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(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Marcus Gallus (adoptive)

* Augustus
Augustus
(adoptive)

MOTHER Livia Drusilla

RELIGION Roman Paganism

TIBERIUS (Latin : _ Tiberius
Tiberius
Caesar Dīvī Augustī Fīlius Augustus_; 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was a Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
from 14 AD to 37 AD. Born TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS NERO, a Claudian , Tiberius
Tiberius
was the son of Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Nero
Nero
and Livia Drusilla . His mother divorced Nero
Nero
and married Octavian , later known as Augustus, in 39 BC, making him a step-son of Octavian.

Tiberius
Tiberius
would later marry Augustus' daughter (from his marriage to Scribonia ), Julia the Elder , and even later be adopted by Augustus, by which act he officially became a Julian , bearing the name TIBERIUS JULIUS CAESAR. The subsequent emperors after Tiberius
Tiberius
would continue this blended dynasty of both families for the following thirty years; historians have named it the Julio-Claudian dynasty . In relations to the other emperors of this dynasty, Tiberius
Tiberius
was the stepson of Augustus
Augustus
, grand-uncle of Caligula
Caligula
, paternal uncle of Claudius
Claudius
, and great-grand uncle of Nero
Nero
. His 22-and-a-half-year reign would be the longest after Augustus's until Antoninus Pius , who surpassed his reign by a few months in 161.

Tiberius
Tiberius
was one of Rome's greatest generals ; his conquest of Pannonia
Pannonia
, Dalmatia , Raetia , and temporarily, parts of Germania
Germania
, laid the foundations for the northern frontier. But he came to be remembered as a dark, reclusive, and sombre ruler who never really desired to be emperor; Pliny the Elder called him _tristissimus hominum,_ "the gloomiest of men."

After the death of Tiberius’ son Drusus Julius Caesar in 23 AD, he became more reclusive and aloof. In 26 AD Tiberius
Tiberius
removed himself from Rome
Rome
and left administration largely in the hands of his unscrupulous Praetorian Prefects Lucius Aelius Sejanus and Quintus Naevius Sutorius Macro .

Caligula
Caligula
, Tiberius' grand-nephew and adopted grandson, succeeded Tiberius
Tiberius
upon his death.

CONTENTS

* 1 Early life

* 1.1 Background * 1.2 Civil and military career * 1.3 Retirement to Rhodes
Rhodes
(6 BC) * 1.4 Heir to Augustus
Augustus

* 2 Emperor (14–37 AD)

* 2.1 Early reign * 2.2 Rise and fall of Germanicus
Germanicus

* 2.3 Tiberius
Tiberius
in Capri, with Sejanus in Rome
Rome

* 2.3.1 Plot by Sejanus against Tiberius
Tiberius

* 2.4 Final years

* 2.4.1 Death (37 AD)

* 3 Legacy

* 3.1 Historiography

* 3.1.1 Publius Cornelius Tacitus
Tacitus
* 3.1.2 Suetonius Tranquillus * 3.1.3 Velleius Paterculus

* 3.2 Gospels, Jews, and Christians * 3.3 Archaeology * 3.4 In fiction

* 4 Children and family * 5 Ancestry * 6 See also * 7 Notes

* 8 Bibliography

* 8.1 Primary sources * 8.2 Secondary material

* 9 External links

EARLY LIFE

See also: Julio-Claudian dynasty Tiberius
Tiberius
and his mother Livia , AD 14-19, from Paestum , National Archaeological Museum of Spain , Madrid

BACKGROUND

Tiberius
Tiberius
was born in Rome
Rome
on 16 November 42 BC to Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius Nero
Nero
and Livia Drusilla . In 39 BC his mother divorced his biological father and remarried Gaius Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
Octavianus shortly thereafter, while still pregnant with Tiberius
Tiberius
Nero's son. In 38 BC his brother, Nero
Nero
Claudius
Claudius
Drusus , was born.

Little is recorded of Tiberius's early life. In 32 BC Tiberius
Tiberius
at the age of nine, delivered the eulogy for his biological father at the rostra . In 29 BC, both he rode in the triumphal chariot along with their adoptive father Octavian in celebration of the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at Actium .

In 23 BC Emperor Augustus
Augustus
became gravely ill and his possible death threatened to plunge the Roman world into chaos again. Historians generally agree that it is during this time that the question of Augustus' heir became most acute, and while Augustus
Augustus
had seemed to indicate that Agrippa and Marcellus would carry on his position in the event of his death, the ambiguity of succession became Augustus' chief problem.

In response, a series of potential heirs seem to have been selected, among them Tiberius
Tiberius
and his brother Drusus. In 24 BC at the age of seventeen Tiberius
Tiberius
entered politics under Augustus' direction, receiving the position of quaestor , and was granted the right to stand for election as praetor and consul five years in advance of the age required by law. Similar provisions were made for Drusus.

CIVIL AND MILITARY CAREER

Shortly thereafter Tiberius
Tiberius
began appearing in court as an advocate , and it is presumably here that his interest in Greek rhetoric began. In 20 BC, Tiberius
Tiberius
was sent East under Marcus Agrippa . The Parthians had captured the standards of the legions under the command of Marcus Licinius
Licinius
Crassus (53 BC) (at the Battle of Carrhae ), Decidius Saxa (40 BC), and Marc Antony (36 BC).

After a year of negotiation, Tiberius
Tiberius
led a sizable force into Armenia
Armenia
, presumably with the goal of establishing it as a Roman client-state and ending the threat it posed on the Roman-Parthian border. Augustus
Augustus
was able to reach a compromise whereby the standards were returned, and Armenia
Armenia
remained a neutral territory between the two powers. A bust of Vipsania Agrippina , Tiberius' first wife, recovered from Leptis Magna
Leptis Magna
.

Tiberius
Tiberius
married Vipsania Agrippina , the daughter of Augustus’s close friend and greatest general, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
. He was appointed to the position of praetor , and sent with his legions to assist his brother Drusus in campaigns in the west. While Drusus focused his forces in Gallia Narbonensis
Gallia Narbonensis
and along the German frontier, Tiberius
Tiberius
combated the tribes in the Alps
Alps
and within Transalpine Gaul , conquering Raetia . In 15 BC he discovered the sources of the Danube
Danube
, and soon afterwards the bend of the middle course. Returning to Rome
Rome
in 13 BC, Tiberius
Tiberius
was appointed as consul, and around this same time his son, Drusus Julius Caesar , was born.

Agrippa's death in 12 BC elevated Tiberius
Tiberius
and Drusus with respect to the succession. At Augustus’ request in 11 BC, Tiberius
Tiberius
divorced Vipsania and married Julia the Elder , Augustus' daughter and Agrippa's widow. Tiberius
Tiberius
was very reluctant to do this, as Julia had made advances to him when she was married and Tiberius
Tiberius
was happily married. His new marriage with Julia was happy at first, but turned sour.

Reportedly, Tiberius
Tiberius
once ran into Vipsania again, and proceeded to follow her home crying and begging forgiveness; soon afterwards, Tiberius
Tiberius
met with Augustus, and steps were taken to ensure that Tiberius
Tiberius
and Vipsania would never meet again. Tiberius
Tiberius
continued to be elevated by Augustus, and after Agrippa's death and his brother Drusus' death in 9 BC, seemed the clear candidate for succession. As such, in 12 BC he received military commissions in Pannonia
Pannonia
and Germania
Germania
; both areas highly volatile and of key importance to Augustan policy. The campaigns of Tiberius, Ahenobarbus , and Saturninus in Germania
Germania
between 6 BC and 1 BC.

In 6 BC, Tiberius
Tiberius
launched a pincer movement against the Marcomanni . Setting out northwest from Carnuntum
Carnuntum
on the Danube
Danube
with four legions, Tiberius
Tiberius
passed through Quadi territory in order to invade the Marcomanni from the east. Meanwhile, general Gaius Sentius Saturninus would depart east from Moguntiacum on the Rhine with two or three legions, pass through newly annexed Hermunduri territory, and attack the Marcomanni from the west. The campaign was a resounding success, but Tiberius
Tiberius
could not subjugate the Marcomanni because he was soon summoned to the Rhine frontier to protect Rome's new conquests in Germania.

He returned to Rome
Rome
and was consul for a second time in 7 BC, and in 6 BC was granted tribunician power _(tribunicia potestas)_ and control in the East, all of which mirrored positions that Agrippa had previously held. However, despite these successes and despite his advancement, Tiberius
Tiberius
was not happy.

RETIREMENT TO RHODES (6 BC)

Remnants of Tiberius' villa at Sperlonga , on the coast midway between Rome
Rome
and Naples

In 6 BC, on the verge of accepting command in the East and becoming the second most powerful man in Rome, Tiberius
Tiberius
suddenly announced his withdrawal from politics and retired to Rhodes
Rhodes
. The precise motives for Tiberius's withdrawal are unclear. Historians have speculated a connection with the fact that Augustus
Augustus
had adopted Julia's sons by Agrippa Gaius and Lucius , and seemed to be moving them along the same political path that both Tiberius
Tiberius
and Drusus had trodden.

Tiberius's move thus seemed to be an interim solution: he would hold power only until his stepsons would come of age, and then be swept aside. The promiscuous, and very public, behavior of his unhappily married wife, Julia, may have also played a part. Indeed, Tacitus calls it Tiberius' _intima causa_, his innermost reason for departing for Rhodes, and seems to ascribe the entire move to a hatred of Julia and a longing for Vipsania. Tiberius
Tiberius
had found himself married to a woman he loathed, who publicly humiliated him with nighttime escapades in the Forum, and forbidden to see the woman he had loved.

Whatever Tiberius's motives, the withdrawal was almost disastrous for Augustus's succession plans. Gaius and Lucius were still in their early teens, and Augustus, now 57 years old, had no immediate successor. There was no longer a guarantee of a peaceful transfer of power after Augustus's death, nor a guarantee that his family, and therefore his family's allies, would continue to hold power should the position of _princeps _ survive.

Somewhat apocryphal stories tell of Augustus
Augustus
pleading with Tiberius to stay, even going so far as to stage a serious illness. Tiberius's response was to anchor off the shore of Ostia until word came that Augustus
Augustus
had survived, then sailing straightway for Rhodes. Tiberius reportedly regretted his departure and requested to return to Rome several times, but each time Augustus
Augustus
refused his requests.

HEIR TO AUGUSTUS

With Tiberius's departure, succession rested solely on Augustus' two young grandsons, Lucius and Gaius Caesar. The situation became more precarious in AD 2 with the death of Lucius. Augustus, with perhaps some pressure from Livia, allowed Tiberius
Tiberius
to return to Rome
Rome
as a private citizen and nothing more. In AD 4, Gaius was killed in Armenia
Armenia
, and Augustus
Augustus
had no other choice but to turn to Tiberius.

The death of Gaius in AD 4 initiated a flurry of activity in the household of Augustus. Tiberius
Tiberius
was adopted as full son and heir and in turn, he was required to adopt his nephew, Germanicus
Germanicus
, the son of his brother Drusus and Augustus' niece Antonia Minor . Along with his adoption, Tiberius
Tiberius
received tribunician power as well as a share of Augustus's _maius imperium_, something that even Marcus Agrippa may never have had.

In AD 7, Agrippa Postumus
Agrippa Postumus
, a younger brother of Gaius and Lucius, was disowned by Augustus
Augustus
and banished to the island of Pianosa , to live in solitary confinement. Thus, when in AD 13, the powers held by Tiberius
Tiberius
were made equal, rather than second, to Augustus's own powers, he was for all intents and purposes a "co-princeps" with Augustus, and in the event of the latter's passing, would simply continue to rule without an interregnum or possible upheaval.

However, according to Suetonius , after a two-year stint in Germania , which lasted from 10−12 AD, "Tiberius' returned and celebrated the triumph which he had postponed, accompanied also by his generals, for whom he had obtained the triumphal regalia. And before turning to enter the Capitol, he dismounted from his chariot and fell at the knees of his father, who was presiding over the ceremonies.” "Since the consuls caused a law to be passed soon after this that he should govern the provinces jointly with Augustus
Augustus
and hold the census with him, he set out for Illyricum on the conclusion of the lustral ceremonies."

Thus according to Suetonius, these ceremonies and the declaration of his "co-princeps" took place in the year 12 AD, after Tiberius
Tiberius
return from Germania. "But he was at once recalled, and finding Augustus
Augustus
in his last illness but still alive, he spent an entire day with him in private." Augustus
Augustus
died in AD 14, at the age of 75. He was buried with all due ceremony and, as had been arranged beforehand, deified , his will read, and Tiberius
Tiberius
confirmed as his sole surviving heir.

EMPEROR (14–37 AD)

EARLY REIGN

Aureus
Aureus
of Tiberius, c. 27-30 AD

The Senate convened on 18 September, to validate Tiberius's position as Princeps
Princeps
and, as it had done with Augustus
Augustus
before, extend the powers of the position to him. These proceedings are fully accounted by Tacitus
Tacitus
. Tiberius
Tiberius
already had the administrative and political powers of the Princeps, all he lacked were the titles—Augustus, Pater Patriae , and the Civic Crown (a crown made from laurel and oak , in honor of Augustus
Augustus
having saved the lives of Roman citizens).

Tiberius, however, attempted to play the same role as Augustus: that of the reluctant public servant who wants nothing more than to serve the state. This ended up throwing the entire affair into confusion, and rather than humble, he came across as derisive; rather than seeming to want to serve the state, he seemed obstructive. He cited his age as a reason why he could not act as Princeps, stated he did not wish the position, and then proceeded to ask for only a section of the state. Tiberius
Tiberius
finally relented and accepted the powers voted to him, though according to Tacitus
Tacitus
and Suetonius he refused to bear the titles Pater Patriae , Imperator, and Augustus, and declined the most solid emblem of the Princeps, the Civic Crown and laurels.

This meeting seems to have set the tone for Tiberius's entire rule. He seems to have wished for the Senate and the state to simply act without him and his direct orders were rather vague, inspiring debate more on what he actually meant than on passing his legislation. In his first few years, Tiberius
Tiberius
seemed to have wanted the Senate to act on its own, rather than as a servant to his will as it had been under Augustus. According to Tacitus, Tiberius
Tiberius
derided the Senate as "men fit to be slaves."

RISE AND FALL OF GERMANICUS

A bust of the adopted son of Tiberius, Germanicus
Germanicus
, from the Louvre
Louvre
, Paris
Paris
.

Problems arose quickly for the new Princeps. The Roman legions posted in Pannonia
Pannonia
and in Germania
Germania
had not been paid the bonuses promised them by Augustus, and after a short period of time mutinied when it was clear that a response from Tiberius
Tiberius
was not forthcoming. Germanicus
Germanicus
and Tiberius's son, Drusus Julius Caesar , were dispatched with a small force to quell the uprising and bring the legions back in line.

Rather than simply quell the mutiny however, Germanicus
Germanicus
rallied the mutineers and led them on a short campaign across the Rhine into Germanic territory, stating that whatever treasure they could grab would count as their bonus. Germanicus's forces crossed the Rhine and quickly occupied all of the territory between the Rhine and the Elbe
Elbe
. Additionally, Tacitus
Tacitus
records the capture of the Teutoburg forest
Teutoburg forest
and the reclaiming of Roman standards lost years before by Publius Quinctilius Varus , when three Roman legions and its auxiliary cohorts had been ambushed by Germanic tribes.

Germanicus
Germanicus
had managed to deal a significant blow to Rome's enemies, quell an uprising of troops, and returned lost standards to Rome, actions that increased the fame and legend of the already very popular Germanicus
Germanicus
with the Roman people.

After being recalled from Germania, Germanicus
Germanicus
celebrated a triumph in Rome
Rome
in AD 17, the first full triumph that the city had seen since Augustus's own in 29 BC. As a result, in AD 18 Germanicus
Germanicus
was granted control over the eastern part of the empire, just as both Agrippa and Tiberius
Tiberius
had received before, and was clearly the successor to Tiberius. Germanicus
Germanicus
survived a little over a year before dying, accusing Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso , the governor of Syria
Syria
, of poisoning him.

The Pisones had been longtime supporters of the Claudians, and had allied themselves with the young Octavian after his marriage to Livia, the mother of Tiberius. Germanicus's death and accusations indicted the new Princeps. Piso was placed on trial and, according to Tacitus, threatened to implicate Tiberius. Whether the governor actually could connect the Princeps
Princeps
to the death of Germanicus
Germanicus
is unknown; rather than continuing to stand trial when it became evident that the Senate was against him, Piso committed suicide .

Tiberius
Tiberius
seems to have tired of politics at this point. In AD 22, he shared his tribunician authority with his son Drusus, and began making yearly excursions to Campania that reportedly became longer and longer every year. In AD 23, Drusus mysteriously died, and Tiberius seems to have made no effort to elevate a replacement. Finally, in AD 26, Tiberius
Tiberius
retired from Rome
Rome
altogether to the island of Capri
Capri
.

TIBERIUS IN CAPRI, WITH SEJANUS IN ROME

Left: marble portrait bust of Tiberius
Tiberius
in the Carlsberg Glyptotek , Copenhagen Right: bronze portrait bust of Tiberius
Tiberius
in the Cabinet des Médailles , Paris
Paris

Lucius Aelius Sejanus had served the imperial family for almost twenty years when he became Praetorian Prefect in AD 15. As Tiberius became more embittered with the position of Princeps, he began to depend more and more upon the limited secretariat left to him by Augustus, and specifically upon Sejanus and the Praetorians. In AD 17 or 18, Tiberius
Tiberius
had trimmed the ranks of the Praetorian Guard responsible for the defense of the city, and had moved it from encampments outside of the city walls into the city itself , giving Sejanus access to somewhere between 6000 and 9000 troops.

The death of Drusus elevated Sejanus, at least in Tiberius's eyes, who thereafter refers to him as his 'Socius Laborum' (Partner of my labours). Tiberius
Tiberius
had statues of Sejanus erected throughout the city, and Sejanus became more and more visible as Tiberius
Tiberius
began to withdraw from Rome
Rome
altogether. Finally, with Tiberius's withdrawal in AD 26, Sejanus was left in charge of the entire state mechanism and the city of Rome.

Sejanus's position was not quite that of successor; he had requested marriage in AD 25 to Tiberius's niece, Livilla , though under pressure quickly withdrew the request. While Sejanus's Praetorians controlled the imperial post, and therefore the information that Tiberius
Tiberius
received from Rome
Rome
and the information Rome
Rome
received from Tiberius, the presence of Livia seems to have checked his overt power for a time. Her death in AD 29 changed all that.

Sejanus began a series of purge trials of Senators and wealthy equestrians in the city of Rome, removing those capable of opposing his power as well as extending the imperial (and his own) treasury. Germanicus's widow Agrippina the Elder and two of her sons, Nero Caesar and Drusus Caesar were arrested and exiled in AD 30 and later all died in suspicious circumstances. In Sejanus's purge of Agrippina the Elder and her family, Caligula
Caligula
, Agrippina the Younger , Julia Drusilla , and Julia Livilla were the only survivors. Ruins from the Villa Jovis
Villa Jovis
on the island of Capri
Capri
, where Tiberius
Tiberius
spent much of his final years, leaving control of the empire in the hands of the prefect Lucius Aelius Sejanus .

Plot By Sejanus Against Tiberius

A sardonyx cameo relief of Tiberius, 1st century AD, now in the Hermitage Museum

In 31, Sejanus held the consulship with Tiberius
Tiberius
_in absentia,_ and began his play for power in earnest. Precisely what happened is difficult to determine, but Sejanus seems to have covertly attempted to court those families who were tied to the Julians, and attempted to ingratiate himself with the Julian family line with an eye towards placing himself, as an adopted Julian, in the position of Princeps, or as a possible regent. Livilla was later implicated in this plot, and was revealed to have been Sejanus's lover for a number of years.

The plot seems to have involved the two of them overthrowing Tiberius, with the support of the Julians, and either assuming the Principate themselves, or serving as regent to the young Tiberius Gemellus or possibly even Gaius Caligula
Caligula
. Those who stood in his way were tried for treason and swiftly dealt with.

In AD 31 Sejanus was summoned to a meeting of the Senate, where a letter from Tiberius
Tiberius
was read condemning Sejanus and ordering his immediate execution. Sejanus was tried, and he and several of his colleagues were executed within the week. As commander of the Praetorian Guard, he was replaced by Naevius Sutorius Macro .

Tacitus
Tacitus
claims that more treason trials followed and that whereas Tiberius
Tiberius
had been hesitant to act at the outset of his reign, now, towards the end of his life, he seemed to do so without compunction. Hardest hit were those families with political ties to the Julians. Even the imperial magistracy was hit, as any and all who had associated with Sejanus or could in some way be tied to his schemes were summarily tried and executed, their properties seized by the state. As Tacitus
Tacitus
vividly describes,

Executions were now a stimulus to his fury, and he ordered the death of all who were lying in prison under accusation of complicity with Sejanus. There lay, singly or in heaps, the unnumbered dead, of every age and sex, the illustrious with the obscure. Kinsfolk and friends were not allowed to be near them, to weep over them, or even to gaze on them too long. Spies were set round them, who noted the sorrow of each mourner and followed the rotting corpses, till they were dragged to the Tiber, where, floating or driven on the bank, no one dared to burn or to touch them.

However, Tacitus' portrayal of a tyrannical, vengeful emperor has been challenged by several modern historians. The prominent ancient historian Edward Togo Salmon notes in his work, _A history of the Roman world from 30 BC to AD 138_:

"In the whole twenty two years of Tiberius' reign, not more than fifty-two persons were accused of treason, of whom almost half escaped conviction, while the four innocent people to be condemned fell victims to the excessive zeal of the Senate, not to the Emperor's tyranny".

While Tiberius
Tiberius
was in Capri, rumours abounded as to what exactly he was doing there. Suetonius records the rumours of lurid tales of sexual perversity, including graphic depictions of child molestation, and cruelty, and most of all his paranoia. While heavily sensationalized, Suetonius' stories at least paint a picture of how Tiberius
Tiberius
was perceived by the Roman senatorial class, and what his impact on the Principate was during his 23 years of rule. A denarius of Tiberius
Tiberius

FINAL YEARS

The affair with Sejanus and the final years of treason trials permanently damaged Tiberius' image and reputation. After Sejanus's fall, Tiberius' withdrawal from Rome
Rome
was complete; the empire continued to run under the inertia of the bureaucracy established by Augustus, rather than through the leadership of the Princeps. Suetonius records that he became paranoid , and spent a great deal of time brooding over the death of his son. Meanwhile, during this period a short invasion by Parthia, incursions by tribes from Dacia
Dacia
and from across the Rhine by several Germanic tribes occurred.

Little was done to either secure or indicate how his succession was to take place; the Julians and their supporters had fallen to the wrath of Sejanus, and his own sons and immediate family were dead. Two of the candidates were either Caligula
Caligula
, the sole surviving son of Germanicus, or his own grandson, Tiberius Gemellus . However, only a half-hearted attempt at the end of Tiberius' life was made to make Caligula
Caligula
a quaestor , and thus give him some credibility as a possible successor, while Gemellus himself was still only a teenager and thus completely unsuitable for some years to come.

Death (37 AD)

Tiberius
Tiberius
died in Misenum on 16 March AD 37, in his seventy seventh year. Tacitus
Tacitus
relates that the emperor appeared to have stopped breathing, and that Caligula, who was at Tiberius' villa, was being congratulated on his succession to the empire, when news arrived that the emperor had revived and was recovering his faculties. Those who had moments before recognized Caligula
Caligula
as Augustus
Augustus
fled in fear of the emperor's wrath, while Macro took advantage of the chaos to have Tiberius
Tiberius
smothered with his own bedclothes. Suetonius reports several rumours, including that the emperor had been poisoned by Caligula, starved, and smothered with a pillow; that recovering, and finding himself deserted by his attendants, he attempted to rise from his couch, but fell dead. According to Cassius Dio, Caligula, fearing that the emperor would recover, refused Tiberius' requests for food, insisting that he needed warmth, not food; then assisted by Macro, he smothered the emperor in his bedclothes.

After his death, the Senate refused to vote Tiberius
Tiberius
the divine honors that had been paid to Augustus, and mobs filled the streets yelling "To the Tiber with Tiberius!"; for the bodies of criminals were typically thrown into the river, instead of being buried or burnt. However, the emperor was cremated, and his ashes were quietly laid in the Mausoleum of Augustus
Augustus
, later to be scattered in AD 410 during the Sack of Rome
Rome
.

In his will , Tiberius
Tiberius
had left his powers jointly to Caligula
Caligula
and Tiberius
Tiberius
Gemellus. Caligula's first act on becoming Princeps
Princeps
was to void Tiberius' will and have Gemellus executed.

Tiberius' heir Caligula
Caligula
not only spent Tiberius' fortune of 2,700,000,000 sesterces but would also begin the chain of events which would bring about the downfall of the Julio-Claudian dynasty in AD 68.

LEGACY

HISTORIOGRAPHY

Bust of Tiberius, housed in the Louvre
Louvre
. Statue of Tiberius
Tiberius
from Priverno , made shortly after 37 AD, now in the Museo Chiaramonti of the Vatican Museums

Were he to have died prior to AD 23, he might have been hailed as an exemplary ruler. Despite the overwhelmingly negative characterization left by Roman historians , Tiberius
Tiberius
left the imperial treasury with nearly 3 billion sesterces upon his death. Rather than embark on costly campaigns of conquest, he chose to strengthen the existing empire by building additional bases, using diplomacy as well as military threats, and generally refraining from getting drawn into petty squabbles between competing frontier tyrants.

The result was a stronger, more consolidated empire. Of the authors whose texts have survived, only four describe the reign of Tiberius
Tiberius
in considerable detail: Tacitus
Tacitus
, Suetonius , Cassius Dio and Velleius Paterculus . Fragmentary evidence also remains from Pliny the Elder , Strabo
Strabo
and Seneca the Elder . Tiberius
Tiberius
himself wrote an autobiography which Suetonius describes as "brief and sketchy," but this book has been lost.

Publius Cornelius Tacitus

See also: Tacitus
Tacitus

The most detailed account of this period is handed down to us by Tacitus
Tacitus
, whose _ Annals
Annals
_ dedicate the first six books entirely to the reign of Tiberius. Tacitus
Tacitus
was a Roman senator, born during the reign of Nero
Nero
in 56 AD, and consul suffect in AD 97. His text is largely based on the _acta senatus _ (the minutes of the session of the Senate) and the _acta diurna populi Romani _ (a collection of the acts of the government and news of the court and capital), as well as speeches by Tiberius
Tiberius
himself, and the histories of contemporaries such as Cluvius Rufus , Fabius Rusticus and Pliny the Elder (all of which are lost).

Tacitus' narrative emphasizes both political and psychological motivation. The characterisation of Tiberius
Tiberius
throughout the first six books is mostly negative, and gradually worsens as his rule declines, identifying a clear breaking point with the death of his son Drusus in 23 AD.

The rule of Julio-Claudians is generally described as unjust and 'criminal' by Tacitus. Even at the outset of his reign, he seems to ascribe many of Tiberius' virtues merely to hypocrisy. Another major recurring theme concerns the balance of power between the Senate and the Emperors, corruption , and the growing tyranny among the governing classes of Rome. A substantial amount of his account on Tiberius
Tiberius
is therefore devoted to the treason trials and persecutions following the revival of the _maiestas_ law under Augustus. Ultimately, Tacitus' opinion on Tiberius
Tiberius
is best illustrated by his conclusion of the sixth book:

His character too had its distinct periods. It was a bright time in his life and reputation, while under Augustus
Augustus
he was a private citizen or held high offices; a time of reserve and crafty assumption of virtue, as long as Germanicus
Germanicus
and Drusus were alive. Again, while his mother lived, he was a compound of good and evil; he was infamous for his cruelty, though he veiled his debaucheries, while he loved or feared Sejanus. Finally, he plunged into every wickedness and disgrace, when fear and shame being cast off, he simply indulged his own inclinations.

Suetonius Tranquillus

An example of Indo-Roman trade and relations during the period: silver denarius of Tiberius
Tiberius
(14–37) found in India
India
and Indian copy of the same, 1st-century coin of Kushan
Kushan
king Kujula Kadphises copying a coin of Augustus
Augustus
.

Suetonius was an equestrian who held administrative posts during the reigns of Trajan
Trajan
and Hadrian
Hadrian
. _ The Twelve Caesars
The Twelve Caesars
_ details a biographical history of the principate from the birth of Julius Caesar to the death of Domitian
Domitian
in AD 96. Like Tacitus, he drew upon the imperial archives, as well as histories by Aufidius Bassus , Cluvius Rufus , Fabius Rusticus and Augustus' own letters.

His account is more sensationalist and anecdotal than that of his contemporary. The most famous sections of his biography delve into the numerous alleged debaucheries Tiberius
Tiberius
remitted himself to while at Capri. Nevertheless, Suetonius also reserves praise for Tiberius' actions during his early reign, emphasizing his modesty.

Velleius Paterculus

One of the few surviving sources contemporary with the rule of Tiberius
Tiberius
comes from Velleius Paterculus , who served under Tiberius for eight years (from AD 4) in Germany and Pannonia
Pannonia
as praefect of cavalry and _legatus_. Paterculus' _Compendium of Roman History_ spans a period from the fall of Troy
Troy
to the death of Livia in AD 29. His text on Tiberius
Tiberius
lavishes praise on both the emperor and Sejanus. How much of this is due to genuine admiration or prudence remains an open question, but it has been conjectured that he was put to death in AD 31 as a friend of Sejanus.

GOSPELS, JEWS, AND CHRISTIANS

_ The tribute penny _ mentioned in the Bible
Bible
is commonly believed to be a Roman denarius depicting the Emperor Tiberius.

The Gospels mention that during Tiberius' reign, Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth preached and was executed under the authority of Pontius Pilate
Pontius Pilate
, the Roman governor of Judaea province . In the Bible
Bible
, Tiberius
Tiberius
is mentioned by name only once, in _Luke 3:1_, which states that John the Baptist entered on his public ministry in the fifteenth year of his reign. Many references to _Caesar_ (or _the emperor_ in some other translations), without further specification, would seem to refer to Tiberius. Similarly, the " Tribute Penny " referred to in Matthew and Mark is popularly thought to be a silver denarius coin of Tiberius.

During Tiberius' reign Jews had become more prominent in Rome
Rome
and Jewish and Gentile followers of Jesus
Jesus
began proselytizing Roman citizens, increasing long-simmering resentments. Tiberius
Tiberius
in 19 AD ordered Jews who were of military age to join the Roman Army. Tiberius
Tiberius
banished the rest of the Jews from Rome
Rome
and threatened to enslave them for life if they did not leave the city.

There is considerable debate among historians as to when Christianity was differentiated from Judaism
Judaism
. Most scholars believe that Roman distinction between Jews and Christians took place around 70 AD. Tiberius
Tiberius
most likely viewed Christians as a Jewish sect rather than a separate, distinct faith.

ARCHAEOLOGY

The palace of Tiberius
Tiberius
at Rome
Rome
was located on the Palatine Hill
Palatine Hill
, the ruins of which can still be seen today. No major public works were undertaken in the city during his reign, except a temple dedicated to Augustus
Augustus
and the restoration of the theater of Pompey , both of which were not finished until the reign of Caligula. In addition, remnants of Tiberius' villa at Sperlonga , which includes a grotto where the important Sperlonga sculptures were found in fragments, and the _ Villa Jovis
Villa Jovis
_ on top of Capri
Capri
have been preserved. The estate at Capri
Capri
is said by Tacitus
Tacitus
to have included a total of twelve villas across the island, of which _Villa Jovis_ was the largest.

Tiberius
Tiberius
refused to be worshipped as a living god, and allowed only one temple to be built in his honor, at Smyrna
Smyrna
. The town Tiberias
Tiberias
, in modern Israel
Israel
on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee
Sea of Galilee
was named in Tiberius's honour by Herod Antipas .

IN FICTION

The theft of the Gold Tiberius, an unintentionally unique commemorative coin commissioned by Tiberius
Tiberius
which is stated to have achieved legendary status in the centuries hence, from a mysterious triad of occultists drives the plot of the framing story in Arthur Machen 's 1895 novel _ The Three Impostors _.

Tiberius
Tiberius
has been represented in fiction, in literature, film and television, and in video games, often as a peripheral character in the central storyline. One such modern representation is in the novel _I, Claudius
Claudius
_ by Robert Graves , and the consequent BBC
BBC
television series adaptation, where he is portrayed by George Baker . George R. R. Martin , the author of The Song of Ice and Fire series, has stated that central character Stannis Baratheon
Stannis Baratheon
is partially inspired by Tiberius
Tiberius
Caesar, and particularly the portrayal by Baker.

In the 1968 ITV historical drama _The Caesars _, Tiberius
Tiberius
(by André Morell ) is the central character for much of the series and is portrayed in a much more balanced way than in _I, Claudius_.

He also appears as a minor character in the 2006 film _The Inquiry_ , in which he is played by Max von Sydow . In addition, Tiberius
Tiberius
has prominent roles in _Ben-Hur _ (played by George Relph in his last starring role), and in _A.D. _ (played by James Mason
James Mason
).

Played by Ernest Thesiger , he featured in _The Robe _ (1953). He was featured in the 1979 film _Caligula_ , portrayed by Peter O\'Toole . He was an important character in Taylor Caldwell 's 1958 novel, _Dear and Glorious Physician _, a biography of St Luke the Evangelist , author of the third canonical Gospel.

CHILDREN AND FAMILY

Tiberius
Tiberius
was married two times, with only his first union producing a child who would survive to adulthood:

* Vipsania Agrippina , daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
(16–11 BC)

* Drusus Julius Caesar (13 BC – 23 AD)

* Julia the Elder , only daughter of Augustus
Augustus
(11–6 BC)

ANCESTRY

(See also Julio-Claudian family tree )

ANCESTORS OF TIBERIUS

4. Drusus Claudius
Claudius
Nero
Nero
I

2. Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Nero
Nero

5. Claudia

1. TIBERIUS

6. Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus

3. Livia Drusilla

7. Aufidia

SEE ALSO

* Clutorius Priscus

NOTES

* ^ Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the names of Tiberius:

* TIBERIVS CLAVDIVS NERO IPA: * TIBERIVS IVLIVS CAESAR IPA: * TIBERIVS CAESAR DIVI AVGVSTI F AVGVSTVS IPA:

* ^ Tiberius' regal name has an equivalent English meaning of " Tiberius
Tiberius
Caesar, Son of the Divine Augustus, the Emperor". * ^ Pliny the Elder, _Natural Histories_ XXVIII.5.23; Capes, p. 71 * ^ _A_ _B_ "Tiberius". 2006. Retrieved 2011-02-17. * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
5 * ^ Levick pp. 15 * ^ _A_ _B_ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
6 * ^ Southern , pp. 119–120. * ^ _A_ _B_ Velleius Paterculus, _Roman History_ II.94 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
9 * ^ Seager , p. xiv. * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
8 * ^ Levick , p. 24. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
7 * ^ Strabo, 7. I. 5, p. 292 * ^ Levick , pp. 42. * ^ Seager 2005 , pp. 20. * ^ _A_ _B_ Cassius Dio, _Roman History_ LV.9 * ^ Seager 2005 , pp. 23. * ^ Seager 2005 , pp. 23—24. * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
10 * ^ Levick , pp. 29. * ^ Velleius Paterculus, _Roman History_ II.100 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ I.53 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Seager 2005 , pp. 26. * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
11 * ^ Seager 2005 , pp. 28. * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
13 * ^ _A_ _B_ Tacitus, _Annals_ I.3 * ^ _A_ _B_ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
15 * ^ Cassius Dio, _Roman History_ LV.13 * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
21. For the debate over whether Agrippa's _imperium_ after 13 BC was _maius_ or _aequum_, see, e.g., E. Badian (December 1980 – January 1981). "Notes on the _Laudatio_ of Agrippa". _Classical Journal_. 76 (2): 97–109, pp. 105–106. * ^ Cassius Dio, _Roman History_ LV.32 * ^ Seager p. xv * ^ _A_ _B_ Speidel, Michael Riding for Caesar:The Roman Emperorors’ Horse guards19 * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
20 * ^ _A_ _B_ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
21 * ^ Velleieus Paterculus, _Roman History_ II.123 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ I.8 * ^ Levick , pp. 68—81. * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ I.9–11 * ^ Seager 2005 , pp. 44—45. * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
24 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ I.12, I.13 * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
26 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ III.32, III.52 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ III.35, III.53, III.54 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ III.65 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ I.16, I.17, I.31 * ^ _A_ _B_ Cassius Dio, _Roman History_ LVII.6 * ^ _A_ _B_ Tacitus, _Annals_ II.41 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ II.46 * ^ Shotter, 35–37. * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ II.26 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ II.43 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ II.71 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ III.16 * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
52 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ III.15 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ III.56 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_, IV.7, IV.8 * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
62 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Tacitus, _Annals_ IV.67 * ^ _A_ _B_ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
37 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ IV.2 * ^ Cassius Dio, _Roman History_ LVII.21 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ IV.39 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ IV.40, IV.41 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ IV.41 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ V.3 * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
53, 54 * ^ _A_ _B_ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
65 * ^ Cassius Dio, _Roman History_ LVII.22 * ^ _A_ _B_ Boddington, Ann (January 1963). "Sejanus. Whose Conspiracy?". _The American Journal of Philology_. 84 (1): 1–16. JSTOR 293155 . doi :10.2307/293155 . * ^ _A_ _B_ Cassius Dio, _Roman History_ LVIII.10 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ VI.19 * ^ A history of the Roman world from 30 BC to AD 138, Page 183, Edward Togo Salmon * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
43, 44, 45 * ^ _A_ _B_ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
60, 62, 63, 64 * ^ Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew (1984) _Suetonius: The Scholar and His Caesars_, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-03000-2 * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
41 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ VI.46 * ^ Cassius Dio, _Roman History_ LVII.23 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Tacitus, _Annals_ VI.50, VI.51 * ^ Karen Cokayne, Experiencing Old Age In Ancient Rome, p.100 * ^ Flavius Josephus, Steve Mason, Translation and Commentary. Vol. 1B. Judean War 2, p.153 * ^ Tacitus, _Annales_, vi. 50. * ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Tiberius", 73. * ^ Cassius Dio, _Roman History_, lviii. 28. * ^ Death of Tiberius: Tacitus
Tacitus
_Annals_ 6.50; Dio 58.28.1–4; Suetonius _Tiberius_ 73, _Gaius_ 12.2–3; Josephus _AJ_ 18.225. Posthumous insults: Suetonius _Tiberius_ 75. * ^ Platner, Samuel Ball; Ashby, Thomas (1929). "Mausoleum Augusti". _A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome_. London: Oxford University Press. pp. 332–336. Retrieved 30 June 2011. * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
76 * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Cassius Dio, _Roman History_ LIX.1 * ^ Caligula
Caligula
would kill Tiberius Gemellus and Antonia Minor before being killed by his own personal guard. Tiberius' nephew Claudius succeeded Caligula
Caligula
and executed Caligula's sister Julia Livilla and in turn would be murdered by Livilla's sister Agrippina the Younger after they married and her son was of an age to become emperor. Agrippina would be executed by her son Nero
Nero
, who would later commit suicide in 68 AD with no heirs to succeed him. Only Caligula's sister Julia Drusilla died of natural causes. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Tacitus, _Annals_ IV.6 * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Caligula
Caligula
37 * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
61 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_, I.6 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ I.72, I.74, II.27–32, III.49–51, III.66–69 * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius 26–32 * ^ Velleius Paterculus, _Roman History_, II.103–105, II.129–130 * ^ Velleius Paterculus, _Roman History_ II.127–128 * ^ Syme, Ronald (1956). "Seianus on the Aventine". _Hermes_. Franz Steiner Verlag. 84 (3): 257–266. JSTOR 4474933 . * ^ Luke 3:1 * ^ Matthew 22:19 * ^ Mark 12:15 * ^ Sir William Smith (1896). _The Old Testament History: From The Creation To The Return Of The Jews From Captivity (page 704)_. Kessinger Publishing , LLC (22 May 2010). ISBN 1-162-09864-3 . * ^ _The Numismatist, Volume 29 (page 536)_. American Numismatic Association (3 April 2010). 2010. ISBN 978-1-148-52633-1 . * ^ Hobson, Burton (1972). _Coins and coin collecting (page 28)_. Dover Publications (April 1972). ISBN 0-486-22763-4 . * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ Jossa, Giorgio (2006). _Jews or Christians_. pp. 123–126. ISBN 3-16-149192-0 . * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ IV.45, III.72 * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
47 * ^ Suetonius, _The Lives of Twelve Caesars_, Life of Caligula
Caligula
21 * ^ Tacitus, _Annals_ IV.37–38, IV.55–56 * ^ Josephus, _Antiquities of the Jews_ XVIII.2.3 * ^ "_I, Claudius_: From the Autobiography of Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
– Robert Graves". Booktalk.org. Archived from the original on 18 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-20. * ^ " BBC
BBC
Four Drama – _I, Claudius_". BBC. Retrieved 2008-09-20. * ^ "Not a Blog: It\'s the Pits". 2013-01-21. Retrieved 2016-12-27.

* ^ "Emperor Tiberius
Tiberius
Caesar (Character)". Imdb.com. Retrieved 2008-09-20. * ^ born APPIUS CLAUDIUS PULCHER

BIBLIOGRAPHY

PRIMARY SOURCES

* Cassius Dio, _Roman History_ Books 57–58, English translation * Josephus, _Antiquities of the Jews_, Book 18, especially ch.6, English translation * Suetonius, _Lives of the Twelve Caesars_, Life of Tiberius, Latin text with English translation * Tacitus, _Annals_, I–VI, English translation * Velleius Paterculus, _Roman History_ Book II, Latin text with English translation

SECONDARY MATERIAL

* Ehrenberg, V.; Jones, A.H.M. (1955). _Documents Illustrating the Reigns of Augustus
Augustus
and Tiberius_. Oxford. * Capes, William Wolfe, _Roman History_, Longmans, Green, and Co., 1897 * Levick, Barbara (1999). _ Tiberius
Tiberius
the Politician_. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-21753-9 . * Mason, Ernst (1960). _Tiberius_. New York: Ballantine Books. (Ernst Mason was a pseudonym of science fiction author Frederik Pohl
Frederik Pohl
) * Seager, Robin (1972). _Tiberius_. London: Eyre Methuen. ISBN 978-0-413-27600-1 . * Seager, Robin (2005). _Tiberius_. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-1529-7 . * Shotter, David (1992). _ Tiberius
Tiberius
Caesar_. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07654-4 . * Salmon, Edward (1968). _History of the Roman World, 30 B.C.-A.D.138, Part II: Tiberius_. Methuen. ISBN 978-0-416-10710-4 . * Southern, Pat (1998). _Augustus_. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16631-4 . * Syme, Ronald (1986). _The Augustan Aristocracy_. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-814859-3 .

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