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Treasure
Treasure
(from Greek θησαυρός - thēsauros, meaning "treasure store",[2] romanized as thesaurus) is a concentration of riches - often those that originate from ancient history - that is considered lost and/or forgotten until rediscovered. Some jurisdictions legally define what constitutes treasure, such as in the British Treasure
Treasure
Act 1996. The phrase "blood and treasure" or "lives and treasure" has been used to refer to the human and monetary costs associated with massive endeavours such as war that expend both.

Contents

1 Treasure
Treasure
hunting 2 Buried treasure 3 Treasure
Treasure
maps

3.1 Copper scroll 3.2 Pirates and ships 3.3 Other media and social network 3.4 Literature 3.5 Film & television

4 See also 5 References

Treasure
Treasure
hunting[edit]

Howard Pyle
Howard Pyle
illustration of pirates burying treasure, from Howard Pyle's Book of Pirates.

Map created by Robert Lewis Stevenson for his 1883 novel Treasure Island

Searching for hidden treasure is a common theme in legend; treasure hunters do exist, and can seek lost wealth for a living. Buried treasure[edit] Main article: Buried treasure A buried treasure is an important part of the popular beliefs surrounding pirates. According to popular conception, pirates often buried their stolen fortunes in remote places, intending to return for them later (often with the use of treasure maps). There are three well known stories that helped popularize the myth of buried pirate treasure:[3] "The Gold-Bug" by Edgar Allan Poe, "Wolfert Webber" by Washington Irving
Washington Irving
and Treasure Island
Treasure Island
by Robert Louis Stevenson. They differ widely in plot and literary treatment but all are derived from the William Kidd
William Kidd
legend.[4] Stevenson's Treasure Island was directly influenced by Irving's "Wolfert Webber", Stevenson saying in his preface "It is my debt to Washington Irving
Washington Irving
that exercises my conscience, and justly so, for I believe plagiarism was rarely carried farther.. the whole inner spirit and a good deal of the material detail of my first chapters.. were the property of Washington Irving."[4] Treasure
Treasure
maps[edit] Main article: Treasure
Treasure
map A treasure map is a variation of a map to mark the location of buried treasure, a lost mine, a valuable secret or a hidden location. More common in fiction than in reality, "pirate treasure maps" are often depicted in works of fiction as hand drawn and containing arcane clues for the characters to follow. Regardless of the term's literary use, anything that meets the criterion of a "map" that describes the location of a "treasure" could appropriately be called a "treasure map." Copper scroll[edit] One of the earliest known instances of a document listing buried treasure is the copper scroll, which was recovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls near Qumran
Qumran
in 1952. Believed to have been written between 50 and 100 AD, the scroll contains a list of 63 locations with detailed directions pointing to hidden treasures of gold and silver. The following is an English translation of the opening lines of the Copper Scroll:[5]

1:1 In the ruin which is in the valley of Acor, under 1:2 the steps leading to the East, 1:3 forty long cubits: a chest of silver and its vessels 1:4 with a weight of seventeen talents. KEN

Thus far, no item mentioned in the scroll has been found. Scholars remain divided on whether the copper scroll represents real burials, and, if so, the total measurements and the owners. Pirates and ships[edit] Although buried pirate treasure is a favorite literary theme, there are very few documented cases of pirates actually burying treasure, and no documented cases of a historical pirate treasure map.[6] One documented case of buried treasure involved Francis Drake
Francis Drake
who buried Spanish gold and silver after raiding the train at Nombre de Dios—after Drake went to find his ships, he returned six hours later and retrieved the loot and sailed for England. Drake did not create a map.[6] Another case in 1720 involved British Captain Stratton of the Prince Eugene who, after supposedly trading rum with pirates in the Caribbean, buried his gold near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay. Two of his crew, Morgan Miles, turned him in to the authorities, and it is assumed the loot was recovered. Because in any case, Captain Stratton was not a pirate, and made no map.[6] The pirate most responsible for the legends of buried pirate treasure was Captain Kidd. The story was that Kidd buried treasure from the plundered ship the Quedah Merchant on Gardiners Island, near Long Island, New York, before being arrested and returned to England, where he was put through a very public trial and executed. Although much of Kidd's treasure was recovered from various people who had taken possession of it before Kidd's arrest (such as his wife and various others who were given it for safe keeping), there was so much public interest and fascination with the case at the time, speculation grew that a vast fortune remained and that Kidd had secretly buried it. Captain Kidd
Captain Kidd
did bury a small cache of treasure on Gardiner's Island in a spot known as Cherry Tree Field; however, it was removed by Governor Bellomont and sent to England to be used as evidence against him.[7] Over the years many people have tried to find the supposed remnants of Kidd's treasure on Gardiner's Island and elsewhere, but none of the above has ever been found.[6] People have claimed to have discovered maps and other clues that led to pirate treasure, or claim that historical maps are actually treasure maps. These claims are not supported by scholars. Other media and social network[edit] Treasure
Treasure
maps have taken on numerous permutations in literature and film, such as the stereotypical tattered chart with an oversized "X" (as in "X marks the spot") to denote the treasure's location, first made popular by Robert Louis Stevenson
Robert Louis Stevenson
in Treasure Island
Treasure Island
(1883), a cryptic puzzle (in Edgar Allan Poe's "The Gold-Bug" (1843)), or a tattoo as seen in the video game The Space Adventure - Cobra: The Legendary Bandit (1991) and the film Waterworld
Waterworld
(1995). Literature[edit] The treasure map may serve several purposes as a plot device in works of fiction:

Motivation, causing the characters to begin a quest Plot exposition, explaining in a concise way where the characters must go on their quest To illustrate, at various points in the story, how far the quest has progressed. To provide conflict where, for example, evildoers attempt to capture the map from the protagonists

While Robert Louis Stevenson
Robert Louis Stevenson
is associated with popularizing the treasure map—and the archetypal X to mark the spot—with pirates in Treasure
Treasure
Island,[6] he is not the first. Author James Fenimore Cooper's earlier 1849 novel The Sea Lions, is a tale that begins with the death of a sailor who has left behind "two old, dirty and ragged charts" which lead to a seal-hunting paradise in the Antarctic
Antarctic
as well as a location in the West Indies
West Indies
where pirates have buried treasure, a plot similar to Stevenson's tale. Film & television[edit] In the 1985 film The Goonies, an old treasure map leads to the secret stash of a legendary 17th-century pirate, an almost exact imitation of Stevenson's plot in Treasure
Treasure
Island. In the 2004 film National Treasure, a treasure map becomes the source of the quest itself. In the 1994 comedy City Slickers II: The Legend of Curly's Gold, a treasure map is made by criminals who are analogous to modern day pirates. In the film Waterworld, an extremely vague and cryptic treasure map has been tattooed on the back of the child character Enola. This map leads the characters to dry-land, which in the context of the film, is a treasure. In 2003, the Drake Tribe found buried pirates treasure in Survivor: Pearl Islands. See also[edit]

Thracian treasure Confederate gold Hoard Leprechaun List of missing treasure List of treasure hunters Metal detector Romanian Treasure Schatzkammer Secret chambers of Padmanabhaswamy Temple Spanish treasure lost from the Spanish treasure fleet
Spanish treasure fleet
consisted of gold, silver, jewels (especially emeralds) and also cocoa, vanilla and brazilwood.[8] Treasure
Treasure
of the Esperanza looted from the Viceroyalty of Peru Sroda treasure Thirteen Treasures of the Island of Britain Chinese treasure ship Spanish treasure fleet

References[edit]

^ "RESOLUCIÓN de 7 de enero de 2003, de la Dirección General de Patrimonio Artístico de la Consejería de Cultura y Educación, por la que se incoa expediente de declaración de bien de interés cultural a favor de la colección arqueológica del Tesoro de Villena" [January 7, 2003, RESOLUTION of the General Direction on Artistic Heritage of the Culture and Education Council, which opens a file on the declaration as Good of Cultural Interest (BIC) the archaeologic collection known as Treasure
Treasure
of Villena] (pdf). [Spanish] State Official Bulletin (BOE) (in Spanish). Madrid: Spanish Government (49): 7798–7802. 26 February 2003. Retrieved December 6, 2009. Desde el punto de vista histórico, artístico y arqueológico, el Tesoro de Villena constituye un «unicum», un depósito no normalizado, por su peso y contenido (A. Perea). De hecho, se trata del segundo tesoro de vajilla áurea más importante de Europa, tras el de las Tumbas Reales de Micenas en Grecia (A. Mederos). (From a historic, artistic and archaeological point of view, the Treasure of Villena
Treasure of Villena
constitutes a "unicum", a non-normalised deposit, according to its weight and content (A. Perea). In fact, it is the second most important golden tableware finding in Europe, after that of the Royal Graves in Mycenae in Greece (A. Mederos))  first1= missing last1= in Authors list (help) ^ θησαυρός, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^ Paine, pp. 27–28 ^ a b Paine, pg. 28 ^ García Martínez, Florentino and Eibert J. C. Tigchelaar, The Dead Sea Scrolls: Study Edition, Paperback ed. 2 vols., (Leiden and Grand Rapids: Brill and Eerdmans, 2000). ^ a b c d e Cordingly, David. (1995). Under the Black Flag: The Romance and the Reality of Life Among the Pirates. ISBN 0-679-42560-8. ^ The Pirate
Pirate
Hunter: The True Story of Captain Kidd, pg. 241, The Pirate
Pirate
Hunter: The True Story of Captain Kidd, pg. 260 ^ Cynthia Zarin, "Green dreams: A mystery of rare, shipwrecked emeralds", The New Yorker, November 21, 2005, pp. 76–83

v t e

Treasure

Types and terms

Hoard Buried treasure Treasure
Treasure
trove List of missing treasure Treasure
Treasure
from shipwrecks

By period

Bronze Age Iron Age Classical antiquity Late Antiquity Medieval Europe
Europe
(Viking)

By location

Azerbaijan Belgium Bulgaria France Germany Italy Poland Romania Russia Spain Turkey Ukraine United States

British Isles

Republic of Ireland United Kingdom Channel Islands Great Britain (Bronze Age Iron Age Roman) Ireland

Miscellaneous

List of treasure hunters Treasure
Treasure
map Treasure
Treasure
hunting

Category Commons

v t e

Piracy

Periods

Ancient Mediterranean Golden Age

Republic of Pirates Libertatia

21st century

Types of pirate

Privateers Buccaneers Corsairs Sindhi corsairs Timber pirate River pirate Brethren of the Coast Barbary pirates Moro pirates Wōkòu Vikings Ushkuiniks Narentines Cilician pirates Confederate privateer Baltic Slavic pirates Uskoks Cossack pirates Sea Beggars Sea Dogs Fillibusters

Areas

Caribbean Lake Nicaragua British Virgin Islands Strait of Malacca Somali Coast Sulu Sea Falcon Lake South China Coast Anglo-Turkish piracy Port Royal Tortuga Saint-Malo Barbary Coast Lundy Lagos Salé Spanish Main Gulf of Guinea Indonesia Barataria Bay Persian Gulf

Noted pirates

Mansel Alcantra Chui A-poo Louis-Michel Aury Joseph Baker Hayreddin Barbarossa Joseph Barss Samuel Bellamy Charlotte de Berry Black Caesar Blackbeard Eli Boggs Stede Bonnet Anne Bonny Hippolyte Bouchard Abshir Boyah Roche Braziliano Henri Caesar Roberto Cofresí William Dampier Liang Daoming Diabolito Peter Easton Henry Every Alexandre Exquemelin Vincenzo Gambi Charles Gibbs Pedro Gilbert Nathaniel Gordon Laurens de Graaf Michel de Grammont Calico Jack Rahmah ibn Jabir al-Jalahimah Zheng Jing Jørgen Jørgensen Shirahama Kenki William Kidd Fūma Kotarō Jean Lafitte Limahong Samuel Hall Lord John Hawkins Bully Hayes Piet Pieterszoon Hein Moses Cohen Henriques Albert W. Hicks Nicholas van Hoorn Benjamin Hornigold Pierre Lafitte Olivier Levasseur Edward Low Hendrick Lucifer John Newland Maffitt Samuel Mason Henry Morgan Shap Ng-tsai Gan Ning François l'Olonnais Samuel Pallache Lawrence Prince Cai Qian Redbeard Bartholomew Roberts Lai Choi San Dan Seavey Ching Shih Benito de Soto Klaus Störtebeker Henry Strangways Cheung Po Tsai Dominique You Wang Zhi Zheng Zhilong

Categories

Piracy Pirates By nationality Barbary pirates Female pirates Years in piracy Fictional pirates

Pirate
Pirate
ships

Adventure Galley Fancy Ganj-i-Sawai Queen Anne's Revenge Quedagh Merchant Saladin Whydah Gally Marquis of Havana Ambrose Light York

Pirate
Pirate
hunters

Pedro Menéndez de Avilés Angelo Emo Richard Avery Hornsby Jose Campuzano-Polanco Robert Maynard Chaloner Ogle Pompey Woodes Rogers David Porter James Brooke Miguel Enríquez (privateer)

Pirate
Pirate
battles and incidents

Jiajing wokou raids Turkish Abductions Chepo Expedition Battle of Mandab Strait Battle of Pianosa Blockade of Charleston Battle of Cape Fear River Battle of Ocracoke Inlet Capture of the William Sack of Campeche Attack on Veracruz Raid on Cartagena Battle of Cape Lopez Capture of the Fancy Persian Gulf Campaign Battle of New Orleans Anti- Piracy
Piracy
in the Aegean Anti-piracy in the West Indies Capture of the Bravo Action of 9 November 1822 Capture of the El Mosquito Battle of Doro Passage Falklands Expedition Great Lakes Patrol Pirate
Pirate
attacks in Borneo Balanguingui Expedition Battle of Tysami Battle of Tonkin River Battle of Nam Quan Battle of Ty-ho Bay Battle of the Leotung Antelope incident North Star affair Battle off Mukah Salvador Pirates Battle of Boca Teacapan Capture of the Ambrose Light Irene incident 1985 Lahad Datu ambush Operation Enduring Freedom – HOA Action of 18 March 2006 Action of 3 June 2007 Action of 28 October 2007 Dai Hong Dan incident Operation Atalanta Carré d'As IV incident Action of 11 November 2008 Action of 9 April 2009 Maersk Alabama hijacking Operation Ocean Shield Action of 23 March 2010 Action of 1 April 2010 Action of 30 March 2010 Action of 5 April 2010 MV Moscow University hijacking Operation Dawn of Gulf of Aden Operation Dawn 8: Gulf of Aden Beluga Nomination incident Battle off Minicoy Island Quest incident MT Zafirah hijacking MT Orkim Harmony hijacking

Slave trade

African slave trade Atlantic slave trade Arab slave trade Barbary slave trade Blockade of Africa African Slave Trade Patrol Capture of the Providentia Capture of the Presidente Capture of the El Almirante Capture of the Marinerito Capture of the Veloz Passagera Capture of the Brillante Amistad Incident Capture of the Emanuela

Fictional pirates

Tom Ayrton Barbe Rouge Hector Barbossa Captain Blood Captain Crook Captain Flint José Gaspar Captain Hook Don Karnage Monkey D. Luffy Captain Nemo One Piece Captain Pugwash Red Rackham Captain Sabertooth Sandokan Long John Silver Jack Sparrow Captain Stingaree Roronoa Zoro

Miscellaneous

Truce of Ratisbon Piracy
Piracy
Act 1698 Piracy
Piracy
Act 1717 Piracy
Piracy
Act 1837 Paris Declaration Respecting Maritime Law Child pirate Golden Age of Piracy Jolly Roger Walking the plank Treasure
Treasure
map Buried treasure Pirate
Pirate
booty No purchase, no pay Marooning Pirate
Pirate
code Pirate
Pirate
utopia Victual Brothers Pirate
Pirate
Round Libertatia Sack of Baltimore A General History of the Pyrates Mutiny Pegleg Eyepatch Letter of marque Davy Jones' Locker Air pirate Space pirate

Lists

Pirates Privateers Timeline of piracy Pirate
Pirate
films Women in piracy Fictional pirates Pirates in popular culture List of ships attacked by Somali pirates

Literature

Treasure
Treasure
Island Facing the Flag On Stranger Tides Castaways of the Flying Dutchman The Angel's Command Voyage of Slave

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