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TOTTENHAM (/ˈtɒtnəm, -tən-/ ) is a district of north London
London
, England
England
, within the London Borough of Haringey
London Borough of Haringey
. It is located 5 miles (8 km) north-east of Charing Cross .

CONTENTS

* 1 History

* 1.1 Toponymy * 1.2 Early history * 1.3 Modern era * 1.4 Railways

* 2 Governance

* 2.1 Parliament * 2.2 Local Government

* 3 Geography

* 3.1 Districts

* 3.1.1 North Tottenham
Tottenham
* 3.1.2 Central Tottenham
Tottenham
* 3.1.3 South Tottenham * 3.1.4 West Tottenham
Tottenham

* 3.2 Neighbouring areas

* 3.2.1 North * 3.2.2 East * 3.2.3 South * 3.2.4 West

* 4 Demography and crime

* 4.1 Ethnic composition * 4.2 Organised crime * 4.3 Riots

* 5 Landmarks * 6 Transport * 7 Sport * 8 Namesakes * 9 Notable people * 10 References * 11 External links

HISTORY

TOPONYMY

Tottenham
Tottenham
is believed to have been named after Tota, a farmer, whose hamlet was mentioned in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
; hence Tota's hamlet became Tottenham. It was recorded in the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
as Toteham.

EARLY HISTORY

Dorset Map of Tottenham
Tottenham
in 1619 (South shown at the top of the map)

There has been a settlement at Tottenham
Tottenham
for over a thousand years. It grew up along the old Roman road
Roman road
, Ermine Street
Ermine Street
(some of which is part of the present A10 road ), and between High Cross and Tottenham Hale , the present Monument Way.

When the Domesday Book
Domesday Book
was compiled in 1086, about 70 families lived within the area of the manor, mostly labourers working for the Lord of the Manor . A humorous poem entitled the Tournament of Tottenham , written around 1400, describes a mock-battle between peasants vying for the reeve 's daughter.

In 1894, Tottenham
Tottenham
was made an urban district and on 27 September 1934 it became a municipal borough . As from 1 April 1965, the municipal borough formed part of the London Borough of Haringey
London Borough of Haringey
.

The River Lea
River Lea
(or Lee) was the eastern boundary between the Municipal Boroughs of Tottenham
Tottenham
and Walthamstow
Walthamstow
. It is the ancient boundary between Middlesex
Middlesex
and Essex
Essex
and also formed the western boundary of the Viking controlled Danelaw
Danelaw
. Today it is the boundary between the London
London
Boroughs of Haringey and Waltham Forest . A major tributary of the Lea , the River Moselle , also crosses the borough from west to east, and often caused serious flooding until it was mostly covered in the 19th century.

From the Tudor period onwards, Tottenham
Tottenham
became a popular recreation and leisure destination for wealthy Londoners. Henry VIII is known to have visited Bruce Castle and also hunted in Tottenham
Tottenham
Wood. A rural Tottenham
Tottenham
also featured in Izaak Walton
Izaak Walton
's book The Compleat Angler
The Compleat Angler
, published in 1653. The area became noted for its large Quaker population and its schools (including Rowland Hill 's at Bruce Castle. ) Tottenham
Tottenham
remained a semi-rural and upper middle class area until the 1870s.

MODERN ERA

In late-1870, the Great Eastern Railway
Great Eastern Railway
introduced special workman's trains and fares on their newly opened Enfield and Walthamstow
Walthamstow
branch lines. Tottenham's low-lying fields and market gardens were then rapidly transformed into cheap housing for the lower-middle and working-classes, who were able to commute cheaply to inner London. The workman's fare policy stimulated the relatively early development of the area into a suburb of London.

An incident occurred on 23 January 1909, which was at the time known as the Tottenham Outrage . Two armed robbers of Russian extraction held up the wages clerk of a rubber works in Chesnut Road. They made their escape via Tottenham Marshes
Tottenham Marshes
and fled across the Lea. On the opposite bank of the river, they hijacked a Walthamstow
Walthamstow
Corporation tramcar , hotly pursued by the police on another tram. The hijacked tram was stopped but the robbers continued their escape on foot. After firing their weapons and killing two people, Ralph Joscelyne, aged 10, and PC William Tyler, they were eventually cornered by the police and committed suicide; rather than be captured. Fourteen other people were wounded during the chase. The incident later became the subject of a silent film .

During the Second World War
Second World War
, Tottenham
Tottenham
also became a target of the German air offensive against Britain. Bombs fell within the borough (Elmar Road) during the first air raid on London
London
on 24 August 1940. The borough also received V-1 (four incidents) and V-2
V-2
hits, the last of which occurred on 15 March 1945. Wartime shortages led to the creation of Tottenham
Tottenham
Pudding, a mixture of household waste food which was converted into feeding stuffs for pigs and poultry. The "pudding" was named by Queen Mary on a visit to Tottenham
Tottenham
Refuse Works. Production continued into the post-war period, it's demise coinciding with the merging of the borough into the newly created borough of Haringey . Broadwater Farm , the scene of rioting in 1985

In 1985, the Broadwater Farm housing estate in Tottenham
Tottenham
was the scene of rioting between the police and local youths following the death of Cynthia Jarrett , a resident of Tottenham
Tottenham
but who lived about a mile from the estate who died of heart failure after four policemen burst into her home. The response of the members of the black community in Tottenham
Tottenham
and surrounding areas culminated in a riot beginning on Tottenham High Road and ending in the local Broadwater Farm Estate. One police officer, Keith Blakelock , was murdered ; 58 policemen and 24 other people were injured in the fighting. Two of the policemen were injured by gunshots during the riot, the first time that firearms had been used in that type of confrontation.

Tottenham
Tottenham
witnessed a high crime rate mostly relating to drug dealers and gangs. In 1999, Tottenham
Tottenham
was identified as one of the yardies ' strongholds in London, along with Stoke Newington
Stoke Newington
, Harlesden
Harlesden
, Lambeth
Lambeth
and Brixton
Brixton
.

The Mecca Dance Hall was demolished in 2004 to make way for local housing.

The 2011 England
England
riots were precipitated by the fatal shooting of Mark Duggan , a 29-year-old man in Tottenham, by officers of the Metropolitan Police Service
Metropolitan Police Service
on 4 August 2011.

RAILWAYS

South Tottenham railway station (November 2005)

* The Northern and Eastern Railway – running from Stratford to Broxbourne – was opened on 15 September 1840 with two stations in the district: Tottenham
Tottenham
and Marsh Lane . * The Tottenham & Hampstead Junction Railway was opened on 21 July 1868. South Tottenham station was opened in 1871, while two other stations on this line in the Tottenham
Tottenham
area were opened later: Harringay
Harringay
Park (Green Lanes) opened in 1880, and St Ann\'s Road opened in 1882 but closed after service on 8 August 1942. * The Stoke Newington & Edmonton Railway – The section between Stoke Newington
Stoke Newington
and Lower Edmonton opened on 22 July 1872 with stations in Tottenham
Tottenham
at Stamford Hill
Stamford Hill
(half of the station lies in the borough), Seven Sisters , Bruce Grove and White Hart Lane . * The Palace Gates Line opened in Tottenham
Tottenham
on 1 January 1878 with stations at Seven Sisters and West Green . Passenger services ceased in 1963 with the line finally closing on 7 February 1965. * The Tottenham
Tottenham
"> South Tottenham is reported to be the most ethnically-diverse area in Europe, with up to 300 languages being spoken by its residents.

According to MP David Lammy
David Lammy
, Tottenham
Tottenham
has the highest unemployment rate in London
London
and the eighth highest in the United Kingdom, and it has some of the highest poverty rates within the country. There have also been major tensions between the African-Caribbean community and the police since (and before) the 1985 Broadwater Farm riot .

The ethnic groups in Tottenham
Tottenham
as of the 2011 UK Census are as follows:

* 22.3% White British * 27.7% Other White * 10.7% Asian * 26.7% Black * 12.6% Other/Mixed

ORGANISED CRIME

Tottenham
Tottenham
has been one of the main hotspots for gangs and gun crime in the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
during the past three decades. This followed the rise of gangs and drug wars throughout the area, notably those involving the Tottenham Mandem gang and various gangs from Hackney and all of the areas surrounding Tottenham, and the emergence of an organised crime ring known as the Turkish mafia was said to have controlled more than 90% of the UK's heroin market .

RIOTS

* The Broadwater Farm riot occurred around the Broadwater Farm area on 6 October 1985 following the death of Cynthia Jarrett in a police search of her home. The tension between local black youths and the largely white Metropolitan Police had been high due to a combination of local issues and the aftermath of riots in Brixton
Brixton
which had occurred in the previous week. The riots resulted in the murder of a police officer .

The former Bruce Grove Post Office was destroyed during the 2011 Tottenham
Tottenham
riots

* The 2011 Tottenham riots were a series of riots by protesters in Tottenham, London. Attacks were carried out on two police cars, a bus, a Post Office and several local shops from 8:00pm onwards on 6 August 2011. Riot police vans attended the scene of disturbances on Tottenham High Road. Later in the evening the riot spread, with an Aldi supermarket and a branch of Allied Carpets also destroyed by fire, and widespread looting in nearby Wood Green shopping centre and the retail park at Tottenham
Tottenham
Hale. Several flats above shops on Tottenham
Tottenham
High Road collapsed due to the fires. 26 shared ownership flats in the Union Point development above the Carpetright store – built in the landmark Cooperative department store building – were also completely destroyed by fire. The triggering event was when a group of over one hundred local Tottenham
Tottenham
residents set out to undertake a protest march against the killing of Mark Duggan , who was shot by police officers assigned to Operation Trident earlier in the week. The circumstances surrounding Duggan's death were not entirely clear at the time of the riot. On 17 August 2011, the Prince of Wales and his wife Duchess of Cornwall visited an emergency centre to meet victims of the riots.

LANDMARKS

Bruce Castle, the old Tottenham
Tottenham
manor house, now a museum. (November 2005)

* All Hallows Church – This is the oldest surviving building in the borough and dates back to Norman times . For more than 700 years it was the original parish church for Tottenham. Presented in 1802 with a bell from the Quebec
Quebec
Garrison, which was captured from the French in the 1759 Battle of Quebec
Quebec
, Canada. Adjacent to the church is * Tottenham
Tottenham
Cemetery – A large cemetery, which makes up part of an open access area of land and habitat, along with Bruce Castle Park and All Hallows Churchyard. * Broadwater Farm Housing estate
Housing estate
built in 1967; it was the site of the Broadwater Farm riot in 1985. * Brook Street Chapel – Non-denominational Christian chapel, established in 1839, and one of the earliest Plymouth Brethren
Plymouth Brethren
/Open Brethren assemblies in London
London
that still exists. The church was associated with local notable Christians such as Hudson Taylor
Hudson Taylor
, Dr Barnardo , John Eliot Howard , Luke Howard and Philip Gosse . * Bruce Castle , Lordship Lane – Grade 1 listed, it was Tottenham's manor house and dates from the sixteenth century, with alterations by subsequent occupants. It was given the name 'Bruce Castle' during the seventeenth century by the 2nd Lord Coleraine, who was Lord of the Manor
Lord of the Manor
at the time. He named it after 'Robert the Bruce ', whose family had been lords of the manor during the medieval period. The building was purchased by the Hill family, who turned it into a progressive school. Sir Rowland Hill was its first headmaster, and he was living there in 1840 when he, as Postmaster General , introduced the Uniform Penny Post . Now a local history museum, Bruce Castle holds the archives of the London
London
Borough of Haringey. * 7 Bruce Grove – The building features an English Heritage
English Heritage
blue plaque commemorating Luke Howard (1772–1864), the 'Father of Meteorology', who named the clouds in 1802. * Centre-piece of Northumberland Row. (May 2013). Northumberland Row – Erected circa 1740 on the site of the former Smithson seat, previously that of the Hynningham family. The gate piers are possibly from Bruce Castle . The wrought iron gate bears the monogram HS for one of the two Hugh Smithsons , both Tottenham landowners and sometime MPs for Middlesex. * Clyde Circus conservation area * Edmanson’s Close – Previously known as the Almshouses of the Drapers' Company, they were built in 1870 and were established through the generosity of three seventeenth-century benefactors , Sir John Jolles, John Pemel and John Edmanson.

The towers of the Broadwater Farm Estate dominate the western part of Tottenham
Tottenham

* High Cross – Erected sometime between 1600 and 1609 on the site of an earlier Christian cross, although there is some speculation that the first structure on the site was a Roman beacon or marker, situated on a low summit on Ermine Street
Ermine Street
. Tottenham High Cross is often mistakenly thought to be an Eleanor cross
Eleanor cross
. * Markfield Beam Engine * St Ann\'s Church – Consecrated in 1861, St Ann's Church houses the organ that was originally in Crosby Hall, Bishopsgate
Bishopsgate
, on which Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy
Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy
, who composed the famous Wedding March from A Midsummer Night\'s Dream , regularly gave recitals. * St Ignatius' Church and College – Built between 1894 and 1902, with two towers in the style of a 12th-century German cathedral, this Catholic church is situated at the foot of Stamford Hill
Stamford Hill
and dominates the area. * Tower Gardens Estate – Previously known as the LCC White Hart Lane Estate, this "out of county" LCC cottage housing estate was constructed beginning in 1904. The architectural style is said to be inspired by houses in Ghent
Ghent
, Belgium. The estate was the home of Harry Champion , a well-known music hall star and performer of the song "I\'m Henery the Eighth, I Am ".

TRANSPORT

Two London
London
Underground lines serve the Tottenham
Tottenham
area. The Piccadilly line, which opened in 1932, has one station Turnpike Lane , which was the first Underground station within the then Tottenham Borough boundaries. The Victoria line, which opened in 1968, has its operating depot in Tottenham
Tottenham
at Northumberland Park , as well as two stations, Seven Sisters and Tottenham Hale
Tottenham Hale
, in the area. Stations Seven Sisters, Tottenham
Tottenham
Hale, Bruce Grove , White Hart Lane and Northumberland Park also serve the area with train services provided by London
London
Overground , apart from Tottenham Hale
Tottenham Hale
and Northumberland Park which is only a National Rail
National Rail
stations, however if Crossrail 2 gets planning permission to be made then both those stations will also be served by Crossrail services between Hertford East and several destinations in Surrey. Those two stations are on the main Lea Valley Line; the West Anglian Main Line, with services provided by Abellio Greater Anglia , while Seven Sisters, Bruce Grove and White Hart Lane are all on the Lea Valley; Cheshunt/ Enfield Town
Enfield Town
Line which services are provided by London
London
Overground. London
London
Overground trains also serve South Tottenham station on the Gospel Oak – Barking
Barking
Line.

SPORT

White Hart Lane

Tottenham
Tottenham
is the home of Premier League
Premier League
football club Tottenham Hotspur . From 1899 until 2017, the club's home ground was White Hart Lane . In 2017, White Hart Lane ground closed and demolition commenced to make way for a new stadium on the same site, to open in August 2018. For the 2017-18 season , the club will play their home games at Wembley
Wembley
.

Tottenham
Tottenham
also has two non-League football clubs, Haringey Borough F.C. and Haringey "> Tottenham
Tottenham
cake

Tottenham
Tottenham
cake is a sponge cake baked in large metal trays, covered either in pink icing or jam (and occasionally decorated with shredded desiccated coconut). Tottenham
Tottenham
Cake "was originally sold by the baker Henry Chalkley, who was a Friend (or Quaker
Quaker
), at the price of one old penny, with smaller mis-shaped pieces sold for half an old penny." The pink colouring was derived from mulberries found growing at the Tottenham
Tottenham
Friends burial ground. Originally "a peculiar local invention" of north London, the cake is now mass-produced by the Greggs
Greggs
chain of bakers.

NOTABLE PEOPLE

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* Dotun Adebayo radio presenter, writer and publisher, lived and attended school in Tottenham. * Adele
Adele
(b. May 1988, Adele
Adele
Laurie Blue Adkins), singer-songwriter and musician , was born in Tottenham. * Alex Boyé , Mormon
Mormon
singer and actor. * Dave Clark , leader of the Dave Clark Five
Dave Clark Five
. * Teriy Keys , music executive , entrepreneur founder and co-chief executive officer of R.O.A.D. Group . * George Harrison Marks , English glamour photographer and director of adult films born in Tottenham. * Mark Hollis , English musician and songwriter known for Talk Talk and a short solo career. * Richard Hudson , singer-songwriter and musician (Elmer Gantry\'s Velvet Opera , Strawbs
Strawbs
) born in Tottenham. * David Lindon Lammy , Labour Party politician, MP for Tottenham since 2000. * Meridian Dan , MC born & raised in Tottenham, known for "German Whip", No. 13 in the UK Singles Chart. * Ron Moody , actor, born in Tottenham. * Trevor Peacock , actor, born in Tottenham. * Leslie Phillips , actor, born in Tottenham. * Skepta
Skepta
and Jme , MCs and members of the Boy Better Know (BBK) group. * Chip (rapper) , MC born & raised in Tottenham. * David Triesman , former chairman of the Football Association and Labour peer in the House of Lords
House of Lords
, is from Tottenham. * Shani Wallis , actress and singer. Played Nancy in the 1968 film of Oliver . * John Williams , shipbuilder, and missionary in the South Pacific . * Ted Willis , playwright , best known for the BBC
BBC
TV programme Dixon of Dock Green . * Wretch 32 , MC born & raised in Tottenham * Bob Bradbury , musician, lead singer and founder member of 1970s Glam Rock band Hello, lived and attended school in Tottenham. * Dubzy , MC ">

* ^ "Local statistics: Office for National Statistics". neighbourhood.statistics.gov.uk. * ^ Wells, John C. (2008), Longman Pronunciation Dictionary (3rd ed.), Longman, ISBN 9781405881180 * ^ Roach, Peter (2011), Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (18th ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521152532

* ^ "DocumentsOnline Image Details". The National Archives. Retrieved 10 December 2009. * ^ "The Complete Angler by Isaak Walton – Free eBook". Manybooks.net. Retrieved 10 December 2009. * ^ " Tottenham
Tottenham
Quaker
Quaker
Meeting (Religious Society of Friends)". Tottenhamquakers.org.uk. Retrieved 10 December 2009. * ^ "E.Howard, \'\'Eliot Papers\'\', 1895". Archive.org. Retrieved 10 December 2009. * ^ The Tottenham
Tottenham
Outrage. Retrieved 2 February 2008. * ^ Tottenham
Tottenham
outrage- silent film. Retrieved 10 November 2008. * ^ "Police tackle London\'s Yardies". BBC
BBC
News. * ^ Lewis, Paul (7 August 2011). " Tottenham
Tottenham
riots: a peaceful protest, then suddenly all hell broke loose". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 7 August 2011. * ^ " Tottenham
Tottenham
in flames as protesters riot". The Guardian. London. 6 August 2011. Retrieved 6 August 2011. * ^ "Tension builds in Enfield Town
Enfield Town
as small groups arrive in area". Enfield Independent. Retrieved 7 August 2011. * ^ Bracchi, Paul (8 August 2011). "Violence, drugs, a fatal stabbing and a most unlikely martyr". Daily Mail. London: Associated Newspapers . Archived from the original on 9 August 2011. Retrieved 8 August 2011. * ^ Great Britain Historical GIS / University of Portsmouth, Tottenham
Tottenham
parish (historic map). Retrieved 10 February 2008. * ^ Jumana Farouky (15 February 2007). "Unity Begins at Home". TIME. Retrieved 10 December 2009. * ^ David Lammie. "Response to the Comprehensive Spending Review". Retrieved 25 February 2011. * ^ "UK Polling Report". ukpollingreport.co.uk. * ^ Tony Thompson (17 November 2002). " Heroin
Heroin
\'emperor\' brings terror to UK streets". The Guardian. London. * ^ Newman, K. Archived 8 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
. * ^ "Brook Street Chapel". Brook Street Chapel. 31 October 2009. Retrieved 10 December 2009. * ^ " Bruce Castle Museum". Haringey.gov.uk. Retrieved 10 December 2009. * ^ A B C D Transport for London
London
(January 2016). Standard Tube Map (PDF) (Map). Not to scale. Transport for London. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 January 2015. * ^ Transport for London
London
(October 2015). London
London
Overground Map (PDF) (Map). Not to scale. Transport for London. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 January 2016. * ^ Ferris, Ken; Lane, Wyart. "Frequently Asked Questions about the Spurs" ( HTTP
HTTP
). The 'My Eyes Have Seen the Glory' website. Retrieved 22 September 2009. * ^ "Dressed in Simplicity: 300 years of Quakers in Tottenham". Retrieved 30 January 2014.

EXTERNAL LINKS

* Tottenham: Growth before

.