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Tiberius
Tiberius
(/taɪˈbɪəriəs/; Latin: Tiberius
Tiberius
Caesar Divi Augusti filius Augustus;[1][2] 16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD) was Roman emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD, succeeding the first emperor, Augustus. Born to Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Nero
Nero
and Livia
Livia
Drusilla in a Claudian family, he was given the personal name Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Nero. His mother divorced Nero
Nero
and married Octavian–later to ascend the Empire as Augustus–who officially became his stepfather. Tiberius
Tiberius
would later marry Augustus' daughter (from his marriage to Scribonia), Julia the Elder, and even later be adopted by Augustus. Through the adoption, he officially became a Julian, assuming the name Tiberius Julius Caesar. The subsequent emperors after Tiberius
Tiberius
would continue this blended dynasty of both families for the following thirty years; historians have named it the Julio-Claudian dynasty. In relations to the other emperors of this dynasty, Tiberius
Tiberius
was the stepson of Augustus, grand-uncle of Caligula, paternal uncle of Claudius, and great-grand uncle of Nero. His 22-and-a-half-year reign would be the longest after Augustus's until Antoninus Pius, who surpassed his reign by a few months in 161. Tiberius
Tiberius
was one of the greatest Roman generals; his conquest of Pannonia, Dalmatia, Raetia, and temporarily, parts of Germania, laid the foundations for the northern frontier. Even so, he came to be remembered as a dark, reclusive and sombre ruler who never really desired to be emperor; Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
called him "the gloomiest of men."[3] After the death of his son Drusus Julius Caesar
Drusus Julius Caesar
in 23 AD, Tiberius
Tiberius
became more reclusive and aloof. In 26 AD he removed himself from Rome
Rome
and left administration largely in the hands of his unscrupulous Praetorian prefects Lucius Aelius Sejanus
Sejanus
and Quintus Naevius Sutorius Macro. When Tiberius
Tiberius
died, he was succeeded by his grand-nephew and adopted grandson, Caligula.[4]

Contents

1 Early life

1.1 Background 1.2 Civil and military career 1.3 Retirement to Rhodes
Rhodes
(6 BC) 1.4 Heir to Augustus

2 Emperor (14–37 AD)

2.1 Early reign 2.2 Rise and fall of Germanicus 2.3 Tiberius
Tiberius
in Capri, with Sejanus
Sejanus
in Rome

2.3.1 Plot by Sejanus
Sejanus
against Tiberius

2.4 Final years

2.4.1 Death (37 AD)

3 Legacy

3.1 Historiography

3.1.1 Publius Cornelius Tacitus 3.1.2 Suetonius
Suetonius
Tranquillus 3.1.3 Velleius Paterculus

3.2 Gospels, Jews, and Christians 3.3 Archaeology 3.4 In fiction

4 Children and family 5 Ancestry 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Bibliography

8.1 Primary sources 8.2 Secondary material

9 External links

Early life[edit] See also: Julio-Claudian dynasty

Tiberius
Tiberius
and his mother Livia, AD 14-19, from Paestum, National Archaeological Museum of Spain, Madrid

Background[edit] Tiberius
Tiberius
was born in Rome
Rome
on 16 November 42 BC to Tiberius Claudius
Claudius
Nero
Nero
and Livia.[5][6] In 39 BC his mother divorced his biological father and remarried Gaius Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
Octavianus shortly thereafter, while still pregnant with Tiberius
Tiberius
Nero's son. In 38 BC his brother, Nero
Nero
Claudius
Claudius
Drusus, was born.[7] Little is recorded of Tiberius's early life. In 32 BC Tiberius, at the age of nine, delivered the eulogy for his biological father at the rostra.[8] In 29 BC, he rode in the triumphal chariot along with his adoptive father Octavian in celebration of the defeat of Antony and Cleopatra at Actium.[8] In 23 BC Emperor Augustus
Augustus
became gravely ill and his possible death threatened to plunge the Roman world into chaos again. Historians generally agree that it is during this time that the question of Augustus' heir became most acute, and while Augustus
Augustus
had seemed to indicate that Agrippa and Marcellus would carry on his position in the event of his death, the ambiguity of succession became Augustus' chief problem.[9] In response, a series of potential heirs seem to have been selected, among them Tiberius
Tiberius
and his brother Drusus. In 24 BC, at the age of seventeen, Tiberius
Tiberius
entered politics under Augustus' direction, receiving the position of quaestor,[10] and was granted the right to stand for election as praetor and consul five years in advance of the age required by law.[11] Similar provisions were made for Drusus.[12] Civil and military career[edit] Shortly thereafter Tiberius
Tiberius
began appearing in court as an advocate,[13] and it is presumably here that his interest in Greek rhetoric began. In 20 BC, Tiberius
Tiberius
was sent East under Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa.[14] The Parthian Empire
Parthian Empire
had captured the standards of the legions under the command of Marcus Licinius
Licinius
Crassus (53 BC) (at the Battle of Carrhae), Decidius Saxa (40 BC), and Mark Antony
Mark Antony
(36 BC).[11] After a year of negotiation, Tiberius
Tiberius
led a sizable force into Armenia, presumably with the goal of establishing it as a Roman client state and ending the threat it posed on the Roman-Parthian border. Augustus
Augustus
was able to reach a compromise whereby the standards were returned, and Armenia
Armenia
remained a neutral territory between the two powers.[11]

A bust of Vipsania Agrippina, Tiberius' first wife, recovered from Leptis Magna.

Tiberius
Tiberius
married Vipsania Agrippina, the daughter of Augustus’s close friend and greatest general, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa.[15] He was appointed to the position of praetor, and was sent with his legions to assist his brother Drusus in campaigns in the west. While Drusus focused his forces in Gallia Narbonensis
Gallia Narbonensis
and along the German frontier, Tiberius
Tiberius
combated the tribes in the Alps
Alps
and within Transalpine Gaul, conquering Raetia. In 15 BC he discovered the sources of the Danube, and soon afterwards the bend of the middle course.[16] Returning to Rome
Rome
in 13 BC, Tiberius
Tiberius
was appointed as consul, and around this same time his son, Drusus Julius Caesar, was born.[17] Agrippa's death in 12 BC elevated Tiberius
Tiberius
and Drusus with respect to the succession. At Augustus’ request in 11 BC, Tiberius divorced Vipsania and married Julia the Elder, Augustus' daughter and Agrippa's widow.[18][15] Tiberius
Tiberius
was very reluctant to do this, as Julia had made advances to him when she was married and Tiberius
Tiberius
was happily married. His new marriage with Julia was happy at first, but turned sour.[15] Reportedly, Tiberius
Tiberius
once ran into Vipsania again, and proceeded to follow her home crying and begging forgiveness;[15] soon afterwards, Tiberius
Tiberius
met with Augustus, and steps were taken to ensure that Tiberius
Tiberius
and Vipsania would never meet again.[19] Tiberius
Tiberius
continued to be elevated by Augustus, and after Agrippa's death and his brother Drusus' death in 9 BC, seemed the clear candidate for succession. As such, in 12 BC he received military commissions in Pannonia and Germania; both areas highly volatile and of key importance to Augustan policy.

The campaigns of Tiberius, Ahenobarbus, and Saturninus in Germania between 6 BC and 1 BC.

In 6 BC, Tiberius
Tiberius
launched a pincer movement against the Marcomanni. Setting out northwest from Carnuntum
Carnuntum
on the Danube
Danube
with four legions, Tiberius
Tiberius
passed through Quadi
Quadi
territory in order to invade Marcomanni territory from the east. Meanwhile, general Gaius Sentius Saturninus would depart east from Moguntiacum
Moguntiacum
on the Rhine with two or three legions, pass through newly annexed Hermunduri
Hermunduri
territory, and attack the Marcomanni
Marcomanni
from the west. The campaign was a resounding success, but Tiberius
Tiberius
could not subjugate the Marcomanni
Marcomanni
because he was soon summoned to the Rhine frontier to protect Rome's new conquests in Germania. He returned to Rome
Rome
and was consul for a second time in 7 BC, and in 6 BC was granted tribunician power (tribunicia potestas) and control in the East,[20] all of which mirrored positions that Agrippa had previously held. However, despite these successes and despite his advancement, Tiberius
Tiberius
was not happy.[21] Retirement to Rhodes
Rhodes
(6 BC)[edit]

Remnants of Tiberius' villa at Sperlonga, on the coast midway between Rome
Rome
and Naples

In 6 BC, on the verge of accepting command in the East and becoming the second most powerful man in Rome, Tiberius
Tiberius
suddenly announced his withdrawal from politics and retired to Rhodes.[22] The precise motives for Tiberius's withdrawal are unclear.[23] Historians have speculated a connection with the fact that Augustus
Augustus
had adopted Julia's sons by Agrippa, Gaius and Lucius, and seemed to be moving them along the same political path that both Tiberius
Tiberius
and Drusus had trodden.[24] Tiberius's move thus seemed to be an interim solution: he would hold power only until his stepsons would come of age, and then be swept aside. The promiscuous, and very public, behavior of his unhappily married wife, Julia,[25] may have also played a part.[20] Indeed, Tacitus
Tacitus
calls it Tiberius' intima causa, his innermost reason for departing for Rhodes, and seems to ascribe the entire move to a hatred of Julia and a longing for Vipsania.[26] Tiberius
Tiberius
had found himself married to a woman he loathed, who publicly humiliated him with nighttime escapades in the Roman Forum, and forbidden to see the woman he had loved.[27] Whatever Tiberius's motives, the withdrawal was almost disastrous for Augustus's succession plans. Gaius and Lucius were still in their early teens, and Augustus, now 57 years old, had no immediate successor. There was no longer a guarantee of a peaceful transfer of power after Augustus's death, nor a guarantee that his family, and therefore his family's allies, would continue to hold power should the position of princeps survive.[27] Somewhat apocryphal stories tell of Augustus
Augustus
pleading with Tiberius
Tiberius
to stay, even going so far as to stage a serious illness.[27] Tiberius's response was to anchor off the shore of Ostia until word came that Augustus
Augustus
had survived, then sailing straightway for Rhodes.[28] Tiberius
Tiberius
reportedly regretted his departure and requested to return to Rome
Rome
several times, but each time Augustus
Augustus
refused his requests.[29] Heir to Augustus[edit] With Tiberius's departure, succession rested solely on Augustus' two young grandsons, Lucius and Gaius Caesar. The situation became more precarious in AD 2 with the death of Lucius. Augustus, with perhaps some pressure from Livia, allowed Tiberius
Tiberius
to return to Rome as a private citizen and nothing more.[30] In AD 4, Gaius was killed in Armenia, and Augustus
Augustus
had no other choice but to turn to Tiberius.[31][32] The death of Gaius in AD 4 initiated a flurry of activity in the household of Augustus. Tiberius
Tiberius
was adopted as full son and heir and in turn, he was required to adopt his nephew, Germanicus, the son of his brother Drusus and Augustus' niece Antonia Minor.[31][33] Along with his adoption, Tiberius
Tiberius
received tribunician power as well as a share of Augustus's maius imperium, something that even Marcus Agrippa may never have had.[34] In AD 7, Agrippa Postumus, a younger brother of Gaius and Lucius, was disowned by Augustus
Augustus
and banished to the island of Pianosa, to live in solitary confinement.[32][35] Thus, when in AD 13, the powers held by Tiberius
Tiberius
were made equal, rather than second, to Augustus's own powers, he was for all intents and purposes a "co-princeps" with Augustus, and, in the event of the latter's passing, would simply continue to rule without an interregnum or possible upheaval.[36] However, according to Suetonius, after a two-year stint in Germania, which lasted from 10−12 AD,[37] " Tiberius
Tiberius
returned and celebrated the triumph which he had postponed, accompanied also by his generals, for whom he had obtained the triumphal regalia. And before turning to enter the Capitol, he dismounted from his chariot and fell at the knees of his father, who was presiding over the ceremonies.”[38] "Since the consuls caused a law to be passed soon after this that he should govern the provinces jointly with Augustus
Augustus
and hold the census with him, he set out for Illyricum on the conclusion of the lustral ceremonies."[39] Thus, according to Suetonius, these ceremonies and the declaration of his "co-princeps" took place in the year 12 AD, after Tiberius' return from Germania.[37] "But he was at once recalled, and finding Augustus in his last illness but still alive, he spent an entire day with him in private."[39] Augustus
Augustus
died in AD 14, a month before his 76th birthday.[40] He was buried with all due ceremony and, as had been arranged beforehand, deified, his will read, and Tiberius, now a middle aged man at 55, was confirmed as his sole surviving heir.[41] Emperor (14–37 AD)[edit] Early reign[edit]

Aureus
Aureus
of Tiberius, c. 27-30 AD

The Senate convened on 18 September, to validate Tiberius's position as Princeps and, as it had done with Augustus
Augustus
before, extend the powers of the position to him.[42] These proceedings are fully accounted by Tacitus.[43] Tiberius
Tiberius
already had the administrative and political powers of the Princeps, all he lacked were the titles—Augustus, Pater Patriae, and the Civic Crown
Civic Crown
(a crown made from laurel and oak, in honor of Augustus
Augustus
having saved the lives of Roman citizens). Tiberius, however, attempted to play the same role as Augustus: that of the reluctant public servant who wants nothing more than to serve the state.[44][45] This ended up throwing the entire affair into confusion, and rather than humble, he came across as derisive; rather than seeming to want to serve the state, he seemed obstructive.[46] He cited his age as a reason why he could not act as Princeps, stated he did not wish the position, and then proceeded to ask for only a section of the state.[47] Tiberius
Tiberius
finally relented and accepted the powers voted to him, though according to Tacitus
Tacitus
and Suetonius
Suetonius
he refused to bear the titles Pater Patriae, Imperator, and Augustus, and declined the most solid emblem of the Princeps, the Civic Crown
Civic Crown
and laurels.[48] This meeting seems to have set the tone for Tiberius's entire rule. He seems to have wished for the Senate and the state to simply act without him and his direct orders were rather vague, inspiring debate more on what he actually meant than on passing his legislation.[49] In his first few years, Tiberius
Tiberius
seemed to have wanted the Senate to act on its own,[50] rather than as a servant to his will as it had been under Augustus. According to Tacitus, Tiberius
Tiberius
derided the Senate as "men fit to be slaves."[51] Rise and fall of Germanicus[edit]

A bust of the adopted son of Tiberius, Germanicus, from the Louvre, Paris.

Problems arose quickly for the new Princeps. The Roman legions posted in Pannonia
Pannonia
and in Germania
Germania
had not been paid the bonuses promised them by Augustus, and after a short period of time mutinied when it was clear that a response from Tiberius
Tiberius
was not forthcoming.[52] Germanicus
Germanicus
and Tiberius's son, Drusus Julius Caesar, were dispatched with a small force to quell the uprising and bring the legions back in line.[53] Rather than simply quell the mutiny, however, Germanicus
Germanicus
rallied the mutineers and led them on a short campaign across the Rhine into Germanic territory, stating that whatever treasure they could grab would count as their bonus.[53] Germanicus's forces crossed the Rhine and quickly occupied all of the territory between the Rhine and the Elbe. Additionally, Tacitus
Tacitus
records the capture of the Teutoburg forest and the reclaiming of Roman standards lost years before by Publius Quinctilius Varus,[54] when three Roman legions and its auxiliary cohorts had been ambushed by Germanic tribes.[55] Germanicus
Germanicus
had managed to deal a significant blow to Rome's enemies, quell an uprising of troops, and returned lost standards to Rome, actions that increased the fame and legend of the already very popular Germanicus
Germanicus
with the Roman people.[56] After being recalled from Germania,[57] Germanicus
Germanicus
celebrated a triumph in Rome
Rome
in AD 17,[54] the first full triumph that the city had seen since Augustus's own in 29 BC. As a result, in AD 18 Germanicus
Germanicus
was granted control over the eastern part of the empire, just as both Agrippa and Tiberius
Tiberius
had received before, and was clearly the successor to Tiberius.[58] Germanicus
Germanicus
survived a little over a year before dying, accusing Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, the governor of Syria, of poisoning him.[59] The Pisones had been longtime supporters of the Claudians, and had allied themselves with the young Octavian after his marriage to Livia, the mother of Tiberius. Germanicus's death and accusations indicted the new Princeps. Piso was placed on trial and, according to Tacitus, threatened to implicate Tiberius.[60] Whether the governor actually could connect the Princeps to the death of Germanicus
Germanicus
is unknown; rather than continuing to stand trial when it became evident that the Senate was against him, Piso committed suicide.[61][62] Tiberius
Tiberius
seems to have tired of politics at this point. In AD 22, he shared his tribunician authority with his son Drusus,[63] and began making yearly excursions to Campania that reportedly became longer and longer every year. In AD 23, Drusus mysteriously died,[64][65] and Tiberius
Tiberius
seems to have made no effort to elevate a replacement. Finally, in AD 26, Tiberius
Tiberius
retired from Rome
Rome
altogether to the island of Capri.[66] Tiberius
Tiberius
in Capri, with Sejanus
Sejanus
in Rome[edit]

Left: marble portrait bust of Tiberius
Tiberius
in the Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen Right: bronze portrait bust of Tiberius
Tiberius
in the Cabinet des Médailles, Paris

Lucius Aelius Sejanus
Sejanus
had served the imperial family for almost twenty years when he became Praetorian Prefect
Praetorian Prefect
in AD 15. As Tiberius became more embittered with the position of Princeps, he began to depend more and more upon the limited secretariat left to him by Augustus, and specifically upon Sejanus
Sejanus
and the Praetorians. In AD 17 or 18, Tiberius
Tiberius
had trimmed the ranks of the Praetorian Guard responsible for the defense of the city, and had moved it from encampments outside of the city walls into the city itself,[67] giving Sejanus
Sejanus
access to somewhere between 6000 and 9000 troops. The death of Drusus elevated Sejanus, at least in Tiberius's eyes, who thereafter refers to him as his 'Socius Laborum' (Partner of my labours). Tiberius
Tiberius
had statues of Sejanus
Sejanus
erected throughout the city,[68][69] and Sejanus
Sejanus
became more and more visible as Tiberius began to withdraw from Rome
Rome
altogether. Finally, with Tiberius's withdrawal in AD 26, Sejanus
Sejanus
was left in charge of the entire state mechanism and the city of Rome.[66] Sejanus's position was not quite that of successor; he had requested marriage in AD 25 to Tiberius's niece, Livilla,[70] though under pressure quickly withdrew the request.[71] While Sejanus's Praetorians controlled the imperial post, and therefore the information that Tiberius
Tiberius
received from Rome
Rome
and the information Rome
Rome
received from Tiberius,[72] the presence of Livia
Livia
seems to have checked his overt power for a time. Her death in AD 29 changed all that.[73] Sejanus
Sejanus
began a series of purge trials of Senators and wealthy equestrians in the city of Rome, removing those capable of opposing his power as well as extending the imperial (and his own) treasury. Germanicus's widow Agrippina the Elder
Agrippina the Elder
and two of her sons, Nero Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar
and Drusus Caesar
Drusus Caesar
were arrested and exiled in AD 30 and later all died in suspicious circumstances. In Sejanus's purge of Agrippina the Elder
Agrippina the Elder
and her family, Caligula, Agrippina the Younger, Julia Drusilla, and Julia Livilla
Livilla
were the only survivors.[74]

Ruins from the Villa Jovis
Villa Jovis
on the island of Capri, where Tiberius spent much of his final years, leaving control of the empire in the hands of the prefect Lucius Aelius Sejanus.

Plot by Sejanus
Sejanus
against Tiberius[edit]

A sardonyx cameo relief of Tiberius, 1st century AD, now in the Hermitage Museum

In 31, Sejanus
Sejanus
held the consulship with Tiberius
Tiberius
in absentia,[75] and began his play for power in earnest. Precisely what happened is difficult to determine, but Sejanus
Sejanus
seems to have covertly attempted to court those families who were tied to the Julians, and attempted to ingratiate himself with the Julian family line with an eye towards placing himself, as an adopted Julian, in the position of Princeps, or as a possible regent.[75] Livilla
Livilla
was later implicated in this plot, and was revealed to have been Sejanus's lover for a number of years.[76] The plot seems to have involved the two of them overthrowing Tiberius, with the support of the Julians, and either assuming the Principate themselves, or serving as regent to the young Tiberius Gemellus
Tiberius Gemellus
or possibly even Caligula.[77] Those who stood in his way were tried for treason and swiftly dealt with.[77] In AD 31 Sejanus
Sejanus
was summoned to a meeting of the Senate, where a letter from Tiberius
Tiberius
was read condemning Sejanus
Sejanus
and ordering his immediate execution. Sejanus
Sejanus
was tried, and he and several of his colleagues were executed within the week.[78] As commander of the Praetorian Guard, he was replaced by Naevius Sutorius Macro.[78] Tacitus
Tacitus
claims that more treason trials followed and that whereas Tiberius
Tiberius
had been hesitant to act at the outset of his reign, now, towards the end of his life, he seemed to do so without compunction. Hardest hit were those families with political ties to the Julians. Even the imperial magistracy was hit, as any and all who had associated with Sejanus
Sejanus
or could in some way be tied to his schemes were summarily tried and executed, their properties seized by the state. As Tacitus
Tacitus
vividly describes,

Executions were now a stimulus to his fury, and he ordered the death of all who were lying in prison under accusation of complicity with Sejanus. There lay, singly or in heaps, the unnumbered dead, of every age and sex, the illustrious with the obscure. Kinsfolk and friends were not allowed to be near them, to weep over them, or even to gaze on them too long. Spies were set round them, who noted the sorrow of each mourner and followed the rotting corpses, till they were dragged to the Tiber, where, floating or driven on the bank, no one dared to burn or to touch them.[79]

However, Tacitus' portrayal of a tyrannical, vengeful emperor has been challenged by several modern historians. The prominent ancient historian Edward Togo Salmon notes in his work, A history of the Roman world from 30 BC to AD 138:

In the whole twenty two years of Tiberius' reign, not more than fifty-two persons were accused of treason, of whom almost half escaped conviction, while the four innocent people to be condemned fell victims to the excessive zeal of the Senate, not to the Emperor's tyranny.[80]

While Tiberius
Tiberius
was in Capri, rumours abounded as to what exactly he was doing there. Suetonius
Suetonius
records the rumours of lurid tales of sexual perversity, including graphic depictions of child molestation, and cruelty,[81] and most of all his paranoia.[82] While heavily sensationalized,[83] Suetonius' stories at least paint a picture of how Tiberius
Tiberius
was perceived by the Roman senatorial class, and what his impact on the Principate
Principate
was during his 23 years of rule.

A denarius of Tiberius

Final years[edit] The affair of Sejanus
Sejanus
and the final years of treason trials permanently damaged Tiberius' image and reputation. After Sejanus's fall, Tiberius' withdrawal from Rome
Rome
was complete; the empire continued to run under the inertia of the bureaucracy established by Augustus, rather than through the leadership of the Princeps. Suetonius
Suetonius
records that he became paranoid,[82] and spent a great deal of time brooding over the death of his son. Meanwhile, during this period a short invasion by Parthia, incursions by tribes from Dacia and from across the Rhine by several Germanic tribes occurred.[84] Little was done to either secure or indicate how his succession was to take place; the Julians and their supporters had fallen to the wrath of Sejanus, and his own sons and immediate family were dead. Two of the candidates were either Caligula, the sole surviving son of Germanicus, or Tiberius' own grandson, Tiberius
Tiberius
Gemellus.[85] However, only a half-hearted attempt at the end of Tiberius' life was made to make Caligula
Caligula
a quaestor, and thus give him some credibility as a possible successor, while Gemellus himself was still only a teenager and thus completely unsuitable for some years to come.[86] Death (37 AD)[edit] Tiberius
Tiberius
died in Misenum
Misenum
on 16 March AD 37, in his seventy eighth year.[87][88][89] Tacitus
Tacitus
relates that the emperor appeared to have stopped breathing, and that Caligula, who was at Tiberius' villa, was being congratulated on his succession to the empire, when news arrived that the emperor had revived and was recovering his faculties. Those who had moments before recognized Caligula
Caligula
as Augustus
Augustus
fled in fear of the emperor's wrath, while Macro took advantage of the chaos to have Tiberius
Tiberius
smothered with his own bedclothes.[90] Suetonius
Suetonius
reports several rumours, including that the emperor had been poisoned by Caligula, starved, and smothered with a pillow; that recovering, and finding himself deserted by his attendants, he attempted to rise from his couch, but fell dead.[91] According to Cassius Dio, Caligula, fearing that the emperor would recover, refused Tiberius' requests for food, insisting that he needed warmth, not food; then assisted by Macro, he smothered the emperor in his bedclothes.[92] After his death, the Senate refused to vote Tiberius
Tiberius
the divine honors that had been paid to Augustus, and mobs filled the streets yelling "To the Tiber with Tiberius!"; the bodies of criminals were typically thrown into the river, instead of being buried or burnt.[93] However, the emperor was cremated, and his ashes were quietly laid in the Mausoleum of Augustus, later to be scattered in AD 410 during the Sack of Rome.[94] In his will, Tiberius
Tiberius
had left his powers jointly to Caligula
Caligula
and Tiberius
Tiberius
Gemellus.[95][96] Caligula's first act on becoming Princeps was to void Tiberius' will and have Gemellus executed.[96] Tiberius' heir Caligula
Caligula
not only spent Tiberius' fortune of 2,700,000,000 sesterces but would also begin the chain of events which would bring about the downfall of the Julio-Claudian dynasty
Julio-Claudian dynasty
in AD 68.[97] Legacy[edit] Historiography[edit]

Bust of Tiberius, housed in the Louvre.

Statue of Tiberius
Tiberius
from Priverno, made shortly after 37 AD, now in the Museo Chiaramonti
Museo Chiaramonti
of the Vatican Museums

Were he to have died prior to AD 23, he might have been hailed as an exemplary ruler.[98] Despite the overwhelmingly negative characterization left by Roman historians, Tiberius
Tiberius
left the imperial treasury with nearly 3 billion sesterces upon his death.[96][99] Rather than embark on costly campaigns of conquest, he chose to strengthen the existing empire by building additional bases, using diplomacy as well as military threats, and generally refraining from getting drawn into petty squabbles between competing frontier tyrants.[67] The result was a stronger, more consolidated empire. Of the authors whose texts have survived, only four describe the reign of Tiberius
Tiberius
in considerable detail: Tacitus, Suetonius, Cassius Dio and Marcus Velleius Paterculus. Fragmentary evidence also remains from Pliny the Elder, Strabo
Strabo
and Seneca the Elder. Tiberius
Tiberius
himself wrote an autobiography which Suetonius
Suetonius
describes as "brief and sketchy", but this book has been lost.[100] Publius Cornelius Tacitus[edit] See also: Tacitus The most detailed account of this period is handed down to us by Tacitus, whose Annals
Annals
dedicate the first six books entirely to the reign of Tiberius. Tacitus
Tacitus
was a Roman senator, born during the reign of Nero
Nero
in 56 AD, and consul suffect in AD 97. His text is largely based on the Acta Senatus (the minutes of the session of the Senate) and the Acta Diurna (a collection of the acts of the government and news of the court and capital), as well as speeches by Tiberius himself, and the histories of contemporaries such as Marcus Cluvius Rufus, Fabius Rusticus and Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(all of which are lost).[98] Tacitus' narrative emphasizes both political and psychological motivation. The characterisation of Tiberius
Tiberius
throughout the first six books is mostly negative, and gradually worsens as his rule declines, identifying a clear breaking point with the death of his son Drusus in 23 AD.[98] The rule of Julio-Claudians is generally described as unjust and "criminal" by Tacitus.[101] Even at the outset of his reign, he seems to ascribe many of Tiberius' virtues merely to hypocrisy.[87] Another major recurring theme concerns the balance of power between the Senate and the Emperors, corruption, and the growing tyranny among the governing classes of Rome. A substantial amount of his account on Tiberius
Tiberius
is therefore devoted to the treason trials and persecutions following the revival of the maiestas law under Augustus.[102] Ultimately, Tacitus' opinion on Tiberius
Tiberius
is best illustrated by his conclusion of the sixth book:

His character too had its distinct periods. It was a bright time in his life and reputation, while under Augustus
Augustus
he was a private citizen or held high offices; a time of reserve and crafty assumption of virtue, as long as Germanicus
Germanicus
and Drusus were alive. Again, while his mother lived, he was a compound of good and evil; he was infamous for his cruelty, though he veiled his debaucheries, while he loved or feared Sejanus. Finally, he plunged into every wickedness and disgrace, when fear and shame being cast off, he simply indulged his own inclinations.[87]

Suetonius
Suetonius
Tranquillus[edit]

An example of Indo-Roman trade and relations
Indo-Roman trade and relations
during the period: silver denarius of Tiberius
Tiberius
(14–37) found in India
India
and Indian copy of the same, 1st-century coin of Kushan
Kushan
king Kujula Kadphises
Kujula Kadphises
copying a coin of Augustus.

Suetonius
Suetonius
was an equestrian who held administrative posts during the reigns of Trajan
Trajan
and Hadrian. The Twelve Caesars
The Twelve Caesars
details a biographical history of the principate from the birth of Julius Caesar to the death of Domitian
Domitian
in AD 96. Like Tacitus, he drew upon the imperial archives, as well as histories by Aufidius Bassus, Marcus Cluvius Rufus, Fabius Rusticus and Augustus' own letters.[81] His account is more sensationalist and anecdotal than that of his contemporary. The most famous sections of his biography delve into the numerous alleged debaucheries Tiberius
Tiberius
remitted himself to while at Capri.[81] Nevertheless, Suetonius
Suetonius
also reserves praise for Tiberius' actions during his early reign, emphasizing his modesty.[103] Velleius Paterculus[edit] One of the few surviving sources contemporary with the rule of Tiberius
Tiberius
comes from Velleius Paterculus, who served under Tiberius
Tiberius
for eight years (from AD 4) in Germany and Pannonia
Pannonia
as praefect of cavalry and legatus. Paterculus' Compendium of Roman History spans a period from the fall of Troy
Troy
to the death of Livia
Livia
in AD 29. His text on Tiberius
Tiberius
lavishes praise on both the emperor[10][104] and Sejanus.[105] How much of this is due to genuine admiration or prudence remains an open question, but it has been conjectured that he was put to death in AD 31 as a friend of Sejanus.[106] Gospels, Jews, and Christians[edit]

The tribute penny mentioned in the Bible
Bible
is commonly believed to be a Roman denarius depicting the Emperor Tiberius.

The Gospels mention that during Tiberius' reign, Jesus
Jesus
of Nazareth preached and was executed under the authority of Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor of Judaea province. In the Bible, Tiberius
Tiberius
is mentioned by name only once, in Luke 3:1,[107] which states that John the Baptist entered on his public ministry in the fifteenth year of his reign. Many references to Caesar (or the emperor in some other translations), without further specification, would seem to refer to Tiberius. Similarly, the "Tribute Penny" referred to in Matthew[108] and Mark[109] is popularly thought to be a silver denarius coin of Tiberius.[110][111][112] During Tiberius' reign Jews had become more prominent in Rome
Rome
and Jewish and Gentile followers of Jesus
Jesus
began proselytizing Roman citizens, increasing long-simmering resentments.[113] Tiberius
Tiberius
in 19 AD ordered Jews who were of military age to join the Roman Army.[113] Tiberius
Tiberius
banished the rest of the Jews from Rome
Rome
and threatened to enslave them for life if they did not leave the city.[113] There is considerable debate among historians as to when Christianity was differentiated from Judaism.[113] Most scholars believe that Roman distinction between Jews and Christians took place around 70 AD.[113] Tiberius
Tiberius
most likely viewed Christians as a Jewish sect rather than a separate, distinct faith.[113] Archaeology[edit] The palace of Tiberius
Tiberius
at Rome
Rome
was located on the Palatine Hill, the ruins of which can still be seen today. No major public works were undertaken in the city during his reign, except a temple dedicated to Augustus
Augustus
and the restoration of the theater of Pompey,[114][115] both of which were not finished until the reign of Caligula.[116] In addition, remnants of Tiberius' villa at Sperlonga, which includes a grotto where the important Sperlonga
Sperlonga
sculptures were found in fragments, and the Villa Jovis
Villa Jovis
on top of Capri
Capri
have been preserved. The estate at Capri
Capri
is said by Tacitus
Tacitus
to have included a total of twelve villas across the island,[66] of which Villa Jovis
Villa Jovis
was the largest. Tiberius
Tiberius
refused to be worshipped as a living god, and allowed only one temple to be built in his honor, at Smyrna.[117] The town Tiberias, in modern Israel
Israel
on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, was named in Tiberius's honour by Herod Antipas.[118] In fiction[edit] The theft of the Gold Tiberius, an unintentionally unique commemorative coin commissioned by Tiberius
Tiberius
which is stated to have achieved legendary status in the centuries hence, from a mysterious triad of occultists drives the plot of the framing story in Arthur Machen's 1895 novel The Three Impostors. Tiberius
Tiberius
has been represented in fiction, in literature, film and television, and in video games, often as a peripheral character in the central storyline. One such modern representation is in the novel I, Claudius
Claudius
by Robert Graves,[119] and the consequent BBC
BBC
television series adaptation, where he is portrayed by George Baker.[120] George R. R. Martin, the author of The Song of Ice and Fire
The Song of Ice and Fire
series, has stated that central character Stannis Baratheon
Stannis Baratheon
is partially inspired by Tiberius
Tiberius
Caesar, and particularly the portrayal by Baker.[121] In the 1968 ITV historical drama The Caesars, Tiberius
Tiberius
(by André Morell) is the central character for much of the series and is portrayed in a much more balanced way than in I, Claudius. He also appears as a minor character in the 2006 film The Inquiry, in which he is played by Max von Sydow. In addition, Tiberius
Tiberius
has prominent roles in Ben-Hur (played by George Relph
George Relph
in his last starring role),[122] and in A.D. (played by James Mason). Played by Ernest Thesiger, he featured in The Robe (1953). He was featured in the 1979 film Caligula, portrayed by Peter O'Toole. He was an important character in Taylor Caldwell's 1958 novel, Dear and Glorious Physician, a biography of St Luke the Evangelist, author of the third canonical Gospel. Children and family[edit] Tiberius
Tiberius
was married two times, with only his first union producing a child who would survive to adulthood:

Vipsania Agrippina, daughter of Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa
(16–11 BC)

Drusus Julius Caesar
Drusus Julius Caesar
(13 BC – 23 AD)

Julia the Elder, only daughter of Augustus
Augustus
(11–6 BC)

Ancestry[edit] See also: Julio-Claudian family tree

Ancestors of Tiberius

4. Drusus Claudius
Claudius
Nero
Nero
I

2. Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
Nero

5. Claudia

1. Tiberius

6. Marcus Livius Drusus Claudianus[123]

3. Livia
Livia
Drusilla

7. Aufidia

See also[edit]

Clutorius Priscus

Notes[edit]

^ Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the names of Tiberius:

TIBERIVS CLAVDIVS NEROIPA: [tɪˈbɛ.ri.ʊs ˈklau̯.di.ʊs ˈnɛ.roː] TIBERIVS IVLIVS CAESARIPA: [tɪˈbɛ.ri.ʊs ˈjuː.li.ʊs ˈkae̯.sar] TIBERIVS CAESAR DIVI AVGVSTI F[ILIVS] AVGVSTVSIPA: [tɪˈbɛ.ri.ʊs ˈkae̯.sar ˈdiː.wiː ˈfiː.li.ʊs au̯ˈgʊs.tʊs]

^ Tiberius' regal name has an equivalent English meaning of "Tiberius Caesar, Son of the Divine Augustus, the Emperor". ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural Histories XXVIII.5.23; Capes, p. 71 ^ "Tiberius". 2006. Retrieved 2011-02-17.  ^ " Tiberius
Tiberius
Roman emperor". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-03-08.  ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
5 ^ Levick pp. 15 ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
6 ^ Southern, pp. 119–120. ^ a b Velleius Paterculus, Roman History II.94 ^ a b c Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
9 ^ Seager, p. xiv. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
8 ^ Levick, p. 24. ^ a b c d Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
7 ^ Strabo, 7. I. 5, p. 292 ^ Levick, pp. 42. ^ "Tiberius". 2006. Retrieved 2011-02-17.  ^ Seager 2005, pp. 20. ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History LV.9 ^ Seager 2005, pp. 23. ^ Seager 2005, pp. 23—24. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
10 ^ Levick, pp. 29. ^ Velleius Paterculus, Roman History II.100 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
I.53 ^ a b c Seager 2005, pp. 26. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
11 ^ Seager 2005, pp. 28. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
13 ^ a b Tacitus, Annals
Annals
I.3 ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
15 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LV.13 ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
21. For the debate over whether Agrippa's imperium after 13 BC was maius or aequum, see, e.g., E. Badian (December 1980 – January 1981). "Notes on the Laudatio of Agrippa". Classical Journal. 76 (2): 97–109, pp. 105–106.  ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LV.32 ^ Seager p. xv ^ a b Speidel, Michael Riding for Caesar:The Roman Emperorors’ Horse guards19 ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
20 ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
21 ^ Velleieus Paterculus, Roman History II.123 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
I.8 ^ Levick, pp. 68—81. ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
I.9–11 ^ Seager 2005, pp. 44—45. ^ " Tiberius
Tiberius
Roman emperor". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-03-08.  ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
24 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
I.12, I.13 ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
26 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
III.32, III.52 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
III.35, III.53, III.54 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
III.65 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
I.16, I.17, I.31 ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History LVII.6 ^ a b Tacitus, Annals
Annals
II.41 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
II.46 ^ Shotter, 35–37. ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
II.26 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
II.43 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
II.71 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
III.16 ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
52 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
III.15 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
III.56 ^ Tacitus, Annals, IV.7, IV.8 ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
62 ^ a b c Tacitus, Annals
Annals
IV.67 ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
37 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
IV.2 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LVII.21 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
IV.39 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
IV.40, IV.41 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
IV.41 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
V.3 ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
53, 54 ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
65 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LVII.22 ^ a b Boddington, Ann (January 1963). "Sejanus. Whose Conspiracy?". The American Journal of Philology. 84 (1): 1–16. doi:10.2307/293155. JSTOR 293155.  ^ a b Cassius Dio, Roman History LVIII.10 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
VI.19 ^ A history of the Roman world from 30 BC to AD 138, Page 183, Edward Togo Salmon ^ a b c Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
43, 44, 45 ^ a b Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
60, 62, 63, 64 ^ Wallace-Hadrill, Andrew (1984) Suetonius: The Scholar and His Caesars, Yale University Press, ISBN 0-300-03000-2 ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
41 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
VI.46 ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History LVII.23 ^ a b c Tacitus, Annals
Annals
VI.50, VI.51 ^ Karen Cokayne, Experiencing Old Age In Ancient Rome, p.100 ^ Flavius Josephus, Steve Mason, Translation and Commentary. Vol. 1B. Judean War 2, p.153 ^ Tacitus, Annales, vi. 50. ^ Suetonius, "The Life of Tiberius", 73. ^ Cassius Dio, Roman History, lviii. 28. ^ Death of Tiberius: Tacitus
Tacitus
Annals
Annals
6.50; Dio 58.28.1–4; Suetonius Tiberius
Tiberius
73, Gaius 12.2–3; Josephus AJ 18.225. Posthumous insults: Suetonius
Suetonius
Tiberius
Tiberius
75. ^ Platner, Samuel Ball; Ashby, Thomas (1929). "Mausoleum Augusti". A Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. London: Oxford University Press. pp. 332–336. Retrieved 30 June 2011.  ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
76 ^ a b c Cassius Dio, Roman History LIX.1 ^ Caligula
Caligula
would kill Tiberius Gemellus
Tiberius Gemellus
and Antonia Minor
Antonia Minor
before being killed by his own personal guard. Tiberius' nephew Claudius
Claudius
succeeded Caligula
Caligula
and executed Caligula's sister Julia Livilla
Livilla
and in turn would be murdered by Livilla's sister Agrippina the Younger
Agrippina the Younger
after they married and her son was of an age to become emperor. Agrippina would be executed by her son Nero, who would later commit suicide in 68 AD with no heirs to succeed him. Only Caligula's sister Julia Drusilla died of natural causes. ^ a b c Tacitus, Annals
Annals
IV.6 ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
37 ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
61 ^ Tacitus, Annals, I.6 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
I.72, I.74, II.27–32, III.49–51, III.66–69 ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
26–32 ^ Velleius Paterculus, Roman History, II.103–105, II.129–130 ^ Velleius Paterculus, Roman History II.127–128 ^ Syme, Ronald (1956). "Seianus on the Aventine". Hermes. Franz Steiner Verlag. 84 (3): 257–266. JSTOR 4474933.  ^ Luke 3:1 ^ Matthew 22:19 ^ Mark 12:15 ^ Sir William Smith
Sir William Smith
(1896). The Old Testament History: From The Creation To The Return Of The Jews From Captivity (page 704). Kessinger Publishing, LLC (22 May 2010). ISBN 1-162-09864-3.  ^ The Numismatist, Volume 29 (page 536). American Numismatic Association (3 April 2010). 2010. ISBN 978-1-148-52633-1.  ^ Hobson, Burton (1972). Coins and coin collecting (page 28). Dover Publications (April 1972). ISBN 0-486-22763-4.  ^ a b c d e f Jossa, Giorgio (2006). Jews or Christians. pp. 123–126. ISBN 3-16-149192-0.  ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
IV.45, III.72 ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius
Tiberius
47 ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Caligula
Caligula
21 ^ Tacitus, Annals
Annals
IV.37–38, IV.55–56 ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews XVIII.2.3 ^ "I, Claudius: From the Autobiography of Tiberius
Tiberius
Claudius
Claudius
– Robert Graves". Booktalk.org. Archived from the original on 18 June 2008. Retrieved 2008-09-20.  ^ " BBC
BBC
Four Drama – I, Claudius". BBC. Retrieved 2008-09-20.  ^ "Not a Blog: It's the Pits". 2013-01-21. Retrieved 2016-12-27.  ^ "Emperor Tiberius
Tiberius
Caesar (Character)". Imdb.com. Retrieved 2008-09-20.  ^ born Appius Claudius
Claudius
Pulcher

Bibliography[edit] Primary sources[edit]

Cassius Dio, Roman History Books 57–58, English translation Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews, Book 18, especially ch.6, English translation Suetonius, Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius, Latin text with English translation Tacitus, Annals, I–VI, English translation Velleius Paterculus, Roman History Book II, Latin text with English translation

Secondary material[edit]

Ehrenberg, V.; Jones, A.H.M. (1955). Documents Illustrating the Reigns of Augustus
Augustus
and Tiberius. Oxford.  Capes, William Wolfe, Roman History, Longmans, Green, and Co., 1897 Levick, Barbara (1999). Tiberius
Tiberius
the Politician. Routledge. ISBN 0-415-21753-9.  Mason, Ernst (1960). Tiberius. New York: Ballantine Books.  (Ernst Mason was a pseudonym of science fiction author Frederik Pohl) Seager, Robin (1972). Tiberius. London: Eyre Methuen. ISBN 978-0-413-27600-1.  Seager, Robin (2005). Tiberius. Blackwell Publishing. ISBN 1-4051-1529-7.  Shotter, David (1992). Tiberius
Tiberius
Caesar. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-07654-4.  Salmon, Edward (1968). History of the Roman World, 30 B.C.-A.D.138, Part II: Tiberius. Methuen. ISBN 978-0-416-10710-4.  Southern, Pat (1998). Augustus. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16631-4.  Syme, Ronald (1986). The Augustan Aristocracy. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 978-0-19-814859-3. 

External links[edit]

Wikiquote has quotations related to: Tiberius

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Tiberius.

" Tiberius
Tiberius
(42 BC – 37 AD)" at the BBC

Tiberius Julio-Claudian dynasty Born: 16 November 42 BC Died: 16 March 37 AD

Roman Emperors

Preceded by Marcus Claudius
Claudius
Marcellus Caesar of the Roman Empire 6 BC – 1 AD Succeeded by Gaius Caesar

Preceded by Gaius Caesar Caesar of the Roman Empire 4 AD – 14 AD Succeeded by Germanicus

Preceded by Augustus Roman Emperor 14 AD – 37 AD Succeeded by Caligula

Political offices

Preceded by Marcus Licinius Crassus
Marcus Licinius Crassus
Dives Gnaeus Cornelius Lentulus Augur Consul
Consul
of the Roman Empire 13 BC With: Publius Quinctilius Varus Succeeded by Marcus Valerius Messalla Appianus Quirinius

Preceded by Gaius Marcius Censorinus Gaius Asinius Gallus Consul
Consul
of the Roman Empire 7 BC With: Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso Succeeded by Decius
Decius
Laelius Balbus Gaius Antistius Vetus

Preceded by Lucius Pomponius Flaccus Gaius Caelius Rufus Consul
Consul
of the Roman Empire 18 AD With: Germanicus Succeeded by Lucius Seius Tubero Livineius Regulus

Preceded by Marcus Valerius Messalla Barbatus Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
Cotta Maximus Messalinus Consul
Consul
of the Roman Empire 21 AD With: Drusus Julius Caesar Succeeded by Decimus Haterius Agrippa Gaius Sulpicius Galba

Preceded by Marcus Vinicius Lucius Cassius Longinus Consul
Consul
of the Roman Empire 31 AD With: Sejanus Succeeded by Gnaeus Domitius Ahenobarbus Lucius Arruntius Camillus Scribonianus

Military offices

Preceded by Commanding General in Armenia 20 BC – 17 BC Succeeded by

Preceded by Commanding General in Rhaetia 15 BC – 13 BC Succeeded by

Preceded by Commanding General in Germania 12 BC – 7 BC Succeeded by

Preceded by Commanding General in Germania 4 AD – 6 AD Succeeded by

Preceded by Commanding General in Pannonia 6 AD – 9 AD Succeeded by

Preceded by Commanding General in Germania 10 AD – 12 AD Succeeded by

Family information

Preceded by Augustus Head of the Julio-Claudian Dynasty 14 AD – 37 AD Succeeded by Caligula

v t e

Roman and Byzantine emperors

Principate 27 BC – 235 AD

Augustus Tiberius Caligula Claudius Nero Galba Otho Vitellius Vespasian Titus Domitian Nerva Trajan Hadrian Antoninus Pius Marcus Aurelius
Marcus Aurelius
and Lucius Verus Commodus Pertinax Didius Julianus (Pescennius Niger) (Clodius Albinus) Septimius Severus Caracalla
Caracalla
with Geta Macrinus
Macrinus
with Diadumenian Elagabalus Severus Alexander

Crisis 235–284

Maximinus Thrax Gordian I
Gordian I
and Gordian II Pupienus
Pupienus
and Balbinus Gordian III Philip the Arab
Philip the Arab
with Philip II Decius
Decius
with Herennius Etruscus Hostilian Trebonianus Gallus
Trebonianus Gallus
with Volusianus Aemilianus Valerian Gallienus
Gallienus
with Saloninus and Valerian II Claudius
Claudius
Gothicus Quintillus Aurelian Tacitus Florian Probus Carus Carinus
Carinus
and Numerian

Gallic Emperors: Postumus (Laelianus) Marius Victorinus (Domitianus II) Tetricus I
Tetricus I
with Tetricus II
Tetricus II
as Caesar

Dominate 284–395

Diocletian
Diocletian
(whole empire) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) Diocletian
Diocletian
(East) and Maximian
Maximian
(West) with Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Constantius Chlorus
Constantius Chlorus
(West) with Severus (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Severus (West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Maxentius
Maxentius
(West) with Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Galerius
Galerius
(East) and Licinius
Licinius
I (West) with Constantine the Great (West) and Maximinus II (East) as Caesares Maxentius
Maxentius
(alone) Licinius
Licinius
I (West) and Maximinus II (East) with Constantine the Great (Self-proclaimed Augustus) and Valerius Valens Licinius
Licinius
I (East) and Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(West) with Licinius
Licinius
II, Constantine II, and Crispus
Crispus
as Caesares (Martinian) Constantine the Great
Constantine the Great
(whole empire) with son Crispus
Crispus
as Caesar Constantine II Constans
Constans
I Magnentius
Magnentius
with Decentius as Caesar Constantius II
Constantius II
with Vetranio Julian Jovian Valentinian the Great Valens Gratian Valentinian II Magnus Maximus
Magnus Maximus
with Victor Theodosius the Great (Eugenius)

Western Empire 395–480

Honorius Constantine III with son Constans
Constans
II) Constantius III Joannes Valentinian III Petronius Maximus
Petronius Maximus
with Palladius Avitus Majorian Libius Severus Anthemius Olybrius Glycerius Julius Nepos Romulus Augustulus

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 395–1204

Arcadius Theodosius II Pulcheria Marcian Leo I the Thracian Leo II Zeno (first reign) Basiliscus
Basiliscus
with son Marcus as co-emperor Zeno (second reign) Anastasius I Dicorus Justin I Justinian the Great Justin II Tiberius
Tiberius
II Constantine Maurice with son Theodosius as co-emperor Phocas Heraclius Constantine III Heraklonas Constans
Constans
II Constantine IV
Constantine IV
with brothers Heraclius
Heraclius
and Tiberius
Tiberius
and then Justinian II as co-emperors Justinian II
Justinian II
(first reign) Leontios Tiberios III Justinian II
Justinian II
(second reign) with son Tiberius
Tiberius
as co-emperor Philippikos Anastasios II Theodosius III Leo III the Isaurian Constantine V Artabasdos Leo IV the Khazar Constantine VI Irene Nikephoros I Staurakios Michael I Rangabe
Michael I Rangabe
with son Theophylact as co-emperor Leo V the Armenian
Leo V the Armenian
with Symbatios-Constantine as junior emperor Michael II
Michael II
the Amorian Theophilos Michael III Basil I
Basil I
the Macedonian Leo VI the Wise Alexander Constantine VII
Constantine VII
Porphyrogennetos Romanos I Lekapenos
Romanos I Lekapenos
with sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as junior co-emperors Romanos II Nikephoros II Phokas John I Tzimiskes Basil II Constantine VIII Zoë (first reign) and Romanos III Argyros Zoë (first reign) and Michael IV the Paphlagonian Michael V Kalaphates Zoë (second reign) with Theodora Zoë (second reign) and Constantine IX Monomachos Constantine IX Monomachos
Constantine IX Monomachos
(sole emperor) Theodora Michael VI Bringas Isaac I Komnenos Constantine X Doukas Romanos IV Diogenes Michael VII Doukas
Michael VII Doukas
with brothers Andronikos and Konstantios and son Constantine Nikephoros III Botaneiates Alexios I Komnenos John II Komnenos
John II Komnenos
with Alexios Komnenos as co-emperor Manuel I Komnenos Alexios II Komnenos Andronikos I Komnenos Isaac II Angelos Alexios III Angelos Alexios IV Angelos Nicholas Kanabos (chosen by the Senate) Alexios V Doukas

Empire of Nicaea 1204–1261

Constantine Laskaris Theodore I Laskaris John III Doukas Vatatzes Theodore II Laskaris John IV Laskaris

Eastern/ Byzantine Empire 1261–1453

Michael VIII Palaiologos Andronikos II Palaiologos
Andronikos II Palaiologos
with Michael IX Palaiologos
Michael IX Palaiologos
as co-emperor Andronikos III Palaiologos John V Palaiologos John VI Kantakouzenos
John VI Kantakouzenos
with John V Palaiologos
John V Palaiologos
and Matthew Kantakouzenos as co-emperors John V Palaiologos Andronikos IV Palaiologos John VII Palaiologos Andronikos V Palaiologos Manuel II Palaiologos John VIII Palaiologos Constantine XI Palaiologos

Italics indicates a co-emperor, while underlining indicates an usurper.

v t e

New Testament people

Jesus
Jesus
Christ

In Christianity Historical Life in the New Testament

Gospels

Individuals

Alphaeus Anna the Prophetess Annas Barabbas Bartimaeus Blind man (Bethsaida) Caiaphas Man born blind ("Celidonius") Cleopas Clopas Devil Penitent thief
Penitent thief
("Dismas") Elizabeth Gabriel Impenitent thief
Impenitent thief
("Gestas") Jairus' daughter Joanna John the Baptist Joseph Joseph of Arimathea Joses Jude Lazarus Legion Luke Lysanias Malchus Martha Mary, mother of Jesus Mary Magdalene Mary, mother of James Mary of Bethany Mary of Clopas Naked fugitive Son of Nain's widow Nathanael Nicodemus ( Nicodemus
Nicodemus
ben Gurion) Salome Samaritan woman Satan Simeon Simon, brother of Jesus Simon of Cyrene Simon the Leper Simon the Pharisee Susanna Syrophoenician woman Theophilus Zacchaeus Zebedee Zechariah

Groups

Angels Jesus's brothers Demons Disciples Evangelists Female disciples of Jesus God-fearers Herodians Magi Myrrhbearers Nameless Pharisees Proselytes Sadducees Samaritans Sanhedrin Scribes Seventy disciples Shepherds Zealots

Apostles

Andrew Bartholomew James of Alphaeus (James the Less) James of Zebedee John

Evangelist Patmos "Disciple whom Jesus
Jesus
loved"

Judas Iscariot Jude Thaddeus Matthew Philip Simon Peter Simon the Zealot Thomas

Acts

Aeneas Agabus Ananias (Damascus) Ananias (Judaea) Ananias son of Nedebeus Apollos Aquila Aristarchus Barnabas Blastus Cornelius Demetrius Dionysius Dorcas Elymas Egyptian Ethiopian eunuch Eutychus Gamaliel James, brother of Jesus Jason Joseph Barsabbas Judas Barsabbas Judas of Galilee Lucius Luke Lydia Manaen (John) Mark

Evangelist cousin of Barnabas

Mary, mother of (John) Mark Matthias Mnason Nicanor Nicholas Parmenas Paul Philip Priscilla Prochorus Publius Rhoda Sapphira Sceva Seven Deacons Silas / Silvanus Simeon Niger Simon Magus Sopater Sosthenes Stephen Theudas Timothy Titus Trophimus Tychicus Zenas

Romans Herod's family

Gospels

Antipas Archelaus Herod the Great Herodias Longinus Philip Pilate Pilate's wife Quirinius Salome Tiberius

Acts

Agrippa Agrippa II Berenice Cornelius Drusilla Felix Festus Gallio Lysias Paullus

Epistles

Achaicus Alexander Andronicus Archippus Aretas IV Carpus Claudia Crescens Demas Diotrephes Epaphras Epaphroditus Erastus Eunice Euodia and Syntyche Herodion Hymenaeus Jesus
Jesus
Justus John the Presbyter Junia Lois Mary Michael Nymphas Olympas Onesimus Onesiphorus Pudens Philemon Philetus Phoebe Quartus Sosipater Tertius

Revelation

Antipas Four Horsemen Apollyon Two witnesses Woman Beast Three Angels Whore of Babylon

v t e

Ancient Olympic Games

Sports

Foot races

Diaulos Dolichos Hoplitodromos Stadion

Horse races

Apene Chariot of polos Decapolon Kalpe Keles Perfect chariot Polos Synoris Synoris
Synoris
of polos Tethrippon Tethrippon
Tethrippon
of polos

Combat

Boxing Pankration Wrestling

Special

Herald and Trumpet contest Pentathlon

Winners

Acanthus of Sparta Agasias of Arcadia Agesarchus of Tritaea Alcibiades
Alcibiades
of Athens Alexander I of Macedon Anaxilas
Anaxilas
of Messenia Aratus of Sicyon Archelaus I of Macedon Arrhichion
Arrhichion
of Phigalia Arsinoe II Astylos of Croton Berenice I of Egypt Bilistiche Chaeron of Pellene Chilon of Patras Chionis of Sparta Cimon Coalemos Coroebus of Elis Cylon of Athens Cynisca
Cynisca
of Sparta Damarchus Demaratus
Demaratus
of Sparta Desmon of Corinth Diagoras of Rhodes Diocles of Corinth Ergoteles of Himera Euryleonis Herodorus of Megara Hiero I of Syracuse Hypenus of Elis Hysmon
Hysmon
of Elis Iccus of Taranto Leonidas of Rhodes Leophron Milo of Croton Nero
Nero
Caesar Augustus Oebotas of Dyme Onomastus of Smyrna Orsippus
Orsippus
of Megara Peisistratos
Peisistratos
of Athens Phanas of Pellene Philinus of Cos Philip II of Macedon Philippus of Croton Phrynon
Phrynon
of Athens Polydamas of Skotoussa Pythagoras of Laconia Pythagoras of Samos Sostratus of Pellene Theagenes of Thasos Theron of Acragas Tiberius
Tiberius
Caesar Augustus Timasitheus of Delphi Troilus of Elis Varazdat
Varazdat
of Armenia Xenophon of Aegium Xenophon of Corinth

Lists of winners

Ancient Olympic victors Stadion race Archaic period Classical period Hellenistic period Roman period

Olympia Archaeological Museum of Olympia Statue of Zeus at Olympia Temple of Zeus at Olympia Modern Olympic Games Ancient Greek Olympic festivals

v t e

Capri

History

History of Capri

Geography

Anacapri Arco Naturale Blue Grotto Capri
Capri
(municipality) Faraglioni Grotta Bianca Grotta del Castiglione Grotta dell'Arco Grotta dell'Arsenale Grotta delle Felci Grotta di Matromania Grotta del Pisco Grotta Verde Gulf of Naples Marina Grande Marina Piccola Monte Solaro Tyrrhenian Sea

Culture

Contempt (Le Mépris) South Wind The Story of San Michele Entdeckung der blauen Grotte auf der Insel Capri

Archaeological sites

Castello Barbarossa Cloaca Palazzo a Mare Villa Jovis

Notable landmarks

Certosa di San Giacomo Capri
Capri
Philosophical Park Cemetery Piazza Umberto I Gardens of Augustus Phoenician Steps Punta Carena Lighthouse Torre Materita Grand Hotel Quisisana JK Place Capri Ospedale G. Capilupi Capri Via Krupp

Churches

Chiesa di San Michele Arcangelo Chiesa di San Michele alla Croce Chiesa di Sant'Andrea Chiesa di Sant'Anna Chiesa di Sant'Antonio Chiesa di Santa Maria a Cetrella Chiesa di Santa Maria di Costantinopoli Chiesa di Santa Maria del Soccorso Chiesa di Santa Sofia Chiesa di Santo Stefano Chiesa di San Costanzo Chiesa del Santissimo Salvatore Eremo di Santa Maria a Cetrella

Villas

Villa Certosella Villa Lysis Villa Malaparte Villa Monacone Villa San Michele Villa Solitaria

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 89600176 LCCN: n50049381 ISNI: 0000 0001 0923 3028 GND: 118622501 SELIBR: 234197 SUDOC: 028715195 BNF: cb120494832 (data) BIBSYS: 90892174 ULAN: 500115693 HDS: 10315 NKC: jn20000701

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