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Setting: Troy
Troy
(modern Hisarlik, Turkey) Period: Bronze Age Traditional dating: c. 1194–1184 BC Modern dating: c. 1260–1180 BC Outcome: Greek victory, destruction of Troy See also: Historicity of the Iliad

Literary sources

Iliad Epic Cycle Aeneid, Book 2 Iphigenia
Iphigenia
in Aulis Philoctetes Ajax The Trojan Women Posthomerica

See also: Trojan War
Trojan War
in popular culture

Episodes

Judgement of Paris Seduction of Helen Trojan Horse Sack of Troy The Returns Wanderings of Odysseus Aeneas
Aeneas
and the Founding of Rome

Greeks
Greeks
and allies

Agamemnon Achilles Helen Menelaus Nestor Odysseus Ajax Diomedes Patroclus Thersites Achaeans Myrmidons

See also: Catalogue of Ships

Trojans and allies

Priam Hecuba Hector Paris Cassandra Andromache Aeneas Memnon Troilus Penthesilea
Penthesilea
and the Amazons Sarpedon

See also: Trojan Battle Order

Participant gods

Caused the war:

Eris Zeus

On the Greek side:

Athena Hephaestus Hera Hermes Poseidon Thetis

On the Trojan side:

Aphrodite Apollo Ares Artemis Leto Scamander

Related topics

Homeric Question Archaeology
Archaeology
of Troy Mycenae Mycenaean warfare

v t e

In Greek mythology, the Trojan War
Trojan War
was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy
Troy
took Helen from her husband Menelaus, king of Sparta. The war is one of the most important events in Greek mythology
Greek mythology
and has been narrated through many works of Greek literature, most notably Homer's Iliad. The Iliad
Iliad
relates four days in the tenth year of the decade-long siege of Troy; the Odyssey describes the journey home of Odysseus, one of the war's heroes. Other parts of the war are described in a cycle of epic poems, which have survived through fragments. Episodes from the war provided material for Greek tragedy
Greek tragedy
and other works of Greek literature, and for Roman poets including Virgil
Virgil
and Ovid. The war originated from a quarrel between the goddesses Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite, after Eris, the goddess of strife and discord, gave them a golden apple, sometimes known as the Apple of Discord, marked "for the fairest". Zeus
Zeus
sent the goddesses to Paris, who judged that Aphrodite, as the "fairest", should receive the apple. In exchange, Aphrodite
Aphrodite
made Helen, the most beautiful of all women and wife of Menelaus, fall in love with Paris, who took her to Troy. Agamemnon, king of Mycenae
Mycenae
and the brother of Helen's husband Menelaus, led an expedition of Achaean troops to Troy
Troy
and besieged the city for ten years because of Paris' insult. After the deaths of many heroes, including the Achaeans Achilles
Achilles
and Ajax, and the Trojans Hector
Hector
and Paris, the city fell to the ruse of the Trojan Horse. The Achaeans slaughtered the Trojans (except for some of the women and children whom they kept or sold as slaves) and desecrated the temples, thus earning the gods' wrath. Few of the Achaeans returned safely to their homes and many founded colonies in distant shores. The Romans later traced their origin to Aeneas, Aphrodite's son and one of the Trojans, who was said to have led the surviving Trojans to modern-day Italy. The ancient Greeks
Greeks
believed that Troy
Troy
was located near the Dardanelles and that the Trojan War
Trojan War
was a historical event of the 13th or 12th century BC, but by the mid-19th century, both the war and the city were widely seen as mythological. In 1868, however, the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann
Heinrich Schliemann
met Frank Calvert, who convinced Schliemann that Troy
Troy
was a real city at what is now Hissarlik
Hissarlik
in Turkey.[1] On the basis of excavations conducted by Schliemann and others, this claim is now accepted by most scholars.[2][3] Whether there is any historical reality behind the Trojan War
Trojan War
remains an open question. Many scholars believe that there is a historical core to the tale, though this may simply mean that the Homeric stories are a fusion of various tales of sieges and expeditions by Mycenaean Greeks
Greeks
during the Bronze Age. Those who believe that the stories of the Trojan War
Trojan War
are derived from a specific historical conflict usually date it to the 12th or 11th centuries BC, often preferring the dates given by Eratosthenes, 1194–1184 BC, which roughly corresponds with archaeological evidence of a catastrophic burning of Troy
Troy
VIIa.[4]

Contents

1 Sources 2 Legend

2.1 Origins of the war

2.1.1 Plan of Zeus 2.1.2 Judgement of Paris 2.1.3 Elopement of Paris and Helen

2.2 Gathering of Achaean forces and the first expedition

2.2.1 Odysseus
Odysseus
and Achilles 2.2.2 First gathering at Aulis 2.2.3 Telephus

2.3 Second gathering 2.4 Nine years of war

2.4.1 Philoctetes 2.4.2 Arrival 2.4.3 Achilles' campaigns 2.4.4 Ajax and a game of petteia 2.4.5 Death of Palamedes 2.4.6 Mutiny

2.5 Iliad 2.6 After the Iliad

2.6.1 Penthesilea
Penthesilea
and the death of Achilles 2.6.2 Judgment of Arms 2.6.3 Prophecies 2.6.4 Trojan Horse

2.7 Sack of Troy 2.8 Returns

2.8.1 House of Atreus

2.9 Odyssey 2.10 Telegony 2.11 Aeneid

3 Dates of the Trojan War 4 Historical basis 5 In popular culture 6 References 7 Further reading

7.1 Ancient authors 7.2 Modern authors

8 External links

Sources

The Burning of Troy
Troy
(1759/62), oil painting by Johann Georg Trautmann

The events of the Trojan War
Trojan War
are found in many works of Greek literature and depicted in numerous works of Greek art. There is no single, authoritative text which tells the entire events of the war. Instead, the story is assembled from a variety of sources, some of which report contradictory versions of the events. The most important literary sources are the two epic poems traditionally credited to Homer, the Iliad
Iliad
and the Odyssey, composed sometime between the 9th and 6th centuries BC.[5] Each poem narrates only a part of the war. The Iliad
Iliad
covers a short period in the last year of the siege of Troy, while the Odyssey
Odyssey
concerns Odysseus's return to his home island of Ithaca, following the sack of Troy
Troy
and contains several flashbacks to particular episodes in the war. Other parts of the Trojan War
Trojan War
were told in the poems of the Epic Cycle, also known as the Cyclic Epics: the Cypria, Aethiopis, Little Iliad, Iliou Persis, Nostoi, and Telegony. Though these poems survive only in fragments, their content is known from a summary included in Proclus' Chrestomathy.[6] The authorship of the Cyclic Epics is uncertain. It is generally thought that the poems were written down in the 7th and 6th century BC, after the composition of the Homeric poems, though it is widely believed that they were based on earlier traditions.[7] Both the Homeric epics and the Epic Cycle
Epic Cycle
take origin from oral tradition. Even after the composition of the Iliad, Odyssey, and the Cyclic Epics, the myths of the Trojan War
Trojan War
were passed on orally, in many genres of poetry and through non-poetic storytelling. Events and details of the story that are only found in later authors may have been passed on through oral tradition and could be as old as the Homeric poems. Visual art, such as vase-painting, was another medium in which myths of the Trojan War
Trojan War
circulated.[8] In later ages playwrights, historians, and other intellectuals would create works inspired by the Trojan War. The three great tragedians of Athens, Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, wrote many dramas that portray episodes from the Trojan War. Among Roman writers the most important is the 1st century BC poet Virgil. In Book 2 of the Aeneid, Aeneas
Aeneas
narrates the sack of Troy; this section of the poem is thought to rely on material from the Cyclic Epic Iliou Persis.[citation needed] Legend The following summary of the Trojan War
Trojan War
follows the order of events as given in Proclus' summary, along with the Iliad, Odyssey, and Aeneid, supplemented with details drawn from other authors. Origins of the war Plan of Zeus According to Greek mythology, Zeus
Zeus
had become king of the gods by overthrowing his father Cronus; Cronus
Cronus
in turn had overthrown his father Uranus. Zeus
Zeus
was not faithful to his wife and sister Hera, and had many relationships from which many children were born. Since Zeus believed that there were too many people populating the earth, he envisioned Momus[9] or Themis,[10] who was to use the Trojan War
Trojan War
as a means to depopulate the Earth, especially of his demigod descendants.[11] These can be supported by Hesiod's account:

Now all the gods were divided through strife; for at that very time Zeus
Zeus
who thunders on high was meditating marvelous deeds, even to mingle storm and tempest over the boundless earth, and already he was hastening to make an utter end of the race of mortal men, declaring that he would destroy the lives of the demi-gods, that the children of the gods should not mate with wretched mortals, seeing their fate with their own eyes; but that the blessed gods henceforth even as aforetime should have their living and their habitations apart from men. But on those who were born of immortals and of mankind verily Zeus
Zeus
laid toil and sorrow upon sorrow.[12]

Judgement of Paris

The Judgment of Paris (1904) by Enrique Simonet

Main article: Judgement of Paris Zeus
Zeus
came to learn from either Themis[13] or Prometheus, after Heracles
Heracles
had released him from Caucasus,[14] that, like his father Cronus, he would be overthrown by one of his sons. Another prophecy stated that a son of the sea-nymph Thetis, with whom Zeus
Zeus
fell in love after gazing upon her in the oceans off the Greek coast, would become greater than his father.[15] Possibly for one or both of these reasons,[16] Thetis
Thetis
was betrothed to an elderly human king, Peleus
Peleus
son of Aeacus, either upon Zeus' orders,[17] or because she wished to please Hera, who had raised her.[18] All of the gods were invited to Peleus
Peleus
and Thetis' wedding and brought many gifts,[19] except Eris (the goddess of discord), who was stopped at the door by Hermes, on Zeus' order.[20] Insulted, she threw from the door a gift of her own:[21] a golden apple (το μήλον της έριδος) on which was inscribed the word καλλίστῃ Kallistēi ("To the fairest").[22] The apple was claimed by Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite. They quarreled bitterly over it, and none of the other gods would venture an opinion favoring one, for fear of earning the enmity of the other two. Eventually, Zeus
Zeus
ordered Hermes to lead the three goddesses to Paris, a prince of Troy, who, unaware of his ancestry, was being raised as a shepherd in Mount Ida,[23] because of a prophecy that he would be the downfall of Troy.[24] After bathing in the spring of Ida, the goddesses appeared to him naked, either for the sake of winning or at Paris' request. Paris was unable to decide between them, so the goddesses resorted to bribes. Athena offered Paris wisdom, skill in battle, and the abilities of the greatest warriors; Hera
Hera
offered him political power and control of all of Asia; and Aphrodite
Aphrodite
offered him the love of the most beautiful woman in the world, Helen of Sparta. Paris awarded the apple to Aphrodite, and, after several adventures, returned to Troy, where he was recognized by his royal family.

Thetis
Thetis
gives her son Achilles
Achilles
weapons forged by Hephaestus
Hephaestus
(detail of Attic black-figure hydria, 575–550 BC)

Peleus
Peleus
and Thetis
Thetis
bore a son, whom they named Achilles. It was foretold that he would either die of old age after an uneventful life, or die young in a battlefield and gain immortality through poetry.[25] Furthermore, when Achilles
Achilles
was nine years old, Calchas
Calchas
had prophesied that Troy
Troy
could not again fall without his help.[26] A number of sources credit Thetis
Thetis
with attempting to make Achilles
Achilles
immortal when he was an infant. Some of these state that she held him over fire every night to burn away his mortal parts and rubbed him with ambrosia during the day, but Peleus
Peleus
discovered her actions and stopped her.[27] According to some versions of this story, Thetis
Thetis
had already killed several sons in this manner, and Peleus' action therefore saved his son's life.[28] Other sources state that Thetis
Thetis
bathed Achilles
Achilles
in the Styx, the river that runs to the underworld, making him invulnerable wherever he was touched by the water.[29] Because she had held him by the heel, it was not immersed during the bathing and thus the heel remained mortal and vulnerable to injury (hence the expression " Achilles
Achilles
heel" for an isolated weakness). He grew up to be the greatest of all mortal warriors. After Calchas' prophesy, Thetis
Thetis
hid Achilles
Achilles
in Skyros
Skyros
at the court of King Lycomedes, where he was disguised as a girl.[30] At a crucial point in the war, she assists her son by providing weapons divinely forged by Hephaestus
Hephaestus
(see below). Elopement of Paris and Helen

The Abduction of Helen (1530–39) by Francesco Primaticcio, with Aphrodite
Aphrodite
directing

The most beautiful woman in the world was Helen, one of the daughters of Tyndareus, King of Sparta. Her mother was Leda, who had been either raped or seduced by Zeus
Zeus
in the form of a swan.[31] Accounts differ over which of Leda's four children, two pairs of twins, were fathered by Zeus
Zeus
and which by Tyndareus. However, Helen is usually credited as Zeus' daughter,[32] and sometimes Nemesis is credited as her mother.[33] Helen had scores of suitors, and her father was unwilling to choose one for fear the others would retaliate violently. Finally, one of the suitors, Odysseus
Odysseus
of Ithaca, proposed a plan to solve the dilemma. In exchange for Tyndareus' support of his own suit towards Penelope,[34] he suggested that Tyndareus
Tyndareus
require all of Helen's suitors to promise that they would defend the marriage of Helen, regardless of whom he chose. The suitors duly swore the required oath on the severed pieces of a horse, although not without a certain amount of grumbling.[35] Tyndareus
Tyndareus
chose Menelaus. Menelaus
Menelaus
was a political choice on her father's part. He had wealth and power. He had humbly not petitioned for her himself, but instead sent his brother Agamemnon
Agamemnon
on his behalf. He had promised Aphrodite
Aphrodite
a hecatomb, a sacrifice of 100 oxen, if he won Helen, but forgot about it and earned her wrath.[36] Menelaus inherited Tyndareus' throne of Sparta
Sparta
with Helen as his queen when her brothers, Castor and Pollux, became gods,[37] and when Agamemnon married Helen's sister Clytemnestra
Clytemnestra
and took back the throne of Mycenae.[38] Paris, under the guise of a supposed diplomatic mission, went to Sparta
Sparta
to get Helen and bring her back to Troy. Before Helen could look up to see him enter the palace, she was shot with an arrow from Eros, otherwise known as Cupid, and fell in love with Paris when she saw him, as promised by Aphrodite. Menelaus
Menelaus
had left for Crete[39] to bury his uncle, Crateus.[40] According to one account, Hera, still jealous over the judgement of Paris, sent a storm.[39] The storm caused the lovers to land in Egypt, where the gods replaced Helen with a likeness of her made of clouds, Nephele.[41] The myth of Helen being switched is attributed to the 6th century BC Sicilian poet Stesichorus. For Homer
Homer
the true Helen was in Troy. The ship then landed in Sidon
Sidon
before reaching Troy. Paris, fearful of getting caught, spent some time there and then sailed to Troy.[42]

Map of Homeric Greece

Paris' abduction of Helen had several precedents. Io was taken from Mycenae, Europa was taken from Phoenicia, Jason
Jason
took Medea
Medea
from Colchis,[43] and the Trojan princess Hesione
Hesione
had been taken by Heracles, who gave her to Telamon
Telamon
of Salamis.[44] According to Herodotus, Paris was emboldened by these examples to steal himself a wife from Greece, and expected no retribution, since there had been none in the other cases.[45] Gathering of Achaean forces and the first expedition According to Homer, Menelaus
Menelaus
and his ally, Odysseus, traveled to Troy, where they unsuccessfully sought to recover Helen by diplomatic means.[46] Menelaus
Menelaus
then asked Agamemnon
Agamemnon
to uphold his oath, which, as one of Helen's suitors, was to defend her marriage regardless of which suitor had been chosen. Agamemnon
Agamemnon
agreed and sent emissaries to all the Achaean kings and princes to call them to observe their oaths and retrieve Helen.[47] Odysseus
Odysseus
and Achilles

A scene from the Iliad
Iliad
where Odysseus
Odysseus
(Ulysses) discovers Achilles dressed as a woman and hiding among the princesses at the royal court of Skyros. A late Roman mosaic from La Olmeda, Spain, 4th–5th centuries AD

Since Menelaus's wedding, Odysseus
Odysseus
had married Penelope
Penelope
and fathered a son, Telemachus. In order to avoid the war, he feigned madness and sowed his fields with salt. Palamedes outwitted him by placing his infant son in front of the plough's path, and Odysseus
Odysseus
turned aside, unwilling to kill his son, so revealing his sanity and forcing him to join the war.[39][48] According to Homer, however, Odysseus
Odysseus
supported the military adventure from the beginning, and traveled the region with Pylos' king, Nestor, to recruit forces.[49] At Skyros, Achilles
Achilles
had an affair with the king's daughter Deidamia, resulting in a child, Neoptolemus.[50] Odysseus, Telamonian Ajax, and Achilles' tutor Phoenix went to retrieve Achilles. Achilles' mother disguised him as a woman so that he would not have to go to war, but, according to one story, they blew a horn, and Achilles
Achilles
revealed himself by seizing a spear to fight intruders, rather than fleeing.[26] According to another story, they disguised themselves as merchants bearing trinkets and weaponry, and Achilles
Achilles
was marked out from the other women for admiring weaponry instead of clothes and jewelry.[51] Pausanias said that, according to Homer, Achilles
Achilles
did not hide in Skyros, but rather conquered the island, as part of the Trojan War.[52]

The Discovery of Achilles
Achilles
among the Daughters of Lycomedes
Lycomedes
(1664) by Jan de Bray

First gathering at Aulis The Achaean forces first gathered at Aulis. All the suitors sent their forces except King Cinyras
Cinyras
of Cyprus. Though he sent breastplates to Agamemnon
Agamemnon
and promised to send 50 ships, he sent only one real ship, led by the son of Mygdalion, and 49 ships made of clay.[53] Idomeneus was willing to lead the Cretan contingent in Mycenae's war against Troy, but only as a co-commander, which he was granted.[54] The last commander to arrive was Achilles, who was then 15 years old. Following a sacrifice to Apollo, a snake slithered from the altar to a sparrow's nest in a plane tree nearby. It ate the mother and her nine babies, then was turned to stone. Calchas
Calchas
interpreted this as a sign that Troy
Troy
would fall in the tenth year of the war.[55] Telephus When the Achaeans left for the war, they did not know the way, and accidentally landed in Mysia, ruled by King Telephus, son of Heracles, who had led a contingent of Arcadians to settle there.[56] In the battle, Achilles
Achilles
wounded Telephus,[57] who had killed Thersander.[58] Because the wound would not heal, Telephus
Telephus
asked an oracle, "What will happen to the wound?". The oracle responded, "he that wounded shall heal". The Achaean fleet then set sail and was scattered by a storm. Achilles
Achilles
landed in Scyros
Scyros
and married Deidamia. A new gathering was set again in Aulis.[39] Telephus
Telephus
went to Aulis, and either pretended to be a beggar, asking Agamemnon
Agamemnon
to help heal his wound,[59] or kidnapped Orestes
Orestes
and held him for ransom, demanding the wound be healed.[60] Achilles
Achilles
refused, claiming to have no medical knowledge. Odysseus
Odysseus
reasoned that the spear that had inflicted the wound must be able to heal it. Pieces of the spear were scraped off onto the wound, and Telephus
Telephus
was healed.[61] Telephus
Telephus
then showed the Achaeans the route to Troy.[59] Some scholars have regarded the expedition against Telephus
Telephus
and its resolution as a derivative reworking of elements from the main story of the Trojan War, but it has also been seen as fitting the story-pattern of the "preliminary adventure" that anticipates events and themes from the main narrative, and therefore as likely to be "early and integral".[62] Second gathering

Map of the Troad
Troad
(Troas)

Eight years after the storm had scattered them,[63] the fleet of more than a thousand ships was gathered again. But when they had all reached Aulis, the winds ceased. The prophet Calchas
Calchas
stated that the goddess Artemis
Artemis
was punishing Agamemnon
Agamemnon
for killing either a sacred deer or a deer in a sacred grove, and boasting that he was a better hunter than she.[39] The only way to appease Artemis, he said, was to sacrifice Iphigenia, who was either the daughter of Agamemnon
Agamemnon
and Clytemnestra,[64] or of Helen and Theseus
Theseus
entrusted to Clytemnestra when Helen married Menelaus.[65] Agamemnon
Agamemnon
refused, and the other commanders threatened to make Palamedes commander of the expedition.[66] According to some versions, Agamemnon
Agamemnon
relented and performed the sacrifice, but others claim that he sacrificed a deer in her place, or that at the last moment, Artemis
Artemis
took pity on the girl, and took her to be a maiden in one of her temples, substituting a lamb.[39] Hesiod
Hesiod
says that Iphigenia
Iphigenia
became the goddess Hecate.[67] The Achaean forces are described in detail in the Catalogue of Ships, in the second book of the Iliad. They consisted of 28 contingents from mainland Greece, the Peloponnese, the Dodecanese
Dodecanese
islands, Crete, and Ithaca, comprising 1186 pentekonters, ships with 50 rowers. Thucydides says[68] that according to tradition there were about 1200 ships, and that the Boeotian ships had 120 men, while Philoctetes' ships only had the fifty rowers, these probably being maximum and minimum. These numbers would mean a total force of 70,000 to 130,000 men. Another catalogue of ships is given by the Bibliotheca that differs somewhat but agrees in numbers. Some scholars have claimed that Homer's catalogue is an original Bronze Age
Bronze Age
document, possibly the Achaean commander's order of operations.[69][70][71] Others believe it was a fabrication of Homer. The second book of the Iliad
Iliad
also lists the Trojan allies, consisting of the Trojans themselves, led by Hector, and various allies listed as Dardanians led by Aeneas, Zeleians, Adrasteians, Percotians, Pelasgians, Thracians, Ciconian
Ciconian
spearmen, Paionian archers, Halizones, Mysians, Phrygians, Maeonians, Miletians, Lycians led by Sarpedon
Sarpedon
and Carians. Nothing is said of the Trojan language; the Carians
Carians
are specifically said to be barbarian-speaking, and the allied contingents are said to have spoken multiple languages, requiring orders to be translated by their individual commanders.[72] The Trojans and Achaeans in the Iliad
Iliad
share the same religion, same culture and the enemy heroes speak to each other in the same language, though this could be dramatic effect.

Philoctetes
Philoctetes
on Lemnos, with Heracles' bow and quiver (Attic red-figure lekythos, 420 BC)

Nine years of war Philoctetes Philoctetes
Philoctetes
was Heracles' friend, and because he lit Heracles's funeral pyre when no one else would, he received Heracles' bow and arrows.[73] He sailed with seven ships full of men to the Trojan War, where he was planning on fighting for the Achaeans. They stopped either at Chryse Island
Chryse Island
for supplies,[74] or in Tenedos, along with the rest of the fleet.[75] Philoctetes
Philoctetes
was then bitten by a snake. The wound festered and had a foul smell; on Odysseus's advice, the Atreidae
Atreidae
ordered Philoctetes
Philoctetes
to stay on Lemnos.[39] Medon took control of Philoctetes's men. While landing on Tenedos, Achilles
Achilles
killed king Tenes, son of Apollo, despite a warning by his mother that if he did so he would be killed himself by Apollo.[76] From Tenedos, Agamemnon sent an embassy to Priam, composed of Menelaus, Odysseus, and Palamedes, asking for Helen's return. The embassy was refused.[77] Philoctetes
Philoctetes
stayed on Lemnos
Lemnos
for ten years, which was a deserted island according to Sophocles' tragedy Philoctetes, but according to earlier tradition was populated by Minyans.[78] Arrival Calchas
Calchas
had prophesied that the first Achaean to walk on land after stepping off a ship would be the first to die.[79] Thus even the leading Greeks
Greeks
hesitated to land. Finally, Protesilaus, leader of the Phylaceans, landed first.[80] Odysseus
Odysseus
had tricked him, in throwing his own shield down to land on, so that while he was first to leap off his ship, he was not the first to land on Trojan soil. Hector
Hector
killed Protesilaus in single combat, though the Trojans conceded the beach. In the second wave of attacks, Achilles
Achilles
killed Cycnus, son of Poseidon. The Trojans then fled to the safety of the walls of their city.[81] The walls served as sturdy fortifications for defense against the Greeks; the build of the walls was so impressive that legend held that they had been built by Poseidon
Poseidon
and Apollo
Apollo
during a year of forced service to Trojan King Laomedon.[82] Protesilaus had killed many Trojans but was killed by Hector
Hector
in most versions of the story,[83] though others list Aeneas, Achates, or Ephorbus as his slayer.[84] The Achaeans buried him as a god on the Thracian peninsula, across the Troad.[85] After Protesilaus' death, his brother, Podarces, took command of his troops.

Briseis
Briseis
and Achilles
Achilles
in a 17th-century book illustration by Wenzel Hollar

Achilles' campaigns

Achilles' surrender of Briseis
Briseis
to Agamemnon, from the House of the Tragic Poet in Pompeii, fresco, 1st century AD, now in the Naples National Archaeological Museum

The Achaeans besieged Troy
Troy
for nine years. This part of the war is the least developed among surviving sources, which prefer to talk about events in the last year of the war. After the initial landing the army was gathered in its entirety again only in the tenth year. Thucydides deduces that this was due to lack of money. They raided the Trojan allies and spent time farming the Thracian peninsula.[86] Troy
Troy
was never completely besieged, thus it maintained communications with the interior of Asia Minor. Reinforcements continued to come until the very end. The Achaeans controlled only the entrance to the Dardanelles, and Troy
Troy
and her allies controlled the shortest point at Abydos and Sestus
Sestus
and communicated with allies in Europe.[87] Achilles
Achilles
and Ajax were the most active of the Achaeans, leading separate armies to raid lands of Trojan allies. According to Homer, Achilles
Achilles
conquered 11 cities and 12 islands.[88] According to Apollodorus, he raided the land of Aeneas
Aeneas
in the Troad
Troad
region and stole his cattle.[89] He also captured Lyrnassus, Pedasus, and many of the neighbouring cities, and killed Troilus, son of Priam, who was still a youth; it was said that if he reached 20 years of age, Troy would not fall. According to Apollodorus,

He also took Lesbos and Phocaea, then Colophon, and Smyrna, and Clazomenae, and Cyme; and afterwards Aegialus and Tenos, the so-called Hundred Cities; then, in order, Adramytium and Side; then Endium, and Linaeum, and Colone. He took also Hypoplacian Thebes and Lyrnessus, and further Antandrus, and many other cities.[90]

Kakrides comments that the list is wrong in that it extends too far into the south.[91] Other sources talk of Achilles
Achilles
taking Pedasus, Monenia,[92] Mythemna (in Lesbos), and Peisidice.[93] Among the loot from these cities was Briseis, from Lyrnessus, who was awarded to him, and Chryseis, from Hypoplacian Thebes, who was awarded to Agamemnon.[39] Achilles
Achilles
captured Lycaon, son of Priam,[94] while he was cutting branches in his father's orchards. Patroclus
Patroclus
sold him as a slave in Lemnos,[39] where he was bought by Eetion of Imbros
Imbros
and brought back to Troy. Only 12 days later Achilles
Achilles
slew him, after the death of Patroclus.[95]

Ajax and Achilles
Achilles
playing a board game (Black-figure Attic lekythos, c. 500 BC)

Ajax and a game of petteia Ajax son of Telamon
Telamon
laid waste the Thracian peninsula of which Polymestor, a son-in-law of Priam, was king. Polymestor
Polymestor
surrendered Polydorus, one of Priam's children, of whom he had custody. He then attacked the town of the Phrygian king Teleutas, killed him in single combat and carried off his daughter Tecmessa.[96] Ajax also hunted the Trojan flocks, both on Mount Ida
Mount Ida
and in the countryside. Numerous paintings on pottery have suggested a tale not mentioned in the literary traditions. At some point in the war Achilles
Achilles
and Ajax were playing a board game (petteia).[97][98] They were absorbed in the game and oblivious to the surrounding battle.[99] The Trojans attacked and reached the heroes, who were only saved by an intervention of Athena.[100] Death of Palamedes Odysseus
Odysseus
was sent to Thrace
Thrace
to return with grain, but came back empty-handed. When scorned by Palamedes, Odysseus
Odysseus
challenged him to do better. Palamedes set out and returned with a shipload of grain.[101] Odysseus
Odysseus
had never forgiven Palamedes for threatening the life of his son. In revenge, Odysseus
Odysseus
conceived a plot[102] where an incriminating letter was forged, from Priam
Priam
to Palamedes,[103] and gold was planted in Palamedes' quarters. The letter and gold were "discovered", and Agamemnon
Agamemnon
had Palamedes stoned to death for treason. However, Pausanias, quoting the Cypria, says that Odysseus
Odysseus
and Diomedes
Diomedes
drowned Palamedes, while he was fishing, and Dictys says that Odysseus
Odysseus
and Diomedes
Diomedes
lured Palamedes into a well, which they said contained gold, then stoned him to death.[104] Palamedes' father Nauplius sailed to the Troad
Troad
and asked for justice, but was refused. In revenge, Nauplius traveled among the Achaean kingdoms and told the wives of the kings that they were bringing Trojan concubines to dethrone them. Many of the Greek wives were persuaded to betray their husbands, most significantly Agamemnon's wife, Clytemnestra, who was seduced by Aegisthus, son of Thyestes.[105] Mutiny Near the end of the ninth year since the landing, the Achaean army, tired from the fighting and from the lack of supplies, mutinied against their leaders and demanded to return to their homes. According to the Cypria, Achilles
Achilles
forced the army to stay.[39] According to Apollodorus, Agamemnon
Agamemnon
brought the Wine Growers, daughters of Anius, son of Apollo, who had the gift of producing by touch wine, wheat, and oil from the earth, in order to relieve the supply problem of the army.[106] Iliad

Chryses
Chryses
pleading with Agamemnon
Agamemnon
for his daughter (360–350 BC)

Main article: Iliad Chryses, a priest of Apollo
Apollo
and father of Chryseis, came to Agamemnon to ask for the return of his daughter. Agamemnon
Agamemnon
refused, and insulted Chryses, who prayed to Apollo
Apollo
to avenge his ill-treatment. Enraged, Apollo
Apollo
afflicted the Achaean army with plague. Agamemnon
Agamemnon
was forced to return Chryseis
Chryseis
to end the plague, and took Achilles' concubine Briseis
Briseis
as his own. Enraged at the dishonour Agamemnon
Agamemnon
had inflicted upon him, Achilles
Achilles
decided he would no longer fight. He asked his mother, Thetis, to intercede with Zeus, who agreed to give the Trojans success in the absence of Achilles, the best warrior of the Achaeans. After the withdrawal of Achilles, the Achaeans were initially successful. Both armies gathered in full for the first time since the landing. Menelaus
Menelaus
and Paris fought a duel, which ended when Aphrodite snatched the beaten Paris from the field. With the truce broken, the armies began fighting again. Diomedes
Diomedes
won great renown amongst the Achaeans, killing the Trojan hero Pandaros
Pandaros
and nearly killing Aeneas, who was only saved by his mother, Aphrodite. With the assistance of Athena, Diomedes
Diomedes
then wounded the gods Aphrodite
Aphrodite
and Ares. During the next days, however, the Trojans drove the Achaeans back to their camp and were stopped at the Achaean wall by Poseidon. The next day, though, with Zeus' help, the Trojans broke into the Achaean camp and were on the verge of setting fire to the Achaean ships. An earlier appeal to Achilles
Achilles
to return was rejected, but after Hector
Hector
burned Protesilaus' ship, he allowed his close friend[107] and relative Patroclus
Patroclus
to go into battle wearing Achilles' armour and lead his army. Patroclus
Patroclus
drove the Trojans all the way back to the walls of Troy, and was only prevented from storming the city by the intervention of Apollo. Patroclus
Patroclus
was then killed by Hector, who took Achilles' armour from the body of Patroclus.

Triumphant Achilles
Achilles
dragging Hector's body around Troy, from a panoramic fresco of the Achilleion

Achilles, maddened with grief, swore to kill Hector
Hector
in revenge. He was reconciled with Agamemnon
Agamemnon
and received Briseis
Briseis
back, untouched by Agamemnon. He received a new set of arms, forged by the god Hephaestus, and returned to the battlefield. He slaughtered many Trojans, and nearly killed Aeneas, who was saved by Poseidon. Achilles fought with the river god Scamander, and a battle of the gods followed. The Trojan army returned to the city, except for Hector, who remained outside the walls because he was tricked by Athena. Achilles killed Hector, and afterwards he dragged Hector's body from his chariot and refused to return the body to the Trojans for burial. The Achaeans then conducted funeral games for Patroclus. Afterwards, Priam came to Achilles' tent, guided by Hermes, and asked Achilles
Achilles
to return Hector's body. The armies made a temporary truce to allow the burial of the dead. The Iliad
Iliad
ends with the funeral of Hector.

After the Iliad Penthesilea
Penthesilea
and the death of Achilles

Achilles
Achilles
killing the Amazon Penthesilea

Shortly after the burial of Hector, Penthesilea, queen of the Amazons, arrived with her warriors.[108] Penthesilea, daughter of Otrere and Ares, had accidentally killed her sister Hippolyte. She was purified from this action by Priam,[109] and in exchange she fought for him and killed many, including Machaon[110] (according to Pausanias, Machaon was killed by Eurypylus),[111] and according to one version, Achilles himself, who was resurrected at the request of Thetis.[112] In another version, Penthesilia was killed by Achilles[113] who fell in love with her beauty after her death. Thersites, a simple soldier and the ugliest Achaean, taunted Achilles
Achilles
over his love[110] and gouged out Penthesilea's eyes.[114] Achilles
Achilles
slew Thersites, and after a dispute sailed to Lesbos, where he was purified for his murder by Odysseus after sacrificing to Apollo, Artemis, and Leto.[113] While they were away, Memnon of Ethiopia, son of Tithonus
Tithonus
and Eos,[115] came with his host to help his stepbrother Priam.[116] He did not come directly from Ethiopia, but either from Susa
Susa
in Persia, conquering all the peoples in between,[117] or from the Caucasus, leading an army of Ethiopians and Indians.[118] Like Achilles, he wore armour made by Hephaestus.[119] In the ensuing battle, Memnon killed Antilochus, who took one of Memnon's blows to save his father Nestor.[120] Achilles
Achilles
and Memnon then fought. Zeus
Zeus
weighed the fate of the two heroes; the weight containing that of Memnon sank,[121] and he was slain by Achilles.[113][122] Achilles
Achilles
chased the Trojans to their city, which he entered. The gods, seeing that he had killed too many of their children, decided that it was his time to die. He was killed after Paris shot a poisoned arrow that was guided by Apollo.[113][115][123] In another version he was killed by a knife to the back (or heel) by Paris, while marrying Polyxena, daughter of Priam, in the temple of Thymbraean Apollo,[124] the site where he had earlier killed Troilus. Both versions conspicuously deny the killer any sort of valour, saying Achilles
Achilles
remained undefeated on the battlefield. His bones were mingled with those of Patroclus, and funeral games were held.[125] Like Ajax, he is represented as living after his death in the island of Leuke, at the mouth of the Danube River,[126] where he is married to Helen.[127] Judgment of Arms

The suicide of Ajax (from a calyx-krater, 400–350 BC, Vulci)

A great battle raged around the dead Achilles. Ajax held back the Trojans, while Odysseus
Odysseus
carried the body away.[128] When Achilles' armour was offered to the smartest warrior, the two that had saved his body came forward as competitors. Agamemnon, unwilling to undertake the invidious duty of deciding between the two competitors, referred the dispute to the decision of the Trojan prisoners, inquiring of them which of the two heroes had done most harm to the Trojans.[129] Alternatively, the Trojans and Pallas Athena
Athena
were the judges[130][131] in that, following Nestor's advice, spies were sent to the walls to overhear what was said. A girl said that Ajax was braver:

For Aias took up and carried out of the strife the hero, Peleus' son: this great Odysseus
Odysseus
cared not to do. To this another replied by Athena's contrivance: Why, what is this you say? A thing against reason and untrue! Even a woman could carry a load once a man had put it on her shoulder; but she could not fight. For she would fail with fear if she should fight. (Scholiast on Aristophanes, Knights 1056 and Aristophanes ib)

According to Pindar, the decision was made by secret ballot among the Achaeans.[132] In all story versions, the arms were awarded to Odysseus. Driven mad with grief, Ajax desired to kill his comrades, but Athena
Athena
caused him to mistake the cattle and their herdsmen for the Achaean warriors.[133] In his frenzy he scourged two rams, believing them to be Agamemnon
Agamemnon
and Menelaus.[134] In the morning, he came to his senses and killed himself by jumping on the sword that had been given to him by Hector, so that it pierced his armpit, his only vulnerable part.[135] According to an older tradition, he was killed by the Trojans who, seeing he was invulnerable, attacked him with clay until he was covered by it and could no longer move, thus dying of starvation. Prophecies

A mosaic depicting Odysseus, from the villa of La Olmeda, Pedrosa de la Vega, Spain, late 4th–5th centuries AD

After the tenth year, it was prophesied[136] that Troy
Troy
could not fall without Heracles' bow, which was with Philoctetes
Philoctetes
in Lemnos. Odysseus and Diomedes[137] retrieved Philoctetes, whose wound had healed.[138] Philoctetes
Philoctetes
then shot and killed Paris. According to Apollodorus, Paris' brothers Helenus and Deiphobus vied over the hand of Helen. Deiphobus prevailed, and Helenus abandoned Troy
Troy
for Mt. Ida. Calchas
Calchas
said that Helenus knew the prophecies concerning the fall of Troy, so Odysseus
Odysseus
waylaid Helenus.[131][139] Under coercion, Helenus told the Achaeans that they would win if they retrieved Pelops' bones, persuaded Achilles' son Neoptolemus
Neoptolemus
to fight for them, and stole the Trojan Palladium.[140] The Greeks
Greeks
retrieved Pelop's bones,[141] and sent Odysseus
Odysseus
to retrieve Neoptolemus, who was hiding from the war in King Lycomedes's court in Scyros. Odysseus
Odysseus
gave him his father's arms.[131][142] Eurypylus, son of Telephus, leading, according to Homer, a large force of Kêteioi,[143] or Hittites
Hittites
or Mysians according to Apollodorus,[144] arrived to aid the Trojans. He killed Machaon[111] and Peneleos,[145] but was slain by Neoptolemus. Disguised as a beggar, Odysseus
Odysseus
went to spy inside Troy, but was recognized by Helen. Homesick,[146] Helen plotted with Odysseus. Later, with Helen's help, Odysseus
Odysseus
and Diomedes
Diomedes
stole the Palladium.[131][147]

The earliest known depiction of the Trojan Horse, from the Mykonos vase c. 670 BC

Trojan Horse Main article: Trojan Horse The end of the war came with one final plan. Odysseus
Odysseus
devised a new ruse—a giant hollow wooden horse, an animal that was sacred to the Trojans. It was built by Epeius
Epeius
and guided by Athena,[148] from the wood of a cornel tree grove sacred to Apollo,[149] with the inscription:

The Greeks
Greeks
dedicate this thank-offering to Athena
Athena
for their return home.[150]

The hollow horse was filled with soldiers[151] led by Odysseus. The rest of the army burned the camp and sailed for Tenedos.[152] When the Trojans discovered that the Greeks
Greeks
were gone, believing the war was over, they "joyfully dragged the horse inside the city",[153] while they debated what to do with it. Some thought they ought to hurl it down from the rocks, others thought they should burn it, while others said they ought to dedicate it to Athena.[154][155] Both Cassandra
Cassandra
and Laocoön
Laocoön
warned against keeping the horse.[156] While Cassandra
Cassandra
had been given the gift of prophecy by Apollo, she was also cursed by Apollo
Apollo
never to be believed. Serpents then came out of the sea and devoured either Laocoön
Laocoön
and one of his two sons,[154] Laocoön
Laocoön
and both his sons,[157] or only his sons,[158] a portent which so alarmed the followers of Aeneas
Aeneas
that they withdrew to Ida.[154] The Trojans decided to keep the horse and turned to a night of mad revelry and celebration.[131] Sinon, an Achaean spy, signaled the fleet stationed at Tenedos
Tenedos
when "it was midnight and the clear moon was rising"[159] and the soldiers from inside the horse emerged and killed the guards.[160] Sack of Troy

Neoptolemus, son of Achilles, kills King Priam
Priam
(detail of Attic black-figure amphora, 520–510 BC)

The Achaeans entered the city and killed the sleeping population. A great massacre followed which continued into the day.

Blood ran in torrents, drenched was all the earth, As Trojans and their alien helpers died. Here were men lying quelled by bitter death All up and down the city in their blood.[161]

The Trojans, fuelled with desperation, fought back fiercely, despite being disorganized and leaderless. With the fighting at its height, some donned fallen enemies' attire and launched surprise counterattacks in the chaotic street fighting. Other defenders hurled down roof tiles and anything else heavy down on the rampaging attackers. The outlook was grim though, and eventually the remaining defenders were destroyed along with the whole city. Neoptolemus
Neoptolemus
killed Priam, who had taken refuge at the altar of Zeus
Zeus
of the Courtyard.[154][162] Menelaus
Menelaus
killed Deiphobus, Helen's husband after Paris' death, and also intended to kill Helen, but, overcome by her beauty, threw down his sword[163] and took her to the ships.[154][164] Ajax the Lesser
Ajax the Lesser
raped Cassandra
Cassandra
on Athena's altar while she was clinging to her statue. Because of Ajax's impiety, the Acheaens, urged by Odysseus, wanted to stone him to death, but he fled to Athena's altar, and was spared.[154][165] Antenor, who had given hospitality to Menelaus
Menelaus
and Odysseus
Odysseus
when they asked for the return of Helen, and who had advocated so, was spared, along with his family.[166] Aeneas
Aeneas
took his father on his back and fled, and, according to Apollodorus, was allowed to go because of his piety.[162] The Greeks
Greeks
then burned the city and divided the spoils. Cassandra
Cassandra
was awarded to Agamemnon. Neoptolemus
Neoptolemus
got Andromache, wife of Hector, and Odysseus
Odysseus
was given Hecuba, Priam's wife.[167] The Achaeans[168] threw Hector's infant son Astyanax
Astyanax
down from the walls of Troy,[169] either out of cruelty and hate[170] or to end the royal line, and the possibility of a son's revenge.[171] They (by usual tradition Neoptolemus) also sacrificed the Trojan princess Polyxena
Polyxena
on the grave of Achilles
Achilles
as demanded by his ghost, either as part of his spoil or because she had betrayed him.[172] Aethra, Theseus' mother, and one of Helen's handmaids,[173] was rescued by her grandsons, Demophon and Acamas.[154][174] Returns Main article: Returns from Troy The gods were very angry over the destruction of their temples and other sacrilegious acts by the Achaeans, and decided that most would not return home. A storm fell on the returning fleet off Tenos
Tenos
island. Additionally, Nauplius, in revenge for the murder of his son Palamedes, set up false lights in Cape Caphereus (also known today as Cavo D'Oro, in Euboea) and many were shipwrecked.[175]

Agamemnon
Agamemnon
had made it back to Argos
Argos
safely with Cassandra
Cassandra
in his possession after some stormy weather. He and Cassandra
Cassandra
were slain by Aegisthus
Aegisthus
(in the oldest versions of the story) or by Clytemnestra
Clytemnestra
or by both of them. Electra
Electra
and Orestes
Orestes
later avenged their father, but Orestes
Orestes
was the one who was chased by the Furies. Nestor, who had the best conduct in Troy
Troy
and did not take part in the looting, was the only hero who had a fast and safe return.[176] Those of his army that survived the war also reached home with him safely, but later left and colonised Metapontium
Metapontium
in Southern Italy.[177]

Poseidon
Poseidon
smites Ajax the Lesser, by Bonaventura Genelli
Bonaventura Genelli
(1798–1868)

Ajax the Lesser, who had endured more than the others the wrath of the Gods, never returned. His ship was wrecked by a storm sent by Athena, who borrowed one of Zeus' thunderbolts and tore it to pieces. The crew managed to land in a rock, but Poseidon
Poseidon
struck it, and Ajax fell in the sea and drowned. He was buried by Thetis
Thetis
in Myconos[178] or Delos.[179] Teucer, son of Telamon
Telamon
and half-brother of Ajax, stood trial by his father for his half-brother's death. He was disowned by his father and wasn't allowed back on Salamis Island. He was at sea near Phreattys in Peiraeus.[180] He was acquitted of responsibility but found guilty of negligence because he did not return his dead body or his arms. He left with his army (who took their wives) and founded Salamis in Cyprus.[181] The Athenians later created a political myth that his son left his kingdom to Theseus' sons (and not to Megara). Neoptolemus, following the advice of Helenus, who accompanied him when he traveled over land, was always accompanied by Andromache. He met Odysseus
Odysseus
and they buried Achilles' teacher Phoenix on the land of the Ciconians. They then conquered the land of the Molossians
Molossians
(Epirus) and Neoptolemus
Neoptolemus
had a child by Andromache, Molossus, to whom he later gave the throne.[182] Thus the kings of Epirus
Epirus
claimed their lineage from Achilles, and so did Alexander the Great, whose mother was of that royal house. Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great
and the kings of Macedon
Macedon
also claimed to be descended from Heracles. Helenus founded a city in Molossia and inhabited it, and Neoptolemus
Neoptolemus
gave him his mother Deidamia as wife. After Peleus
Peleus
died he succeeded Phtia's throne.[183] He had a feud with Orestes
Orestes
(son of Agamemnon) over Menelaus' daughter Hermione, and was killed in Delphi, where he was buried.[184] In Roman myths, the kingdom of Phtia was taken over by Helenus, who married Andromache. They offered hospitality to other Trojan refugees, including Aeneas, who paid a visit there during his wanderings. Diomedes
Diomedes
was first thrown by a storm on the coast of Lycia, where he was to be sacrificed to Ares
Ares
by king Lycus, but Callirrhoe, the king's daughter, took pity upon him, and assisted him in escaping.[185] He then accidentally landed in Attica, in Phaleron. The Athenians, unaware that they were allies, attacked them. Many were killed, and Demophon took the Palladium.[186] He finally landed in Argos, where he found his wife Aegialeia committing adultery. In disgust, he left for Aetolia.[187] According to later traditions, he had some adventures and founded Canusium
Canusium
and Argyrippa in Southern Italy.[188] Philoctetes, due to a sedition, was driven from his city and emigrated to Italy, where he founded the cities of Petilia, Old Crimissa, and Chone, between Croton and Thurii.[189] After making war on the Leucanians he founded there a sanctuary of Apollo
Apollo
the Wanderer, to whom also he dedicated his bow.[190] According to Homer, Idomeneus
Idomeneus
reached his house safe and sound.[191] Another tradition later formed. After the war, Idomeneus's ship hit a horrible storm. Idomeneus
Idomeneus
promised Poseidon
Poseidon
that he would sacrifice the first living thing he saw when he returned home if Poseidon
Poseidon
would save his ship and crew. The first living thing he saw was his son, whom Idomeneus
Idomeneus
duly sacrificed. The gods were angry at his murder of his own son and they sent a plague to Crete. His people sent him into exile to Calabria
Calabria
in Italy,[192] and then to Colophon, in Asia Minor, where he died.[193] Among the lesser Achaeans very few reached their homes.

House of Atreus

The murder of Agamemnon
Agamemnon
(1879 illustration from Alfred Church's Stories from the Greek Tragedians)

According to the Odyssey, Menelaus's fleet was blown by storms to Crete
Crete
and Egypt, where they were unable to sail away due to calm winds.[194] Only five of his ships survived.[176] Menelaus
Menelaus
had to catch Proteus, a shape-shifting sea god, to find out what sacrifices to which gods he would have to make to guarantee safe passage.[195] According to some stories the Helen who was taken by Paris was a fake, and the real Helen was in Egypt, where she was reunited with Menelaus. Proteus
Proteus
also told Menelaus
Menelaus
that he was destined for Elysium
Elysium
(Heaven) after his death. Menelaus
Menelaus
returned to Sparta
Sparta
with Helen eight years after he had left Troy.[196] Agamemnon
Agamemnon
returned home with Cassandra
Cassandra
to Argos. His wife Clytemnestra (Helen's sister) was having an affair with Aegisthus, son of Thyestes, Agamemnon's cousin who had conquered Argos
Argos
before Agamemnon
Agamemnon
himself retook it. Possibly out of vengeance for the death of Iphigenia, Clytemnestra
Clytemnestra
plotted with her lover to kill Agamemnon. Cassandra foresaw this murder, and warned Agamemnon, but he disregarded her. He was killed, either at a feast or in his bath,[197] according to different versions. Cassandra
Cassandra
was also killed.[198] Agamemnon's son Orestes, who had been away, returned and conspired with his sister Electra
Electra
to avenge their father.[199] He killed Clytemnestra
Clytemnestra
and Aegisthus
Aegisthus
and succeeded to his father's throne.[200][201] Odyssey Main article: Odyssey Odysseus' ten-year journey home to Ithaca
Ithaca
was told in Homer's Odyssey. Odysseus
Odysseus
and his men were blown far off course to lands unknown to the Achaeans; there Odysseus
Odysseus
had many adventures, including the famous encounter with the Cyclops
Cyclops
Polyphemus, and an audience with the seer Teiresias
Teiresias
in Hades. On the island of Thrinacia, Odysseus' men ate the cattle sacred to the sun-god Helios. For this sacrilege Odysseus' ships were destroyed, and all his men perished. Odysseus
Odysseus
had not eaten the cattle, and was allowed to live; he washed ashore on the island of Ogygia, and lived there with the nymph Calypso. After seven years, the gods decided to send Odysseus
Odysseus
home; on a small raft, he sailed to Scheria, the home of the Phaeacians, who gave him passage to Ithaca.

Odysseus
Odysseus
and Polyphemus
Polyphemus
by Arnold Böcklin: the Cyclops' curse delays the homecoming of Odysseus
Odysseus
for another ten years

Once in his home land, Odysseus
Odysseus
traveled disguised as an old beggar. He was recognised by his dog, Argos, who died in his lap. He then discovered that his wife, Penelope, had been faithful to him during the 20 years he was absent, despite the countless suitors that were eating his food and spending his property. With the help of his son Telemachus, Athena, and Eumaeus, the swineherd, he killed all of them except Medon, who had been polite to Penelope, and Phemius, a local singer who had only been forced to help the suitors against Penelope. Penelope
Penelope
tested Odysseus
Odysseus
and made sure it was him, and he forgave her. The next day the suitors' relatives tried to take revenge on him but they were stopped by Athena. Telegony Main article: Telegony The Telegony picks up where the Odyssey
Odyssey
leaves off, beginning with the burial of the dead suitors, and continues until the death of Odysseus.[202] Some years after Odysseus' return, Telegonus, the son of Odysseus
Odysseus
and Circe, came to Ithaca
Ithaca
and plundered the island. Odysseus, attempting to fight off the attack, was killed by his unrecognized son. After Telegonus realized he had killed his father, he brought the body to his mother Circe, along with Telemachus
Telemachus
and Penelope. Circe
Circe
made them immortal; then Telegonus married Penelope and Telemachus
Telemachus
married Circe. Aeneid

Aeneas
Aeneas
Flees Burning Troy
Troy
(1598) by Federico Barocci

Main article: Aeneid The journey of the Trojan survivor Aeneas
Aeneas
and his resettling of Trojan refugees in Italy
Italy
are the subject of the Latin epic poem The Aeneid
Aeneid
by Virgil. Writing during the time of Augustus, Virgil
Virgil
has his hero give a first-person account of the fall of Troy
Troy
in the second of the Aeneid 's twelve books; the Trojan Horse, which does not appear in "The Iliad", became legendary from Virgil's account. Aeneas
Aeneas
leads a group of survivors away from the city, among them his son Ascanius
Ascanius
(also known as Iulus), his trumpeter Misenus, father Anchises, the healer Iapyx, his faithful sidekick Achates, and Mimas as a guide. His wife Creusa is killed during the sack of the city. Aeneas
Aeneas
also carries the Lares
Lares
and Penates
Penates
of Troy, which the historical Romans claimed to preserve as guarantees of Rome's own security. The Trojan survivors escape with a number of ships, seeking to establish a new homeland elsewhere. They land in several nearby countries that prove inhospitable, and are finally told by an oracle that they must return to the land of their forebears. They first try to establish themselves in Crete, where Dardanus
Dardanus
had once settled, but find it ravaged by the same plague that had driven Idomeneus
Idomeneus
away. They find the colony led by Helenus and Andromache, but decline to remain. After seven years they arrive in Carthage, where Aeneas
Aeneas
has an affair with Queen Dido. (Since according to tradition Carthage
Carthage
was founded in 814 BC, the arrival of Trojan refugees a few hundred years earlier exposes chronological difficulties within the mythic tradition.) Eventually the gods order Aeneas
Aeneas
to continue onward, and he and his people arrive at the mouth of the Tiber
Tiber
River in Italy. Dido commits suicide, and Aeneas's betrayal of her was regarded as an element in the long enmity between Rome and Carthage
Carthage
that expressed itself in the Punic Wars
Punic Wars
and led to Roman hegemony. At Cumae, the Sibyl
Sibyl
leads Aeneas
Aeneas
on an archetypal descent to the underworld, where the shade of his dead father serves as a guide; this book of the Aeneid
Aeneid
directly influenced Dante, who has Virgil
Virgil
act as his narrator's guide. Aeneas
Aeneas
is given a vision of the future majesty of Rome, which it was his duty to found, and returns to the world of the living. He negotiates a settlement with the local king, Latinus, and was wed to his daughter, Lavinia. This triggered a war with other local tribes, which culminated in the founding of the settlement of Alba Longa, ruled by Aeneas
Aeneas
and Lavinia's son Silvius. Roman myth attempted to reconcile two different founding myths: three hundred years later, in the more famous tradition, Romulus
Romulus
founded Rome after murdering his brother Remus. The Trojan origins of Rome became particularly important in the propaganda of Julius Caesar, whose family claimed descent from Venus through Aeneas's son Iulus (hence the Latin gens name Iulius), and during the reign of Augustus; see for instance the Tabulae Iliacae
Tabulae Iliacae
and the " Troy
Troy
Game" presented frequently by the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Dates of the Trojan War

Hypnos
Hypnos
and Thanatos
Thanatos
carrying the body of Sarpedon
Sarpedon
from the battlefield of Troy; detail from an Attic white-ground lekythos, c. 440 BC.

Since this war was considered among the ancient Greeks
Greeks
as either the last event of the mythical age or the first event of the historical age, several dates are given for the fall of Troy. They usually derive from genealogies of kings. Ephorus gives 1135 BC,[203] Sosibius 1172 BC,[204] Eratosthenes
Eratosthenes
1184 BC/1183 BC,[205] Timaeus 1193 BC,[206] the Parian marble 1209 BC/1208 BC,[207] Dicaearchus
Dicaearchus
1212 BC,[208] Herodotus
Herodotus
around 1250 BC,[209] Eretes 1291 BC,[210] while Douris 1334 BC.[211] As for the exact day Ephorus gives 23/24 Thargelion (May 6 or 7), Hellanicus 12 Thargelion (May 26)[212] while others give the 23rd of Sciroforion (July 7) or the 23rd of Ponamos (October 7). The glorious and rich city Homer
Homer
describes was believed to be Troy
Troy
VI by many twentieth century authors, destroyed in 1275 BC, probably by an earthquake. Its follower Troy
Troy
VIIa, destroyed by fire at some point during the 1180s BC, was long considered a poorer city, but since the excavation campaign of 1988 it has risen to the most likely candidate.

Map showing the Hittite Empire, Ahhiyawa (possibly the Achaeans) and Wilusa (Troy)

Historical basis See also: Historicity of the Iliad The historicity of the Trojan War
Trojan War
is still subject to debate. Most classical Greeks
Greeks
thought that the war was a historical event, but many believed that the Homeric poems had exaggerated the events to suit the demands of poetry. For instance, the historian Thucydides, who is known for being critical, considers it a true event but doubts that 1,186 ships were sent to Troy. Euripides
Euripides
started changing Greek myths at will, including those of the Trojan War. Near year 100, Dio Chrysostom argued that while the war was historical, it ended with the Trojans winning, and the Greeks
Greeks
attempted to hide that fact.[213] Around 1870 it was generally agreed in Western Europe that the Trojan War had never happened and Troy
Troy
never existed.[214] Then Heinrich Schliemann popularized his excavations at Hisarlik, which he and others believed to be Troy, and of the Mycenaean cities of Greece. Today many scholars agree that the Trojan War
Trojan War
is based on a historical core of a Greek expedition against the city of Troy, but few would argue that the Homeric poems faithfully represent the actual events of the war. In November 2001, geologist John C. Kraft and classicist John V. Luce presented the results of investigations into the geology of the region that had started in 1977.[215][216][217] The geologists compared the present geology with the landscapes and coastal features described in the Iliad
Iliad
and other classical sources, notably Strabo's Geographia. Their conclusion was that there is regularly a consistency between the location of Troy
Troy
as identified by Schliemann (and other locations such as the Greek camp), the geological evidence, and descriptions of the topography and accounts of the battle in the Iliad. In the twentieth century scholars have attempted to draw conclusions based on Hittite and Egyptian texts that date to the time of the Trojan War. While they give a general description of the political situation in the region at the time, their information on whether this particular conflict took place is limited. Andrew Dalby notes that while the Trojan War
Trojan War
most likely did take place in some form and is therefore grounded in history, its true nature is and will be unknown.[218] The Tawagalawa letter mentions a kingdom of Ahhiyawa (Achaea, or Greece) that lies beyond the sea (that would be the Aegean) and controls Milliwanda, which is identified with Miletus. Also mentioned in this and other letters is the Assuwa confederation made of 22 cities and countries which included the city of Wilusa (Ilios or Ilium). The Milawata letter implies this city lies on the north of the Assuwa confederation, beyond the Seha
Seha
river. While the identification of Wilusa with Ilium (that is, Troy) is always controversial, in the 1990s it gained majority acceptance. In the Alaksandu treaty (c. 1280 BC) the king of the city is named Alaksandu, and Paris's name in the Iliad
Iliad
(among other works) is Alexander. The Tawagalawa letter (dated c. 1250 BC) which is addressed to the king of Ahhiyawa actually says: "Now as we have come to an agreement on Wilusa over which we went to war ..."[full citation needed] Formerly under the Hittites, the Assuwa confederation defected after the battle of Kadesh between Egypt
Egypt
and the Hittites
Hittites
(c. 1274 BC). In 1230 BC Hittite king Tudhaliya IV
Tudhaliya IV
(c. 1240–1210 BC) campaigned against this federation. Under Arnuwanda III (c. 1210–1205 BC) the Hittites
Hittites
were forced to abandon the lands they controlled in the coast of the Aegean. It is possible that the Trojan War
Trojan War
was a conflict between the king of Ahhiyawa and the Assuwa confederation. This view has been supported in that the entire war includes the landing in Mysia
Mysia
(and Telephus' wounding), Achilles's campaigns in the North Aegean and Telamonian Ajax's campaigns in Thrace
Thrace
and Phrygia. Most of these regions were part of Assuwa.[70][219] That most Achaean heroes did not return to their homes and founded colonies elsewhere was interpreted by Thucydides
Thucydides
as being due to their long absence.[220] Nowadays the interpretation followed by most scholars is that the Achaean leaders driven out of their lands by the turmoil at the end of the Mycenaean era preferred to claim descent from exiles of the Trojan War.[221] In popular culture Main article: Trojan War
Trojan War
in popular culture The inspiration provided by these events produced many literary works, far more than can be listed here. The siege of Troy
Troy
provided inspiration for many works of art, most famously Homer's Iliad, set in the last year of the siege. Some of the others include Troades by Euripides, Troilus
Troilus
and Criseyde by Geoffrey Chaucer, Troilus
Troilus
and Cressida by William Shakespeare, Iphigenia
Iphigenia
and Polyxena
Polyxena
by Samuel Coster, Palamedes by Joost van den Vondel
Joost van den Vondel
and Les Troyens
Les Troyens
by Hector Berlioz. Films based on the Trojan War
Trojan War
include Helen of Troy
Troy
(1956), The Trojan Horse (1961) and Troy
Troy
(2004). The war has also been featured in many books, television series, and other creative works. References

^ Bryce, Trevor (2005). The Trojans and their neighbours. Taylor & Francis. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-415-34959-8.  ^ Rutter, Jeremy B. " Troy
Troy
VII and the Historicity of the Trojan War". Retrieved 2007-07-23.  ^ In the second edition of his In Search of the Trojan War, Michael Wood notes developments that were made in the intervening ten years since his first edition was published. Scholarly skepticism about Schliemann's identification has been dispelled by the more recent archaeological discoveries, linguistic research, and translations of clay-tablet records of contemporaneous diplomacy. Wood, Michael (1998). "Preface". In Search of the Trojan War
Trojan War
(2 ed.). Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. p. 4. ISBN 0-520-21599-0. Now, more than ever, in the 125 years since Schliemann put his spade into Hisarlik, there appears to be a historical basis to the tale of Troy  ^ Wood (1985: 116–118) ^ Wood (1985: 19) ^ It is unknown whether this Proclus is the Neoplatonic philosopher, in which case the summary dates to the 5th century AD, or whether he is the lesser-known grammarian of the 2nd century AD. See Burgess, p. 12. ^ Burgess, pp. 10–12; cf. W. Kullmann (1960), Die Quellen der Ilias. ^ Burgess, pp. 3–4. ^ Scholium on Homer
Homer
A.5. ^ Plato, Republic 2,379e. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.1, Hesiod
Hesiod
Fragment 204,95ff. ^ Berlin Papyri, No. 9739; Hesiod. Catalogue of Women Fragment 68. Translated by Evelyn-White, H G. Loeb Classical Library
Loeb Classical Library
Volume 57. London: William Heinemann, 1914 ^ Apollonius Rhodius 4.757. ^ Aeschylus, Prometheus
Prometheus
Bound 767. ^ Scholiast on Homer’s Iliad; Hyginus, Fabulae 54; Ovid, Metamorphoses 11.217. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.168. ^ Pindar, Nemean 5 ep2; Pindar, Isthmian 8 str3–str5. ^ Hesiod, Catalogue of Women fr. 57; Cypria fr. 4. ^ Photius, Myrobiblion 190. ^ P.Oxy. 56, 3829 (L. Koppel, 1989) ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 92. ^ Apollodorus Epitome E.3.2 ^ Pausanias, 15.9.5. ^ Euripides
Euripides
Andromache
Andromache
298; Div. i. 21; Apollodorus, Library 3.12.5. ^ Homer
Homer
Iliad
Iliad
I.410 ^ a b Apollodorus, Library 3.13.8. ^ Apollonius Rhodius 4.869–879; Apollodorus, Library 3.13.6. ^ Frazer on Apollodorus, Library 3.13.6. ^ Alluded to in Statius, Achilleid 1.269–270. ^ Hyginus, Fabulae 96. ^ Apollodorus 3.10.7. ^ Pausanias 1.33.1; Apollodorus, Library 3.10.7. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.10.5; Hyginus, Fabulae 77. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.10.9. ^ Pausanias 3.20.9. ^ Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History 4 (as summarized in Photius, Myriobiblon 190). ^ Pindar, Pythian 11 ep4; Apollodorus, Library 3.11.15. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 2.15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Proclus Chrestomathy 1 ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.3. ^ Euripides, Helen 40. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.4. ^ Herodotus, Histories 1.2. ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.12.7. ^ Herodotus, 1.3.1. ^ Il. 3.205-6; 11.139 ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.6. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.7. ^ Il.11.767–770, (lines rejected by Aristophanes and Aristarchus) ^ Statius, Achilleid 1.25 ^ Scholiast on Homer's Iliad
Iliad
19.326; Ovid, Metamorphoses 13.162 ff. ^ Pausanias, 1.22.6. ^ Homer, Iliad
Iliad
11.19 ff.; Apollodurus, Epitome 3.9. ^ Philostratus, Heroicus 7. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.15. ^ Pausanias, 1.4.6. ^ Pindar, Isthmian 8. ^ Pausanias, 9.5.14. ^ a b Apollodorus, Epitome 3.20. ^ Aeschylus
Aeschylus
fragment 405–410 ^ Pliny, Natural History 24.42, 34.152. ^ Davies, esp. pp. 8, 10. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.19. ^ Philodemus, On Piety. ^ Antoninus Liberalis, Metamorphoses 27. ^ Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History 5 (as summarized in Photius, Myriobiblon 190). ^ Pausanias, 1.43.1. ^ History of the Pelloponesian War 1,10. ^ Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους (History of the Greek Nation) vol. A, Ekdotiki Athinon, Athens
Athens
1968. ^ a b Pantelis Karykas, Μυκηναίοι Πολεμιστές (Mycenian Warriors), Athens
Athens
1999. ^ Vice Admiral P.E. Konstas R.H.N.,Η ναυτική ηγεμονία των Μυκηνών (The naval hegemony of Mycenae), Athens
Athens
1966 ^ Homer, Iliad
Iliad
Β.803–806. ^ Diodorus iv, 38. ^ Pausanias 8.33.4 ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.27. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.26. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.28. ^ Herodotus
Herodotus
4.145.3. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.29. ^ Pausanias 4.2.7. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.31. ^ Cartwright, Mark (2 August 2012). "Troy". Ancient History Encyclopedia.  ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.30. ^ Eustathius on Homer, Iliad
Iliad
ii.701. ^ Scholiast on Lycophron 532. ^ Thucydides
Thucydides
1.11. ^ Papademetriou Konstantinos, "Τα όπλα του Τρωϊκού Πολέμου" ("The weapons of the Trojan War"), Panzer Magazine issue 14, June–July 2004, Athens. ^ Iliad
Iliad
I.328 ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.32. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.33; translation, Sir James George Frazer. ^ Volume 5 p. 80 ^ Demetrius (2nd century BC) Scholium on Iliad
Iliad
Z,35 ^ Parthenius Ερωτικά Παθήματα 21 ^ Apollodorus, Library 3.12.5. ^ Homer, Iliad
Iliad
Φ 35–155. ^ Dictis Cretensis ii. 18; Sophocles, Ajax 210. ^ "Petteia". ^ "Greek Board Games". ^ "Latrunculi". ^ Kakrides vol. 5 p. 92. ^ Servius, Scholium on Virgil's Aeneid
Aeneid
2.81 ^ According to other accounts Odysseus, with the other Greek captains, including Agamemnon, conspired together against Palamedes, as all were envious of his accomplishments. See Simpson, Gods & Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus, p. 251. ^ According to Apollodorus Epitome 3.8, Odysseus
Odysseus
forced a Phrygian prisoner, to write the letter. ^ Pausanias 10.31.2; Simpson, Gods & Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus, p. 251. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.9. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 3.10 ^ The exact nature of Achilles' relationship to Patroclus
Patroclus
is the subject of some debate. See Achilles
Achilles
and Patroclus
Patroclus
for details. ^ Scholiast on Homer, Iliad. xxiv. 804. ^ Quintus of Smyrna, Posthomerica i.18 ff. ^ a b Apollodorus, Epitome 5.1. ^ a b Pausanias 3.26.9. ^ Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History Bk6 (as summarized in Photius, Myriobiblon 190) ^ a b c d Proclus, Chrestomathy 2, Aethiopis. ^ Tzetzes, Scholiast on Lycophron 999. ^ a b Apollodorus, Epitome 5.3. ^ Tzetzes ad Lycophroon 18. ^ Pausanias 10.31.7. ^ Dictys Cretensis iv. 4. ^ Virgil, Aeneid
Aeneid
8.372. ^ Pindarus Pythian vi. 30. ^ Quintus Smyrnaeus
Quintus Smyrnaeus
ii. 224. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Library of History 4.75.4. ^ Pausanias 1.13.9. ^ Euripedes, Hecuba
Hecuba
40. ^ Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica iv. 88–595. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.5. ^ Pausanias 3.19.13. ^ Argument of Sophocles' Ajax ^ Scholiast on Homer's Odyssey
Odyssey
λ.547. ^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
λ 542. ^ a b c d e Proclus, Chrestomathy 3, Little Iliad. ^ Pindar, Nemean Odes 8.46(25). ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.6. ^ Zenobius, Cent. i.43. ^ Sophocles, Ajax 42, 277, 852. ^ Either by Calchas, (Apollodorus, Epitome 5.8; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica 9.325–479), or by Paris' brother Helenus (Proclus, Chrestomathy 3, Little Iliad; Sophocles, Philoctetes
Philoctetes
604–613; Tzetzes, Posthomerica 571–595). ^ This is according to Apollodorus, Epitome 5.8, Hyginus, Fabulae 103, Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica 9.325–479, and Euripides, Philoctetes—but Sophocles, Philoctetes
Philoctetes
says Odysseus
Odysseus
and Neoptolemus, while Proclus, Chrestomathy 3, Little Iliad
Iliad
says Diomedes alone. ^ Philoctetes
Philoctetes
was cured by a son of Asclepius, either Machaon, (Proclus, Chrestomathy 3, Little Iliad; Tzetzes, Posthomerica 571–595) or his brother Podalirius
Podalirius
(Apollodorus, Epitome 5.8; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica 9.325–479). ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.9. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.10; Pausanias 5.13.4. ^ Pausanias 5.13.4–6, says that Pelop's shoulder-blade was brought to Troy
Troy
from Pisa, and on its return home was lost at sea, later to be found by a fisherman, and identified as Pelop's by the Oracle at Delphi. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.11. ^ Odyssey
Odyssey
λ.520 ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.12. ^ Pausanias 9.5.15. ^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
4.242 ff. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.13. ^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
8.492–495; Apollodorus, Epitome 5.14. ^ Pausanias, 3.13.5. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.15, Simpson, p. 246. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.14, says the hollow horse held 50, but attributes to the author of the Little Iliad
Iliad
a figure of 3,000, a number that Simpson, p. 265, calls "absurd", saying that the surviving fragments only say that the Greeks
Greeks
put their "best men" inside the horse. Tzetzes, Posthomerica 641–650, gives a figure of 23, while Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xii.314–335, gives the names of thirty, and says that there were more. In late tradition it seems it was standardized at 40. ^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
8.500–504; Apollodorus, Epitome 5.15. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.16, as translated by Simpson, p. 246. Proculus, Chrestomathy 3, Little Iliad, says that the Trojans pulled down a part of their walls to admit the horse. ^ a b c d e f g Proclus, Chrestomathy 4, Iliou Persis. ^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
8.505 ff.; Apollodorus, Epitome 5.16–15. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.17 says that Cassandra
Cassandra
warned of an armed force inside the horse, and that Laocoön
Laocoön
agreed. ^ Virgil, Aeneid
Aeneid
2.199–227; Hyginus, Fabulae 135; ^ Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xii.444–497; Apollodorus, Epitome 5.18. ^ Scholiast on Lycophroon, 344. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.19–20. ^ Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.100–104, Translation by A.S. Way, 1913. ^ a b Apollodorus. Epitome 5.21. ^ Aristophanes, Lysistrata 155; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.423–457. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.22. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.22; Pausanias 10.31.2; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.462–473; Virgil, Aeneid
Aeneid
403–406. The rape of Cassandra
Cassandra
was a popular theme of ancient Greek paintings, see Pausanias, 1.15.2, 5.11.6, 5.19.5, 10.26.3. ^ Homer, Iliad
Iliad
3.203–207, 7.347–353; Apollodorus, Epitome, 5.21; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.322–331, Livy, 1.1; Pausanias, 10.26.8, 27.3 ff.; Strabo, 13.1.53. ^ Apollodorus. Epitome 5.23. ^ Proclus, Chrestomathy 4, Ilio Persis, says Odysseus
Odysseus
killed Astyanax, while Pausanias, 10.25.9, says Neoptolemus. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.23. ^ Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.279–285. ^ Euripides, Trojan Women 709–739, 1133–1135; Hyginus, Fabulae 109. ^ Euripides, Hecuba
Hecuba
107–125, 218–224, 391–393, 521–582; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiv.193–328. ^ Homer, Iliad
Iliad
3.144. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 5.22; Pausanias, 10.25.8; Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica xiii.547–595. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.11. ^ a b Apollodorus, Epitome 5.24. ^ Strabo, 6.1.15. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.6. ^ Scholiast on Homer, Iliad
Iliad
13.66. ^ Pausanias, 1.28.11. ^ Pausanias, 8.15.7 ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.12 ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.13. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.14. ^ Plutarch, 23. ^ Pausanias, 1.28.9. ^ Tzetzes ad Lycophroon 609. ^ Strabo, 6.3.9. ^ Strabo, 6.1.3. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.15b; Strabo, 6.1.3. ^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
3.191. ^ Virgil, Aeneid
Aeneid
3.400 ^ Scholiast on Homer's Odyssey
Odyssey
13.259. ^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
4.360. ^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
4.382. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.29. ^ Pausanias, 2.16.6. ^ Apollodorus, Epitome 6.23. ^ Homer, Odyssey
Odyssey
1.30, 298. ^ Pausanias, 2.16.7. ^ Sophocles, Electra
Electra
1405. ^ Proclus Chrestomathy 2, Telegony ^ FGrHist 70 F 223 ^ FGrHist 595 F 1 ^ Chronographiai FGrHist 241 F 1d ^ FGrHist 566 F 125 ^ FGrHist 239, §24 ^ Bios Hellados ^ Histories 2,145 ^ FGrHist 242 F 1 ^ FGrHist 76 F 41 ^ FGrHist 4 F 152 ^ Dio Chrysostom
Dio Chrysostom
The Eleventh Discourse Maintaining that Troy
Troy
was not Captured ^ Yale University: Introduction to Ancient Greek History: Lecture 2 ^ Kraft, J. C.; Rapp, G. (Rip); Kayan, I.; Luce, J. V. (2003). "Harbor areas at ancient Troy: Sedimentology and geomorphology complement Homer's Iliad". Geology. 31 (2): 163. doi:10.1130/0091-7613(2003)031<0163:HAAATS>2.0.CO;2.  ^ Geologists show Homer
Homer
got it right at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived April 2, 2003) ^ Iliad, Discovery. ^ Wilson, Emily. Was The Iliad
Iliad
written by a woman?, Slate Magazine, December 12, 2006. Accessed June 30, 2008. ^ Ιστορία του Ελληνικού Έθνους (History of the Greek Nation) Volume A. Athens: Ekdotiki Athinon, 1968. ^ Thucydides. The Peloponnesian War, 1.12.2. ^ Graves, Robert. The Greek Myths, "The Returns".

Further reading

Tabula Iliaca, a 1st-century BC Roman bas-relief depicting scenes from Trojan War
Trojan War
narratives

Ancient authors

Apollodorus, Gods & Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus, translated by Michael Simpson, The University of Massachusetts Press, (1976). ISBN 0-87023-205-3. Apollodorus, Apollodorus: The Library, translated by Sir James George Frazer, two volumes, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press and London: William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. Volume 1: ISBN 0-674-99135-4. Volume 2: ISBN 0-674-99136-2. Euripides, Andromache, in Euripides: Children of Heracles, Hippolytus, Andromache, Hecuba, with an English translation by David Kovacs. Cambridge. Harvard University Press. (1996). ISBN 0-674-99533-3. Euripides, Helen, in The Complete Greek Drama, edited by Whitney J. Oates and Eugene O'Neill, Jr. in two volumes. 1. Helen, translated by E. P. Coleridge. New York. Random House. 1938. Euripides, Hecuba, in The Complete Greek Drama, edited by Whitney J. Oates and Eugene O'Neill, Jr. in two volumes. 1. Hecuba, translated by E. P. Coleridge. New York. Random House. 1938. Herodotus, Histories, A. D. Godley (translator), Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1920; ISBN 0-674-99133-8. Online version at the Perseus
Perseus
Digital Library]. Pausanias, Description of Greece, (Loeb Classical Library) translated by W. H. S. Jones; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London, William Heinemann Ltd. (1918). Vol 1, Books I–II, ISBN 0-674-99104-4; Vol 2, Books III–V, ISBN 0-674-99207-5; Vol 3, Books VI–VIII.21, ISBN 0-674-99300-4; Vol 4, Books VIII.22–X, ISBN 0-674-99328-4. Proclus, Chrestomathy, in Fragments of the Kypria translated by H.G. Evelyn-White, 1914 (public domain). Proclus, Proclus' Summary of the Epic Cycle, trans. Gregory Nagy. Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica, in Quintus Smyrnaeus: The Fall of Troy, Arthur Sanders Way (Ed. & Trans.), Loeb Classics #19; Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA. (1913). (1962 edition: ISBN 0-674-99022-6). Strabo, Geography, translated by Horace Leonard Jones; Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press; London: William Heinemann, Ltd. (1924)

Modern authors

Greek mythology

Deities

Primordial Titans

Olympians Nymphs

Sea-deities Earth-deities

Heroes and heroism

Heracles / Hercules (Labors)

Achilles Hector (Trojan War)

Odysseus (Odyssey)

Jason Argonauts (Golden Fleece)

Perseus (Medusa Gorgon)

Oedipus (Sphinx) Orpheus (Orphism) Theseus (Minotaur)

Bellerophon (Pegasus Chimera)

Daedalus (Labyrinth)

Atalanta Hippomenes (Golden apple)

Cadmus (Thebes) Aeneas (Aeneid) Triptolemus (Eleusinian Mysteries) Pelops (Ancient Olympic Games) Pirithous (Centauromachy) Amphitryon (Teumessian fox) Narcissus (Narcissism) Meleager (Calydonian Boar) Otrera (Amazons)

Related

Satyrs Centaurs Dragons Demogorgon

Religion in Ancient Greece Mycenaean gods

Greek mythology
Greek mythology
portal

v t e

Burgess, Jonathan S. 2004. The Tradition of the Trojan War
Trojan War
in Homer and the Epic Cycle
Epic Cycle
(Johns Hopkins). ISBN 0-8018-7890-X. Castleden, Rodney. The Attack on Troy. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Pen and Sword Books, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 1-84415-175-1). Davies, Malcolm (2000). " Euripides
Euripides
Telephus
Telephus
Fr. 149 (Austin) and the Folk-Tale Origins of the Teuthranian Expedition" (PDF). Zeitschrift für Papyrologie und Epigraphik. 133: 7–10.  Durschmied, Erik. The Hinge Factor:How Chance and Stupidity Have Changed History. Coronet Books; New Ed edition (7 Oct 1999). Frazer, Sir James George, Apollodorus: The Library, two volumes, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press and London: William Heinemann Ltd. 1921. Volume 1: ISBN 0-674-99135-4. Volume 2: ISBN 0-674-99136-2. Graves, Robert. The Greek Myths, Penguin (Non-Classics); Cmb/Rep edition (April 6, 1993). ISBN 0-14-017199-1. Kakridis, J., 1988. Ελληνική Μυθολογία ("Greek mythology"), Ekdotiki Athinon, Athens. Karykas, Pantelis, 2003. Μυκηναίοι Πολεμιστές ("Mycenean Warriors"), Communications Editions, Athens. Latacz, Joachim. Troy
Troy
and Homer: Towards a Solution of an Old Mystery. New York: Oxford University Press (US), 2005 (hardcover, ISBN 0-19-926308-6). Simpson, Michael. Gods & Heroes of the Greeks: The Library of Apollodorus, The University of Massachusetts Press, (1976). ISBN 0-87023-205-3. Strauss, Barry. The Trojan War: A New History. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 0-7432-6441-X). Thompson, Diane P. The Trojan War: Literature and Legends from the Bronze Age
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to the Present. Jefferson, NC: McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-1737-4.  Troy: From Homer's Iliad
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to Hollywood Epic, edited by Martin M. Winkler. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2007 (hardcover, ISBN 1-4051-3182-9; paperback, ISBN 1-4051-3183-7). Wood, Michael. In Search of the Trojan War. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998 (paperback, ISBN 0-520-21599-0); London: BBC Books, 1985 (ISBN 0-563-20161-4).

External links

Media related to Trojan War
Trojan War
at Wikimedia Commons Was There a Trojan War? Maybe so. From Archeology, a publication of the Archeological Institute of America. May/June 2004 The Trojan War
Trojan War
at Greek Mythology Link The Legend of the Trojan War Mortal Women of the Trojan War The Historicity of the Trojan War
Trojan War
The location of Troy
Troy
and possible connections with the city of Teuthrania. The Greek Age of Bronze "Trojan war" The Trojan War: A Prologue to Homer's Iliad BBC audio podcast Melvyn Bragg
Melvyn Bragg
interviews Edith Hall and others on historicity, history and archaeology of the war. [Play] Warburg Institute Iconographic Database (about 2500 images related to the Trojan War)

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