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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting: residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

Tours
Tours
(French pronunciation: ​[tuʁ]) is a city located in the centre-west of France. It is the administrative centre of the Indre-et-Loire
Indre-et-Loire
department and the largest city in the Centre-Val de Loire
Loire
region of France
France
(although it is not the capital, which is the region's second-largest city, Orléans). In 2012, the city of Tours had 134,978 inhabitants, while the population of the whole metropolitan area was 483,744. Tours
Tours
stands on the lower reaches of the Loire
Loire
river, between Orléans and the Atlantic coast. The surrounding district, the traditional province of Touraine, is known for its wines, for the alleged perfection (as perceived by some speakers and for historical reasons) of its local spoken French, and for the Battle of Tours
Battle of Tours
(732). The city is also the end-point of the annual Paris–Tours
Paris–Tours
cycle race.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Middle Ages 1.2 16th–18th centuries 1.3 19th–20th centuries

1.3.1 First World War 1.3.2 Inter-war years 1.3.3 Second World War 1.3.4 Post-war developments

2 Climate 3 Sights

3.1 Tours
Tours
Cathedral 3.2 Other points of interest

4 Language 5 City 6 Transport 7 Sport 8 Catholics from Tours 9 Notable natives and residents

9.1 11th-18th century 9.2 19th century 9.3 20th century

10 International relations 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links

History[edit] See also: Timeline of Tours
Timeline of Tours
and Tours
Tours
amphitheatre in the ancient city In Gallic times the city was important as a crossing point of the Loire. Becoming part of the Roman Empire during the 1st century AD, the city was named "Caesarodunum" ("hill of Caesar"). The name evolved in the 4th century when the original Gallic name, Turones, became first "Civitas Turonum" then "Tours". It was at this time that the amphitheatre of Tours, one of the five largest amphitheatres of the Empire, was built. Tours
Tours
became the metropolis of the Roman province of Lugdunum towards 380–388, dominating the Loire
Loire
Valley, Maine and Brittany. One of the outstanding figures of the history of the city was Saint Martin, second bishop who shared his coat with a naked beggar in Amiens. This incident and the importance of Martin in the medieval Christian West made Tours, and its position on the route of pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela, a major centre during the Middle Ages. Middle Ages[edit] In the 6th century Gregory of Tours, author of the Ten Books of History, made his mark on the town by restoring the cathedral destroyed by a fire in 561. Saint Martin's monastery benefited from its inception, at the very start of the 6th century from patronage and support from the Frankish king, Clovis, which increased considerably the influence of the saint, the abbey and the city in Gaul. In the 9th century, Tours
Tours
was at the heart of the Carolingian Rebirth, in particular because of Alcuin
Alcuin
abbot of Marmoutier. In 732 AD, Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi
Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi
and a large army of Muslim horsemen from Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus
advanced 500 kilometres (311 miles) deep into France, and were stopped at Tours
Tours
by Charles Martel
Charles Martel
and his infantry igniting the Battle of Tours. The outcome was defeat for the Muslims, preventing France
France
from Islamic conquest. In 845, Tours
Tours
repulsed the first attack of the Viking
Viking
chief Hasting (Haesten). In 850, the Vikings settled at the mouths of the Seine and the Loire. Still led by Hasting, they went up the Loire
Loire
again in 852 and sacked Angers, Tours and the abbey of Marmoutier. During the Middle Ages, Tours
Tours
consisted of two juxtaposed and competing centres. The "City" in the east, successor of the late Roman 'castrum', was composed of the archiepiscopal establishment (the cathedral and palace of the archbishops) and of the castle of Tours, seat of the authority of the Counts of Tours
Tours
(later Counts of Anjou) and of the King of France. In the west, the "new city" structured around the Abbey of Saint Martin was freed from the control of the City during the 10th century (an enclosure was built towards 918) and became "Châteauneuf". This space, organized between Saint Martin and the Loire, became the economic centre of Tours. Between these two centres remained Varennes, vineyards and fields, little occupied except for the Abbaye Saint-Julien established on the banks of the Loire. The two centres were linked during the 14th century.

Place Plumereau, Medieval buildings

Tours
Tours
became the capital of the county of Tours
Tours
or Touraine, territory bitterly disputed between the counts of Blois
Blois
and Anjou
Anjou
– the latter were victorious in the 11th century. It was the capital of France
France
at the time of Louis XI, who had settled in the castle of Montils (today the castle of Plessis in La Riche, western suburbs of Tours), Tours and Touraine
Touraine
remained until the 16th century a permanent residence of the kings and court. The rebirth gave Tours
Tours
and Touraine
Touraine
many private mansions and castles, joined together to some extent under the generic name of the Châteaux
Châteaux
of the Loire. It is also at the time of Louis XI that the silk industry was introduced – despite difficulties, the industry still survives to this day. 16th–18th centuries[edit] Charles IX passed through the city at the time of his royal tour of France
France
between 1564 and 1566, accompanied by the Court and various noblemen: his brother the Duke of Anjou, Henri de Navarre, the cardinals of Bourbon and Lorraine. At this time, the Catholics returned to power in Angers: the intendant assumed the right to nominate the aldermen. The Massacre of Saint-Barthelemy
Massacre of Saint-Barthelemy
was not repeated at Tours. The Protestants were imprisoned by the aldermen – a measure which prevented their extermination. The permanent return of the Court to Paris
Paris
and then Versailles marked the beginning of a slow but permanent decline. Guillaume the Metayer (1763–1798), known as Rochambeau, the well known counter-revolutionary chief of Mayenne, was shot there on Thermidor 8, year VI. 19th–20th centuries[edit] However, it was the arrival of the railway in the 19th century which saved the city by making it an important nodal point. The main railway station is known as Tours-Saint-Pierre-des-Corps. At that time, Tours was expanding towards the south into a district known as the Prébendes. The importance of the city as a centre of communications contributed to its revival and, as the 20th century progressed, Tours became a dynamic conurbation, economically oriented towards the service sector. First World War[edit]

Tours
Tours
Cathedral: 15th-century Flamboyant
Flamboyant
Gothic west front with Renaissance
Renaissance
pinnacles, completed 1547.

The city was greatly affected by the First World War. A force of 25,000 American soldiers arrived in 1917, setting up textile factories for the manufacture of uniforms, repair shops for military equipment, munitions dumps, an army post office and an American military hospital at Augustins. Thus Tours
Tours
became a garrison town with a resident general staff. The American presence is remembered today by the Woodrow Wilson
Woodrow Wilson
bridge over the Loire, which was officially opened in July 1918 and bears the name of the man who was President of the USA from 1913 to 1921. Three American air force squadrons, including the 492nd, were based at the Parçay-Meslay
Parçay-Meslay
airfield, their personnel playing an active part in the life of the city. Americans paraded at funerals and award ceremonies for the Croix de Guerre; they also took part in festivals and their YMCA
YMCA
organised shows for the troops. Some men married girls from Tours. Inter-war years[edit] In 1920, the city was host to the Congress of Tours, which saw the creation of the French Communist Party. Second World War[edit] Tours
Tours
was also marked by the Second World War. In 1940 the city suffered massive destruction, and for four years it was a city of military camps and fortifications. From 10 to 13 June 1940, Tours
Tours
was the temporary seat of the French government before its move to Bordeaux. German incendiary bombs caused a huge fire which blazed out of control from 20 to 22 June and destroyed part of the city centre. Some architectural masterpieces of the 16th and 17th centuries were lost, as was the monumental entry to the city. The Wilson Bridge (known locally as the 'stone bridge') carried a water main which supplied the city; the bridge was dynamited to slow the progress of the German advance. With the water main severed and unable to extinguish the inferno, the inhabitants had no option but to flee to safety. More heavy air raids by Allied forces devastated the area around the railway station in 1944, causing several hundred deaths. Post-war developments[edit] A plan for the rebuilding of the downtown area drawn up by the local architect Camille Lefèvre was adopted even before the end of the war. The plan was for 20 small quadrangular blocks of housing to be arranged around the main road (la rue Nationale), which was widened. This regular layout attempted to echo, yet simplify, the 18th-century architecture. Pierre Patout succeeded Lefèvre as the architect in charge of rebuilding in 1945. At one time there was talk of demolishing the southern side of the rue Nationale in order to make it in keeping with the new development. The recent history of Tours
Tours
is marked by the personality of Jean Royer, who was Mayor for 36 years and helped to save the old town from demolition by establishing one of the first Conservation Areas. This example of conservation policy would later inspire the Malraux Law for the safeguarding of historic city centres. In the 1970s, Jean Royer also extended the city to the south by diverting the course of the River Cher
River Cher
to create the districts of Rives du Cher and des Fontaines; at the time, this was one of the largest urban developments in Europe. In 1970, the François Rabelais University
François Rabelais University
was founded; this is centred on the bank of the Loire
Loire
in the downtown area, and not – as it was then the current practice – in a campus in the suburbs. The latter solution was also chosen by the twin university of Orleans. Royer's long term as Mayor was, however, not without controversy, as exemplified by the construction of the practical – but aesthetically unattractive – motorway which runs along the bed of a former canal just 1,500 metres (4,900 feet) from the cathedral. Another bone of contention was the original Vinci Congress Centre by Jean Nouvel. This project incurred debts although it did, at least, make Tours
Tours
one of France's principal conference centres. Jean Germain, a member of the Socialist Party, became Mayor in 1995 and made debt reduction his priority. Ten years later, his economic management is regarded as much wiser than that of his predecessor, the financial standing of the city having returned to a stability. However, the achievements of Jean Germain are criticised by the municipal opposition for a lack of ambition: no large building projects comparable with those of Jean Royer
Jean Royer
have been instituted under his double mandate. This position is disputed by those in power, who affirm their policy of concentrating on the quality of life, as evidenced by urban restoration, the development of public transport and cultural activities. Climate[edit] Tours
Tours
has an oceanic climate that is very mild for such a northerly latitude. Summers are influenced by its inland position, resulting in frequent days of 25 °C (77 °F) or warmer, whereas winters are kept mild by Atlantic air masses.

Climate data for Tours
Tours
(1981–2010 averages)

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 16.9 (62.4) 20.8 (69.4) 23.7 (74.7) 29.2 (84.6) 31.8 (89.2) 36.7 (98.1) 37.5 (99.5) 39.8 (103.6) 34.5 (94.1) 29.0 (84.2) 22.3 (72.1) 18.5 (65.3) 39.8 (103.6)

Average high °C (°F) 7.3 (45.1) 8.5 (47.3) 12.3 (54.1) 15.2 (59.4) 19.1 (66.4) 22.8 (73) 25.5 (77.9) 25.4 (77.7) 21.8 (71.2) 16.8 (62.2) 10.9 (51.6) 7.5 (45.5) 16.1 (61)

Average low °C (°F) 2.0 (35.6) 1.9 (35.4) 3.9 (39) 5.6 (42.1) 9.2 (48.6) 12.1 (53.8) 14.0 (57.2) 13.7 (56.7) 11.1 (52) 8.6 (47.5) 4.6 (40.3) 2.5 (36.5) 7.5 (45.5)

Record low °C (°F) −17.4 (0.7) −14.2 (6.4) −10.3 (13.5) −3.4 (25.9) −0.6 (30.9) 2.6 (36.7) 4.3 (39.7) 4.8 (40.6) 0.9 (33.6) −2.3 (27.9) −7.1 (19.2) −18.5 (−1.3) −18.5 (−1.3)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 66.2 (2.606) 55.8 (2.197) 50.3 (1.98) 55.8 (2.197) 62.3 (2.453) 46.1 (1.815) 53.2 (2.094) 42.5 (1.673) 53.2 (2.094) 70.9 (2.791) 68.0 (2.677) 71.3 (2.807) 695.6 (27.386)

Average precipitation days 11.9 9.5 9.9 9.6 9.8 7.0 6.9 6.2 7.8 10.5 11.2 11.4 111.6

Average snowy days 2.4 2.9 1.8 0.7 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.7 10.6

Average relative humidity (%) 87 84 79 74 77 75 72 73 77 84 87 89 79.8

Mean monthly sunshine hours 69.9 90.3 144.2 178.5 205.6 228.0 239.4 236.4 184.7 120.6 76.7 59.2 1,833.3

Source #1: Météo France[1][2]

Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days, 1961–1990)[3]

Sights[edit]

Place Jean Jaurès

St Gatien Cathedral, from Rue Lavoisier, just north of the Rue Colbert intersection.

Pont Wilson

Tours
Tours
Cathedral[edit] Main article: Tours
Tours
Cathedral The cathedral of Tours, dedicated to Saint Gatien, its canonized first bishop, was begun about 1170 to replace the cathedral that was burnt out in 1166, during the dispute between Louis VII of France
France
and Henry II of England. The lowermost stages of the western towers (illustration, above left) belong to the 12th century, but the rest of the west end is in the profusely detailed Flamboyant
Flamboyant
Gothic of the 15th century, completed just as the Renaissance
Renaissance
was affecting the patrons who planned the châteaux of Touraine. These towers were being constructed at the same time as, for example, the Château
Château
de Chenonceau. When the 15th-century illuminator Jean Fouquet
Jean Fouquet
was set the task of illuminating Josephus's Jewish Antiquities, his depiction of Solomon's Temple was modeled after the nearly-complete cathedral of Tours. The atmosphere of the Gothic cathedral close permeates Honoré de Balzac's dark short novel of jealousy and provincial intrigues, Le Curé de Tours
Tours
(The Curate of Tours) and his medieval story Maitre Cornélius opens within the cathedral itself. Other points of interest[edit]

Jardin botanique de Tours, the municipal botanical garden Musée des Beaux-Arts de Tours Hôtel Goüin Basilique St-Martin

Language[edit] Before the French Revolution, the inhabitants of Tours
Tours
(Les Tourangeaux) were renowned for speaking the "purest" form of French in the entire country.[4] As their accent was that of the court, the pronunciation of Touraine
Touraine
was traditionally regarded as the most standard pronunciation of the French language, until the 19th century when the standard pronunciation of French shifted to that of Parisian bourgeoisie.[5] This is explained by the fact that the court of France was living in Touraine
Touraine
between 1430 and 1530 and concomitantly French, the language of the court, has become the official language of the entire kingdom. A Council of Tours in 813 decided that priests should preach sermons in vulgar languages because the common people could no longer understand classical Latin. This was the first official recognition of an early French language
French language
distinct from Latin, and can be considered as the birth date of French. The ordinance of Montils-lès-Tours, promulgated by Charles VII in 1454, made it mandatory to write, in the native language of the area, the oral customs which have force of law. An ordinance of Charles VIII (born in Amboise, near Tours) in 1490 and one of Louis XII (born in Blois, near Tours) in 1510 broaden the scope of the ordinance of Charles VII. Finally the ordinance of Villers-Cotterêts, signed into law by Francis I in 1539, called for the use of French in all legal acts, notarised contracts and official legislation to avoid any linguistic confusion. Gregory of Tours
Gregory of Tours
wrote in the 6th century that some people in this area could still speak Gaulish. City[edit] The city of Tours
Tours
has a population of 140,000 and is called "Le Jardin de la France" ("The Garden of France"). There are several parks located within the city. Tours
Tours
is located between two rivers, the Loire
Loire
to the north and the Cher to the south. The buildings of Tours are white with blue slate (called Ardoise) roofs; this style is common in the north of France, while most buildings in the south of France have terracotta roofs . Tours
Tours
is famous for its original medieval district, called le Vieux Tours. Unique to the Old City are its preserved half-timbered buildings and la Place Plumereau, a square with busy pubs and restaurants, whose open-air tables fill the centre of the square. The Boulevard Beranger crosses the Rue Nationale
Rue Nationale
at the Place Jean-Jaures and is the location of weekly markets and fairs. Tours
Tours
is famous for its many bridges crossing the river Loire. One of them, the Pont Wilson, collapsed in 1978, but was rebuilt just like it was before. Near the cathedral, in the garden of the ancient Palais des Archevêques (now Musée des Beaux-Arts), is a huge cedar tree planted by Napoleon[citation needed]. The garden also has in an alcove a stuffed elephant, Fritz. He escaped from the Barnum and Bailey
Barnum and Bailey
circus during their stay in Tours
Tours
in 1902. He went mad and had to be shot down, but the city paid to honor him, and he was stuffed as a result. Tours
Tours
is home to François Rabelais University, the site of one of the most important choral competitions, called Florilège Vocal de Tours International Choir Competition, and is a member city of the European Grand Prix for Choral Singing. Transport[edit]

Tram model, design by the French agency RCP Design Global

Today, with its extensive rail (including TGV) and autoroute links to the rest of the country, Tours
Tours
is a jumping-off point for tourist visits to the Loire
Loire
Valley and the royal châteaux. Tours
Tours
is on one of the main lines of the TGV. It is possible to travel to the west coast at Bordeaux
Bordeaux
in two and a half hours, to the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast via Avignon
Avignon
and from there to Spain
Spain
and Barcelona, or to Lyon, Strasbourg
Strasbourg
and Lille. It takes less than one hour by train from Tours
Tours
to Paris
Paris
by TGV
TGV
and one hour and a half to Charles de Gaulle airport. Tours
Tours
has two main stations: the central station Gare de Tours, and Gare de Saint-Pierre-des-Corps, just outside the centre, the station used by trains that do not terminate in Tours. Tours
Tours
Loire
Loire
Valley Airport connects the Loire
Loire
Valley to London Stansted Airport, Marseille
Marseille
and Porto. Scheduled flights to Dublin
Dublin
and Manchester as well as charter flights to Ajaccio
Ajaccio
and Figari are also available during the summer. Tours
Tours
has a tram system, which started service at the end of August 2013. 21 Citadis
Citadis
trams were ordered from Alstom
Alstom
designed by RCP Design Global.[6] There is also a bus service, the main central stop being Jean Jaures, which is next to the Hôtel de Ville, and rue Nationale, the high street of Tours. The tram and bus networks are operated by Fil Bleu and they share a ticketing system. Tours
Tours
does not have a metro rail system. Sport[edit] The city's football team, Tours
Tours
FC, currently play in Ligue 2, the second level of French football. Catholics from Tours[edit]

Venerable
Venerable
Leo Dupont, Holy Man of Tours

Tours
Tours
is a special place for Catholics who follow the devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus
Holy Face of Jesus
and the adoration of the Blessed Sacrament. It was in Tours
Tours
in 1843 that a Carmelite nun, Sister Marie of St Peter reported a vision which started the devotion to the Holy Face of Jesus, in reparation for the many insults Christ
Christ
suffered in His Passion. The Golden Arrow Prayer was first made public by her in Tours. The Venerable
Venerable
Leo Dupont
Leo Dupont
also known as The Holy Man of Tours
Holy Man of Tours
lived in Tours
Tours
at about the same time. In 1849 he started the nightly adoration of the Blessed Sacrament
Blessed Sacrament
in Tours, from where it spread within France. Upon hearing of Sister Marie of St Peter’s reported visions, he started to burn a vigil lamp continuously before a picture of the Holy Face of Jesus and helped spread the devotion within France. The devotion was eventually approved by Pope Pius XII
Pope Pius XII
in 1958 and he formally declared the Feast of the Holy Face of Jesus
Holy Face of Jesus
as Shrove Tuesday (the Tuesday before Ash Wednesday) for all Roman Catholics.[7] The Oratory of the Holy Face
Oratory of the Holy Face
on Rue St. Etienne in Tours
Tours
receives many pilgrims every year. Tours
Tours
was the site of the episcopal activity of St. Martin of Tours and has further Christian connotations in that the pivotal Battle of Tours
Tours
in 732 is often considered the very first decisive victory over the invading Islamic forces, turning the tide against them. The battle also helped lay the foundations of the Carolingian Empire[8] Notable natives and residents[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1793 21,000 —    

1800 20,240 −3.6%

1806 21,703 +7.2%

1821 21,928 +1.0%

1831 23,235 +6.0%

1836 26,669 +14.8%

1841 30,072 +12.8%

1846 30,766 +2.3%

1851 33,530 +9.0%

1856 38,055 +13.5%

1861 41,061 +7.9%

1866 42,450 +3.4%

1872 43,368 +2.2%

1876 48,325 +11.4%

1881 52,209 +8.0%

1886 59,585 +14.1%

1891 60,335 +1.3%

1896 63,267 +4.9%

1901 64,695 +2.3%

1906 67,601 +4.5%

1911 73,398 +8.6%

1921 75,096 +2.3%

1926 77,192 +2.8%

1931 78,585 +1.8%

1936 83,753 +6.6%

1946 80,044 −4.4%

1954 83,618 +4.5%

1962 92,944 +11.2%

1968 128,120 +37.8%

1975 140,686 +9.8%

1982 132,209 −6.0%

1990 129,509 −2.0%

1999 132,677 +2.4%

2006 136,942 +3.2%

2009 135,218 −1.3%

2011 134,633 −0.4%

2013 134,803 +0.1%

11th-18th century[edit]

Berengarius of Tours
Tours
(999–1088), theologian Bernard of Tours
Tours
(fl. 1147, d. before 1178), philosopher and poet Jean Fouquet
Jean Fouquet
(1420–1481), painter Abraham Bosse
Abraham Bosse
(1604–1676), artist Louise de la Vallière (1644–1710), courtesan Philippe Néricault Destouches
Philippe Néricault Destouches
(1680–1754), dramatist Jean Baudrais (1749–1832), 18th-century French playwright Nicolas Heurteloup (1750–1812), surgeon Philippe Musard
Philippe Musard
(1792-1859), conductor and composer Gabriel Lamé
Gabriel Lamé
(1795–1870), mathematician Honoré de Balzac
Honoré de Balzac
(1799–1850), novelist

Honoré de Balzac
Honoré de Balzac
(1842)

Gabriel Lamé

19th century[edit]

André-Michel Guerry
André-Michel Guerry
(1802-1866), lawyer and statistician Théophile Archambault (1806-1863), psychiatrist Ernest Goüin
Ernest Goüin
(1815–1885), French engineer Marie of St Peter
Marie of St Peter
(1816–1848), mystic carmelite nun Philippe de Trobriand
Philippe de Trobriand
(1816–1897), author, American military officer Émile Delahaye (1843–1905), automobile pioneer Georges Courteline (1858–1929), dramatist and novelist Emile B. De Sauzé (1878-1964), language educator Daniel Mendaille (1885–1963), stage and film actor

20th century[edit]

Paul Nizan
Paul Nizan
(1905–1940), novelist and philosopher Yves Bonnefoy
Yves Bonnefoy
(1923–2016), poet Paul Guers (1927) (Paul Jacques Dutron), actor Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe (1940–2007), philosopher, literary critic and translator Jean-Louis Bruguière
Jean-Louis Bruguière
(born 1943), top French investigating judge Jean Chalopin (born 1950), television and movie producer, director and writer Jacques Villeret (1951–2005), actor Dominique Bussereau
Dominique Bussereau
(born 1952), politician Yves Ker Ambrun (born 1954), known as YKA, cartoonist Laurent Petitguillaume (born 1960), radio and television host Luc Delahaye (born 1962), photographer Stéphane Audeguy (born 1964), writer, literary critic and teacher Pascal Hervé
Pascal Hervé
(born 1964), cyclist Laurent Mauvignier
Laurent Mauvignier
(born 1967), writer Xavier Gravelaine
Xavier Gravelaine
(born 1968), football player Nâdiya
Nâdiya
(born 1973), singer Harry Roselmack
Harry Roselmack
(born 1973), television presenter Ludovic Roy (born 1977), footballer Zaz (born 1980), singer Luc Ducalcon
Luc Ducalcon
(born 1984), rugby union player Biga Ranx (born 1988), reggae singer, producer and writer

General Régis de Trobriand

v t e

Films directed by René Clair

Feature films

The Phantom of the Moulin Rouge
The Phantom of the Moulin Rouge
(1925) The Imaginary Voyage
The Imaginary Voyage
(1926) The Prey of the Wind
The Prey of the Wind
(1927) The Italian Straw Hat (1928) Two Timid Souls
Two Timid Souls
(1928) Under the Roofs of Paris
Under the Roofs of Paris
(1930) Le Million
Le Million
(1931) À Nous la Liberté
À Nous la Liberté
(1931) Bastille Day (1933) The Ghost Goes West
The Ghost Goes West
(1935) The Last Billionaire (1935) Break the News (1938) The Flame of New Orleans
The Flame of New Orleans
(1941) I Married a Witch
I Married a Witch
(1942) It Happened Tomorrow
It Happened Tomorrow
(1944) And Then There Were None (1945) Man About Town (1947) Beauty and the Devil
Beauty and the Devil
(1950) Beauties of the Night
Beauties of the Night
(1952) The Grand Maneuver
The Grand Maneuver
(1955) Gates of Paris
Paris
(1957) All the Gold in the World (1961) The Lace Wars (1965)

Short films & Anthologies

Entr'acte (1924) The Crazy Ray (1924) Forever and a Day (1943, segment "1897") Three Fables of Love
Three Fables of Love
(1962, segment "Les Deux Pigeons")

International relations[edit]

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Tours
Tours
is twinned with:

Mülheim, Germany, since 1962 Segovia, Spain, since 1972 Parma, Italy, since 1976 Luoyang, People's Republic of China, since 1982 Springfield, Missouri, USA, since 1984 Trois-Rivières, Canada, since 1987 Takamatsu, Japan, since 1988 Brașov, Romania, since 1990 Minneapolis, Minnesota
Minnesota
USA, since 1991

Jardin de la Préfecture (central park).

Giant Cedar tree.

Hôtel Goüin.

Place Plumereau.

Slate
Slate
rooves of Tours.

Looking towards central Tours
Tours
from the north bank of the Loire, adjacent to the Pont Mirabeau.

See also[edit]

France
France
portal

Bishop of Tours Tours FC
Tours FC
– a soccer club based in the town The Turonian
Turonian
Age in the Cretaceous
Cretaceous
Period of geological time is named for the city of Tours Listing of the work of Jean Antoine Injalbert-French sculptor
Listing of the work of Jean Antoine Injalbert-French sculptor
Sculptor of Tours
Tours
railway station statues also those on Tours
Tours
Hotel de Ville. Marcel Gaumont. Sculptor of war memorial

References[edit]

^ "Données climatiques de la station de Tours" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved December 31, 2015.  ^ "Climat Centre-Val de Loire" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved December 31, 2015.  ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Tours
Tours
- St Symphorien (37) - altitude 112m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved December 31, 2015.  ^ "Tours, France". Retrieved 3 August 2012.  ^ Montvalon, Jean-Baptiste de. "Pourquoi les accents régionaux résistent en France". Le Monde.fr (in French). ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 2015-07-19.  ^ " Tours
Tours
selects Citadis
Citadis
and APS". Railway Gazette International. London. 14 September 2010. Retrieved 15 September 2010.  ^ Dorothy Scallan. "The Holy Man of Tours." (1990) ISBN 0-89555-390-2 ^ Davis, Paul K. (1999) "100 Decisive Battles From Ancient Times to the Present" ISBN 0-19-514366-3

Further reading[edit] See also: Bibliography of the history of Tours

Practical Tours, the comprehensive guide to living in Tours, Tours: Stéphanie Ouvrard, 2013 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tours.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tours.

Official website (in French) INSEE commune file Tours
Tours
on French version of Architecture of Tours François Rabelais University, Tours Satellite picture by Google Maps

v t e

Prefectures of departments of France

Bourg-en-Bresse
Bourg-en-Bresse
(Ain) Laon
Laon
(Aisne) Moulins (Allier) Digne-les-Bains
Digne-les-Bains
(Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) Gap (Hautes-Alpes) Nice
Nice
(Alpes-Maritimes) Privas
Privas
(Ardèche) Charleville-Mézières
Charleville-Mézières
(Ardennes) Foix
Foix
(Ariège) Troyes
Troyes
(Aube) Carcassonne
Carcassonne
(Aude) Rodez
Rodez
(Aveyron) Marseille
Marseille
(Bouches-du-Rhône) Caen
Caen
(Calvados) Aurillac
Aurillac
(Cantal) Angoulême
Angoulême
(Charente) La Rochelle
La Rochelle
(Charente-Maritime) Bourges
Bourges
(Cher) Tulle
Tulle
(Corrèze) Ajaccio
Ajaccio
(Corse-du-Sud) Bastia
Bastia
(Haute-Corse) Dijon
Dijon
(Côte-d'Or) Saint-Brieuc
Saint-Brieuc
(Côtes-d'Armor) Guéret
Guéret
(Creuse) Périgueux
Périgueux
(Dordogne) Besançon
Besançon
(Doubs) Valence (Drôme) Évreux
Évreux
(Eure) Chartres
Chartres
(Eure-et-Loir) Quimper
Quimper
(Finistère) Nîmes
Nîmes
(Gard) Toulouse
Toulouse
(Haute-Garonne) Auch
Auch
(Gers) Bordeaux
Bordeaux
(Gironde) Montpellier
Montpellier
(Hérault) Rennes
Rennes
(Ille-et-Vilaine) Châteauroux
Châteauroux
(Indre) Tours
Tours
(Indre-et-Loire) Grenoble
Grenoble
(Isère) Lons-le-Saunier
Lons-le-Saunier
(Jura) Mont-de-Marsan
Mont-de-Marsan
(Landes) Blois
Blois
(Loir-et-Cher) Saint-Étienne
Saint-Étienne
(Loire) Le Puy-en-Velay
Le Puy-en-Velay
(Haute-Loire) Nantes
Nantes
(Loire-Atlantique) Orléans
Orléans
(Loiret) Cahors
Cahors
(Lot) Agen
Agen
(Lot-et-Garonne) Mende (Lozère) Angers
Angers
(Maine-et-Loire) Saint-Lô
Saint-Lô
(Manche) Châlons-en-Champagne
Châlons-en-Champagne
(Marne) Chaumont (Haute-Marne) Laval (Mayenne) Nancy (Meurthe-et-Moselle) Bar-le-Duc
Bar-le-Duc
(Meuse) Vannes
Vannes
(Morbihan) Metz
Metz
(Moselle) Nevers
Nevers
(Nièvre) Lille
Lille
(Nord) Beauvais
Beauvais
(Oise) Alençon
Alençon
(Orne) Arras
Arras
(Pas-de-Calais) Clermont-Ferrand
Clermont-Ferrand
(Puy-de-Dôme) Pau (Pyrénées-Atlantiques) Tarbes
Tarbes
(Hautes-Pyrénées) Perpignan
Perpignan
(Pyrénées-Orientales) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
(Bas-Rhin) Colmar
Colmar
(Haut-Rhin) Lyon
Lyon
(Rhône) Vesoul
Vesoul
(Haute-Saône) Mâcon
Mâcon
(Saône-et-Loire) Le Mans
Le Mans
(Sarthe) Chambéry
Chambéry
(Savoie) Annecy
Annecy
(Haute-Savoie) Paris
Paris
(Paris) Rouen
Rouen
(Seine-Maritime) Melun
Melun
(Seine-et-Marne) Versailles (Yvelines) Niort
Niort
(Deux-Sèvres) Amiens
Amiens
(Somme) Albi
Albi
(Tarn) Montauban
Montauban
(Tarn-et-Garonne) Toulon
Toulon
(Var) Avignon
Avignon
(Vaucluse) La Roche-sur-Yon
La Roche-sur-Yon
(Vendée) Poitiers
Poitiers
(Vienne) Limoges
Limoges
(Haute-Vienne) Épinal
Épinal
(Vosges) Auxerre
Auxerre
(Yonne) Belfort
Belfort
(Territoire de Belfort) Évry (Essonne) Nanterre
Nanterre
(Hauts-de-Seine) Bobigny
Bobigny
(Seine-Saint-Denis) Créteil
Créteil
(Val-de-Marne) Cergy, Pontoise
Pontoise
(Val-d'Oise)

Overseas departments

Basse-Terre
Basse-Terre
(Guadeloupe) Fort-de- France
France
(Martinique) Cayenne
Cayenne
(French Guiana) Saint-Denis (Réunion) Mamoudzou
Mamoudzou
(Mayotte)

v t e

Communes of the Indre-et-Loire
Indre-et-Loire
department

Abilly Ambillou Amboise Anché Antogny-le-Tillac Artannes-sur-Indre Assay Athée-sur-Cher Autrèche Auzouer-en-Touraine Avoine Avon-les-Roches Avrillé-les-Ponceaux Azay-le-Rideau Azay-sur-Cher Azay-sur-Indre Ballan-Miré Barrou Beaulieu-lès-Loches Beaumont-en-Véron Beaumont-Louestault Beaumont-Village Benais Berthenay Betz-le-Château Bléré Bossay-sur-Claise Bossée Le Boulay Bourgueil Bournan Boussay Braslou Braye-sous-Faye Braye-sur-Maulne Brèches Bréhémont Bridoré Brizay Bueil-en-Touraine Candes-Saint-Martin Cangey La Celle-Guenand La Celle-Saint-Avant Céré-la-Ronde Cerelles Chambon Chambourg-sur-Indre Chambray-lès-Tours Champigny-sur-Veude Chançay Chanceaux-près-Loches Chanceaux-sur-Choisille Channay-sur-Lathan La Chapelle-aux-Naux La Chapelle-Blanche-Saint-Martin La Chapelle-sur-Loire Charentilly Chargé Charnizay Château-la-Vallière Château-Renault Chaumussay Chaveignes Chédigny Cheillé Chemillé-sur-Dême Chemillé-sur-Indrois Chenonceaux Chezelles Chinon Chisseaux Chouzé-sur-Loire Cigogné Cinais Cinq-Mars-la-Pile Ciran Civray-de-Touraine Civray-sur-Esves Cléré-les-Pins Continvoir Cormery Coteaux-sur-Loire Couesmes Courçay Courcelles-de-Touraine Courcoué Couziers Cravant-les-Côteaux Crissay-sur-Manse La Croix-en-Touraine Crotelles Crouzilles Cussay Dame-Marie-les-Bois Descartes Dierre Dolus-le-Sec Draché Druye Épeigné-les-Bois Épeigné-sur-Dême Esves-le-Moutier Esvres Faye-la-Vineuse La Ferrière Ferrière-Larçon Ferrière-sur-Beaulieu Fondettes Francueil Genillé Gizeux Le Grand-Pressigny La Guerche Les Hermites Hommes Huismes L'Île-Bouchard Jaulnay Joué-lès-Tours Langeais Larçay Lémeré Lerné Le Liège Lignières-de-Touraine Ligré Ligueil Limeray Loches Loché-sur-Indrois Louans Le Louroux Lublé Lussault-sur-Loire Luynes Luzé Luzillé Maillé Manthelan Marçay Marcé-sur-Esves Marcilly-sur-Maulne Marcilly-sur-Vienne Marigny-Marmande Marray Mazières-de-Touraine La Membrolle-sur-Choisille Mettray Monnaie Montbazon Monthodon Montlouis-sur-Loire Montrésor Montreuil-en-Touraine Monts Morand Mosnes Mouzay Nazelles-Négron Neuil Neuillé-le-Lierre Neuillé-Pont-Pierre Neuilly-le-Brignon Neuville-sur-Brenne Neuvy-le-Roi Noizay Notre-Dame-d'Oé Nouans-les-Fontaines Nouâtre Nouzilly Noyant-de-Touraine Orbigny Panzoult Parçay-Meslay Parçay-sur-Vienne Paulmy Pernay Perrusson Le Petit-Pressigny Pocé-sur-Cisse Pont-de-Ruan Ports Pouzay Preuilly-sur-Claise Pussigny Razines Reignac-sur-Indre Restigné Reugny La Riche Richelieu Rigny-Ussé Rillé Rilly-sur-Vienne Rivarennes Rivière La Roche-Clermault Rochecorbon Rouziers-de-Touraine Saché Saint-Antoine-du-Rocher Saint-Aubin-le-Dépeint Saint-Avertin Saint-Bauld Saint-Benoît-la-Forêt Saint-Branchs Saint-Christophe-sur-le-Nais Saint-Cyr-sur-Loire Sainte-Catherine-de-Fierbois Sainte-Maure-de-Touraine Saint-Épain Saint-Étienne-de-Chigny Saint-Flovier Saint-Genouph Saint-Germain-sur-Vienne Saint-Hippolyte Saint-Jean-Saint-Germain Saint-Laurent-de-Lin Saint-Laurent-en-Gâtines Saint-Martin-le-Beau Saint-Nicolas-de-Bourgueil Saint-Nicolas-des-Motets Saint-Ouen-les-Vignes Saint-Paterne-Racan Saint-Pierre-des-Corps Saint-Quentin-sur-Indrois Saint-Règle Saint-Roch Saint-Senoch Saunay Savigné-sur-Lathan Savigny-en-Véron Savonnières Sazilly Semblançay Sennevières Sepmes Seuilly Sonzay Sorigny Souvigné Souvigny-de-Touraine Sublaines Tauxigny Tavant Theneuil Thilouze Thizay Tournon-Saint-Pierre Tours La Tour-Saint-Gelin Trogues Truyes Vallères Varennes Veigné Véretz Verneuil-le-Château Verneuil-sur-Indre Vernou-sur-Brenne Villaines-les-Rochers Villandry La Ville-aux-Dames Villebourg Villedômain Villedômer Villeloin-Coulangé Villeperdue Villiers-au-Bouin Vou Vouvray Yzeures-sur-Creuse

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 244753929 GND: 4060530-9 SUDOC: 029526086 BNF:

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