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The Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet
Tibet
or Xizang for short (Chinese: 西藏; pinyin: Xīzàng; literally: "Western Tsang"; Mandarin: [ɕí.tsâŋ]; Tibetan: བོད་, Wylie: Bod, ZYPY: Poi, IPA: [pʰø̀ʔ]), is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC). It was formally established in 1965 to replace the Tibet
Tibet
Area, an administrative division the PRC inherited from the Republic of China
China
(ROC), about 5 years after the dismissal of the Kashag
Kashag
by the PRC following the 1959 Tibetan uprising, and about 13 years from the Tibet's incorporation into the PRC in 1951. The current borders of the Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region were generally established in the eighteenth century[4] and include about half of ethno-cultural Tibet. The Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region is the second-largest province-level division of China
China
by area, spanning over 1,200,000 km2 (460,000 sq mi), after Xinjiang, and mostly due to its harsh and rugged terrain, is the least densely populated provincial-level division of the PRC.

Contents

1 History 2 Geography 3 Government

3.1 Administrative divisions

4 Demography

4.1 Religion

5 Towns and villages in Tibet

5.1 "Comfortable Housing"

6 Economy 7 Tourism 8 Transport

8.1 Airports 8.2 Railway

9 See also 10 References 11 Further reading 12 External links

History[edit]

Part of a series on the

History of Tibet

Neolithic Tibet Zhangzhung Yarlung Dynasty Tibetan Empire Era of Fragmentation Mongol Empire Yuan rule Phagmodrupa Dynasty Rinpungpa
Rinpungpa
Dynasty Tsangpa
Tsangpa
Dynasty Rise of Ganden Phodrang Qing rule Post-Qing to 1950 Autonomous region of China

See also

Timeline Historical money List of rulers European exploration Tibetan Buddhism

Tibet
Tibet
portal

v t e

Main article: History of Tibet Most modern scholars[who?] do not accept the debate on the exact nature of relations between Tibet
Tibet
and the Chinese Ming dynasty (1368–1644) and whether the Ming Dynasty had sovereignty over Tibet[5][6][7] after the Mongol conquest of Tibet
Tibet
and Yuan administrative rule in the 13th and 14th centuries. Most Tibetologists around the world[who?] recognize that Tibet
Tibet
was a de facto independent nation previous to the 1949/50 invasion by the PRC, while the Chinese government maintains that Tibet
Tibet
has formally been a protectorate of China
China
and under administrative rule of the Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
since 1720. From 1912 to 1950 Tibet
Tibet
was under de jure suzerainty of the Republic of China
China
however a result of the Xinhai Revolution
Xinhai Revolution
and concentration of the central government fighting against the Japanese invasion during World War II, operated as an independent country. Other parts of ethno-cultural Tibet
Tibet
(eastern Kham
Kham
and Amdo) have also been under de facto administration of the Chinese dynastic government since the mid-eighteenth century;[8] today they are distributed among the provinces of Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan
Sichuan
and Yunnan. (See also: Xikang province) In 1950, the People's Liberation Army marched into Tibet
Tibet
and defeated the Tibetan local army in a battle fought near the city of Chamdo. In 1951, the Tibetan representatives signed a 17-point agreement with the Central People's Government affirming China's sovereignty over Tibet and the incorporation of Tibet. The agreement was ratified in Lhasa a few months later.[9][10] Although the 17-point agreement had provided for an autonomous administration led by the Dalai Lama, a "Preparatory Committee for the Autonomous Region of Tibet" (PCART) was established in 1955 to exclude the Dalai Lama's government and create a system of administration along Communist lines. Under threat of his life from Chinese forces the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
fled to India in 1959 and renounced the 17-point agreement. Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region was established in 1965, thus making Tibet
Tibet
a provincial-level division of China. Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Tibet The Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region is located on the Tibetan Plateau, the highest region on earth. In northern Tibet
Tibet
elevations reach an average of over 4,572 metres (15,000 ft). Mount Everest
Mount Everest
is located on Tibet's border with Nepal. China's provincial-level areas of Xinjiang, Qinghai
Qinghai
and Sichuan
Sichuan
lie to the north, northeast, and east, respectively, of the Tibet
Tibet
AR. There is also a short border with Yunnan
Yunnan
province to the southeast. The PRC has border disputes with the Republic of India
Republic of India
over the McMahon Line of Arunachal Pradesh, known to the Chinese as "South Tibet". The disputed territory of Aksai Chin
Aksai Chin
is to the west, and its boundary with that region is not defined. The other countries to the south are Myanmar, Bhutan
Bhutan
and Nepal.

Mount Everest

Physically, the Tibet
Tibet
AR may be divided into two parts, the lakes region in the west and north-west, and the river region, which spreads out on three sides of the former on the east, south, and west. Both regions receive limited amounts of rainfall as they lie in the rain shadow of the Himalayas, however the region names are useful in contrasting their hydrological structures, and also in contrasting their different cultural uses which is nomadic in the lake region and agricultural in the river region.[11] On the south the Tibet
Tibet
AR is bounded by the Himalayas, and on the north by a broad mountain system. The system at no point narrows to a single range; generally there are three or four across its breadth. As a whole the system forms the watershed between rivers flowing to the Indian Ocean − the Indus, Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
and Salween
Salween
and its tributaries − and the streams flowing into the undrained salt lakes to the north. The lake region extends from the Pangong Tso
Pangong Tso
Lake in Ladakh, Lake Rakshastal, Yamdrok Lake
Yamdrok Lake
and Lake Manasarovar
Lake Manasarovar
near the source of the Indus River, to the sources of the Salween, the Mekong
Mekong
and the Yangtze. Other lakes include Dagze Co, Namtso, and Pagsum Co. The lake region is a wind-swept Alpine grassland. This region is called the Chang Tang
Chang Tang
(Byang sang) or 'Northern Plateau' by the people of Tibet. It is some 1,100 km (680 mi) broad, and covers an area about equal to that of France. Due to its great distance from the ocean it is extremely arid and possesses no river outlet. The mountain ranges are spread out, rounded, disconnected, separated by relatively flat valleys. The Tibet
Tibet
AR is dotted over with large and small lakes, generally salt or alkaline, and intersected by streams. Due to the presence of discontinuous permafrost over the Chang Tang, the soil is boggy and covered with tussocks of grass, thus resembling the Siberian tundra. Salt
Salt
and fresh-water lakes are intermingled. The lakes are generally without outlet, or have only a small effluent. The deposits consist of soda, potash, borax and common salt. The lake region is noted for a vast number of hot springs, which are widely distributed between the Himalaya and 34° N, but are most numerous to the west of Tengri Nor (north-west of Lhasa). So intense is the cold in this part of Tibet that these springs are sometimes represented by columns of ice, the nearly boiling water having frozen in the act of ejection. The river region is characterised by fertile mountain valleys and includes the Yarlung Tsangpo River
Yarlung Tsangpo River
(the upper courses of the Brahmaputra) and its major tributary, the Nyang River, the Salween, the Yangtze, the Mekong, and the Yellow River. The Yarlung Tsangpo Canyon, formed by a horseshoe bend in the river where it flows around Namcha Barwa, is the deepest, and possibly longest canyon in the world.[12] Among the mountains there are many narrow valleys. The valleys of Lhasa, Xigazê, Gyantse
Gyantse
and the Brahmaputra
Brahmaputra
are free from permafrost, covered with good soil and groves of trees, well irrigated, and richly cultivated. The South Tibet
Tibet
Valley is formed by the Yarlung Tsangpo River
Yarlung Tsangpo River
during its middle reaches, where it travels from west to east. The valley is approximately 1200 kilometres long and 300 kilometres wide. The valley descends from 4500 metres above sea level to 2800 metres. The mountains on either side of the valley are usually around 5000 metres high.[13][14] Lakes here include Lake Paiku
Lake Paiku
and Lake Puma Yumco. Government[edit] See also: List of modern political leaders of Tibet
Tibet
and List of current Chinese provincial leaders The Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region is a province-level entity of the People's Republic of China. Chinese law nominally guarantees some autonomy in the areas of education and language policy. Like other subdivisions of China, routine administration is carried out by a People's Government, headed by a Chairman, who has been an ethnic Tibetan except for an interregnum during the Cultural Revolution. As with other Chinese provinces, the Chairman carries out work under the direction of the regional secretary of the Communist Party of China. The regional standing committee of the Communist Party serves as the top rung of political power in the region. The current Chairman is Che Dalha and the current party secretary is Wu Yingjie.[15] Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: List of administrative divisions of the Tibet Autonomous Region and List of township-level divisions of the Tibet Autonomous Region The Autonomous Region is divided into seven prefecture-level divisions: six prefecture-level cities and one prefecture. These in turn are subdivided into a total of 66 counties and 8 districts (Chengguan, Doilungdêqên, Dagzê, Samzhubzê, Karub, Bayi, Nêdong, and Seni).

Administrative divisions of Tibet

№ Division code[16] English name Tibetan Wylie transliteration Tibetan pinyin Chinese Pinyin Area in km2[17] Population 2010[18] Seat Divisions[19]

Districts Counties

  540000 Tibet Autonomous Region བོད་རང་སྐྱོང་ལྗོངས། bod rang skyong ljongs Poi Ranggyongjong 西藏自治区 Xīzàng Zìzhìqū 1228400.00 3,002,166 Lhasa 8 66

5 540100 Lhasa ལྷ་ས་གྲོང་ཁྱེར། lha sa grong khyer Lhasa Chongkyir 拉萨市 Lāsà Shì 29538.90 559,423 Chengguan District 3 5

4 540200 Shigatse
Shigatse
/ Xigazê གཞིས་ཀ་རྩེ་གྲོང་ཁྱེར། ggzhis ka rtse grong khyer Xigazê
Xigazê
Chongkyir 日喀则市 Rìkāzé Shì 182066.26 703,292 Samzhubzê District 1 17

3 540300 Chamdo
Chamdo
/ Qamdo ཆབ་མདོ་གྲོང་ཁྱེར། chab mdo grong khyer Qamdo Chongkyir 昌都市 Chāngdū Shì 108872.30 657,505 Karub District 1 10

7 540400 Nyingchi ཉིང་ཁྲི་གྲོང་ཁྱེར། nying khri grong khyer Nyingchi
Nyingchi
Chongkyir 林芝市 Línzhī Shì 113964.79 195,109 Bayi District 1 6

6 540500 Shannan / Lhoka ལྷོ་ཁ་གྲོང་ཁྱེར། lho kha grong khyer Lhoka Chongkyir 山南市 Shānnán Shì 79287.84 328,990 Nêdong District 1 11

2 540600 Nagqu ནག་ཆུ་གྲོང་ཁྱེར། nag chu grong khyer Nagqu
Nagqu
Chongkyir 那曲市 Nàqū Shì 391816.63 462,382 Seni District 1 10

1 542500 Ngari Prefecture མངའ་རིས་ས་ཁུལ། mnga' ris sa khul Ngari Sakü 阿里地区 Ālǐ Dìqū 296822.62 95,465 Gar County

7

Yamdrok Lake

Namtso
Namtso
Lake

Demography[edit]

Historical population

Year Pop. ±%

1912[20] 1,160,000 —    

1928[21] 372,000 −67.9%

1936–37[22] 372,000 +0.0%

1947[23] 1,000,000 +168.8%

1954[24] 1,273,969 +27.4%

1964[25] 1,251,225 −1.8%

1982[26] 1,892,393 +51.2%

1990[27] 2,196,010 +16.0%

2000[28] 2,616,329 +19.1%

2010[29] 3,002,166 +14.7%

Xikang
Xikang
Province / Chuanbian SAR was established in 1923 from parts of Tibet
Tibet
/ Lifan Yuan; dissolved in 1955 and parts were incorporated into Tibet
Tibet
AR.

With an average of only two people per square kilometer, Tibet
Tibet
has the lowest population density among any of the Chinese province-level administrative regions, mostly due to its harsh and rugged terrain.[30] In 2011 the Tibetan population was three million.[31] The ethnic Tibetans, comprising 90.48% of the population,[32] mainly adhere to Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
and Bön, although there is an ethnic Tibetan Muslim community.[33] Other Muslim ethnic groups such as the Hui and the Salar have inhabited the Region. There is also a tiny Tibetan Christian
Christian
community in eastern Tibet. Smaller tribal groups such as the Monpa and Lhoba, who follow a combination of Tibetan Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism
and spirit worship, are found mainly in the southeastern parts of the region. Historically, the population of Tibet
Tibet
consisted of primarily ethnic Tibetans. According to tradition the original ancestors of the Tibetan people, as represented by the six red bands in the Tibetan flag, are: the Se, Mu, Dong, Tong, Dru and Ra. Other traditional ethnic groups with significant population or with the majority of the ethnic group reside in Tibet
Tibet
include Bai people, Blang, Bonan, Dongxiang, Han, Hui people, Lhoba, Lisu people, Miao, Mongols, Monguor
Monguor
(Tu people), Menba (Monpa), Mosuo, Nakhi, Qiang, Nu people, Pumi, Salar, and Yi people. According to Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
published between 1910–1911, total population of Tibetan capital of Lhasa, including the lamas in the city and vicinity, was about 30,000, and the permanent population also included Chinese families (about 2,000).[34] Most Han people in the TAR (8.17% of the total population)[35] are recent migrants, because all of the Han were expelled from "Outer Tibet" (Central Tibet) following the British expedition until the establishment of the PRC.[36] Only 8% of Han people have household registration in TAR, other keep their household registration in place of origin.[32] Tibetan scholars and Tibetans in exile claim that, with the 2006 completion of the Qingzang Railway
Qingzang Railway
connecting the TAR to Qinghai Province, there has been an "acceleration" of Han migration into the region.[37] The exile Tibetan Administration of the Dalai Lama
Dalai Lama
in north India, claims that the PRC will swamp Tibet
Tibet
with migrants in order to alter Tibet's demographic makeup.[38] Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Tibet

Religion in Tibet
Tibet
(2012 estimates)[39]

Tibetan Buddhism

78.5%

Bon

12.5%

Chinese folk religion

8.58%

Islam[40]

0.4%

Christianity

0.02%

Maitreya
Maitreya
Buddha statue of Tashilhunpo Monastery
Tashilhunpo Monastery
in Shigatse

The main religion in Tibet
Tibet
has been Buddhism
Buddhism
since its outspread in the 8th century AD. Before the arrival of Buddhism, the main religion among Tibetans was an indigenous shamanic and animistic religion, Bon, which now comprises a sizeable minority and which would later influence the formation of Tibetan Buddhism. According to estimates from the International Religious Freedom Report of 2012, most of Tibetans (who comprise 91% of the population of the Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region) are bound by Tibetan Buddhism, while a minority of 400,000 people (12.5% of the total population of the TAR) are bound to the native Bon
Bon
or folk religions which share the image of Confucius
Confucius
(Tibetan: Kongtse Trulgyi Gyalpo) with Chinese folk religion, though in a different light.[41][42] According to some reports, the government of China
China
has been promoting the Bon
Bon
religion, linking it with Confucianism.[43] Most of the Han Chinese
Han Chinese
who reside in Tibet
Tibet
practice their native Chinese folk religion
Chinese folk religion
(Shendao 神道, "Way of the Gods"). There is a Guandi Temple of Lhasa (拉萨关帝庙) where the Chinese god of war Guandi is identified with the cross-ethnic Chinese, Tibetan, Mongol and Manchu deity Gesar. The temple is built according to both Chinese and Tibetan architecture. It was first erected in 1792 under the Qing dynasty and renovated around 2013 after decades of disrepair.[44][45] Built or rebuilt between 2014 and 2015 is the Guandi Temple of Qomolangma (Mount Everest), on Ganggar Mount, in Tingri County.[46][47] There are four mosques in the Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region with approximately 4,000 to 5,000 Muslim adherents,[39] although a 2010 Chinese survey found a higher proportion of 0.4%.[40] There is a Catholic church with 700 parishioners, which is located in the traditionally Catholic community of Yanjing in the east of the region.[39] Towns and villages in Tibet[edit] Further information: List of populated places in the Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region "Comfortable Housing"[edit] Beginning in 2006, 280,000 Tibetans who lived in traditional villages and as nomadic herdsmen have been forcefully relocated into villages and towns. In those areas new housing was built and existing houses were remodelled to serve a total of 2 million people. Those living in substandard housing were required to dismantle their houses and remodel them to government standards. Much of the expense was borne by the residents themselves often through bank loans. The population transfer program, which was first implemented in Qinghai
Qinghai
where 300,000 nomads were resettled, is called "Comfortable Housing". which is part of the “Build a New Socialist Countryside” program. Its effect on Tibetan culture has been criticized by exiles and human rights groups.[48] Finding employment is difficult for relocated persons who have only agrarian skills. Income shortfalls are offset by government support programs.[49] It was announced in 2011 that 20,000 Communist Party cadre were to be placed in the new towns.[48] Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Tibet The Tibetans traditionally depended upon agriculture for survival. Since the 1980s, however, other jobs such as taxi-driving and hotel retail work have become available in the wake of Chinese economic reform. In 2011, Tibet's nominal GDP topped 60.5 billion yuan (US$9.60 billion), nearly more than seven times as big as the 11.78 billion yuan (US$1.47 billion) in 2000. Economic growth since the beginning of the 21st century has averaged over 10 percent a year.[30] While traditional agriculture and animal husbandry continue to lead the area's economy, in 2005 the tertiary sector contributed more than half of its GDP growth, the first time it surpassed the area's primary industry.[50][51] Rich reserves of natural resources and raw materials have yet to lead to the creation of a strong secondary sector, due in large part to the province's inhospitable terrain, low population density, an underdeveloped infrastructure and the high cost of extraction.[30] The collection of caterpillar fungus (Cordyceps sinensis, known in Tibetan as Yartsa Gunbu) in late spring / early summer is in many areas the most important source of cash for rural households. It contributes an average of 40% to rural cash income and 8.5% to the TAR's GDP.[52] The re-opening of the Nathu La
Nathu La
pass (on southern Tibet's border with India) should facilitate Sino-Indian border trade and boost Tibet's economy.[53] In 2008, Chinese news media reported that the per capita disposable incomes of urban and rural residents in Tibet
Tibet
averaged 12,482 yuan (US$1,798) and 3,176 yuan (US$457) respectively.[54] The China
China
Western Development policy was adopted in 2000 by the central government to boost economic development in western China, including the Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region.

Lhasa Economic and Technological Development Zone

Tourism[edit]

The Potala Palace
Potala Palace
in Lhasa, the capital of the TAR.

Foreign tourists were first permitted to visit the Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region in the 1980s. While the main attraction is the Potala Palace
Potala Palace
in Lhasa, there are many other popular tourist destinations including the Jokhang
Jokhang
Temple, Namtso
Namtso
Lake, and Tashilhunpo
Tashilhunpo
Monastery.[55] Nonetheless, tourism in Tibet
Tibet
is still restricted for non-Chinese passport holders and Taiwan
Taiwan
citizens, and presently the only way for foreigners to enter is via Tibet
Tibet
Entry Permit. The permit can only be obtained through a travel agency in Tibet, and travel in Tibet
Tibet
must be arranged in a group tour, in which the group must be accompanied by a licensed tour guide at all times. Those traveling into Tibet
Tibet
must specify every location they want to travel within the TAR, and thus cannot travel anywhere not specified in the application. Before entering on a train, plane, or road leading into Tibet, anyone without a Chinese passport must present the Tibet
Tibet
Entry Permit, or they will otherwise be denied entry. Even people coming to Tibet
Tibet
from Nepal
Nepal
must have arranged for the entry permit ahead of time. People barred from obtaining the permit are journalists, diplomats, professional media photographers, and government officials.[56] Transport[edit] Airports[edit]

Lhasa Gonggar Airport, the biggest airport in TAR

The civil airports in Tibet
Tibet
are Lhasa Gonggar Airport,[57] Qamdo Bangda Airport, Nyingchi
Nyingchi
Airport, and the Gunsa Airport. Gunsa Airport
Gunsa Airport
in Ngari Prefecture
Ngari Prefecture
began operations on 1 July 2010, to become the fourth civil airport in China's Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region.[58] The Peace Airport
Peace Airport
for Xigazê
Xigazê
was completed on 30 October 2010.[59] Nagqu
Nagqu
Dagring Airport is expected to become the world's highest altitude airport by 2014 at 4,436 meters above sea level.[60] Railway[edit] The Qinghai– Tibet
Tibet
Railway from Golmud
Golmud
to Lhasa was completed on 12 October 2005. It opened to regular trial service on 1 July 2006. Five pairs of passenger trains run between Golmud
Golmud
and Lhasa, with connections onward to Beijing, Chengdu, Chongqing, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Xining and Lanzhou. The line includes the Tanggula Pass, which, at 5,072 m (16,640 ft) above sea level, is the world's highest railway. The Lhasa– Xigazê
Xigazê
Railway branch from Lhasa to Xigazê
Xigazê
was completed in 2014. It opened to regular service on 15 August 2014. The construction of first section of the Sichuan– Tibet
Tibet
Railway from Lhasa to Nyingchi
Nyingchi
began in 2015 and is expected to take roughly seven years.[61] See also[edit]

Geography portal Asia portal China
China
portal Tibet
Tibet
portal Himalayas
Himalayas
portal

China
China
Tibetology
Tibetology
Research Center History of Tibet
Tibet
(1950–present) List of prisons in the Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region List of universities and colleges in Tibet Tibet
Tibet
Area, Republic of China Tibetan Independence Movement Sinicization of Tibet Shigatse
Shigatse
Photovoltaic Power Plant

References[edit]

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Economy @ China
China
Perspective. Thechinaperspective.com. Retrieved on 18 July 2013. ^ Wang, Guanqun. "Tibet's population tops three million; 90% are Tibetans". news.xinhuanet.com. Xinhua. Retrieved 2011-05-04.  ^ a b "西藏自治区常住人口超过300万". Xizang gov. Xizang gov. Retrieved 2011-05-06.  ^ Hannue, Dialogues Tibetan Dialogues Han ^ LHASA (LIIASSA, LASSA,... – Online Information article about LHASA (LIIASSA, LASSA. Encyclopedia.jrank.org. Retrieved on 18 July 2013. ^ Xizang gov. Xizang gov http://www.xizang.gov.cn/rkmz/51886.jhtml. Retrieved 2011-05-06.  Missing or empty title= (help) ^ Grunfeld, A. Tom (1996). The Making of Modern Tibet. East Gate Books. pp. 114–119.  ^ Johnson, Tim (28 March 2008). "Tibetans see 'Han invasion' as spurring violence McClatchy". Mcclatchydc.com. Retrieved 11 October 2011.  ^ "Population Transfer Programmes". Central Tibetan Administration. 2003. Archived from the original on 30 July 2010. Retrieved 29 July 2010.  ^ a b c Internazional Religious Freedom Report 2012 by the US government. p. 20: «Most ethnic Tibetans practice Tibetan Buddhism, although a sizeable minority practices Bon, an indigenous religion, and very small minorities practice Islam, Catholicism, or Protestantism. Some scholars estimate that there are as many as 400,000 Bon
Bon
followers across the Tibetan Plateau. Scholars also estimate that there are up to 5,000 ethnic Tibetan Muslims
Tibetan Muslims
and 700 ethnic Tibetan Catholics in the TAR.» ^ a b Min Junqing. The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam
Islam
in China. JISMOR, 8. 2010 Islam
Islam
by province, page 29. Data from: Yang Zongde, Study on Current Muslim Population in China, Jinan Muslim, 2, 2010. ^ Te-Ming TSENG, Shen-Yu LIN. The Image of Confucius
Confucius
in Tibetan Culture. 《臺灣東亞文明研究學刊》第4卷第2期(總第8期) 2007年12月 頁169–207. ^ Shenyu Lin. The Tibetan Image of Confucius. Revue d’Etudes Tibétaines. ^ China- Tibet
Tibet
Online: Confucius
Confucius
ruled as a "divine king" in Tibet[permanent dead link]. 2014-11-04 ^ World Guangong Culture: Lhasa, Tibet: Guandi temple was inaugurated. ^ China- Tibet
Tibet
Online: Tibet's largest Guandi Temple gets repaired[permanent dead link]. 2013-03-13 ^ World Guangong Culture: Dingri, Tibet: Cornerstone Laying Ceremony being Grandly Held for the Reconstruction of Qomolangma Guandi Temple. ^ World Guangong Culture: Wuhan, China: Yang Song Meets Cui Yujing to Discuss Qomolangma Guandi Temple. ^ a b ""They Say We Should Be Grateful": Mass Rehousing and Relocation Programs in Tibetan Areas of China" (PDF). Human Rights Watch. June 2013. Retrieved 28 June 2013.  ^ Jacobs, Andrew (27 June 2013). "Rights Report Faults Mass Relocation of Tibetans". The New York Times. Retrieved 28 June 2013.  ^ "Xinhua – Per capita GDP tops $1,000 in Tibet". news.xinhuanet.com. Xinhua. 31 January 2006. Retrieved 11 October 2011.  ^ " Tibet
Tibet
posts fixed assets investment rise". news.xinhuanet.com. Xinhua. 31 January 2006. Retrieved 11 October 2011.  ^ Winkler D. 2008 Yartsa gunbu (Cordyceps sinenis) and the fungal commodification of rural Tibet. Economic Botany 62.3. See also Hannue, Dialogues Tibetan Dialogues Han ^ Maseeh Rahman in New Delhi (19 June 2006). " China
China
and India to trade across Himalayas
Himalayas
World news". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 11 October 2011.  ^ "Tibetans report income rises". news.nen.com.cn. Retrieved 11 October 2011.  ^ * Birgit Zotz, Destination Tibet. Hamburg: Kovac 2010, ISBN 978-3-8300-4948-7 [1] ^ "In-depth Guide of How to get to Tibet". www.tibettravel.org. Retrieved 2016-01-18.  ^ "Gongkhar Airport in Tibet
Tibet
enters digital communication age". Xinhua News Agency. 12 May 2009. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ "Tibet's fourth civil airport opens". Xinhua News Agency. 1 July 2010. Archived from the original on 14 December 2010. Retrieved 11 December 2010.  ^ " Tibet
Tibet
to have fifth civil airport operational before year end 2010". Xinhua News Agency. 26 July 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ "World's highest-altitude airport planned on Tibet". news.xinhuanet.com. Xinhua News Agency. 12 January 2010. Archived from the original on 15 December 2010. Retrieved 12 December 2010.  ^ Chu. " China
China
Approves New Railway for Tibet". english.cri.cn. CRI. Retrieved 9 November 2014. 

Further reading[edit]

Hannue, Dialogues Tibetan Dialogues Han, travelogue from Tibet
Tibet
– by a woman who's been travelling around Tibet
Tibet
for over a decade, ISBN 978-988-97999-3-9 Sorrel Wilby, Journey Across Tibet: A Young Woman's 1900-Mile Trek Across the Rooftop of the World, Contemporary Books (1988), hardcover, 236 pages, ISBN 0-8092-4608-2. Hillman, Ben, ‘China’s Many Tibets: Diqing as a model for ‘development with Tibetan characteristics?’ Asian Ethnicity, Vol. 11, No. 2, June 2010, pp 269–277.[ISBN missing]

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tibet.

Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region official website Economic profile for Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region at HKTDC Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region travel guide from Wikivoyage

v t e

Provincial-level divisions of the People's Republic of China

Provinces

Anhui Fujian Gansu Guangdong Guizhou Hainan Hebei Heilongjiang Henan Hubei Hunan Jiangsu Jiangxi Jilin Liaoning Qinghai Shaanxi Shandong Shanxi Sichuan Yunnan Zhejiang

Autonomous regions

Guangxi Inner Mongolia Ningxia Tibet Xinjiang

Municipalities

Beijing Chongqing Shanghai Tianjin

Special
Special
administrative regions

Hong Kong Macau

Other

Taiwan¹

Note: Taiwan
Taiwan
is claimed by the People's Republic of China
China
but administered by the Republic of China
China
(see Political status of Taiwan).

v t e

County-level divisions of Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region

Lhasa (capital)

Prefecture-level city

Lhasa

Chengguan District Doilungdêqên District Dagzê District Lhünzhub County Damxung County Nyêmo County Qüxü County Maizhokunggar County

Shigatse (Xigazê)

Samzhubzê District Namling County Gyantse
Gyantse
(Gyangzê) County Tingri County Sa'gya County Lhatse (Lhazê) County Ngamring County Xaitongmoin County Bainang County Rinbung County Kangmar County Dinggyê County Zhongba County Chomo (Yadong) County Gyirong County Nyalam County Saga County Gamba County

Chamdo (Qamdo)

Karub District Jomda County Gonjo County Riwoqê County Dêngqên County Zhag'yab County Baxoi County Zogang County Markam County Lhorong County Banbar County

Nyingchi

Bayi District Gongbo'gyamda County Mainling County** Mêdog County** Bomê County Zayü County** Nang County**

Shannan

Nêdong District Zhanang County Gonggar County Sangri County Qonggyai County Qusum County Comai County Lhozhag County Gyaca County Lhünzê County** Cona County** Nagarzê County

Nagqu

Seni District Lhari County Biru County Nyainrong County Amdo
Amdo
County Xainza County Sog County Baingoin County Baqên County Nyima County Shuanghu County

Prefectures

Ngari

Gar County Burang County Zanda County Rutog County Gê'gyai County Gêrzê County Coqên County

** Southern portions of these counties are part of the South Tibet area, which is administered by India and claimed by the PRC.

v t e

Tibetan-designated autonomous areas in China

Regions

Tibet
Tibet
A.R.

Lhasa Xigazê Qamdo Nyingchi Shannan Nagqu Ngari

Prefectures and counties

in Qinghai

Haibei Hainan Haixi ( Mongols
Mongols
and Tibetans) Huangnan Guoluo Yushu

in Sichuan

Ganzi Aba (Tibetans and Qiang) Muli

in Gansu

Gannan Tianzhu

in Yunnan

Diqing

Ethnic minority autonomous areas Dong Hui Korean Manchu Miao Mongol Tibetan Tujia Uyghur Yao Yi Zhuang Other

v t e

Tibet articles

History

Overviews

Timeline List of rulers European exploration Historical money

Chronology

Prehistory (Neolithic) Zhangzhung Pre-Imperial Empire (7th–9th century)

List of emperors Great Ministers Relations with Tang (618–907)

Era of Fragmentation
Era of Fragmentation
(9th–11th century)

Guge
Guge
kingdom

Yuan dynasty rule (1270–1350)

Bureau of Buddhist and Tibetan Affairs

Phagmodrupa dynasty

Relations with Ming (1368–1644)

Rinpungpa
Rinpungpa
dynasty Tsangpa
Tsangpa
dynasty Ganden Phodrang

Kashag

Qing dynasty
Qing dynasty
rule (1720–1912)

Lifan Yuan List of imperial residents

Post-Qing to 1950

Tibetan Army

People's Republic of China
China
(PRC) rule

PRC incorporation political leaders

Wars and conflicts

Tibetan attack on Songzhou Battle of Dafei River Mongol invasions of Tibet Tibet–Ladakh–Mughal War Battle of Dartsedo Battle of the Salween
Salween
River Chinese expedition to Tibet
Tibet
(1720) Lhasa riot of 1750 Sino-Nepalese War Sino-Sikh War Nepalese–Tibetan War Sikkim expedition British expedition to Tibet 1905 Tibetan Rebellion Chinese expedition to Tibet
Tibet
(1910) Xinhai Lhasa turmoil Sino-Tibetan War

Qinghai– Tibet
Tibet
War

1938–39 German expedition to Tibet 1939 Japanese expedition to Tibet Battle of Chamdo Protests and uprisings since 1950

1959 Tibetan uprising 1987–89 Tibetan unrest 2008 Tibetan unrest Self-immolation protests by Tibetans in China

Documents

70,000 Character Petition Treaty of Chushul Treaty of Thapathali Treaty of Lhasa Treaty of friendship and alliance with Mongolia Simla Accord (1914) Seventeen-Point Agreement

Geography

Flora

Mountains

Lhotse / Changtse Namcha Barwa Tanggula

rivers

Yarlung Tsangpo

Grand Canyon

Rongbuk Glacier Tibetan Plateau

Changtang

Nature Reserve

Valleys

Traditional regions

Amdo Kham Ü-Tsang

Ü Tsang Ngari

Politics

Tibet
Tibet
Autonomous Region (TAR) Central Tibetan Administration

Parliament

Definitions of Tibet Foreign relations Human rights

LGBT

Patron and priest relationship Golden Urn Tibet
Tibet
Area Independence movement Serfdom controversy Sovereignty
Sovereignty
debate CIA Tibetan program

Government

Regional Government

Economy

Postage and postal history Qinghai- Tibet
Tibet
Highway Qinghai– Tibet
Tibet
Railway

Society

Education Languages Religion

Tibetan Buddhism

Sakya

Imperial Preceptor Dpon-chen

Nyingma Kagyu Jonang Gelug

Ganden Tripa Dalai Lama

list

Lhamo La-tso Panchen Lama

list

Bon

Sinicization Social classes Tibetan people

Changpa Yolmo Diaspora Names

Culture

Art Calendar Cuisine Dzong architecture Emblem Festivals Flag Historical and cultural sites Khata
Khata
(ceremonial scarf) Literature

Annals Chronicle writers

Music Tibetology Traditional medicine

Outline Index

.