Theseus (UK: /ˈθiːsjuːs/, US: /ˈθiːsiəs/; Ancient Greek:
Θησεύς [tʰɛːsěu̯s]) was the mythical king and founder-hero
of Athens. Like Perseus, Cadmus, or Heracles,
Theseus battled and
overcame foes that were identified with an archaic religious and
social order: “This was a major cultural transition, like the making
of the new Olympia by Hercules” (Ruck & Staples,
Theseus was a founding hero for the Athenians in the same way that
Heracles was the founding hero for the Dorians. The Athenians regarded
Theseus as a great reformer; his name comes from the same root as
θεσμός (thesmos), Greek for "The Gathering". The myths
Theseus – his journeys, exploits, and family – have
provided material for fiction throughout the ages.
Theseus was responsible for the synoikismos ("dwelling together") –
the political unification of
Athens – represented
emblematically in his journey of labours, subduing ogres and monstrous
beasts. Because he was the unifying king,
Theseus built and occupied a
palace on the fortress of the
Acropolis that may have been similar to
the palace that was excavated in Mycenae. Pausanias reports that after
Theseus established a cult of
Aphrodite of all the People") and
Peitho on the southern slope of
Plutarch's Life of
Theseus (a literalistic biography) makes use of
varying accounts of the death of the Minotaur, Theseus' escape, and
the love of
Ariadne for Theseus. Plutarch's sources, not all of
whose texts have survived independently, included Pherecydes
(mid-fifth century BCE), Demon (c. 400 BCE),
Cleidemus (both fourth century BCE).
1 Birth and early years
1.1 The Six Labours
Medea and the Marathonian Bull, Androgeus and the Pallantides
3 The myth of
Theseus and the Minotaur
4 Ship of Theseus
Theseus and Pirithous
5.1 The abduction of
Persephone and encounter with Hades
6 Phaedra and Hippolytus
7 Other stories and his death
8 Adaptations of the myth
8.2 Opera, film and television
11 External links
Birth and early years
Theseus and Aethra, by Laurent de La Hyre
Aegeus, one of the primordial kings of Athens, was childless. Desiring
an heir, he asked the
Oracle of Delphi
Oracle of Delphi for advice. Her cryptic words
were "Do not loosen the bulging mouth of the wineskin until you have
reached the height of Athens, lest you die of grief."
Aegeus did not
understand the prophecy and was disappointed. He asked the advice of
his host Pittheus, king of Troezen.
Pittheus understood the prophecy,
Aegeus drunk, and gave
Aegeus his daughter Aethra.
But following the instructions of
Athena in a dream, Aethra left the
Aegeus and waded across to the island of Sphairia that lay
close to Troezen's shore. There she poured a libation to Sphairos
(Pelops' charioteer) and Poseidon, and was possessed by the sea god in
the night. The mix gave
Theseus a combination of divine as well as
mortal characteristics in his nature; such double paternity, with one
immortal and one mortal, was a familiar feature of other Greek
heroes. After Aethra became pregnant,
Aegeus decided to return to
Athens. Before leaving, however, he buried his sandals and sword under
a huge rock and told Aethra that when their son grew up, he should
move the rock, if he were heroic enough, and take the tokens for
himself as evidence of his royal parentage. In Athens,
joined by Medea, who had left Corinth after slaughtering the children
she had borne, and had taken
Aegeus as her new consort. Priestess and
consort together represented the old order in Athens.
Theseus was raised in his mother's land. When
Theseus grew up and
became a brave young man, he moved the rock and recovered his father's
tokens. His mother then told him the truth about his father's identity
and that he must take the sword and sandals back to king
claim his birthright. To journey to Athens,
Theseus could choose to go
by sea (which was the safe way) or by land, following a dangerous path
around the Saronic Gulf, where he would encounter a string of six
entrances to the Underworld, each guarded by a chthonic enemy.
Young, brave, and ambitious,
Theseus decided to go alone by the land
route and defeated a great many bandits along the way.
The Six Labours
The deeds of Theseus, on an Attic red-figured kylix, c. 440–430 BC
At the first site, which was Epidaurus, sacred to
Apollo and the
Theseus turned the tables on the chthonic bandit,
Periphetes, the Club Bearer, who beat his opponents into the Earth,
and took from him the stout staff that often identifies
At the Isthmian entrance to the Underworld was a robber named Sinis,
often called "Pityokamptes" (Greek: Πιτυοκάμπτης, "he who
bends Pinetrees"). He would capture travellers, tie them between two
pine trees that were bent down to the ground, and then let the trees
go, tearing his victims apart.
Theseus killed him by his own method.
He then became intimate with Sinis's daughter, Perigune, fathering the
Detail of the kylix:
Theseus and the Crommyonian Sow, with Phaea
In another deed north of the Isthmus, at a place called Crommyon, he
killed an enormous pig, the Crommyonian Sow, bred by an old crone
named Phaea. Some versions name the sow herself as Phaea. The
Bibliotheca described the
Crommyonian Sow as an offspring of Typhon
Near Megara, an elderly robber named
Sciron forced travellers along
the narrow cliff-face pathway to wash his feet. While they knelt, he
kicked them off the cliff behind them, where they were eaten by a sea
monster (or, in some versions, a giant turtle).
Theseus pushed him off
Map of Theseus's labours
Another of these enemies was Cercyon, king at the holy site of
Eleusis, who challenged passers-by to a wrestling match and, when he
had beaten them, killed them.
Cercyon at wrestling and
then killed him instead.
The last bandit was
Procrustes the Stretcher, who had two beds, one of
which he offered to passers-by in the plain of Eleusis. He then made
them fit into it, either by stretching them or by cutting off their
feet. Since he had two beds of different lengths, no one would fit.
Theseus turned the tables on Procrustes, cutting off his legs and
decapitating him with his own axe.
Medea and the Marathonian Bull, Androgeus and the Pallantides
Theseus captures the Marathonian Bull (kylix painted by Aison, 5th
Theseus arrived at Athens, he did not reveal his true identity
Aegeus gave him hospitality but was suspicious of the
young, powerful stranger's intentions. Aegeus's wife
Theseus immediately as Aegeus' son and worried that
Theseus would be
chosen as heir to Aegeus' kingdom instead of her son Medus. She tried
to arrange to have
Theseus killed by asking him to capture the
Marathonian Bull, an emblem of Cretan power.
On the way to Marathon,
Theseus took shelter from a storm in the hut
of an ancient woman named Hecale. She swore to make a sacrifice to
Theseus were successful in capturing the bull.
capture the bull, but when he returned to Hecale's hut, she was dead.
In her honour
Theseus gave her name to one of the demes of Attica,
making its inhabitants in a sense her adopted children.
Theseus returned victorious to Athens, where he sacrificed the
Medea tried to poison him. At the last second,
the sandals and the sword, and knocked the poisoned wine cup from
Theseus's hand. Thus father and son were reunited, and Medea, it was
said, fled to Asia.
Theseus appeared in the town, his reputation had preceded him,
having travelled along the notorious coastal road from Troezen and
slain some of the most feared bandits there. It was not long before
the Pallantides' hopes of succeeding the apparently childless Aegeus
would be lost if they did not get rid of
the sons of Pallas and nephews of King Aegeus, who were then living at
the royal court in the sanctuary of Delphic Apollo). So they set a
trap for him. One band of them would march on the town from one side
while another lay in wait near a place called Gargettus in ambush. The
plan was that after Theseus, Aegeus, and the palace guards had been
forced out the front, the other half would surprise them from behind.
Theseus was not fooled. Informed of the plan by a herald
named Leos, he crept out of the city at midnight and surprised the
Theseus then fell suddenly upon the party lying in
ambush, and slew them all. Thereupon the party with Pallas dispersed,"
The myth of
Theseus and the Minotaur
Theseus and the Minotaur
Theseus and the
Minotaur on 6th-century black-figure pottery
Pasiphaë, wife of King
Minos of Crete, had several children. The
eldest of these, Androgeos, set sail for
Athens to take part in the
Panathenaic Games, which were held there every four years. Being
strong and skilful, he did very well, winning some events outright. He
soon became a crowd favourite, much to the resentment of the
Pallantides who assassinated him, incurring the wrath of Minos.
Minos had heard of what befell his son, he ordered the
Cretan fleet to set sail for Athens.
Aegeus for his son's
assassins, and if they were to be handed to him, the town would be
spared. However, not knowing who the assassins were, King Aegeus
surrendered the whole town to Minos' mercy. His retribution was that,
at the end of every Great Year, which occurred after every seven
cycles on the solar calendar, the seven most courageous youths and the
seven most beautiful maidens were to board a boat and be sent as
tribute to Crete, never to be seen again.
In another version, King
Minos had waged war with the Athenians and
was successful. He then demanded that, at nine-year intervals, seven
Athenian boys and seven Athenian girls were to be sent to Crete to be
devoured by the Minotaur, a half-man, half-bull monster that lived in
Labyrinth created by Daedalus.
On the third occasion,
Theseus volunteered to slay the monster to stop
this horror. He took the place of one of the youths and set off with a
black sail, promising to his father, Aegeus, that if successful he
would return with a white sail. Like the others,
stripped of his weapons when they sailed. On his arrival in Crete,
Ariadne, King Minos' daughter, fell in love with
Theseus and, on the
advice of Daedalus, gave him a ball of thread (a clew), so he could
find his way out of the Labyrinth. That night,
Theseus to the Labyrinth, and
Theseus promised that if he returned
Labyrinth he would take
Ariadne with him. As soon as Theseus
entered the Labyrinth, he tied one end of the ball of string to the
door post and brandished his sword which he had kept hidden from the
guards inside his tunic.
Theseus followed Daedalus' instructions given
to Ariadne; go forwards, always down and never left or right. Theseus
came to the heart of the
Labyrinth and also upon the sleeping
Minotaur. The beast awoke and a tremendous fight then occurred.
Theseus overpowered the
Minotaur with his strength and stabbed the
beast in the throat with his sword (according to one scholium on
Pindar's Fifth Nemean Ode,
Theseus strangled it).
After decapitating the beast,
Theseus used the string to escape the
Labyrinth and managed to escape with all of the young Athenians and
Ariadne as well as her younger sister Phaedra. Then he and the rest of
the crew fell asleep on the beach of the island of Naxos, where they
stopped on their way back, looking for water.
told him to leave early that morning and to leave
Ariadne there for
Dionysus, for Naxos was his island. Stricken with distress, Theseus
forgot to put up the white sails instead of the black ones, so his
father, the king, believing he was dead, committed suicide, throwing
himself off a cliff of Sounio and into the sea, thus causing this body
of water to be named Aegean Sea.
Dionysus later saw
Ariadne crying out
Theseus and took pity on her and married her.
Ship of Theseus
According to Plutarch's Life of Theseus, the ship
Theseus used on his
return from Crete to
Athens was kept in the Athenian harbour as a
memorial for several centuries.
The ship wherein
Theseus and the youth of
Athens returned had thirty
oars, and was preserved by the Athenians down even to the time of
Demetrius Phalereus, for they took away the old planks as they
decayed, putting in new and stronger timber in their place...
The ship had to be maintained in a seaworthy state, for, in return for
Theseus's successful mission, the Athenians had pledged to honour
Apollo every year henceforth. Thus, the Athenians sent a religious
mission to the island of
Delos (one of Apollo's most sacred
sanctuaries) on the Athenian state galley – the ship itself – to
pay their fealty to the god. To preserve the purity of the occasion,
no executions were permitted between the time when the religious
ceremony began to when the ship returned from Delos, which took
To preserve the ship, any wood that wore out or rotted was replaced;
it was, thus, unclear to philosophers how much of the original ship
actually remained, giving rise to the philosophical question whether
it should be considered "the same" ship or not. Such philosophical
questions about the nature of identity are sometimes referred to as
Ship of Theseus
Ship of Theseus Paradox.
Regardless of these issues, Athenians preserved the ship. Their belief
Theseus had been an actual, historic figure and the ship gave
them a tangible connection to their divine providence.
Theseus and Pirithous
Theseus Defeats the
Antonio Canova (1804–1819),
Theseus's best friend was Pirithous, prince of the Lapiths. Pirithous
had heard stories of Theseus's courage and strength in battle but
wanted proof so he rustled Theseus's herd of cattle and drove it from
Theseus set out in pursuit.
Pirithous took up his arms
and the pair met to do battle but were so impressed with each other
they took an oath of friendship and joined the hunt for the Calydonian
In Iliad I, Nestor numbers
Theseus "of heroic fame"
among an earlier generation of heroes of his youth, "the strongest men
that Earth has bred, the strongest men against the strongest enemies,
a savage mountain-dwelling tribe whom they utterly destroyed." No
trace of such an oral tradition, which Homer's listeners would have
recognised in Nestor's allusion, survived in literary epic. Later,
Pirithous was preparing to marry Hippodamia. The centaurs were guests
at the wedding feast, but got drunk and tried to abduct the women,
including Hippodamia. The
Lapiths won the ensuing battle.
Theseus fights against and kills Eurytus, the
"fiercest of all the fierce centaurs" at the wedding of Pirithous
The abduction of
Persephone and encounter with Hades
Theseus carries off the willing Helen, on an Attic red-figure amphora,
c. 510 BC
Theseus, a great abductor of women, and his bosom companion,
Pirithous, since they were sons of
Zeus and Poseidon, pledged
themselves to marry daughters of Zeus. Theseus, in an old
tradition, chose Helen, and together they kidnapped her, intending
to keep her until she was old enough to marry.
Persephone. They left Helen with Theseus's mother, Aethra at Aphidna,
whence she was rescued by the Dioscuri.
On Pirithous' behalf they travelled to the underworld, domain of
Persephone and her husband Hades. As they wandered through the
outskirts of Tartarus,
Theseus sat down to rest on a rock. As he did
so he felt his limbs change and grow stiff. He tried to rise but could
not. He was fixed to the rock. As he turned to cry out to his friend,
he saw that
Pirithous too was crying out. Around him gathered the
terrible band of
Furies with snakes in their hair, torches and long
whips in their hands. Before these monsters the hero's courage failed
and he was led away to eternal punishment.
For many months in half darkness,
Theseus sat immovably fixed to the
rock, mourning for both his friend and for himself. In the end he was
Heracles who had come to the underworld for his 12th task.
There he persuaded
Persephone to forgive him for the part he had taken
in the rash venture of Pirithous. So
Theseus was restored to the upper
Pirithous never left the kingdom of the dead, for when he
tried to free Pirithous, the underworld shook. When
to Athens, he found that the
Dioscuri had taken Helen and Aethra to
Phaedra and Hippolytus
Theseus saves Hippodameia, work by
Johannes Pfuhl in Athens
Phaedra, Theseus's second wife and the daughter of King Minos, bore
Theseus two sons, Demophon and Acamas. While these two were still in
their infancy, Phaedra fell in love with Hippolytus, Theseus's son by
the Amazon queen Hippolyta. According to some versions of the story,
Hippolytus had scorned
Aphrodite to become a follower of Artemis, so
Aphrodite made Phaedra fall in love with him as punishment. He
rejected her out of chastity.
Alternatively, in Euripides' version, Hippolytus, Phaedra's nurse told
Hippolytus of her mistress's love and he swore he would not reveal the
nurse as his source of information. To ensure that she would die with
dignity, Phaedra wrote to
Theseus on a tablet claiming that Hippolytus
had raped her before hanging herself.
Theseus believed her and used
one of the three wishes he had received from
Poseidon against his son.
The curse caused Hippolytus' horses to be frightened by a sea monster,
usually a bull, and drag their rider to his death.
Artemis would later
Theseus the truth, promising to avenge her loyal follower on
another follower of Aphrodite.
In a version by Seneca, the Roman playwright, entitled Phaedra, after
Theseus that Hippolytus had raped her,
Theseus killed his
son himself, and Phaedra committed suicide out of guilt, for she had
not intended for Hippolytus to die.
In yet another version, Phaedra simply told
Theseus Hippolytus had
raped her and did not kill herself.
Dionysus sent a wild bull which
terrified Hippolytus's horses.
A cult grew up around Hippolytus, associated with the cult of
Aphrodite. Girls who were about to be married offered locks of their
hair to him. The cult believed that
Asclepius had resurrected
Hippolytus and that he lived in a sacred forest near Aricia in Latium.
Other stories and his death
A fresco depicting Theseus, from
Herculaneum (Ercolano), Italy,
According to some sources,
Theseus also was one of the Argonauts,
Apollonius of Rhodes states in the
Argonautica that Theseus
was still in the underworld at this time. Both statements are
Medea being Aegeus' wife by the time
came to Athens. With Phaedra,
Theseus fathered Acamas, who was one of
those who hid in the
Trojan Horse during the Trojan War. Theseus
welcomed the wandering
Oedipus and helped
Adrastus to bury the Seven
Lycomedes of the island of
Theseus off a cliff after he
had lost popularity in Athens. In 475 BC, in response to an oracle,
Cimon of Athens, having conquered
Skyros for the Athenians, identified
as the remains of
Theseus "a coffin of a great corpse with a bronze
spear-head by its side and a sword." (Plutarch, Life of Cimon, quoted
Burkert 1985, p. 206). The remains found by
Cimon were reburied
in Athens. The early modern name Theseion (Temple of Theseus) was
mistakenly applied to the
Temple of Hephaestus
Temple of Hephaestus which was thought to be
the actual site of the hero's tomb.
Adaptations of the myth
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Theseus with the head of Minotaur
Heroes and heroism
Heracles / Hercules (Labors)
Hector (Trojan War)
Argonauts (Golden Fleece)
Hippomenes (Golden apple)
Triptolemus (Eleusinian Mysteries)
Pelops (Ancient Olympic Games)
Amphitryon (Teumessian fox)
Meleager (Calydonian Boar)
Religion in Ancient Greece
Greek mythology portal
Oedipus at Colonus features
Theseus as a major
Euripides' tragedy Hippolytus and Seneca's Phaedra revolve around the
death of Theseus' son.
In Geoffrey Chaucer's epic chivalric romance "The Knight's Tale," one
of the Canterbury Tales,
Theseus is duke of Athens, husband of
Ypolita, and protector of Emelye, Ypolita's sister, for whom the two
knights of Thebes, Arcite and Palamon, do battle.
Phèdre (1677) features
Theseus as well as Hippolytus and the
title character Phaedra.
Theseus is a prominent character as the Duke of
Athens in William
A Midsummer Night's Dream
A Midsummer Night's Dream and The Two Noble
Hippolyta also appears in both plays.
F. L. Lucas's epic poem
Ariadne (1932) is an epic reworking of the
Labyrinth myth: Aegle, one of the sacrificial maidens who accompany
Theseus to Crete, is Theseus's sweetheart, the
Minotaur is Minos
himself in a bull-mask, and Ariadne, learning on Naxos of Theseus's
earlier love for Aegle, decides to leave him for the Ideal
André Gide's 1946
Thésée is a fictional autobiography where the
mythical hero of Athens, now elderly, narrates his life story from his
carefree youth to his killing of the Minotaur.
The King Must Die
The King Must Die (1958) is a dramatic retelling of the
Theseus legend from his childhood in Troizen until the return from
Crete to Athens. While fictional, it is generally faithful to the
spirit and flavor of the best-known variations of the original story.
The sequel is
The Bull from the Sea
The Bull from the Sea (1962), about the hero's later
Evangeline Walton's 1983 historical fiction novel The Sword is Forged
chronicles the story of
Theseus and Antiope.
Stephen Dobyns, wrote the poem
Theseus within the
which provides a retelling of the myth of Ariadne,
Theseus and the
Minotaur, in particular the feelings of Ariadne.
In issue No. 12 of Fright Night comics, entitled Bull-Whipped, Theseus
Minotaur are resurrected by the comic's Aunt Claudia Hinnault,
who is the reincarnation of Ariadne.
Kir Bulychov's 1993 book An Attempt on Theseus' Life
(Покушение на Тезея) is about a plot to assassinate a
man during a virtual reality tour in which he lives through Theseus'
Troy Denning's 1996 novel Pages of Pain features an amnesic Theseus
fighting to recover his past while interacting with some of the more
colourful beings of the
Steven Pressfield's 2002 novel Last of the
Amazons attempts to situate
Theseus's meeting and subsequent marriage to Antiope, as well as the
ensuing war, in a historically plausible setting.
Jorge Luis Borges
Jorge Luis Borges presents an interesting variation of the myth in a
short story, "La Casa de Asterión" ("The House of Asterion").
Tony Robinson wrote a version of the
entitled Theseus: Super Hero.
Suzanne Collins was inspired by
Theseus to write The Hunger
Games trilogy, which was published from 2008 to 2010.
Opera, film and television
Thésée (1675) is an early French opera by
Jean-Baptiste Lully to a
libretto by Philippe Quinault, based on Ovid.
Teseo (1713) is an opera seria by
George Frideric Handel
George Frideric Handel to a libretto
by Nicola Francesco Haym, based on Quinault.
Hippolyte et Aricie
Hippolyte et Aricie (1733) by Jean-Philippe Rameau, based on
Theseus as a character.
Theseus is played by
Bob Mathias in the 1960 film Minotaur, the Wild
Beast of Crete, and by
Tom Hardy in the 2006 film Minotaur.
The first episode of the 2001 children's television series MythQuest,
entitled "Minotaur," features a story in which the modern day
teen-aged protagonist finds himself unexpectedly thrust into Theseus'
role and must follow through with the events of the existing myth,
including slaying the
Minotaur with the help of
Daedalus.[better source needed] The storyline was also
adapted into a novelisation.
In the 2003 miniseries Helen of Troy, Theseus, played by Stellan
Skarsgård, kidnaps Helen with
Pirithous and waits for her to reach
marriageable age; however, he is slain by Pollux and she is returned
In the film Immortals (2011), directed by Tarsem Singh, Theseus,
played by Henry Cavill, leads a war against King Hyperion of
Heraklion, played by Mickey Rourke.
The Indian film
Ship of Theseus
Ship of Theseus (2012) directed by Anand Gandhi, is an
exploration of the philosophical idea underlying the myth.
In the Canadian television series, Continuum (2012–2015), the leader
of an anti-corporate human rights/terrorist group is called Theseus.
In 2013, the BBC series Atlantis was released. In the first episode of
season one, The Earth Bull,
Jason enters the labyrinth. He is helped
Ariadne to slay him, as the myth of the Minotaur.
Jason is based on
the characters of Theseus,
Perseus and the myth of
Jason And The
Argonauts. In Season 2 Part 1,
Medea is introduced. Pasiphaё seeks to
take back Atlantis after
Ariadne is made Queen. The plot seems to be
Jason and The Argonauts.
In Canadian/British television series Olympus (2015), the main
character 'Hero' is loosely based on the myths of Theseus. The show
follows Hero's quest to unlock the 'Lexicon', the door to Olympus, and
to stop the apocalypse as foreseen by the Oracle of Gaia.
^ Carl A.P. Ruck & Danny Staples. (1994). The World of Classical
Myth, ch. ix, "Theseus: Making the New Athens",
pp 203–222. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press.
^ "May I therefore succeed in purifying Fable, making her submit to
reason and take on the semblance of History. But where she obstinately
disdains to make herself credible, and refuses to admit any element of
probability, I shall pray for kindly readers, and such as receive with
indulgence the tales of antiquity." (Plutarch, Life of Theseus).
Plutarch's avowed purpose is to construct a life that parallels the
Romulus that embodies the founding myth of Rome.
^ Edmund P. Cueva. (Fall 1996). "Plutarch's
Ariadne in Chariton's
Chaereas and Callirhoe". American Journal of Philology, 117 (3)
^ Morford, Mark P. O., Robert J. Lenardon, and Michael Sham. Classical
Mythology. 10th ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2014.
^ The theory, expounded as natural history by Aristotle, was accepted
through the nineteenth century and only proven wrong in modern
genetics: see Telegony. Sometimes in myth the result could be twins,
one born divine of a divine father, the other human of a human sire:
see Dioscuri. Of a supposed Parnassos, founder of Delphi, Pausanias
observes, "Like the other heroes, as they are called, he had two
fathers; one they say was the god Poseidon, the human father being
Cleopompus." (Description of Greece x.6.1).
^ Rock "which had a hollow in it just large enough to receive these
^ Compared to Hercules and his Labours, "
Theseus is occupied only with
the sacred Entrances that are local to the lands of Athens" (Ruck and
^ "...where now is the enclosure in the Delphinium, for that is where
the house of
Aegeus stood, and the Hermes to the east of the sanctuary
is called the Hermes at Aegeus's gate." (Plutarch, 12)
^ Plutarch, 13.
Simonides to the effect that the alternate sail
Aegeus was not white, but "a scarlet sail dyed with the
tender flower of luxuriant holm oak." (Plutarch, 17.5).
Ariadne is sometimes represented in vase-paintings with the thread
wound on her spindle.
^ Noted by Kerenyi 1959:232 note 532.
Demetrius Phalereus was a distinguished orator and statesman, who
Athens for a decade before being exiled, in 307 BC.
^ Plutarch. "Theseus". The Internet Classics Archive. Retrieved 17
^ Cooper, John M., ed. (1997). Plato: Complete Works. Associate
editor, D. S. Hutchinson. Indianapolis/Cambridge: Hackett. p. 37.
^ Ovid, Metamorphoses, XII:217–153
^ Scholia on Iliad iii.144 and a fragment (#227) of Pindar, according
to Kerenyi 1951:237, note 588.
^ Reported at Athenaeus,
Deipnosophistae 13.4 (557a); cf. Kerenyi
1959:234 and note.
F. L. Lucas
F. L. Lucas (2014). Ariadne. Cambridge University Press.
The Sword is Forged
The Sword is Forged by Evangeline Walton". Kirkus Reviews. 1983.
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^ TV Tropes – Recap:
Myth Quest E 1 "The Minotaur"
MythQuest #1) goodreads.com
Burkert, Walter, Greek Religion (1985)
Theseus within the
Kerényi, Karl, The Heroes of the Greeks (1959)
Price, Anne, The Quest for
Theseus (London, 1970) examines the
Ariadne myth and its historical basis, and later
treatments and adaptations of it in Western culture.
Ruck, Carl A.P. and Danny Staples, The World of Classical Myth: ch. IX
"Theseus: making the new Athens" (1994), pp. 203–222.
Theseus in Thrace. The silver lining on the
clouds of the Athenian-Thracian relations in the 5th century BC
(Sofia, 2015) presents new iconographical sources and examines the
Theseus in the state ideology of
Athens and in its
gift-diplomacy with Thrace.
Walker, Henry J.,
Theseus and Athens, Oxford University Press (US
1995). The most thorough scholarly examination of Theseus's archaic
origins and classical myth and cult, and his place in classical
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Media related to
Theseus at Wikimedia Commons
(Theoi Project) Plutarch: Life of Theseus
Myth Comix: The Story of Theseus, pt.1 Pt.2 Pt.3 The story of
Theseus in comic-strip format, by Greek
The works of Plutarch
Alcibiades and Coriolanus1
Alexander the Great
Alexander the Great and Julius Caesar
Aratus of Sicyon
Aratus of Sicyon / Artaxerxes and
Galba / Otho2
Aristides and Cato the Elder1
Crassus and Nicias1
Demetrius and Antony1
Demosthenes and Cicero1
Dion and Brutus1
Fabius and Pericles1
Lucullus and Cimon1
Lysander and Sulla1
Numa and Lycurgus1
Pelopidas and Marcellus1
Philopoemen and Flamininus1
Phocion and Cato the Younger
Pompey and Agesilaus1
Poplicola and Solon1
Pyrrhus and Gaius Marius
Romulus and Theseus1
Sertorius and Eumenes1
Agis / Cleomenes1 and
Tiberius Gracchus / Gaius Gracchus
Timoleon and Aemilius Paulus1
Themistocles and Camillus
Translators and editors
Arthur Hugh Clough
1 Comparison extant
2 Four unpaired Lives