TRANSCAUCASIA (Russian : Закавказье), or the SOUTH CAUCASUS, is a geographical region in the vicinity of the southern Caucasus Mountains on the border of Eastern Europe and Western Asia . Transcaucasia roughly corresponds to modern Georgia , Armenia , and Azerbaijan . Transcaucasia and Ciscaucasia (North Caucasus) together comprise the larger Caucasus geographical region that divides Eurasia .
Transcaucasia spans the southern portion of the
and their lowlands, straddling the border between the continents of
All of present-day
Armenia is in Transcaucasia; the majority of
present-day Georgia and
Azerbaijan , including the exclave of
Nakhchivan , also fall within the region. Parts of
* 1 Etymology * 2 History * 3 Wine * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links
_Transcaucasia_ is a Latin rendering of the Russian-language word _Zakavkazie_ (Закавка́зье), meaning "the area beyond the Caucasus Mountains". This implies a Russian vantage point, and is analogous to similar terms such as Transnistria and Transleithania . Other forms of this word include _Trans-Caucasus_ and _Transcaucasus_. The region is also referred to as _Southern Caucasia_ and the _South Caucasus_.
Located on the peripheries of
Ancient kingdoms of the region included Armenia , Albania and Iberia , among others. These kingdoms were later incorporated into various Iranian empires, including the Achaemenid Empire , the Parthian Empire , and the Sassanid Empire , during which Zoroastrianism became the dominant religion in the region. However, after the rise of Christianity and conversion of Caucasian kingdoms to the new religion , Zoroastrianism lost its prevalence and only survived because of Persian power and influence still lingering in the region. Thus, Transcaucasia became the area of not only military, but also religious convergence, which often led to bitter conflicts with successive Persian empires (and later Muslim-ruled empires) on the one side and the Roman Empire (and later the Byzantine Empire ) on the other side.
The Iranian Parthians established and installed several eponymous branches in Transcaucasia, namely the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia , the Arsacid dynasty of Iberia , and the Arsacid Dynasty of Caucasian Albania .
In the middle of the 8th century, with the capture of Derbend by the Umayyad armies during the Arab–Khazar wars , most of Transcaucasia became part of the Caliphate and Islam spread throughout the region. Later, the Orthodox Christian Kingdom of Georgia dominated most of Transcaucasia. The region was then conquered by the Seljuk , Mongol , Turkic , Safavid , Ottoman , Afsharid and Qajar dynasties.
After two wars in the first half of the 19th century, namely the Russo-Persian War (1804-1813) and the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828) , the Russian Empire conquered most of Transcaucasia (and Dagestan in the North Caucasus ) from the Iranian Qajar dynasty, severing historic regional ties with Iran. The 1804-1813 war made Iran irrevocably cede modern-day Dagestan , eastern part of Georgia , and most of Azerbaijan to Russia, as confirmed by the 1813 Treaty of Gulistan , while the 1826-1828 made them lose all of what is modern-day Armenia and the remainder of the contemporary Azerbaijani Republic that remained in Iranian hands. The 1826-1828 conquerings were confirmed in the 1828 Treaty of Turkmenchay . In 1801, what is now Georgia was formally incorporated into the Russian Empire. After 1828-1829 war, Ottomans ceded Western Georgia except Adjaria , which was known as Sanjak of Batum, to Russians in 1829. Finally after Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) , Russians completed conquest of Transcaucasus.
In 1844, Georgia ,
Azerbaijan were combined into a single
czarist government-general, which was termed a vice-royalty in
1844-1881 and 1905-1917. Following the 1877-78 Russo-Turkish War ,
After the fall of the Russian Empire in 1918, the Transcaucasia region was unified into a single political entity twice, as Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic from 9 April 1918 to 26 May 1918, and as Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic from 12 March 1922 to 5 December 1936, each time to be dissolved into separate republics Armenia , Azerbaijan and Georgia .
In August 2008, the Russo-Georgian War took place across Transcaucasia, contributing to further instability in the region, which is as intricate as the Middle East, due to the complex mix of religions (mainly Muslim and Orthodox Christian) and ethno-linguistic groups.
Transcaucasia, in particular where modern-day
* Caucasus * Caucasus Greeks * Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations * Eastern Europe * Eurasian Economic Union * Eurovoc * North Caucasus (Ciscaucasia) * Ibero-Caucasian languages * Peoples of the Caucasus * Post- Soviet states
* ^ "Caucasus". _The World Factbook_. Library of Congress. May
2006. Retrieved 7 July 2009.
* ^ Mulvey, Stephen (16 June 2000). "The Caucasus: Troubled
borderland". _News_. BBC. Retrieved 1 July 2009. _"The Caucasus
Mountains form the boundary between West and East, between
* World StatesMen-