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Bill Clinton
Bill Clinton
and Tony Blair, early adherents of the "Third Way"

Manuel Valls
Manuel Valls
and Matteo Renzi, contemporary political leaders considered to follow the "Third Way"

In politics, the Third Way
Third Way
is a position akin to centrism that tries to reconcile right-wing and left-wing politics by advocating a varying synthesis of centre-right economics and centre-left social policies.[1][2] The Third Way
Third Way
was created as a serious re-evaluation of political policies within various centre-left progressive movements in response to international doubt regarding the economic viability of the state; economic interventionist policies that had previously been popularized by Keynesianism
Keynesianism
and contrasted with the corresponding rise of popularity for economic liberalism and the New Right.[3] The Third Way is promoted by some social democratic and social liberal movements.[4] Major Third Way
Third Way
social democratic proponent Tony Blair
Tony Blair
claimed that the socialism he advocated was different from traditional conceptions of socialism and said: "My kind of socialism is a set of values based around notions of social justice ... Socialism
Socialism
as a rigid form of economic determinism has ended, and rightly".[5] Blair referred to it as "social-ism" that involves politics that recognized individuals as socially interdependent and advocated social justice, social cohesion, equal worth of each citizen and equal opportunity.[6] Third Way
Third Way
social democratic theorist Anthony Giddens
Anthony Giddens
has said that the Third Way rejects the traditional conception of socialism and instead accepts the conception of socialism as conceived of by Anthony Crosland
Anthony Crosland
as an ethical doctrine that views social democratic governments as having achieved a viable ethical socialism by removing the unjust elements of capitalism by providing social welfare and other policies and that contemporary socialism has outgrown the Marxian claim for the need of the abolition of capitalism.[7] In 2009, Blair publicly declared support for a "new capitalism".[8] It supports the pursuit of greater egalitarianism in society through action to increase the distribution of skills, capacities and productive endowments while rejecting income redistribution as the means to achieve this.[9] It emphasizes commitment to balanced budgets, providing equal opportunity combined with an emphasis on personal responsibility, decentralization of government power to the lowest level possible, encouragement of public–private partnerships, improving labour supply, investment in human development, protection of social capital and protection of the environment.[10] The Third Way
Third Way
has been criticized[11] by some conservatives and libertarians who advocate laissez-faire capitalism.[12] It has also been heavily criticized by many social democrats, democratic socialists, anarchists and communists in particular as a betrayal of left-wing values.[13][14][15] Specific definitions of Third Way policies may differ between Europe and America.

Contents

1 Origins 2 Modern usage

2.1 Usage by social democrats

3 Examples

3.1 Australia 3.2 Italy 3.3 United Kingdom 3.4 United States 3.5 Other countries

4 Criticisms

4.1 Third Way
Third Way
and social capital

5 Weakening of Third Way 6 See also 7 References 8 Bibliography 9 External links

Origins[edit] The term "Third Way" has been used to explain a variety of political courses and ideologies in the last few centuries. These ideas were implemented by progressives in the early 20th century. The term was picked up again in the 1950s by German ordoliberal economists such as Wilhelm Röpke, resulting in the development of the concept of the social market economy. Later Röpke distanced himself from the term and located the social market economy as "first way" in the sense of an advancement of the free market economy.[16] Subsequently, Enrico Berlinguer, General Secretary of the Italian Communist Party in the 1970s and 1980s, used the term "Third Way" to advocate a vision of a socialist society which was more pluralist than the "real socialism" typically advocated by official communist parties, whilst being more economically egalitarian than social democracy. This was part of the wider trend of Eurocommunism
Eurocommunism
in the official communist movement and provided a theoretical basis for Berlinguer's pursuit of a Historic Compromise
Historic Compromise
with the Italian Christian Democrats.[17] Most significantly, Harold Macmillan, British Prime Minister from 1957 to 1963, based his philosophy of government on what he summarized in a book, The Middle Way (1938). Modern usage[edit] The Third Way
Third Way
has been defined as:

[S]omething different and distinct from liberal capitalism with its unswerving belief in the merits of the free market and democratic socialism with its demand management and obsession with the state. The Third Way
Third Way
is in favour of growth, entrepreneurship, enterprise and wealth creation but it is also in favour of greater social justice and it sees the state playing a major role in bringing this about. So in the words of... Anthony Giddens
Anthony Giddens
of the LSE the Third Way
Third Way
rejects top down socialism as it rejects traditional neo liberalism. — Report from the BBC, 1999, [18]

Usage by social democrats[edit]

Social democracy

Development

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Orthodox Revisionist

Ethical socialism Democratic socialism Liberal socialism Market socialism Progressivism Reformism Gradualism Frankfurt Declaration Keynesianism Welfare
Welfare
capitalism Third Way

Ideas

Social justice Democracy

economic representative

Labor rights Mixed economy Welfare Trade unionism Fair trade Environmental protection Negative and positive rights Secularism Social corporatism Social market economy

Variants

Bernsteinism Liberal socialism Nordic model Godesberg Third Way

People

Attlee Awolowo Ben-Gurion Bernstein Betancourt Bhutto Blair Blanc Brandt Branting Corbyn Craxi Crosland Curtin Daszyński Debs Douglas Ecevit González Goulart Hilferding Jaurès Junmai Katayama Kennedy Kerensky Kéthly Lagos Lassalle Layton Lévesque Luxemburg MacDonald Mandela Morales Nehru Batlle y Ordóñez Palme Plekhanov Prodi Sanders Savage Stauning Thomas

Organizations

Social democratic
Social democratic
parties Socialist International International Union of Socialist Youth Party of European Socialists Progressive Alliance Young European Socialists International Trade Union Confederation

Socialism
Socialism
portal Economics portal Politics portal

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A variant of the Third Way
Third Way
exists which approaches the centre from a social democratic perspective. It has been advocated by its proponents as an alternative to both capitalism and what it regards as the traditional forms of socialism, including Marxist socialism and state socialism, that Third Way
Third Way
social democrats reject.[19] It advocates ethical socialism, reformism and gradualism that includes advocating the humanization of capitalism, a mixed economy, political pluralism and liberal democracy.[19] It has been advocated by proponents as a "competition socialism", an ideology in between traditional socialism and capitalism.[20] A chief social democratic proponent of Third Way, Anthony Giddens, has publicly supported a modernized form of socialism within the social democracy movement, but claims that "traditional socialist" ideology (referring to state socialism) that involves economic management and planning are flawed and states as a theory of the managed economy that socialism barely exists any longer.[21] In defining the Third Way, Tony Blair
Tony Blair
once wrote: "The Third Way stands for a modernized social democracy, passionate in its commitment to social justice".[22] Examples[edit] Australia[edit] Under the nominally centre-left Australian Labor Party
Australian Labor Party
(ALP) from 1983 to 1996, the Bob Hawke
Bob Hawke
and Paul Keating
Paul Keating
governments pursued many economic policies associated with economic rationalism, such as floating the Australian Dollar
Australian Dollar
in 1983, reductions in trade tariffs, taxation reforms, changing from centralized wage-fixing to enterprise bargaining, heavy restrictions on union activities including on strike action and pattern bargaining, the privatization of government run services and enterprises such as Qantas
Qantas
and the Commonwealth Bank
Commonwealth Bank
and wholesale deregulation of the banking system. Keating also proposed a Goods and Services Tax (GST) in 1985, but this was scrapped due to its unpopularity amongst both Labor and electorate. The party also desisted from other reforms, such as wholesale labour market deregulation (e.g. WorkChoices), the eventual GST, the privatization of Telstra
Telstra
and welfare reform including "work for the dole", which John Howard
John Howard
and the Liberal Party of Australia
Liberal Party of Australia
were to initiate after winning office in 1996. Various ideological beliefs were factionalized under reforms to the ALP under Gough Whitlam, resulting in what is now known as the Labor Left, who tend to favour a more interventionist economic policy, more authoritative top-down controls and some socially progressive ideals; and Labor Right, the now dominant faction that is pro-business, more economically liberal and focuses to a lesser extent on social issues. The Whitlam government was first to use the term economic rationalism.[23] The Gough Whitlam
Gough Whitlam
Labor government from 1972 to 1975 changed from a democratic socialism platform to social democracy, their precursor to the party's "Third Way" policies. Under the Whitlam government, tariffs across the board were cut by 25 percent after 23 years of Labor being in opposition.[24] Former Labor Prime Minister Kevin Rudd's first speech to parliament in 1998 stated:

Competitive markets are massive and generally efficient generators of economic wealth. They must therefore have a central place in the management of the economy. But markets sometimes fail, requiring direct government intervention through instruments such as industry policy. There are also areas where the public good dictates that there should be no market at all. We are not afraid of a vision in the Labor Party, but nor are we afraid of doing the hard policy yards necessary to turn that vision into reality. Parties of the Centre Left around the world are wrestling with a similar challenge—the creation of a competitive economy while advancing the overriding imperative of a just society. Some call this the "third way". The nomenclature is unimportant. What is important is that it is a repudiation of Thatcherism and its Australian derivatives represented opposite. It is in fact a new formulation of the nation's economic and social imperatives.[25]

Rudd was critical of free market economists such as Friedrich Hayek,[26] although Rudd described himself as "basically a conservative when it comes to questions of public financial management", pointing to his slashing of public service jobs as a Queensland governmental advisor.[27] Italy[edit]

The former Italian Prime Minister Matteo Renzi
Matteo Renzi
is considered a Third Way politician

The Italian Democratic Party is a plural social democratic party including several distinct ideologic trends. Politicians such as former Prime Ministers Matteo Renzi
Matteo Renzi
and Romano Prodi
Romano Prodi
are Third Way-ers.[28] Under Renzi's secretariat, the Democratic Party took a strong stance in favour of constitutional reform and of a new electoral law, on the road toward a two-party system. It is not an easy task to find the exact political trend represented by Renzi and his supporters, who have been known as Renziani. The nature of Renzi's progressivism is a matter of debate and has been linked both to liberalism and populism.[29][29][30] According to Maria Teresa Meli of Corriere della Sera, Renzi "pursues a precise model, borrowed from the Labour Party and Bill Clinton's Democratic Party", comprising "a strange mix (for Italy) of liberal policy in the economic sphere and populism. This means that on one side he will attack the privileges of trade unions, especially of the CGIL, which defends only the already protected, while on the other he will sharply attack the vested powers, bankers, Confindustria
Confindustria
and a certain type of capitalism".[31] Renzi has occasionally been compared to former British Prime Minister Tony Blair
Tony Blair
for his political views.[32] Renzi himself has previously claimed to be as supporter of Blair's ideology of the Third Way, regarding an objective to synthesize liberal economics and left-wing social policies.[33][34] United Kingdom[edit] See also: New Labour In 1938, Harold Macmillan
Harold Macmillan
wrote a book entitled The Middle Way, advocating a compromise between capitalism and socialism, which was a precursor to the contemporary notion of the Third Way.[35] Former Prime Minister Tony Blair
Tony Blair
is cited as a Third Way politician.[36][37] According to a former member of Blair's staff, Labour and Blair learnt from and owes a debt to Bob Hawke's government in Australia in the 1980s on how to govern as a "third way" party.[38] Blair wrote in a Fabian pamphlet in 1994 of the existence of two prominent variants of socialism: one is based on a Marxist economic determinist and collectivist tradition and the other is an "ethical socialism" based on values of "social justice, the equal worth of each citizen, equality of opportunity, community".[39] Blair is a particular follower of the ideas of Giddens,[37] as was his successor Gordon Brown. In 1998, Blair, then Labour leader and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, described the relation between social democracy and Third Way as the following:

The Third Way
Third Way
stands for a modernised social democracy, passionate in its commitment to social justice and the goals of the centre-left. … But it is a third way because it moves decisively beyond an Old Left preoccupied by state control, high taxation and producer interests; and a New Right treating public investment, and often the very notions of "society" and collective endeavour, as evils to be undone.[40]

United States[edit] See also: New Democrats, Third Way
Third Way
(think tank), Rockefeller Republican, and New Deal

Two Third Way
Third Way
proponents: Professor Anthony Giddens
Anthony Giddens
and former U.S. President Bill Clinton

In the United States, "Third Way" adherents embrace fiscal conservatism to a greater extent than traditional economic liberals, advocate some replacement of welfare with workfare and sometimes have a stronger preference for market solutions to traditional problems (as in pollution markets) while rejecting pure laissez-faire economics and other libertarian positions. The Third Way
Third Way
style of governing was firmly adopted and partly redefined during the administration of President Bill Clinton.[41] The term "Third Way" was introduced by political scientist Stephen Skowronek.[42][43][44] "Third Way" presidents "undermine the opposition by borrowing policies from it in an effort to seize the middle and with it to achieve political dominance". Examples of this are Nixon’s economic policies, which were a continuation of Johnson's "Great Society", as well as Clinton’s welfare reform later.[45] Clinton, Blair, Prodi, Gerhard Schröder
Gerhard Schröder
and other leading Third Way adherents organized conferences to promote the Third Way
Third Way
philosophy in 1997 at Chequers
Chequers
in England.[46][47] The Third Way
Third Way
think tank and the Democratic Leadership Council
Democratic Leadership Council
are adherents of Third Way
Third Way
politics.[48] Other countries[edit]

Wim Kok
Wim Kok
led two Purple "Third Way" Coalitions as Prime Minister of the Netherlands
Netherlands
from 1994 until 2002

Other leaders who have adopted elements of the Third Way
Third Way
style of governance include Gerhard Schröder
Gerhard Schröder
of Germany, Wim Kok
Wim Kok
of the Netherlands,[49] António Guterres
António Guterres
and José Sócrates
José Sócrates
of Portugal,[50][51] Ehud Barak
Ehud Barak
of Israel,[52][53] David Lange, Roger Douglas and Helen Clark
Helen Clark
in New Zealand,[54][55] François Hollande, Dominique Strauss-Kahn, Manuel Valls
Manuel Valls
and Emmanuel Macron
Emmanuel Macron
in France,[56][57][58][59] Costas Simitis
Costas Simitis
in Greece,[60] Viktor Klima
Viktor Klima
and Alfred Gusenbauer
Alfred Gusenbauer
in Austria,[61] Ingvar Carlsson
Ingvar Carlsson
and Göran Persson in Sweden,[62][63] Paavo Lipponen
Paavo Lipponen
in Finland,[63] Helle Thorning-Schmidt in Denmark,[64] Kim Dae-jung
Kim Dae-jung
and Roh Moo-hyun
Roh Moo-hyun
in South Korea,[65] Jean Chrétien
Jean Chrétien
and Paul Martin
Paul Martin
in Canada,[66] Ferenc Gyurcsány in Hungary,[67] Victor Ponta
Victor Ponta
in Romania,[68] Leszek Miller and Marek Belka
Marek Belka
in Poland,[69] Fernando Henrique Cardoso
Fernando Henrique Cardoso
in Brazil,[70] Alan Garcia
Alan Garcia
and Alejandro Toledo
Alejandro Toledo
in Peru,[71] Thabo Mbeki in South Africa[72] and Muammar Gaddafi
Muammar Gaddafi
of Jamahiriya-era Libya.[73][74] Criticisms[edit] In 1990, after the dismantling of his country's communist government Czechoslovakia's conservative finance minister Václav Klaus
Václav Klaus
declared: "We want a market economy without any adjectives. Any compromises with that will only fuzzy up the problems we have. To pursue a so-called 'third way' is foolish. We had our experience with this in the 1960s when we looked for a socialism with a human face. It did not work, and we must be explicit that we are not aiming for a more efficient version of a system that has failed. The market is indivisible; it cannot be an instrument in the hands of central planners".[75] However, it should be noted that in historical context the "third way" proposals of 1960s Czechoslovakia were better described as "liberalized centrally-planned socialism" rather than the "socially-sensitive capitalism" that Third Way
Third Way
policies tend to have been identified with in the West. Left-wing
Left-wing
opponents of the Third Way
Third Way
argue that it represents social democrats who responded to the New Right by accepting capitalism. The Third Way
Third Way
most commonly uses market mechanics and private ownership of the means of production and in that sense it is fundamentally capitalistic.[76] In addition to opponents who have noticed this, other reviews have claimed that Third Way
Third Way
social democrats adjusted to the political climate since the 1980s that favoured capitalism by recognizing that outspoken opposition to capitalism in these circumstances was politically nonviable and that accepting capitalism as the current powers that be and seeking to administer it to challenge laissez-faire capitalists was a more pressing immediate concern.[77] Charles Clarke, a former United Kingdom Home Secretary
Home Secretary
and the first senior "Blairite" to attack Prime Minister Gordon Brown
Gordon Brown
openly and in print, stated: "We should discard the techniques of 'triangulation' and 'dividing lines' with the Conservatives, which lead to the not entirely unjustified charge that we simply follow proposals from the Conservatives or the right-wing media, to minimize differences and remove lines of attack against us".[78] In 2013, American lawyer and former bank regulator William K. Black wrote that " Third Way
Third Way
is this group that pretends sometimes to be center-left but is actually completely a creation of Wall Street—it's run by Wall Street for Wall Street with this false flag operation as if it were a center-left group. It's nothing of the sort".[13][14][15] Third Way
Third Way
and social capital[edit] The shift towards a political discourse heavily influenced by social capital is observable comparing the 1979 and 1997 Labour Party manifestos (Ferragina and Arrigoni 2016).[79] In 1979, the Labour Party professed a complete adherence to social democratic ideals and rejected the choice between a "prosperous and efficient Britain" and a "caring and compassionate Britain" (Labour Party, 1979: 23). Coherent with this position, the main commitment of the party was the reduction of economic inequality via the introduction of a wealth tax (Labour Party, 1979: 1). In the 1990s, this agenda drastically changed with the progressive dismissal of traditional social democratic ideology. In particular, New Labour
New Labour
de-emphasized the need to tackle economic inequality and instead focused its political strategy on the expansion of opportunities for all, keeping public intervention in the market to a minimum. In this context, the aim to foster social capital creation by holding together the modernization of the state and the creation of stronger social ties became the flagship of New Labour
New Labour
(Ferragina and Arrigoni 2016:5).[79] This change of political orientation was based on a profound revision of social democratic principles. These principles were considered by New Labour
New Labour
to be an obstacle to the activation of evidence-based policy-making. In this context, the prevention of market failures, which is targeting child poverty and educational disadvantage, was preferred over the redistributive approach endorsed by the Labour Party during the 1970s. The new vision implied the full acceptance of market principles and pushed traditional social democratic values even further away. This ideological shift took place despite the fact that the period between 1979 and 1995 was characterized by the sharpest increase in economic inequality since World War II (Ferragina and Arrigoni 2016: 5).[79] The importance attributed to the creation of social capital is symptomatic of New Labour's interest in civil society. This interest can be explained by the effect of growing individual freedom, fostered by economic and technological modernization, in a context where traditional forms of solidarity and interdependence are needed to prevent social disintegration; a "social paradox" already identified by the founding fathers of sociology. For this reason, New Labour considered the creation of social capital as a good antidote to the tension between traditional and modern values. Tony Blair
Tony Blair
proposed to manage social change by unifying moral values, represented by the Tocquevillian quest for community and scientific evidence, used to inform evidence-based policy-making. According to Blair, the fusion of these two elements in the Third Way
Third Way
was the only remedy for the social paradox illustrated above. One could say, as Durkheim, that during an age of modernization and transformation the values cultivated in secondary groups need to be universally accepted because they confer a human face to a society dominated by competition and the pursuit of efficiency. In this vision, the creation of social capital balances growing individualism with the need for interdependence, serving as a sort of glue to prevent modernization from heading towards societal disintegration. After merging social capital’s argument and the Third Way
Third Way
discourse (Giddens,1998), New Labour also bridged theory and practice through policy making at various levels, that is in education, health and neighbourhoods; and attempting to measure the direct impact of these reforms on social capital. In this context, the objective of creating social capital through the empowerment of families and communities and the decentralization of social services became one of the leading driving forces of New Labour's political action (Ferragina and Arrigoni 2016: 5).[79] Weakening of Third Way[edit] According to one article submitted in 2017 to an open-contribution website, marketMogul.com, the Third Way
Third Way
movement was at its peak in the 1990s and 2000s, but has since been on the decline, and by 2017 it becomes clear that the ideology is not as popular as it used to be outside of established Third Way
Third Way
circles. Third Way
Third Way
economic policies began to be challenged following the Great Recession. The rise of Right-wing
Right-wing
populism has put the ideology into question. Many on the left have become more vocal in opposition to the Third Way, with the most prominent example in the United Kingdom being the rise of Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn. A large number of Third Way
Third Way
politicians have been either voted out of office or forced to change their positions due to the ideology's weakening base. Also in 2017, Emmanuel Macron was elected President of France, which has given some hope to Third Way proponents.[80] See also[edit]

Social and political philosophy portal Politics portal

Communitarianism Corporate statism Golden mean (philosophy) Libertarianism Social corporatism Syncretic politics Third Position Tripartism Varieties of Capitalism

References[edit]

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State Change: Towards a Third Way?. Oxford University Press, 2004. Pp. 3-4, 16. ^ James L. Richardson. Contending Liberalisms in World Politics: Ideology and Power. Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001 Pp. 194. ^ Adrian Hastings, Alistair Mason, Hugh Pyper. The Oxford Companion to Christian Thought. Oxford University Press, 2000. P677. ^ Michael Freeden. Liberal Languages: Ideological Imaginations and Twentieth-Century Progressive Thought. Princeton University Press, 2004. P. 198. ^ Anthony Giddens. Beyond Left and Right: The Future of Radical Politics. 1998 edition. Cambridge, England, UK: Polity Press, 1994, 1998. Pp. 71-72. ^ "Speech by Tony Blair
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State Change: Towards a Third Way?. Oxford University Press, 2004. Pp. 4. ^ Pauline Vaillancourt Rosenau. The competition paradigm: America's romance with conflict, contest, and commerce. Lanham, Maryland, USA; Oxford, England, UK: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc, 2003. Pp. 209. ^ A.J. Veal (2010). Leisure, Sport and Tourism, Politics, Policy and Planning. pp. 34–35.  ^ "Bashan, P. (5 November 2002). Is the Third Way
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at a Dead End? Cato Institute". Archived from the original on 13 June 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2007.  ^ a b Black, Bill. Gender Wage Gap is Shrinking - Male Wages are Going Down, The Real News Network, 2013.03.31 ^ a b Black, Bill. "Third Way's" "Fresh Thinking": The EU Is Our Model for Austerity, The Huffington Post, 2013.01.10 ^ a b Black, Bill. Seriously? New York Times Calls Wall Street Front Group "Center-Left", AlterNet, 2013.03.03 ^ Wilhelm Röpke: Die Lehre von der Wirtschaft, Erlenbach-Zürich (1951), p. 56-59 ^ Sassoon, Donald (July 1984). "Berlinguer: architect of Eurocommunism" (PDF). Marxism
Marxism
Today. Communist Party of Great Britain. Retrieved 14 November 2016.  ^ What is the Third Way?.BBC News. ^ a b N.D. Arora. Political Science for Civil Services Main Examination. Tata McGraw-Hill Education, 2010. 9.22. ^ Daniel Döring. Is ‘Third Way’ Social Democracy
Democracy
Still a Form of Social Democracy?. Norderstedt, Germany: GRIN Verlag, 2007. Pp. 3. ^ Flavio Romano. Clinton and Blair: the political economy of the third way. Oxon, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2006. Pp. 3-4. ^ The Welfare
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Matteo Renzi
di Claudio Sardo ". l'Unità. Archived from the original on 1 July 2015.  ^ "Irpef, Imu e la terza via di Gutgeld, "guru" economico di Renzi — Formiche.net". Formiche.net.  ^ Brittan, Samuel (20 November 1998). "Some reflections on the third way". Retrieved 10 March 2010.  ^ "Leader: Blair's new third way". the Guardian.  ^ a b "BBC News — UK Politics — All aboard the Third Way". bbc.co.uk.  ^ "How the British came, saw and helped Rudd". theage.com.au.  ^ Stephen D. Tansey, Nigel A. Jackson. Politics: the basics. Fourth Edition. Oxon, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2008. Pp. 97. ^ Flavio Romano. Clinton and Blair: the political economy of the third way. Oxon, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2006. pp. 3. ^ The Survivor: Bill Clinton
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in the White House, John F Harris, Random House, 2005 ^ who wrote The Politics Presidents Make (1993, 1997;ISBN 0-674-68937-2 ^ An Overlooked Theory on Presidential Politics Archived 25 February 2016 at the Wayback Machine., a 31 October 2003 article by Rick Valelly ^ Regime change, an 23 November 2003 article by Christopher Shea ^ Posner, Richard (17 July 2011). "The Federal Deficit Mess". The Becker-Posner Blog. Retrieved 22 July 2011. Obama resembles such Presidents as Nixon and Clinton in the following respect. They are what the political scientist Stephen Skowronek calls practitioners of "third way" politics ( Tony Blair
Tony Blair
was another), who undermine the opposition by borrowing policies from it in an effort to seize the middle and with it to achieve political dominance. Think of Nixon’s economic policies, which were a continuation of Johnson's "Great Society"; Clinton's welfare reform and support of capital punishment; and Obama's pragmatic centrism, reflected in his embrace, albeit very recent, of entitlements re  ^ The Clinton Wars, Sidney Blumenthal, Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2003 ^ "BBC News — EUROPE - 'Third Way' gets world hearing". bbc.co.uk.  ^ DLC: About The Third Way ^ Walker, David (3 September 2001). "Goodbye, third way". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 November 2012.  ^ Costa Lobo, Marina; Magalhães, Pedro C. (2001). "The Portuguese Socialists and the Third Way" (PDF). European Consortium for Political Research. Retrieved 7 November 2016.  ^ Pearlstein, Steven (6 May 2009). "In Portugal, as in America, a 'Third Way' Is Reemerging". washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 11 May 2009.  ^ Justin Brown (January 2001). "As Clinton exits, 'third way' faces setback". Christian Science Monitor.  ^ Stanley B. Greenberg (2009). Dispatches from the War Room: In the Trenches with Five Extraordinary Leaders. Thomas Dunne Books. p. 313. The stories and reality increased the pressure on the government to make investments to relieve poverty, but Barak was self-consciously committed to 'Third Way' economic policies of lower spending, inflation, and interest rates that produced such growth in the United States
United States
and Britain.  ^ Dalziel, Paul (December 2001). " Third Way
Third Way
Economic Management in New Zealand". Economic and Labour Relations Review. 12 (2): 193–207. doi:10.1177/103530460101200203. Retrieved 7 November 2016.  ^ "An interview with Helen Clark". The Economist. 8 May 2003. Retrieved 7 November 2016.  ^ Arnold, Martin (18 November 2005). "Presidential hopeful Strauss-Kahn seeks third way à la française". FT.com. Retrieved 7 November 2016.  ^ Lohrenz, Carolin (15 January 2014). "Hollande chooses 'third way' on economy". DW.com. Retrieved 7 November 2016.  ^ Alcaro, Riccardo; Le Corre, Philippe (25 November 2014). "France's and Italy's New 'Tony Blairs': Third Way
Third Way
or No Way?". brookings.edu. Retrieved 8 November 2016.  ^ Milner, Susan (6 February 2017). " Emmanuel Macron
Emmanuel Macron
and the building of a new liberal-centrist movement". London School of Economics. Retrieved 23 May 2017.  ^ Tassis, Chrisanthos D. (December 2015). "Transformation of Policies and Politics in Greece
Greece
towards and inside the European Union 1950-2012" (PDF). Review of History and Political Science. 3 (2): 41–49. doi:10.15640/rhps.v3n2a5. Retrieved 8 November 2016.  ^ Novak, Philipp (5 February 2016). "Letter from … Vienna". Progress Online. Retrieved 7 November 2016.  ^ Andersson, Jenny (September 2006). "The People's Library and the Electronic Workshop: Comparing Swedish and British Social Democracy". Politics & Society. 34 (3): 431–460. doi:10.1177/0032329206290472. Retrieved 8 November 2016.  ^ a b Kuisma, Mikko; Ryner, Magnus (3 September 2012). "Third Way decomposition and the rightward shift in Finnish and Swedish politics". Contemporary Politics. 18 (3): 325–342. doi:10.1080/13569775.2012.702975. Retrieved 8 November 2016.  ^ Herløv Lund, Henrik (15 October 2005). "Helle Thorning Schmidt: "New Labour" i Danmark?" [Helle Thorning Schmidt: "New Labour" in Denmark?]. Kritisk Debat (in Danish). Retrieved 8 November 2016.  ^ Chung, Johng-Eun (October 2012). From Developmental to Neo-Developmental Cultural Industries Policy: The Korean Experience of the "Creative Turn" (PDF) (PhD). University of Glasgow. Retrieved 9 November 2016.  ^ Altman, Daniel (6 July 2005). "The irresistible, unassailable Third Way? Not anymore". nytimes.com. Retrieved 8 November 2016.  ^ Condon, Christopher (17 April 2006). "Man who would be Blair". FT.com. Retrieved 8 November 2016.  ^ Magdin, Radu (19 September 2014). "Looking to New Labour". Progress Online. Retrieved 8 November 2016.  ^ Rae, Gavin (21 August 2013). "The false promise of a new left in Poland". OpenDemocracy. Retrieved 8 November 2016.  ^ Schreiber, Leon Amos (2011). The third way in Brazil? Lula's presidency examined (Thesis). Stellenbosch University. Retrieved 8 November 2016.  ^ " Peru
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contemplates a return to a troubled future". economist.com. 12 April 2001. Retrieved 8 November 2016.  ^ Vale, Peter; Barrett, Georgina (10 December 2009). "The curious career of an African modernizer: South Africa's Thabo Mbeki". Contemporary Politics. 15 (4): 445–460. doi:10.1080/13569770903416521. Retrieved 8 November 2016.  ^ Jeremy Wilson (11 December 2015). " Tony Blair
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listened to Colonel Gaddafi's third way theories". Business Insider.  ^ Giddens, Anthony (28 August 2006). "The colonel and his third way". New Statesman. Retrieved 14 November 2016.  ^ No Third Way
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Out: Creating A Capitalist Czechoslovakia Reason, June 1990. Accessed 22 April 2007. ^ Flavio Romano. Clinton and Blair: the political economy of the third way. Oxon, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2006. Pp. 5. ^ Flavio Romano. Clinton and Blair: the political economy of the third way. Oxon, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge, 2006. Pp. 113. ^ TheAge.com.au ^ a b c d Ferragina, E. and Arrigoni, A. (2016) "The Rise and Fall of Social Capital: Requiem for a Theory?", Political Studies Review ^ http://themarketmogul.com/macron-third-way/

Bibliography[edit]

Ferragina, E. and Arrigoni, A. (2016) "The Rise and Fall of Social Capital: Requiem for a Theory?. Political Studies Review Giddens, Anthony (1998). The Third Way: The Renewal of Social Democracy. Polity. ISBN 0745622674.  Giddens, Anthony (2000). The Third Way
Third Way
and its Critics. Polity. ISBN 0745624502.  Labour Party (1979) The Labour Way is the Better Way. Labour Party (1997) Labour's New Deal
New Deal
for a Lost Generation Labour Party. Macmillan, Harold (1939). The Middle Way; A Study Of The Problem Of Economic And Social Progress In A Free And Democratic Society. ASIN B0015TCFE4. ISBN 0715813331. 

External links[edit]

Look up third way in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

NEXUS Third Way
Third Way
Debate Summary David Aaronovitch (1 July 2003). "Why Tony is not a guitar-wielding fascist dictator". The Guardian.  Patrict Harrington. "The Third Way — an Answer to Blair". Third Way — Fresh thinking. Archived from the original on 13 October 2007.  "What Is the Third Way?". BBC News. 1999. 

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