". typescriptlang.org. Microsoft. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ TypeScript
TypeScript
Language Specification p.24 ^ Turner, Jonathan (18 June 2013). "Announcing TypeScript
TypeScript
0.9". TypeScript
TypeScript
Language team blog. Microsoft.  ^ Sönke Sothmann (2014-01-31). "An introduction to TypeScript's module system". blog.oio.de. Retrieved 2014-02-21.  ^ "niutech/typescript-compile". GitHub. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ Olivier Bloch (2012-10-01). "Sublime Text, Vi, Emacs: TypeScript enabled!". Microsoft. Retrieved 2012-10-28.  ^ " TypeScript
TypeScript
support in WebStorm
WebStorm
6". JetBrains.  ^ " TypeScript
TypeScript
support in ReSharper 8.1". JetBrains.  ^ "TypeStrong/grunt-ts". GitHub. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ "ppedregal/typescript-maven-plugin". GitHub. Retrieved 26 April 2015.  ^ "ivogabe/gulp-typescript". GitHub. Retrieved 14 July 2017.  ^ "sothmann/typescript-gradle-plugin". GitHub. Retrieved 26 April 2015. 

"Webclipse : Eclipse Plugin" Genuitec. Retrieved November 9th. 2016. "Angular IDE by Webclipse : Standalone IDE" Genuitec. Retrieved November 9th. 2016.

External links[edit]

Official website TypeScript
TypeScript
project at GitHub TypeScript
TypeScript
Language Specification CATS Cross Platform TypeScript
TypeScript
Editor Build 2013 presentation Awesome-TypeScript: A community-supported list of tools and resources related to TypeScript TypeScript
TypeScript
Training

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