_THE TIMES_ is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national
newspaper based in London, England. It began in 1785 under the title
_THE DAILY UNIVERSAL REGISTER_, adopting its current name on 1 January
1788. _The Times_ and its sister paper _
The Sunday Times _ (founded in
1821) are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of
News UK , itself wholly owned by
In 1959, the historian of journalism
For much more than a century _The Times_ has been an integral and important part of the political structure of Great Britain. Its news and its editorial comment have in general been carefully coordinated, and have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its whole emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain. To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in close touch with 10 Downing Street .
_The Times_ is the first newspaper to have borne that name, lending
it to numerous other papers around the world, including _
_The Times_ is the originator of the widely used Times Roman
typeface, originally developed by
_The Times_ had an average daily circulation of 446,164 in December 2016; in the same period, _The Sunday Times_ had an average daily circulation of 792,210. An American edition of _The Times_ has been published since 6 June 2006. It has been heavily used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the digitised paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning.
* 1 History
* 1.1 1785 to 1890 * 1.2 1890 to 1981 * 1.3 From 1981
* 2 Content
* 2.1 _Times2_ * 2.2 _The Game_ * 2.3 Saturday supplements * 2.4 Online presence
* 3 Ownership
* 4 Readership
* 8 Notable people
* 8.1 Editors * 8.2 Notable columnists and journalists
* 9 Related publications
* 9.1 _The Times_, Ireland edition
* 9.2 _Times Literary Supplement_
* 9.3 _
* 10 In fiction * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 Further reading * 14 External links
1785 TO 1890
_ Front page of The Times_ from 4 December 1788
_The Times_ was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as
_The Daily Universal Register_, with Walter in the role of editor.
Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company
where he was working went bankrupt because of the complaints of a
Jamaican hurricane. Being unemployed, Walter decided to set a new
business up. It was in that time when Henry Johnson invented the
logography, a new typography that was faster and more precise (three
years later, it was proved that it was not as efficient as had been
said). Walter bought the logography's patent and to use it, he decided
to open a printing house, where he would daily produce an advertising
sheet. The first publication of the newspaper _The Daily Universal
Register in Great Britain_ was 1 January 1785. Unhappy because people
always omitted the word _Universal_, Ellias changed the title after
940 editions on 1 January 1788 to _The Times_. In 1803, Walter handed
ownership and editorship to his son of the same name. Walter Sr had
spent sixteen months in
_The Times_ used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science, literature, and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its early life, the profits of _The Times_ were very large and the competition minimal, so it could pay far better than its rivals for information or writers. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig . In 1815, _The Times_ had a circulation of 5,000.
Thomas Barnes was appointed general editor in 1817. In the same year,
the paper's printer James Lawson, died and passed the business onto
his son John Joseph Lawson(1802–1852). Under the editorship of
Barnes and his successor in 1841,
John Thadeus Delane , the influence
of _The Times_ rose to great heights, especially in politics and
amongst the City of
_The Times_ was the first newspaper to send war correspondents to cover particular conflicts. W. H. Russell , the paper's correspondent with the army in the Crimean War , was immensely influential with his dispatches back to England. _ A wounded British officer reading The Times's_ report of the end of the Crimean War , in John Everett Millais ' painting _ Peace Concluded _.
In other events of the nineteenth century, _The Times_ opposed the
repeal of the
Corn Laws until the number of demonstrations convinced
the editorial board otherwise, and only reluctantly supported aid to
victims of the
Irish Potato Famine
The third John Walter , the founder's grandson, succeeded his father
in 1847. The paper continued as more or less independent, but from the
1850s _The Times_ was beginning to suffer from the rise in competition
from the penny press , notably _
The Daily Telegraph
During the 19th century, it was not infrequent for the Foreign Office to approach _The Times_ and ask for continental intelligence, which was often superior to that conveyed by official sources.
1890 TO 1981
_The Times_ faced financial extinction in 1890 under Arthur Fraser
Walter , but it was rescued by an energetic editor, Charles Frederic
Moberly Bell . During his tenure (1890–1911), _The Times_ became
associated with selling the _
In editorials published on 29 and 31 July 1914,
Wickham Steed , the
_Times's_ Chief Editor, argued that the
What are these 'Protocols'? Are they authentic? If so, what malevolent assembly concocted these plans and gloated over their exposition? Are they forgery? If so, whence comes the uncanny note of prophecy, prophecy in part fulfilled, in part so far gone in the way of fulfillment?".
The following year, when
Philip Graves , the
In 1922, John Jacob Astor , son of the 1st Viscount Astor , bought _The Times_ from the Northcliffe estate . The paper gained a measure of notoriety in the 1930s with its advocacy of German appeasement ; editor Geoffrey Dawson was closely allied with those in the government who practised appeasement, most notably Neville Chamberlain .
Kim Philby , a double agent with primary allegiance to the Soviet
Union , was a correspondent for the newspaper in Spain during the
Spanish Civil War
Between 1941 and 1946, the left-wing British historian
E. H. Carr was
Assistant Editor. Carr was well known for the strongly pro-Soviet tone
of his editorials. In December 1944, when fighting broke out in
On 3 May 1966 it resumed printing news on the front page – previously the front page had been given over to small advertisements, usually of interest to the moneyed classes in British society. Also in 1966, the Royal Arms , which had been a feature of the newspaper's masthead since its inception, was abandoned. In 1967 members of the Astor family sold the paper to Canadian publishing magnate Roy Thomson . His Thomson Corporation brought it under the same ownership as _The Sunday Times _ to form Times Newspapers Limited .
An industrial dispute prompted the management to shut the paper for nearly a year from 1 December 1978 to 12 November 1979.
The Thomson Corporation management were struggling to run the business due to the 1979 energy crisis and union demands. Management sought a buyer who was in a position to guarantee the survival of both titles, and had the resources and was committed to funding the introduction of modern printing methods.
Several suitors appeared, including Robert Maxwell , Tiny Rowland and Lord Rothermere ; however, only one buyer was in a position to meet the full Thomson remit, Australian media magnate Rupert Murdoch. Robert Holmes à Court , another Australian magnate had previously tried to buy _The Times_ in 1980.
_ The Times_ cover (5 June 2013)
In 1981, _The Times_ and _The Sunday Times_ were bought from Thomson by Rupert Murdoch's News International . The acquisition followed three weeks of intensive bargaining with the unions by company negotiators John Collier and Bill O\'Neill . The Royal Arms was reintroduced to the masthead at about this time, but whereas previously it had been that of the reigning monarch, it would now be that of the House of Hanover , who were on the throne when the newspaper was founded.
After 14 years as editor,
William Rees-Mogg resigned upon completion
of the change of ownership. Murdoch began to make his mark on the
paper by appointing
Harold Evans as his replacement. One of his most
important changes was the introduction of new technology and
efficiency measures. Between March 1981 and May 1982, following
agreement with print unions, the hot-metal Linotype printing process
used to print _The Times_ since the 19th century was phased out and
replaced by computer input and photo-composition. This allowed print
room staff at _The Times_ and _The Sunday Times_ to be reduced by
half. However, direct input of text by journalists ("single-stroke"
input) was still not achieved, and this was to remain an interim
measure until the
Wapping dispute of 1986, when _The Times_ moved from
Printing House Square in Gray's Inn Road (near
Robert Fisk , seven times British International Journalist of the Year, resigned as foreign correspondent in 1988 over what he saw as "political censorship" of his article on the shooting-down of Iran Air Flight 655 in July 1988. He wrote in detail about his reasons for resigning from the paper due to meddling with his stories, and the paper's pro-Israel stance.
In June 1990 _The Times_ ceased its policy of using courtesy titles ("Mr", "Mrs", or "Miss" prefixes) for living persons before full names on first reference, but it continues to use them before surnames on subsequent references. The more formal style is now confined to the "Court and Social" page, though "Ms" is now acceptable in that section, as well as before surnames in news sections.
In November 2003, News International began producing the newspaper in
both broadsheet and tabloid sizes. On 13 September 2004, the weekday
broadsheet was withdrawn from sale in
On 6 June 2005, _The Times_ redesigned its Letters page, dropping the practice of printing correspondents' full postal addresses. Published letters were long regarded as one of the paper's key constituents. Author/solicitor David Green of Castle Morris Pembrokeshire has had more letters published on the main letters page than any other known contributor – 158 by 31 January 2008. According to its leading article "From Our Own Correspondents", the reason for removal of full postal addresses was to fit more letters onto the page.
In a 2007 meeting with the
House of Lords
In May 2008 printing of _The Times_ switched from
Wapping to new
Waltham Cross in
On 26 July 2012, to coincide with the official start of the London 2012 Olympics and the issuing of a series of souvenir front covers, _The Times_ added the suffix "of London" to its masthead.
_The Times_ features news for the first half of the paper, the Opinion/Comment section begins after the first news section with world news normally following this. The business pages begin on the centre spread, and are followed by The Register, containing obituaries, Court ">' digital products.
_The Times_ has had the following eight owners since its foundation in 1785:
* 1785 to 1803 – John Walter
* 1803 to 1847 – John Walter, 2nd
* 1847 to 1894 – John Walter, 3rd
* 1894 to 1908 –
Arthur Fraser Walter
* 1908 to 1922 – Lord Northcliffe
* 1922 to 1966 –
* 1966 to 1981 – Roy Thomson
* 1981 to present –
News UK (formerly News International, a wholly
owned subsidiary of
John Walter , the founder of _The Times_ *
John Walter, 2nd *
John Walter, 3rd *
Lord Northcliffe *
Roy Thomson *
At the time of Harold Evans' appointment as editor in 1981, _The Times_ had an average daily sale of 282,000 copies in comparison to the 1.4 million daily sales of its traditional rival _The Daily Telegraph _. By November 2005 _The Times_ sold an average of 691,283 copies per day, the second-highest of any British "quality " newspaper (after _The Daily Telegraph_, which had a circulation of 903,405 copies in the period), and the highest in terms of full-rate sales. By March 2014, average daily circulation of _The Times_ had fallen to 394,448 copies, compared to _The Daily Telegraph'_s 523,048, with the two retaining respectively the second-highest and highest circulations among British "quality" newspapers. In contrast _The Sun_, the highest-selling "tabloid" daily newspaper in the United Kingdom, sold an average of 2,069,809 copies in March 2014, and the _Daily Mail_, the highest-selling "middle market" British daily newspaper, sold an average of 1,708,006 copies in the period.
_The Sunday Times_ has a significantly higher circulation than _The Times_, and sometimes outsells _The Sunday Telegraph_. In May 2017 _The Times_ had a circulation of 445,737 and _The Sunday Times_ of 775,188 .
In a 2009 national readership survey _The Times_ was found to have
the highest number of ABC1 25–44 readers and the largest numbers of
he various typefaces used before the introduction (The) Times New Roman didn't really have a formal name.
They were a suite of types originally made by Miller and Co. (later
Miller & Richards) in Edinburgh around 1813, generally referred to as
In 1908, _The Times_ started using the _Monotype Modern_ typeface.
_The Times_ commissioned the serif typeface _
Times New Roman
* _Times Europa_ was designed by Walter Tracy in 1972 for The Times, as a sturdier alternative to the Times font family, designed for the demands of faster printing presses and cheaper paper. The typeface features more open counter spaces. * _Times Roman_ replaced Times Europa on 30 August 1982. * _Times Millennium_ was made in 1991, drawn by Gunnlaugur Briem on the instructions of Aurobind Patel, composing manager of News International. * _Times Classic_ first appeared in 2001. Designed as an economical face by the British type team of Dave Farey and Richard Dawson, it took advantage of the new PC-based publishing system at the newspaper, while obviating the production shortcomings of its predecessor Times Millennium. The new typeface included 120 letters per font. Initially the family comprised ten fonts, but a condensed version was added in 2004. * _Times Modern_ was unveiled on 20 November 2006, as the successor of _Times Classic_. Designed for improving legibility in smaller font sizes, it uses 45-degree angled bracket serifs. The font was published by Elsner + Flake as _EF Times Modern_; it was designed by Research Studios, led by Ben Preston (deputy editor of The Times) and designer Neville Brody.
Historically, the paper was not overtly pro- Tory or Whig , but has been a long time bastion of the English Establishment and empire. _The Times_ adopted a stance described as "peculiarly detached" at the 1945 general election ; although it was increasingly critical of the Conservative Party's campaign, it did not advocate a vote for any one party. However, the newspaper reverted to the Tories for the next election five years later. It supported the Conservatives for the subsequent three elections, followed by support for both the Conservatives and the Liberal Party for the next five elections, expressly supporting a Con-Lib coalition in 1974. The paper then backed the Conservatives solidly until 1997, when it declined to make any party endorsement but supported individual (primarily Eurosceptic ) candidates.
For the 2001 general election _The Times_ declared its support for
This makes it the most varied newspaper in terms of political support
in British history. Some columnists in _The Times_ are connected to
the Conservative Party such as
Daniel Finkelstein ,
Tim Montgomerie ,
_The Times_ occasionally makes endorsements for foreign elections. In
November 2012, it endorsed a second term for
_The Times_, along with the
British Film Institute
John Walter 1785 to 1803
John Walter, Jnr 1803 to 1812
Sir John Stoddart 1812 to 1816
Thomas Barnes 1817 to 1841
John Thadeus Delane 1841 to 1877
Thomas Chenery 1877 to 1884
George Earle Buckle 1884 to 1912
George Geoffrey Dawson 1912 to 1919
George Sydney Freeman 1919 (two-month 'inter-regnum')
Henry Wickham Steed 1919 to 1922
George Geoffrey Dawson 1923 to 1941
Robert McGowan Barrington-Ward 1941 to 1948
William Francis Casey 1948 to 1952
Sir William John Haley 1952 to 1966
William Rees-Mogg 1967 to 1981
Harold Evans 1981 to 1982
Charles Douglas-Home 1982 to 1985
Charles Wilson 1985 to 1990
Simon Jenkins 1990 to 1992
Peter Stothard 1992 to 2002
Robert Thomson 2002 to 2007
James Harding 2007 to 2012
John Witherow 2013–
NOTABLE COLUMNISTS AND JOURNALISTS
* Michael Atherton * Guillem Balague * Simon Barnes * Alice Bowe * Peter Brookes (leader-page cartoonist) * Thom Brooks * Rachel Campbell-Johnston * Ross Clark * Giles Coren * Robert Crampton * Ginny Dougary * Stephen Farrell * Daniel Finkelstein * Brian Glanville * Ruth Gledhill
* Michael Gove * Julian Haviland (Political Editor) * Louis Heren * Anthony Howard * Mick Hume * Nadiya Hussain * Simon Jenkins * Anatole Kaletsky * Raymond Keene * Patrick Kidd * Magnus Linklater * Richard Lloyd Parry * Anthony Loyd (war correspondent on retainer) * Ben Macintyre
Marcus du Sautoy
_THE TIMES_, IRELAND EDITION
An Irish digital edition of the paper was launched in September 2015 at TheTimes.ie. A print edition was launched in June 2017, replacing the international edition previously distributed in Ireland.
_TIMES LITERARY SUPPLEMENT_
Main article: The Times Literary Supplement
_THE TIMES SCIENCE REVIEW_
Main article: The Times Science Review
Between 1951 and 1966 _The Times_ published a separately paid-for
quarterly science review, _
_The Times_ started a new, free, monthly science magazine, _Eureka _, in October 2009. The magazine closed in October 2012.
Times Atlases have been produced since 1895. They are currently
produced by the Collins Bartholomew imprint of HarperCollins
Publishers. The flagship product is
_THE SUNDAY TIMES TRAVEL MAGAZINE_
This 164-page monthly magazine is sold separately from the newspaper of record and is Britain's best-selling travel magazine. The first issue of _ The Sunday Times Travel Magazine _ was in 2003, and it includes news, features and insider guides.
_TIMES HIGHER EDUCATION_
Main article: Times Higher Education
Started in 1971, it was a pioneer in evaluating tertiary education, and has grown to be one of the most respected for its national and world rankings.
In the dystopian future world of George Orwell 's _Nineteen Eighty-Four _, _The Times_ has been transformed into the organ of the totalitarian ruling party, its editorials—of which several are quoted in the book—reflecting Big Brother 's pronouncements.
In _ The Wombles _, Uncle Bulgaria read _The Times_ and asked for the other Wombles to bring him any copies that they found amongst the litter. The newspaper played a central role in the episode _Very Behind the Times_ (Series 2, Episode 12).
* Journalism portal
* ^ Katherine Rushton "
John Witherow named acting editor of The
Times as News International eyes merger", telegraph.co.uk, 18 January
* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Print ABCs: Seven UK national newspapers
losing print sales at more than 10 per cent year on year". _Press
Gazette_. Retrieved 28 January 2017.
* ^ Allan Nevins, "American Journalism and Its Historical
Treatment", _Journalism Quarterly_ (1959) 36#4 pp 411-22
* ^ "
* ^ W. David Sloan, Lisa Mullikin Parcell (2002). _American
Journalism: History, Principles, Practices: An Historical Reader for
Students and Professionals_. McFarland & Co. ISBN 0-7864-1371-9 .
Koenig had plans to develop a double-feeding printing machine that
would increase production, and the publisher of
* Bingham, Adrian. "
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