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A Tory
Tory
(/tɔːri/) holds a political philosophy (Toryism) based on a British version of traditionalism and conservatism, which upholds the supremacy of social order as it has evolved throughout history. The Tory
Tory
ethos has been summed up with the phrase "God, King, and Country".[1] Tories generally advocate monarchism, are usually of a high church Anglican religious heritage[2][3] and are opposed to the liberalism of the Whig faction. In Britain, the Tory
Tory
political faction originated with the Cavaliers
Cavaliers
during the English Civil War. It also had exponents in other parts of the former British Empire, such as the Loyalists of British America
British America
who opposed American secession during the American War of Independence. Following the American War of Independence, the Loyalists who fled to the Canadas helped establish the base of support for political cliques in the Canadas, locally referred to as Tories. This political philosophy remains prominent in the politics of the United Kingdom and also appears in other parts of the Commonwealth realms, particularly in Canada. Several right-wing parties in the Commonwealth realms
Commonwealth realms
continue to be referred to as Tories, along with party members. The term Tory
Tory
is used regardless if they are not traditionalists. Adherents to traditional Toryism in contemporary times are referred to as High Tories. In Canada, the terms Blue Tory
Blue Tory
and Red Tory
Red Tory
has been used to describe the two different factions of the federal and provincial Conservative/Progressive Conservative parties in Canada. In addition, Pink Tory is used in Canadian politics as a pejorative term to describe a member of the Conservative/Progressive Conservative party who is perceived as liberal.

Contents

1 History

1.1 Canada 1.2 New Zealand 1.3 United Kingdom 1.4 United States

1.4.1 Texas Revolution

2 Current usage 3 Modern proponents of Toryism 4 References 5 External links

History[edit]

Royalist
Royalist
supporters, such as the Cavaliers, were referred to as tories during the Interregnum and Restoration period in Great Britain.

The word "Tory" derives from the Middle Irish word tóraidhe; modern Irish tóraí; modern Scottish Gaelic
Scottish Gaelic
Tòraidh: outlaw, robber or brigand, from the Irish word tóir, meaning "pursuit", since outlaws were "pursued men".[4][5] The term was initially applied in Ireland to the isolated bands of guerrillas resisting Oliver Cromwell's nine-month 1649–1650 campaign in Ireland, who were allied with Royalists through treaty with the Parliament of Confederate Ireland, signed at Kilkenny
Kilkenny
in January 1649;[6] and later to dispossessed Catholics in Ulster
Ulster
following the Restoration.[7] It was also used to refer to a Rapparee and later applied to Confederates or Cavaliers
Cavaliers
in arms.[8] The term was thus originally a term of abuse, "an Irish rebel", before being adopted as a political label in the same way as "Whig". Towards the end of Charles II's reign (1660–1685) there was some debate about whether or not his brother, James, Duke of York, should be allowed to succeed to the throne. "Whigs", originally a reference to Scottish cattle-drovers (stereotypically radical anti-Catholic Covenanters), was the abusive term directed at those who wanted to exclude James on the grounds that he was a Roman Catholic. Those who were not prepared to exclude James were labelled "Abhorrers" and later "Tories". Titus Oates
Titus Oates
applied the term "Tory", which then signified an Irish robber, to those who would not believe in his Popish Plot
Popish Plot
and the name gradually became extended to all who were supposed to have sympathy with the Catholic Duke of York.[9] The suffix -ism was quickly added to both "Whig" and "Tory" to make Whiggism
Whiggism
and Toryism, meaning the principles and methods of each faction. Canada[edit] Main article: Conservatism
Conservatism
in Canada See also: Upper Canada Tories and Conservative Party of Canada (1867–1942) The term Tory
Tory
was first used to designate the pre-Confederation British ruling classes of Upper Canada
Upper Canada
and Lower Canada, known as the Family Compact
Family Compact
and the Château Clique, an elite within the governing classes and often members within a section of society known as the United Empire Loyalists. The United Empire Loyalists were American loyalists who resettled in British North America during or after the American Revolutionary War.

United Empire Loyalist
United Empire Loyalist
refugees on their way to the Canadas during the American Revolution. The loyalists helped establish the base of support for political cliques in the Canadas, locally referred to as Tories.

In post-Confederation Canada, the terms "Red Tory" and "Blue Tory" have long been used to describe the two wings of the Conservative and previously the Progressive Conservative (PC) parties. The dyadic tensions originally arose out of the 1854 political union of British-Canadian Tories, French-Canadian traditionalists and the monarchist and loyalist leaning sections of the emerging commercial classes at the time—many of whom were uncomfortable with the pro-American and annexationist tendencies within the liberal Clear Grits. Tory
Tory
strength and prominence in the political culture was a feature of life in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Ontario
Ontario
and Manitoba.[10] By the 1930s, the factions within Canadian Toryism were associated with either the urban business elites, or with rural traditionalists from the country's hinterland. A "Red Tory" is a member of the more moderate wing of the party (in the manner of John Farthing and George Grant). They are generally unified by their adherence to British traditions in Canada.[11] Throughout the course of Canadian history, the Conservative Party was generally controlled by MacDonaldian Tory
Tory
elements, which in Canada meant an adherence to the English-Canadian traditions of Monarchy, Empire-Commonwealth, parliamentary government, nationalism, protectionism, social reform and eventually acceptance of the necessity of the welfare state.[12] By the 1970s, the Progressive Conservative Party was a Keynesian-consensus party. With the onset of stagflation in the 1970s, some Canadian Tories came under the influence of neo-liberal developments in Great Britain and the United States, which highlighted the policies for privatization and supply-side interventions. In Canada, these tories have been labeled neoconservatives—which has a somewhat different connotation in the United States. By the early 1980s, there was no clear neoconservative in the Tory
Tory
leadership cadre, but Brian Mulroney
Brian Mulroney
(who became leader in 1983) eventually came to adopt many policies from the Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
and Ronald Reagan governments.[13] As Mulroney took the Progressive Conservative Party further in this direction, with policy initiatives in the areas of deregulation, privatization, free-trade and a consumption tax called the Goods and services tax (GST), many traditionally-minded Tories became concerned that a political and cultural schism was occurring within the party. The 1986 creation of the Reform Party of Canada
Reform Party of Canada
attracted some of the neo-liberals and social conservatives away from the Tory
Tory
party and as some of the neoconservative policies of the Mulroney government proved unpopular, some of the provincial-rights elements moved towards Reform as well. In 1993, Mulroney resigned rather than fight an election based on his record after almost nine years in power. This left the Progressive Conservatives in disarray and scrambling to understand how to make Toryism relevant in provinces such as Quebec, Saskatchewan, Alberta
Alberta
and British Columbia
British Columbia
that had never had a strong tory tradition and political culture.

Stephen Harper, 22nd Prime Minister of Canada
Prime Minister of Canada
and former leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. The Party is colloquially called the Tories in Canada.

Thereafter in the 1990s, the Progressive Conservatives were a small party in the House of Commons of Canada
House of Commons of Canada
and could only exert legislative pressure on the government through their power in the Senate of Canada. Eventually, through death and retirements, this power waned. Joe Clark
Joe Clark
returned as leader, but the schism with the Reformers effectively watered down the combined Blue and Red Tory
Red Tory
vote in Canada. By the late 1990s, there was talk of the necessity of uniting the right in Canada, to deter further Liberal majorities. Many tories—both red and blue—opposed such moves, while others took the view that all would have to be pragmatic if there was any hope of reviving a strong party system. The Canadian Alliance
Canadian Alliance
party (as the Reform Party had become) and some leading tories came together on an informal basis to see if they could find common ground. While Progressive Conservative Leader Joe Clark
Joe Clark
rebuffed the notion, the talks moved ahead and eventually in December 2003, the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative parties voted to rejoin into a new party called the Conservative Party of Canada. After the merger of the Progressive Conservatives with the Canadian Alliance in 2003, there was debate as to whether the "Tory" appellation should survive at the federal level. Although it was widely believed that some Alliance members would take offence to the term, it was officially accepted by the newly merged party during the 2004 leadership convention. Stephen Harper, former leader of the Conservative Party of Canada
Conservative Party of Canada
and Prime Minister from 2006 to 2015, regularly refers to himself as a Tory
Tory
and has suggested that the new party is a natural evolution of the conservative political movement in Canada.[14][15] Dissident Red Tories who were against the merger went on to form the Progressive Canadian Party. New Zealand[edit] The National Party of New Zealand has been labelled Tories for many years, Some believe the name was brought to New Zealand by British immigrants who have likened the National party to the British Conservative party. In New Zealand using the term Tory
Tory
to describe the National party has taken a derogatory meaning. [16][not in citation given] United Kingdom[edit] Main article: Conservatism
Conservatism
in the United Kingdom See also: Tories (British political party)

Lord Belasyse was the second Tory
Tory
to lead a Ministry in Great Britain.

The Tory
Tory
political faction originally emerged within the Parliament of England to uphold the legitimist rights of James II
James II
to succeed his brother Charles II to the thrones of the three kingdoms. James became a Roman Catholic at a time when the state institutions were fiercely independent from the Roman Catholic Church—this was an issue for the Exclusion Crisis
Exclusion Crisis
supporting Patricians, the political heirs to the nonconformist Roundheads and Covenanters. During the Exclusion Crisis, the word Tory
Tory
was applied in Kingdom of England
Kingdom of England
as a nickname to the opponents of the bill, called the Abhorrers. The word "Tory" had connotations of Papist
Papist
and outlaw[17] derived from its previous use in Ireland. There were two Tory
Tory
ministries after James II
James II
came to the throne: the first led by the Earl of Rochester, the second by Lord Belasyse. A significant faction took part in the ousting of James II
James II
with the Whigs to defend the Church of England
Church of England
and definitive protestantism. A large but dwindling faction of Tories continued to support James in exile and his Stuart heirs to the throne, especially in 1714 after the accession of George I, the first Hanoverian monarch. Although only a minority of Tories gave their adhesion to the Jacobite risings, this was used by the Whigs to discredit the Tories and paint them as traitors. After the advent of the Prime Ministerial system under the Whig Robert Walpole, Lord Bute's premiership in the reign of George III marked a revival. Under the Corn Laws
Corn Laws
(1815–1846) a majority of Tories supported protectionist agrarianism with tariffs being imposed at the time for higher food prices, self-sufficiency and enhanced wages in rural employment. English Tories from the time of the Glorious Revolution
Glorious Revolution
up until the Reform Act 1832
Reform Act 1832
were characterised by strong monarchist tendencies, support for the Church of England
Church of England
and hostility to radical reform, while the Tory
Tory
party was an actual organisation which held power intermittently throughout the same period.[18] Conservatism
Conservatism
began to emerge in the late 18th century—it synthesised moderate Whig economic positions and many Tory
Tory
social values to create a new political philosophy and faction in opposition to the French Revolution. Edmund Burke
Edmund Burke
and William Pitt the Younger
William Pitt the Younger
led the way in this. Interventionism and strong armed forces were to prove a hallmark of Toryism under subsequent Prime Ministers. As a predecessor party of the United Kingdom's Conservative and Unionist Party, its members, and the organization continue to be referred to as Tories. United States[edit] See also: Loyalist (American Revolution)

Depiction of the death of British Major Patrick Ferguson, during the American Revolutionary War. He was shot while commanding Loyalist regulars and militia at the Battle of Kings Mountain.

The term Tory
Tory
or "Loyalist" was used in the American Revolution
American Revolution
for those who remained loyal to the British Crown. Since early in the 18th century, Tory
Tory
had described those upholding the right of the King over Parliament. During the war of independence, particularly after the Declaration of Independence in 1776, this use was extended to cover anyone who remained loyal to the British Crown. About 80% of the Loyalists remained in the United States after the war. The 60,000 or so Loyalists who settled in Quebec, the Bahamas, or returned to Great Britain after the American War of Independence
American War of Independence
are known as United Empire Loyalists.[19] On February 12, 1798, Thomas Jefferson
Thomas Jefferson
described the Federalist Party as "[a] political Sect [...] believing that the executive is the branch of our government which the most needs support, [who] are called federalists, sometimes aristocrats or monocrats, and sometimes Tories, after the corresponding sect in the English Government of exactly the same definition".[20] However, that was clearly a hostile description by the Federalists' foes of whom Jefferson was one and not a name used by the Federalists themselves. Texas Revolution[edit] In Texas in 1832–1836, support for the Texas Revolution
Texas Revolution
was not unanimous. The "Tories" were men who supported the Mexican government. The Tories generally were long-term property holders whose roots were outside of the lower south. They typically had little interest in politics and sought conciliation rather than war or they withheld judgment from both sides. The Tories preferred to preserve the economic, political and social gains that they enjoyed as citizens of Mexico and the revolution threatened to jeopardize the security of their world.[21] Current usage[edit] Tory
Tory
has become shorthand for a member of the Conservative Party or for the party in general in several Commonwealth realms. Some Conservatives call themselves tory and the term is common in the media, but deprecated by some media channels.

Members of LGBT+ Conservatives
LGBT+ Conservatives
with a banner reading LGBTory. The group is the LGBT
LGBT
wing of the United Kingdom's Conservative Party.

In Australia, Tory
Tory
is occasionally used as a pejorative term by members of the Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
to refer to conservative members of the Liberal Party of Australia
Liberal Party of Australia
and National Party of Australia parties.[22] The latter two parties are members of an Australian political alliance, the Liberal-National Coalition. Tory
Tory
in Canada typically refers to either a member of the Conservative Party of Canada, or the party as a whole. In addition to federal parties, the term Tory
Tory
has been used in Canada to refer to members of provincial Conservative/Progressive Conservative parties, or the provincial organization as a whole. It is also used to refer to the Conservative Party's predecessor parties, including the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. A rump Progressive Conservative caucus continued to sit in the Parliament of Canada
Parliament of Canada
until 2013, when its last sitting member, Elaine McCoy, changed her designations to "Independent". The term is used frequently used in contrast to "Grit", a shorthand for the Liberal Party of Canada. LGBTory
LGBTory
is an advocacy group for LGBT
LGBT
supporters of the Conservative Party of Canada
Conservative Party of Canada
and provincial conservative parties. In the United Kingdom, the Conservative and Unionist Party, along with its members, are occasionally referred to as Tory
Tory
in the public. In Scotland, the term "Tory" is used predominantly in a derogatory way to describe members and supporters of the Conservative Party, or to accuse other parties of being insufficiently opposed to that party. For example, members and supporters of the Scottish Labour Party (especially those from the "Blairite" faction) may be referred to as "Red Tories" by traditional Labour members and advocates of an independent Scotland. Similarly, Labour supporters have referred to Scottish National Party
Scottish National Party
members and supporters as being "Tartan Tories".[citation needed] Modern proponents of Toryism[edit]

Cornerstone Group
Cornerstone Group
Conservative Party (UK)
Conservative Party (UK)
faction The Dorchester Review
The Dorchester Review
– political magazine founded in Canada The Salisbury Review – political quarterly founded in the United Kingdom

References[edit]

^ Stuart Ball (2013). Portrait of a Party: The Conservative Party in Britain 1918–1945. Oxford U.P. p. 74.  ^ William L. Sachs (2002). The Transformation of Anglicanism: From State Church to Global Communion. Cambridge University Press. p. 18.  ^ John Charmley (2008). A history of conservative politics since 1830. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 103.  ^ Entry for "Tory" from Websters New World Dictionary & Thesaurus, version 2.0 for PC, 1998 ^ Tory: Definition Answers.com ^ "Evil Oliver's legacy of enduring hate". Camden New Journal. New Journal Enterprises. 25 June 2009.  ^ Sean J. Connolly Oxford Companion to Irish History, entry on Tory p498 ^ Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary
(Second Edition 1989) "1. a. In the 17th c., one of the dispossessed Irish, who became outlaws, subsisting by plundering and killing the English settlers and soldiers; a bog-trotter, a rapparee; later, often applied to any Irish Papist
Papist
or Royalist
Royalist
in arms. Obs. exc. Hist." ^ Justin McCarthy, A History of the Four Georges, Volume I (of 4) ^ James Farney, and David Rayside, eds. Conservatism
Conservatism
in Canada (University of Toronto Press, 2013) ^ Heath Macquarrie, Red Tory
Red Tory
blues: a political memoir (University of Toronto Press, 1992) ^ Denis Smith, Rogue Tory: The Life and Legend of John G. Diefenbaker (1997) ^ Tomos Dafydd Davies, "'A tale of two Tories?': the British and Canadian Conservative Parties and the'National Question'. The cases of Wales and Quebec." (2011). ^ Alex Marland, and Tom Flanagan. "Brand New Party: Political Branding and the Conservative Party of Canada." Canadian Journal of Political Science (2013) 46#4 pp: 951–972. ^ Laura Devaney, "The Unite the Right Movement and the Brokerage of Social Conservative Voices Within the New Conservative Party of Canada." The Agora 3.2 (2013): 101. ^ https://teara.govt.nz/en/national-party ^ Human Rights - Glossary The National Archives ^ Keith Feiling, The second Tory
Tory
party, 1714–1832 (1959) ^ William Stewart Wallace, The United Empire Loyalists: A Chronicle of the Great Migration (1920) online. ^ letter to John Wise in Francis N. Thorpe, ed "A Letter from Jefferson on the Political Parties, 1798," American Historical Review v.3#3 (April 1898) pp 488–89 ^ Margaret Swett Henson, " Tory
Tory
Sentiment in Anglo-Texan Public Opinion, 1832-1836," Southwestern Historical Quarterly, July 1986, Vol. 90 Issue 1, pp 1-34 ^ Sparkes, A. W. (2002). Talking Politics: A Wordbook. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 978-0-203-02211-5. 

Canada section

W. Christian and C. Campbell (eds), Parties, Leaders and Ideologies in Canada J. Farthing, Freedom Wears a Crown G. Grant, Lament for a Nation: The Defeat of Canadian Nationalism G. Horowitz, "Conservatism, Liberalism
Liberalism
and Socialism in Canada: An Interpretation", CJEPS (1966)

External links[edit]

Tory
Tory
Act University of Tulsa; Order of the Continental Congress, Philadelphia, 2 January 1776 The Elections in England—Tories and Whigs Marxists.org (Karl Marx in the New York Tribune 1852)

British politics portal Canadian politics portal Conservatism
Conservatism
portal Social and political

.