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1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries. 2 Population without double counting : residents of multiple communes (e.g., students and military personnel) only counted once.

TOULON (French pronunciation: ​ ; Provençal : Tolon (classical norm), Touloun (Mistralian norm), pronounced ) is a city in southern France
France
and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast, with a major French naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d\'Azur region , Toulon
Toulon
is the capital of the Var department .

The Commune of Toulon
Toulon
has a population of 165,514 people (2009), making it the fifteenth-largest city in France. It is the centre of an urban area with 559,421 inhabitants (2008), the ninth largest in France. Toulon
Toulon
is the third-largest French city on the Mediterranean coast after Marseille
Marseille
and Nice
Nice
.

Toulon
Toulon
is an important centre for naval construction, fishing, wine making, and the manufacture of aeronautical equipment, armaments, maps, paper, tobacco, printing, shoes, and electronic equipment.

The military port of Toulon
Toulon
is the major naval centre on France's Mediterranean
Mediterranean
coast, home of the French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle and her battle group. The French Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Fleet is based in Toulon.

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Prehistory to the Roman era * 1.2 Arrival of Christianity and the Counts of Provence
Provence
* 1.3 Royal Port (15th–18th centuries) * 1.4 19th century * 1.5 20th century

* 2 Main sights

* 2.1 The Old Town * 2.2 The Fountains of Old Toulon
Toulon
* 2.3 The Upper Town of Baron Haussmann * 2.4 The Harbour and Arsenal * 2.5 Le Mourillon * 2.6 Mount Faron * 2.7 Vauban\'s fortifications

* 3 Climate * 4 Museums * 5 Education * 6 Literature * 7 Transport * 8 Points of interest * 9 Gastronomy * 10 Sport * 11 Notable residents

* 12 International relations

* 12.1 Twin towns – sister cities

* 13 See also

* 14 References

* 14.1 Bibliography * 14.2 Notes

* 15 External links

HISTORY

See also: Timeline of Toulon

PREHISTORY TO THE ROMAN ERA

Toulon Cathedral (11th to 18th centuries)

Archaeological excavations, such as those at the Cosquer Cave near Marseille
Marseille
, show that the coast of Provence
Provence
was inhabited since at least the Paleolithic
Paleolithic
era. Greek colonists came from Asia Minor
Asia Minor
in about the 7th century BC and established trading depots along the coast, including one, called Olbia, at Saint-Pierre de l'Almanarre south of Hyères , to the east of Toulon. The Ligurians settled in the area beginning in the 4th century BC.

In the 2nd century BC, the residents of Massalia (present-day Marseille) called upon the Romans to help them pacify the region. The Romans defeated the Ligurians and began to start their own colonies along the coast. A Roman settlement was founded at the present location of Toulon, with the name Telo Martius – Telo, either for the goddess of springs or from the Latin tol, the base of the hill – and Martius , for the god of war. Telo Martius became one of the two principal Roman dye manufacturing centres, producing the purple colour used in imperial robes, made from the local sea snail called murex , and from the acorns of the oak trees. Toulon
Toulon
harbour became a shelter for trading ships, and the name of the town gradually changed from Telo to Tholon, Tolon, and Toulon.

ARRIVAL OF CHRISTIANITY AND THE COUNTS OF PROVENCE

Toulon
Toulon
was Christianized in the 5th century, and the first cathedral built. Honoratus and Gratianus of Toulon
Toulon
(Gratien), according to the Gallia Christiana , were the first bishops of Toulon
Toulon
, but Louis Duchesne gives Augustalis as the first historical bishop. He assisted at councils in 441 and 442 and signed in 449 and 450 the letters addressed to Pope Leo I from the province of Arles .

A Saint Cyprian , disciple and biographer of St. Cæsarius of Arles , is also mentioned as a Bishop of Toulon. His episcopate, begun in 524, had not come to an end in 541; he converted to Catholicism two Visigothic chiefs, Mandrier and Flavian, who became anchorites and martyrs on the peninsula of Mandrier. In 1095, a new cathedral was built in the city by Count Gilbert of Provence
Provence
. As barbarians invaded the region and Roman power crumbled, the town was frequently attacked by pirates and the Saracens .

ROYAL PORT (15TH–18TH CENTURIES)

Main article: Ottoman wintering in Toulon
Ottoman wintering in Toulon
The Tour Royale (16th century) Barbarossa 's Ottoman fleet, of the Regency of Algiers , wintering in the harbour of Toulon
Toulon
in 1543, with the Tour Royale (bottom right). The Toulon Opera
Toulon Opera
House (1862) A view of the University campus

In 1486 Provence
Provence
became part of France. Soon afterwards, in 1494, Charles VIII of France
France
, with the intention of making France
France
a sea power on the Mediterranean, and to support his military campaign in Italy, began constructing a military port at the harbor of Toulon. His Italian campaign failed, and 1497, the rulers of Genoa
Genoa
, who controlled commerce on that part of the Mediterranean, blockaded the new port.

In 1524, as part of his longtime battle against Emperor Charles V and the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
, King François I of France
France
completed a powerful new fort, the Tour Royale, Toulon
Tour Royale, Toulon
, at the entrance of the harbour. However, a few months later the commander of the new fort sold it to the commander of an Army of the Holy Roman Empire, and Toulon
Toulon
surrendered.

In 1543, Francis I found a surprising new ally in his battle against the Holy Roman Empire. He invited the fleet of Ottoman Admiral Barbarossa to Toulon
Toulon
as part of the Franco-Ottoman alliance . The residents were forced to leave, and the Ottoman sailors occupied the town for the winter. See Ottoman occupation of Toulon .

In 1646, a fleet was gathered in Toulon
Toulon
for the major Battle of Orbetello , also known as the Battle of Isola del Giglio, commanded by France's first Grand Admiral, the young Grand Admiral Marquis of Brézé, Jean Armand de Maillé-Bréze of 36 galleons, 20 galleys, and a large complement of minor vessels. This fleet carried aboard an army of 8,000 infantry and 800 cavalry and its baggage under Thomas of Savoy, shortly before a general in Spanish service.

King Louis XIV
Louis XIV
was determined to make France
France
a major sea power. In 1660, his Minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
ordered Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban to build a new arsenal and to fortify the town. In 1707, during the War of the Spanish Succession , Toulon
Toulon
successfully resisted a siege by the Imperial Army led by Duke Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia of Savoy and Prince Eugene . However, in 1720, the city was ravaged by the black plague , coming from Marseille. Thirteen thousand people, or half the population, died.

In 1790, following the French Revolution
French Revolution
, Toulon
Toulon
became the administrative centre of the département of the Var . The leaders of the city, however, were largely royalists, and they welcomed the arrival of a British fleet. At the siege of Toulon
Toulon
, the British were expelled by a French force whose artillery was led by a young captain, Napoleon Bonaparte . To punish Toulon
Toulon
for its rebellion, the town lost its status as department capital and was briefly renamed Port-de-la-Montagne.

19TH CENTURY

View in 1850

During the Napoleonic Wars
Napoleonic Wars
, from 1803 until 1805 a British fleet led by Admiral Horatio Nelson
Horatio Nelson
blockaded Toulon.

In 1820, the statue which became known as the Venus de Milo
Venus de Milo
was discovered on the Greek island of Milo and seen by a French naval officer, Emile Voutier. He persuaded the French Ambassador to Turkey to buy it, and brought it to Toulon
Toulon
on his ship, the Estafette. From Toulon
Toulon
it was taken to the Louvre
Louvre
.

In 1820 Toulon
Toulon
became the base for the conquest of France's colonies in North Africa. In 1820 a French fleet with an army departed from Toulon
Toulon
for the conquest of Algeria
Algeria
.

1849, during the brief Second French Republic, Baron Haussmann was named Prefect of the Var. During his year as prefect, he began a major reconstruction of the city, similar to what he would later do in Paris. He tore down large parts of the old fortifications and built new boulevards and squares. The new Toulon Opera
Toulon Opera
House, the second-largest in France, opened in 1862.

In 1867, on the orders of Napoleon III
Napoleon III
General François Achille Bazaine arrived in Toulon
Toulon
without an official welcome after abandoning the Mexican military campaign and Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico .

20TH CENTURY

During World War II, after the Allied landings in North Africa ( Operation Torch
Operation Torch
) the German Army occupied southern France
France
(Case Anton ), leading French naval officers to scuttle the French Fleet based at Toulon
Toulon
on 27 November 1942. The city was bombed by the Allies in November of the following year, with much of the port destroyed and five hundred residents killed. Toulon
Toulon
was liberated by the Free French Forces of General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny on 28 August 1944 in the Battle of Toulon
Toulon
.

In 1974 Toulon
Toulon
became again the préfecture, or administrative centre, of the Var. Five years later the University of Toulon
Toulon
opened. Toulon
Toulon
was one of four French cities where the extreme-right Front National won the local elections in 1995. The Front National was voted out of power in 2001.

MAIN SIGHTS

THE OLD TOWN

The old town of Toulon, the historic centre located between the port, the Boulevard de Strasbourg
Strasbourg
and the Cours Lafayette, is a pedestrian area with narrow streets, small squares and many fountains. Toulon Cathedral is located here. The area is also home of the celebrated Provençal market which takes place every morning on the Cours Lafayette, which features local products. The old town had decayed in the 1980s and 1990s, but recently many of the fountains and squares have been restored, and many new shops have opened.

THE FOUNTAINS OF OLD TOULON

*

Fontaine du Dauphin, Place Paul Comte. The fountain, on the wall of the Bishop's residence, appears in the drawings of Toulon
Toulon
made for Louis XIV
Louis XIV
in 1668. *

Fontaine des Trois Dauphins, Place Puget (1782) *

Fontaine de l'Intendance, Place Amiral Sénès, (1821) *

The Fontaine-Lavoir de Saint-Vincent, Place Saint-Vincent (1832), replaced the original fountain built in 1615. It had a fountain for drinking water and two basins, for washing clothes, one for washing and one for rinsing. *

View of downtown Toulon
Toulon
and Mediterranean
Mediterranean
Sea from Mount Faron

The Old Town of Toulon
Toulon
is known for its fountains, found in many of the small squares, each with a different character. The original system of fountains was built in the late 17th century; most were rebuilt in the eighteenth or early 19th century, and have recently been restored.

THE UPPER TOWN OF BARON HAUSSMANN

Place de la liberté.

The upper town, between the Boulevard de Strasbourg
Strasbourg
and the railway station, was built in the mid-19th century under Louis Napoleon
Louis Napoleon
. The project was begun by Baron Haussmann , who was prefect of the Var in 1849. Improvements to the neighbourhood included the Toulon Opera
Toulon Opera
, the Place de la Liberté, the Grand Hôtel, the Gardens of Alexander I, the Chalucet Hospital, the palais de Justice, the train station, and the building now occupied by Galeries Lafayette, among others. Haussmann went on to use the same style on a much grander scale in the rebuilding of central Paris.

THE HARBOUR AND ARSENAL

View of Toulon, the Arsenal and Mount Faron from the Harbour. Main article: Military port of Toulon

Toulon
Toulon
harbour is one of the best natural anchorages on the Mediterranean, and one of the largest harbours in Europe. A naval arsenal and shipyard was built in 1599, and small sheltered harbour, the Veille Darse, was built in 1604–1610 to protect ships from the wind and sea. The shipyard was greatly enlarged by Cardinal Richelieu , who wished to make France
France
into a Mediterranean
Mediterranean
naval power. Further additions were made by Jean-Baptiste Colbert
Jean-Baptiste Colbert
and Vauban .

LE MOURILLON

Main article: Le Mourillon

Le Mourillon is a small seaside neighbourhood to the east of Toulon, near the entrance of the harbour. It was once a fishing village, and then became the home of many of the officers of the French fleet. Mourillon has a small fishing port, next to a 16th-century fort, Fort Saint Louis, which was reconstructed by Vauban. In the 1970s the city of Toulon
Toulon
built a series of sheltered sandy beaches in Mourillon, which today are very popular with the Toulonais and with naval families. The Museum of Asian Art is located in a house on the waterfront near Fort St. Louis.

MOUNT FARON

Main article: Mont Faron

Mount Faron (584 metres (1,916 feet)) dominates the city of Toulon. The top can be reached either by a cable car from Toulon, or by a narrow and terrifying road which ascends from the west side and descends on the east side. The road is one of the most challenging stages of the annual Paris– Nice
Nice
and Tour Méditerranéen bicycle races.

At the top of Mount Faron is a memorial dedicated to the 1944 Allied landings in Provence
Provence
( Operation Dragoon
Operation Dragoon
), and to the liberation of Toulon.

VAUBAN\'S FORTIFICATIONS

The Porte d'Italie, built by Vauban. Napoleon departed from this gate in 1796 on his Italian campaign.

Beginning in 1678, Vauban constructed an elaborate system of fortifications around Toulon. Some parts, such as the section that once ran along the present-day Boulevard de Strasbourg, were removed in the mid-19th century, so the city could be enlarged, but other parts remain. One part that can be visited is the Porte d'Italie, one of the old city gates. Napoleon Bonaparte departed on his triumphant Italian campaign from this gate in 1796.

CLIMATE

The Harbour at Sunset

Toulon
Toulon
has a Mediterranean
Mediterranean
climate , characterised by abundant and strong sunshine, dry summers, and rain which is rare but sometimes torrential; and by hot summers and mild winters. Because of its proximity to the sea, the temperature is relatively moderate.

The average temperature in January, the coldest month, is 9.3 °C (49 °F), the warmest of any city in metropolitan France. In January the maximum average temperature is 12.7 °C (55 °F). and the average minimum temperature is 5.8 °C (42 °F).

The average temperature in July, the warmest month, is 23.9 °C (75 °F)., with an average maximum of 29.1 °C (84 °F). and an average minimal temperature of 18.8 °C (66 °F).

According to data collected by Météo- France
France
, Toulon
Toulon
is the city in metropolitan France
France
with the most sunshine per year: an average of 2,856 hours a year from 1999 to 2008, compared with 2,695 hours a year for Nice
Nice
and 2,472 hours for Perpignan. This is due to the wall of mountains that largely protects Toulon
Toulon
from the weather coming from north.

Average rainfall is 665 millimetres per year. The driest month is July with 6.6 mm (0.26 in)., and the wettest is October, with 93.9 mm (3.70 in). It rains on less than 60 days per year (an average of 59.7 days) and the amount of precipitation is very unequal in the different seasons. In February, the month with the most rain, it rains 7.1 days, but with only 88.3 millimetres (3.48 inches) of rain, while in October there are 5.9 days of rain. July, with 1.3 days of rain, is usually the driest month, but the driest month can fall anywhere between May and September. Autumn is characterized by torrential but brief rains; in winter there is more precipitation, spread out over longer periods.

Because of the proximity to the sea, freezing temperatures are rare; an average of 2.9 days a year, and lasting frosts (when the maximum temperature remains less or equal to zero) are non-existent. Snow is also very rare (barely 1.5 days per year on average) and it is even more rare for the snow to last during the day (0.3 days a year on average).

One distinctive feature of the Toulon
Toulon
climate is the wind, with 115 days a year of strong winds; usually either the cold and dry Mistral or the Tramontane
Tramontane
from the north, the wet Marin ; or the Sirocco sometimes bearing reddish sand from Africa; or the wet and stormy Levant
Levant
from the east. (See Winds of Provence
Provence
.) The windiest month is January, with an average of 12.5 days of strong winds. The least windy month is September, with 7 days of strong winds. In winter, the Mistral can make the air feel extremely cold, even though the temperature is mild.

The climate is dry and the humidity in Toulon
Toulon
is usually low. The average humidity is 56 percent, with little variation throughout the year; the driest months are July and August with 50 percent, and the most humid months are November and December with 60 percent.

CLIMATE DATA FOR TOULON (1981–2010)

MONTH JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR

RECORD HIGH °C (°F) 23.0 (73.4) 22.5 (72.5) 25.9 (78.6) 28.1 (82.6) 31.6 (88.9) 34.9 (94.8) 40.1 (104.2) 37.0 (98.6) 34.7 (94.5) 29.3 (84.7) 24.2 (75.6) 21.9 (71.4) 40.1 (104.2)

AVERAGE HIGH °C (°F) 12.9 (55.2) 13.5 (56.3) 15.8 (60.4) 18.0 (64.4) 22.0 (71.6) 26.1 (79) 29.4 (84.9) 29.3 (84.7) 25.7 (78.3) 21.3 (70.3) 16.5 (61.7) 13.6 (56.5) 20.4 (68.7)

DAILY MEAN °C (°F) 9.3 (48.7) 9.5 (49.1) 11.7 (53.1) 13.9 (57) 17.7 (63.9) 21.4 (70.5) 24.3 (75.7) 24.3 (75.7) 21.1 (70) 17.5 (63.5) 13.0 (55.4) 10.2 (50.4) 16.2 (61.2)

AVERAGE LOW °C (°F) 5.6 (42.1) 5.6 (42.1) 7.5 (45.5) 9.7 (49.5) 13.3 (55.9) 16.6 (61.9) 19.3 (66.7) 19.3 (66.7) 16.5 (61.7) 13.6 (56.5) 9.4 (48.9) 6.8 (44.2) 12.0 (53.6)

RECORD LOW °C (°F) −7.2 (19) −9 (16) −4.3 (24.3) 1.1 (34) 4.6 (40.3) 9.0 (48.2) 10.9 (51.6) 10.8 (51.4) 7.3 (45.1) 3.0 (37.4) −2.0 (28.4) −2.8 (27) −9 (16)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION MM (INCHES) 74.4 (2.929) 47.6 (1.874) 36.3 (1.429) 56.0 (2.205) 35.8 (1.409) 28.6 (1.126) 5.5 (0.217) 21.2 (0.835) 53.4 (2.102) 99.3 (3.909) 71.7 (2.823) 66.9 (2.634) 596.8 (23.496)

AVERAGE PRECIPITATION DAYS (≥ 1.0 MM) 6.03 5.04 4.27 6.03 4.37 2.83 1.03 1.83 4.33 6.23 6.90 6.83 55.74

AVERAGE SNOWY DAYS 0.6 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 1.5

AVERAGE RELATIVE HUMIDITY (%) 59 58 55 55 56 53 50 50 56 59 60 60 55.9

MEAN MONTHLY SUNSHINE HOURS 155.8 171.5 227.8 244.8 286.9 328.6 367.3 334.3 261.2 191.6 149.7 134.6 2,854.1

Source #1: Meteo climat

Source #2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity and snowy days 1961–1990)

MUSEUMS

Toulon
Toulon
has a number of museums.

The MUSEUM OF THE FRENCH NAVY (Musée national de la marine) is located on Place Monsenergue, next on the west side of the old port, a short distance from the Hotel de Ville. The museum was founded in 1814, during the reign of the Emperor Napoleon. It is located today behind what was formerly the monumental gate to the Arsenal of Toulon, built in 1738. The museum building, along with the clock tower next to it, is one of the few buildings of the port and arsenal which survived Allied bombardments during World War II. It contains displays tracing the history of Toulon
Toulon
as a port of the French Navy
Navy
. Highlights include large 18th-century ship models used to teach seamanship and models of the aircraft carrier Charles De Gaulle
Charles De Gaulle
.

The MUSEUM OF OLD TOULON AND ITS REGION (Musée du vieux Toulon
Toulon
et de sa région). The Museum was founded in 1912, and contains a collection of maps, paintings, drawings, models and other artifacts showing the history of the city.

The MUSEUM OF ASIAN ARTS (Musée des arts asiatiques), in Mourillon. Located in a house with garden which once belonged to the son and later the grandson of author Jules Verne
Jules Verne
, the museum contains a small but interesting collection of art objects, many donated by naval officers from the time of the French colonization of Southeast Asia. It includes objects and paintings from India, China, Southeast Asia, Tibet and Japan.

The MUSEUM OF ART (Musée d'art) was created in 1888, and contains collections of modern and contemporary art, as well as paintings of Provence
Provence
from the 17th century to the beginning of the 20th century. It owns works by landscape artists of Provence
Provence
from the late 19th century ( Paul Guigou , Auguste Aiguier , Vincent Courdouan , Félix Ziem ), and the Fauves of Provence
Provence
( Charles Camoin , Auguste Chabaud , André Alexandre Verdilhan ). The contemporary collections contain works from 1960 to today representing the New Realism Movement (Arman, César, Christo , Klein, Raysse); Minimalist Art ( Sol LeWitt , Donald Judd ); Support Surface (Cane, Viallat côtoient Arnal, Buren, Chacallis) and an important collection of photographs by Henri Cartier-Bresson , Dieuzaide , Edouard Boubat
Edouard Boubat
, Willy Ronis and André Kertész ).

The MEMORIAL MUSEUM TO THE LANDINGS IN PROVENCE (Mémorial du débarquement de Provence) is located on the summit of Mount Faron, this small museum, opened in 1964 by President Charles De Gaulle
Charles De Gaulle
, commemorates the Allied landing in Provence
Provence
in August 1944 with photos, weapons and models.

The MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY OF TOULON AND THE VAR (Musée d'histoire naturelle de Toulon
Toulon
et du Var) was founded in 1888, has a large collection of displays about dinosaurs, birds, mammals, and minerals, mostly from the region.

The HôTEL DES ARTS was opened in 1998, presents five exhibits a year of works by well-known contemporary artists. Featured artists have included Sean Scully , Jannis Kounellis
Jannis Kounellis
, Claude Viallat , Per Kirkeby , and Vik Muniz
Vik Muniz
.

EDUCATION

Toulon
Toulon
has a conservatory (Conservatoire TPM , part of Conservatoire à rayonnement régional de Toulon
Toulon
) which taught music, theater, dance and circus and an art academy called École supérieure d\'art et de design Toulon
Toulon
Provence
Provence
Méditerranée . Toulon
Toulon
is also home to a number of institutes of the University of Toulon
Toulon
, known until 2013 as University of the South, Toulon-Var.

LITERATURE

Toulon
Toulon
figures prominently in Victor Hugo
Victor Hugo
's Les Misérables
Les Misérables
. It is the location of the infamous prison, the bagne of Toulon
Toulon
, in which the protagonist Jean Valjean spends nineteen years in hard labour. Toulon
Toulon
is also the birthplace of the novel's antagonist, Javert.

One portion of the wall of the old bagne, or prison, where Jean Valjean was supposedly held still stands to the right of the entrance of the Old Harbour.

In Anthony Powell 's novel What\'s Become of Waring the central characters spend a long summer holiday in Toulon's old town. Powell himself stayed at the Hotel du Port et des Negociants on two occasions in the early 1930s and writes in the second volume of his memoirs The naval port, with its small inner harbour, row of cafés along the rade, was quite separate from the business quarter of the town. A paddle steamer plied several times a day between this roadstead and the agreeably unsophisticated plage of Les Sablettes.

Joseph Conrad
Joseph Conrad
's last novel, 'THE ROVER \', is also set around Toulon.

The last half of Dewey Lambdin 's historical fiction novel, H.M.S. Cockerel, (the sixth novel in his Alan Lewrie naval adventure series) details the Siege of Toulon from Lewrie's perspective, as he commands a commandeered French barge carrying sea mortars against Lieutenant-Colonel Bonaparte's forces.

TRANSPORT

Harbor with ferry

Toulon
Toulon
is served by the Gare de Toulon
Gare de Toulon
railway station, offering suburban services to Marseille
Marseille
(1 train every 15minutes during rush hour), Nice, Paris
Paris
and regional destinations. The port of Toulon
Toulon
is the main port of departure for ferries to Corsica
Corsica
. The nearest airport is the regional Toulon- Hyères Airport . The A50 autoroute connects Toulon
Toulon
to Marseille, the A57 autoroute runs from Toulon
Toulon
to Le Luc, where it connects to the A8 autoroute
A8 autoroute

POINTS OF INTEREST

* Jardin d\'acclimatation du Mourillon * Tour Royale, Toulon
Tour Royale, Toulon

GASTRONOMY

Local food highlights include:

* cuisine from the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
and from Provence * the cade toulonnaise, a local speciality composed of chickpea flour and which is equivalent to the Socca
Socca
of Nice * the Chichi Frégi, a type of donut from Provence. * Smash Sandwiches, a common sandwich available from street vendors throughout Toulon.

SPORT

The most successful of the city's clubs are the rugby union team RC Toulon
Toulon
and the women's handball team Toulon St-Cyr Var Handball , both playing in the top division of their respective sports. The basketball team Hyères-Toulon Var Basket play in the second division of the French championship .

The city hosts the final four of the annual Toulon Tournament – an international under 21 football tournament.

The top soccer club is the Sporting Toulon Var
Sporting Toulon Var
, currently playing at the fourth level of French Football (Championnat de France
France
Amateurs ). Famous players such as Delio Onnis , Jean Tigana
Jean Tigana
, Christian Dalger , David Ginola
David Ginola
and Sébastien Squillaci
Sébastien Squillaci
have played for Sporting.

The city has been chosen by Groupama Team France
France
as the venue for the fifth event in the Americas Cup World Series 2016, alongside international cities such as Portsmouth -webkit-column-count: 2; column-count: 2;">

* La Spezia
La Spezia
, Italy, since 1958 * Mannheim
Mannheim
, Germany, since 1958 * Norfolk , United States, since 1988 * Kronstadt , Russia, since 1996

SEE ALSO

* Communes of the Var department

REFERENCES

* INSEE

BIBLIOGRAPHY

See also: Bibliography of the history of Toulon
Toulon

* Michel Vergé-Franceschi, Toulon
Toulon
– Port Royal (1481–1789). Tallandier: Paris, 2002. * Aldo Bastié, Histoire de la Provence, Editions Ouest-France, 2001. * Cyrille Roumagnac, L'Arsenal de Toulon
Toulon
et la Royale, Editions Alan Sutton, 2001 * Jean-Pierre Thiollet , Le Chevallier à découvert, Paris, Laurens, 1998 * Maurice Arreckx , Vivre sa ville, Paris, La Table ronde, 1982 ; Toulon, ma passion, 1985

NOTES

* ^ Insee - Résultats du recensement de la population de 2008 - Unité urbaine de Toulon, consulté le 22 octobre 2011 * ^ Aldo Bastié, Historie de la Provence, Éditions Ouest-France, 2001. * ^ A legend which states that a certain Cleon accompanied St. Lazarus to Gaul and was the founder of the Church of Toulon, is based on a 14th-century forgery that was ascribed to a 6th-century bishop named Didier. * ^ Cyrille Roumagnac, L'Arsenal de Toulon
Toulon
et la Royale. pg. 43 * ^ for the history of the Old Town, see Michel Vergé-Franceschi, Toulon
Toulon
– Port Royal (1481–1789). Tallandier: Paris, 2002. * ^ André-Jean Tardy, Fontaines Toulonnaises, Les Editions de la Nerthe, Toulon, 2001. * ^ Haussmann was only prefet of the Var for one year, but his prototypes for boulevards, apartment buildings and parks that he built in Paris
Paris
were copied not only in Toulon, but in other large cities around France. * ^ Michel Vergé-Franceschi, Toulon
Toulon
– Port Royal (1481–1789. Tallandier: Paris, 2002. * ^ Michel Vergé-Franceschi, Toulon
Toulon
– Port Royal (1481–1789). Tallandier: Paris, 2002. * ^ Lameteo.org comparative climate statistics for cities of France. See also: http://climat.meteofrance.com * ^ "Moyennes 1981/2010: Région Provence-Alpes-Côte d\'Azur" (in French). Météoclimat. Retrieved December 19, 2014. * ^ "STATION Toulon" (in French). Météoclimat. Retrieved December 19, 2014. * ^ "Normes et records 1961-1990: Toulon
Toulon
- La Mitre (83) - altitude 24m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved December 19, 2014. * ^ See the page about the Museum on the official site of the Museums of the Var (in French) * ^ See the site of the Museums of Toulon
Toulon
on the Toulon
Toulon
City Web Site (in French) * ^ "Jumelages: Toulon
Toulon
et ses villes jumelées" (in French). Mairie d'honneur de Toulon. Retrieved 2015-02-15. * ^ "Partner und Freundesstädte". Stadt Mannheim
Mannheim
(in German). Retrieved 2013-07-26.

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Toulon
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