THE SIMPSONS is an American animated sitcom created by Matt Groening
Fox Broadcasting Company
Fox Broadcasting Company . The series is a satirical
depiction of working-class life epitomized by the
Simpson family ,
which consists of Homer , Marge , Bart , Lisa , and Maggie . The show
is set in the fictional town of Springfield and parodies American
culture , society , television, and the human condition .
The family was conceived by Groening shortly before a solicitation
for a series of animated shorts with producer
James L. Brooks .
Groening created a dysfunctional family and named the characters after
members of his own family, substituting Bart for his own name. The
shorts became a part of
The Tracey Ullman Show on April 19, 1987.
After a three-season run, the sketch was developed into a half-hour
prime time show and became an early hit for Fox, becoming the
network's first series to land in the Top 30 ratings in a season
Since its debut on December 17, 1989, 618 episodes of The Simpsons
have been broadcast. Its 28th season began on September 25, 2016. It
is the longest-running American sitcom and the longest-running
American animated program, and, in 2009, it surpassed
Gunsmoke as the
longest-running American scripted primetime television series. The
Simpsons Movie , a feature-length film, was released in theaters
worldwide on July 27, 2007, and grossed over $527 million. On November
4, 2016, the series was renewed for a twenty-ninth and thirtieth
season of 22 episodes each, extending the show to 2019.
The Simpsons received widespread critical acclaim throughout its
first nine or ten seasons, which are generally considered its
"Golden Age". Time named it the 20th century's best television series,
and Erik Adams of
The A.V. Club named it "television's crowning
achievement regardless of format". On January 14, 2000, the Simpson
family was awarded a star on the
Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame . It has won
dozens of awards since it debuted as a series, including 31 Primetime
Emmy Awards , 30 Annie Awards , and a
Peabody Award . Homer's
exclamatory catchphrase "D\'oh! " has been adopted into the English
The Simpsons has influenced many adult-oriented
animated sitcoms. Despite this, the show has also been criticized for
what many perceive as a decline in quality over the years.
* 1 Premise
* 1.1 Characters
* 1.2 Setting
* 2 Production
* 2.1 Development
* 2.2 Executive producers and showrunners
* 2.3 Writing
* 2.4 Voice actors
* 2.5 Animation
* 3 Themes
* 4 Hallmarks
* 4.1 Opening sequence
* 4.3 Humor
* 5 Influence and legacy
* 5.1 Idioms
* 5.2 Television
* 6 Reception and achievements
* 6.1 Early success
* 6.2 Run length achievements
* 6.3 Awards and accolades
* 6.4 Criticism
* 6.4.1 Controversy
* 6.4.2 Ban
* 6.4.3 Declining quality
* 7 Other media
* 7.1 Comic books
* 7.2 Film
The Simpsons Ride
* 7.5 Video games
* 8 Syndication and streaming availability
* 9 Merchandise
* 10 References
* 10.1 Notes
* 10.2 Bibliography
* 11 Further reading
* 12 External links
List of The Simpsons characters
The Simpsons are a family who live in a fictional "Middle America "
town of Springfield. Homer , the father, works as a safety inspector
Springfield Nuclear Power Plant , a position at odds with his
careless, buffoonish personality. He is married to Marge , a
stereotypical American housewife and mother. They have three children:
Bart , a ten-year-old troublemaker; Lisa , a precocious eight-year-old
activist; and Maggie , the baby of the family who rarely speaks, but
communicates by sucking on a pacifier . Although the family is
dysfunctional, many episodes examine their relationships and bonds
with each other and they are often shown to care about one another.
The family owns a dog, Santa\'s Little Helper , and a cat, Snowball V
Snowball II in "
I, (Annoyed Grunt)-Bot ". Both pets have
had starring roles in several episodes.
The Simpsons sports a
vast array of secondary and tertiary characters.
The show includes an array of quirky supporting characters:
co-workers, teachers, family friends, extended relatives, townspeople
and local celebrities. The creators originally intended many of these
characters as one-time jokes or for fulfilling needed functions in the
town. A number of them have gained expanded roles and subsequently
starred in their own episodes. According to Matt Groening, the show
adopted the concept of a large supporting cast from the comedy show
Despite the depiction of yearly milestones such as holidays or
birthdays passing, the characters do not age between episodes (either
physically or in stated age), and generally appear just as they did
when the series began. The series uses a floating timeline in which
episodes generally take place in the year the episode is produced even
though the characters do not age. Flashbacks/forwards do occasionally
depict the characters at other points in their lives, with the
timeline of these depictions also generally floating relative to the
year the episode is produced. In a nod to the non-aging aspect of the
show, when asked during the episode "
The Simpsons Guy " how long
Nelson Muntz has been bullying him, Bart replies "24 years."
Springfield (The Simpsons)
The Simpsons takes place in the fictional American town of
Springfield in an unknown and impossible-to-determine U.S. state. The
show is intentionally evasive in regard to Springfield's location.
Springfield's geography, and that of its surroundings, contains
coastlines, deserts, vast farmland, tall mountains, or whatever the
story or joke requires. Groening has said that Springfield has much
in common with
Portland, Oregon , the city where he grew up. The name
"Springfield" is a common one in America and appears in 22 states.
Groening has said that he named it after
Springfield, Oregon , and the
fictitious Springfield which was the setting of the series Father
Knows Best . He "figured out that Springfield was one of the most
common names for a city in the U.S. In anticipation of the success of
the show, I thought, 'This will be cool; everyone will think it's
their Springfield.' And they do." An astronomer and fan of the show,
Phil Plait , humorously noticed that
The Simpsons could be set in
Australia, because the moon in Springfield faces the wrong way to be
an American location.
History of The Simpsons
History of The Simpsons and
The Simpsons shorts
James L. Brooks (pictured) asked
Matt Groening to create a series of
animated shorts for
The Tracey Ullman Show
James L. Brooks was working on the television variety
The Tracey Ullman Show , he decided to include small animated
sketches before and after the commercial breaks. Having seen one of
Matt Groening 's
Life in Hell comic strips, Brooks asked
Groening to pitch an idea for a series of animated shorts. Groening
initially intended to present an animated version of his Life in Hell
series. However, Groening later realized that animating Life in Hell
would require the rescinding of publication rights for his life's
work. He therefore chose another approach while waiting in the lobby
of Brooks's office for the pitch meeting, hurriedly formulating his
version of a dysfunctional family that became the Simpsons. He named
the characters after his own family members, substituting "Bart" for
his own name, adopting an anagram of the word "brat".
Simpson family first appeared as shorts in The
Tracey Ullman Show
on April 19, 1987. Groening submitted only basic sketches to the
animators and assumed that the figures would be cleaned up in
production. However, the animators merely re-traced his drawings,
which led to the crude appearance of the characters in the initial
shorts. The animation was produced domestically at
Klasky Csupo ,
Wes Archer , David Silverman , and
Bill Kopp being animators for
the first season. Colorist Gyorgyi Peluce was the person who decided
to make the characters yellow.
In 1989, a team of production companies adapted
The Simpsons into a
half-hour series for the
Fox Broadcasting Company
Fox Broadcasting Company . The team included
Klasky Csupo animation house. Brooks negotiated a provision in the
contract with the Fox network that prevented Fox from interfering with
the show's content. Groening said his goal in creating the show was
to offer the audience an alternative to what he called "the mainstream
trash" that they were watching. The half-hour series premiered on
December 17, 1989, with "
Simpsons Roasting on an Open Fire ". "Some
Enchanted Evening " was the first full-length episode produced, but it
did not broadcast until May 1990, as the last episode of the first
season, because of animation problems. In 1992,
Tracey Ullman filed a
lawsuit against Fox, claiming that her show was the source of the
series' success. The suit said she should receive a share of the
The Simpsons —a claim rejected by the courts.
EXECUTIVE PRODUCERS AND SHOWRUNNERS
Matt Groening , creator
LIST OF SHOWRUNNERS THROUGHOUT THE SERIES\' RUN:
* Season 1–2:
Matt Groening ,
James L. Brooks , &
* Season 3–4:
Al Jean &
* Season 5–6:
* Season 7–8:
Bill Oakley ">' writing teams typically consist of
sixteen writers who propose episode ideas at the beginning of each
December. The main writer of each episode writes the first draft.
Group rewriting sessions develop final scripts by adding or removing
jokes, inserting scenes, and calling for re-readings of lines by the
show's vocal performers. Until 2004, George Meyer, who had developed
the show since the first season, was active in these sessions.
According to long-time writer
Jon Vitti , Meyer usually invented the
best lines in a given episode, even though other writers may receive
script credits. Each episode takes six months to produce so the show
rarely comments on current events. Part of the writing staff of
The Simpsons in 1992. Back row, left to right: Mike Mendel, Colin ABV
Lewis (partial), Jeff Goldstein,
Al Jean (partial), Conan O\'Brien ,
Bill Oakley ,
Josh Weinstein ,
Mike Reiss , Ken Tsumura, George Meyer
John Swartzwelder ,
Jon Vitti (partial), CJ Gibson and David M.
Stern . Front row, left to right: Dee Capelli,
Lona Williams , and
Credited with sixty episodes,
John Swartzwelder is the most prolific
writer on The Simpsons. One of the best-known former writers is Conan
O\'Brien , who contributed to several episodes in the early 1990s
David Letterman as host of the talk show Late Night .
Ricky Gervais wrote the episode "Homer Simpson, This
Is Your Wife ", becoming the first celebrity to both write and guest
star in an episode.
Seth Rogen and
Evan Goldberg , writers of the
film Superbad , wrote the episode "
Homer the Whopper
Homer the Whopper ", with Rogen
voicing a character in it.
At the end of 2007, the writers of
The Simpsons went on strike
together with the other members of the Writers Guild of America, East
. The show's writers had joined the guild in 1998.
List of The Simpsons cast members , List of The
Simpsons guest stars , and
Non-English versions of The Simpsons
The Simpsons has six main cast members:
Dan Castellaneta , Julie
Nancy Cartwright ,
Yeardley Smith ,
Hank Azaria and Harry
Shearer . Castellaneta voices
Homer Simpson ,
Grampa Simpson , Krusty
the Clown ,
Groundskeeper Willie ,
Mayor Quimby ,
Barney Gumble and
other adult, male characters.
Julie Kavner voices
Marge Simpson and
Patty and Selma , as well as several minor characters. Castellaneta
and Kavner had been a part of
The Tracey Ullman Show cast and were
given the parts so that new actors would not be needed. Cartwright
Bart Simpson ,
Nelson Muntz ,
Ralph Wiggum and other children.
Smith, the voice of
Lisa Simpson , is the only cast member who
regularly voices only one character, although she occasionally plays
other episodic characters. The producers decided to hold casting for
the roles of Bart and Lisa. Smith had initially been asked to audition
for the role of Bart, but casting director
Bonita Pietila believed her
voice was too high, so she was given the role of Lisa instead.
Cartwright was originally brought in to voice Lisa, but upon arriving
at the audition, she found that Lisa was simply described as the
"middle child" and at the time did not have much personality.
Cartwright became more interested in the role of Bart, who was
described as "devious, underachieving, school-hating, irreverent,
clever". Groening let her try out for the part instead, and upon
hearing her read, gave her the job on the spot. Cartwright is the
only one of the six main Simpsons cast members who had been
professionally trained in voice acting prior to working on the show.
Azaria and Shearer do not voice members of the title family, but play
a majority of the male townspeople. Azaria, who has been a part of the
Simpsons regular voice cast since the second season, voices recurring
characters such as
Moe Szyslak ,
Chief Wiggum , Apu Nahasapeemapetilon
Professor Frink . Shearer provides voices for
Mr. Burns , Mr.
Principal Skinner ,
Ned Flanders ,
Reverend Lovejoy and Dr.
Hibbert . Every main cast member has won a
Primetime Emmy Award for
Outstanding Voice-Over Performance .
With one exception, episode credits list only the voice actors , and
not the characters they voice. Both Fox and the production crew wanted
to keep their identities secret during the early seasons and,
therefore, closed most of the recording sessions while refusing to
publish photos of the recording artists. However, the network
eventually revealed which roles each actor performed in the episode
"Old Money ", because the producers said the voice actors should
receive credit for their work. In 2003, the cast appeared in an
Inside the Actors Studio , doing live performances of their
The six main actors were paid $ 30,000 per episode until 1998, when
they were involved in a pay dispute with Fox. The company threatened
to replace them with new actors, even going as far as preparing for
casting of new voices, but series creator Groening supported the
actors in their action. The issue was soon resolved and, from 1998 to
2004, they were paid $125,000 per episode. The show's revenue
continued to rise through syndication and DVD sales, and in April 2004
the main cast stopped appearing for script readings, demanding they be
paid $360,000 per episode. The strike was resolved a month later
and their salaries were increased to something between $250,000 and
$360,000 per episode. In 2008, production for the twentieth season
was put on hold due to new contract negotiations with the voice
actors, who wanted a "healthy bump" in salary to an amount close to
$500,000 per episode. The negotiations were soon completed, and the
actors' salary was raised to $400,000 per episode. Three years later,
with Fox threatening to cancel the series unless production costs were
cut, the cast members accepted a 30 percent pay cut, down to just over
$300,000 per episode.
In addition to the main cast,
Pamela Hayden ,
Tress MacNeille ,
Marcia Wallace ,
Maggie Roswell , and
Russi Taylor voice supporting
characters. From 1999 to 2002, Roswell's characters were voiced by
Marcia Mitzman Gaven .
Karl Wiedergott has also appeared in minor
roles, but does not voice any recurring characters. Wiedergott left
the show in 2010, and since then
Chris Edgerly has appeared regularly
to voice minor characters. Repeat "special guest" cast members include
Albert Brooks ,
Phil Hartman ,
Jon Lovitz ,
Joe Mantegna , Maurice
LaMarche , and
Kelsey Grammer . Following Hartman's death in 1998,
the characters he voiced (
Troy McClure and
Lionel Hutz ) were retired;
Wallace's character of
Edna Krabappel was retired as well after her
death in 2013.
Episodes will quite often feature guest voices from a wide range of
professions, including actors, athletes, authors, bands, musicians and
scientists. In the earlier seasons, most of the guest stars voiced
characters, but eventually more started appearing as themselves. Tony
Bennett was the first guest star to appear as himself, appearing
briefly in the season two episode "Dancin\' Homer ". The Simpsons
holds the world record for "Most Guest Stars Featured in a Television
The Simpsons has been dubbed into several other languages , including
Japanese, German, Spanish, and Portuguese. It is also one of the few
programs dubbed in both standard French and
Quebec French . The show
has been broadcast in Arabic, but due to Islamic customs, numerous
aspects of the show have been changed. For example, Homer drinks soda
instead of beer and eats Egyptian beef sausages instead of hot dogs.
Because of such changes, the Arabized version of the series met with a
negative reaction from the lifelong Simpsons fans in the area.
Animation director David Silverman , who helped define the look
of the show.
Several different U.S. and international studios animate The
Simpsons. Throughout the run of the animated shorts on The Tracey
Ullman Show, the animation was produced domestically at
Klasky Csupo .
With the debut of the series, because of an increased workload, Fox
subcontracted production to several local and foreign studios. These
Rough Draft Studios ,
USAnimation , and
For the first three seasons,
Klasky Csupo animated
The Simpsons in
the United States. In 1992, the show's production company, Gracie
Films, switched domestic production to
Film Roman , who continue to
animate the show until 2016. In Season 14 , production switched from
traditional cel animation to digital ink and paint . The first
episode to experiment with digital coloring was "Radioactive Man " in
1995. Animators used digital ink and paint during production of the
season 12 episode "
Tennis the Menace ", but
Gracie Films delayed the
regular use of digital ink and paint until two seasons later. The
already completed "Tennis the Menace" was broadcast as made.
The production staff at the U.S. animation studio, Film Roman, draws
storyboards , designs new characters, backgrounds, props and draws
character and background layouts, which in turn become animatics to be
screened for the writers at
Gracie Films for any changes to be made
before the work is shipped overseas. The overseas studios then draw
the inbetweens , ink and paint , and render the animation to tape
before it is shipped back to the United States to be delivered to Fox
three to four months later.
The series began high-definition production in Season 20; the first
Take My Life, Please ", aired February 15, 2009. The move to
HDTV included a new opening sequence.
Matt Groening called it a
complicated change because it affected the timing and composition of
Media in The Simpsons ,
Politics in The Simpsons , and
Religion in The Simpsons
The Simpsons uses the standard setup of a situational comedy, or
sitcom, as its premise. The series centers on a family and their life
in a typical American town, serving as a satirical parody of a middle
class American lifestyle . However, because of its animated nature,
The Simpsons' scope is larger than that of a regular sitcom. The town
of Springfield acts as a complete universe in which characters can
explore the issues faced by modern society. By having Homer work in a
nuclear power plant, the show can comment on the state of the
environment. Through Bart and Lisa's days at Springfield Elementary
School , the show's writers illustrate pressing or controversial
issues in the field of education. The town features a vast array of
media channels—from kids' television programming to local news,
which enables the producers to make jokes about themselves and the
Some commentators say the show is political in nature and susceptible
to a left-wing bias.
Al Jean admitted in an interview that "We are
of liberal bent." The writers often evince an appreciation for
liberal ideals , but the show makes jokes across the political
spectrum. The show portrays government and large corporations as
callous entities that take advantage of the common worker. Thus, the
writers often portray authority figures in an unflattering or negative
light. In The Simpsons, politicians are corrupt, ministers such as
Reverend Lovejoy are indifferent to churchgoers, and the local police
force is incompetent. Religion also figures as a recurring theme. In
times of crisis, the family often turns to God, and the show has dealt
with most of the major religions.
The Simpsons opening sequence
The Simpsons opening sequence The music played
during the opening sequence. This piece is also known as The Simpsons
The Simpsons' opening sequence is one of the show's most memorable
hallmarks. The standard opening has gone through three iterations (a
replacement of some shots at the start of the second season, and a
brand new sequence when the show switched to high-definition in 2009).
Each has the same basic sequence of events: The camera zooms through
cumulus clouds , through the show's title towards the town of
Springfield . The camera then follows the members of the family on
their way home. Upon entering their house, the Simpsons settle down on
their couch to watch television. The original opening was created by
David Silverman , and was the first task he did when production began
on the show. The series' distinctive theme song was composed by
Danny Elfman in 1989, after Groening approached him
requesting a retro style piece. This piece has been noted by Elfman as
the most popular of his career.
One of the most distinctive aspects of the opening is that three of
its elements change from episode to episode: Bart writes different
things on the school chalkboard, Lisa plays different solos on her
saxophone and different gags accompany the family as they enter their
living room to sit on the couch.
Treehouse of Horror
Bart Simpson introducing a
segment of "
Treehouse of Horror IV " in the manner of
Rod Serling 's
Halloween episode has become an annual tradition.
Treehouse of Horror " first broadcast in 1990 as part of season two
and established the pattern of three separate, self-contained stories
Halloween episode. These pieces usually involve the family in
some horror , science fiction , or supernatural setting and often
parody or pay homage to a famous piece of work in those genres. They
always take place outside the normal continuity of the show. Although
the Treehouse series is meant to be seen on Halloween, this changed by
the 2000s, when new installments have premiered after
Halloween due to
Fox 's current contract with
Major League Baseball
Major League Baseball 's
World Series ,
however, since 2011, every
Treehouse of Horror episode has aired
during the month of October.
The show's humor turns on cultural references that cover a wide
spectrum of society so that viewers from all generations can enjoy the
show. Such references, for example, come from movies , television,
music , literature, science , and history. The animators also
regularly add jokes or sight gags into the show's background via
humorous or incongruous bits of text in signs, newspapers , billboards
, and elsewhere. The audience may often not notice the visual jokes in
a single viewing. Some are so fleeting that they become apparent only
by pausing a video recording of the show. Kristin Thompson argues
The Simpsons uses a "flurry of cultural references, intentionally
inconsistent characterization, and considerable self-reflexivity about
television conventions and the status of the programme as a television
One of Bart's early hallmarks was his prank calls to Moe\'s Tavern
Moe Szyslak in which Bart calls Moe and asks for a gag name .
Moe tries to find that person in the bar, but soon realizes it is a
prank call and angrily threatens Bart. These calls were apparently
based on a series of prank calls known as the Tube Bar recordings ,
though Groening has denied any causal connection. Moe was based
partly on Tube Bar owner
Louis "Red" Deutsch , whose often profane
responses inspired Moe's violent side. As the series progressed, it
became more difficult for the writers to come up with a fake name and
to write Moe's angry response, and the pranks were dropped as a
regular joke during the fourth season.
The Simpsons also often
includes self-referential humor. The most common form is jokes about
Fox Broadcasting. For example, the episode "
She Used to Be My Girl "
included a scene in which a
Fox News Channel van drove down the street
while displaying a large "Bush Cheney 2004" banner and playing Queen
We Are the Champions ", in reference to the 2004 U.S. presidential
election and claims of conservative bias in Fox News .
The show uses catchphrases , and most of the primary and secondary
characters have at least one each. Notable expressions include
Homer's annoyed grunt "D\'oh! ", Mr. Burns' "Excellent" and Nelson
Muntz 's "Ha-ha!" Some of Bart's catchphrases, such as "¡Ay, caramba!
", "Don\'t have a cow , man!" and "Eat my shorts!" appeared on
T-shirts in the show's early days. However, Bart rarely used the
latter two phrases until after they became popular through the
merchandising . The use of many of these catchphrases has declined in
recent seasons. The episode "
Bart Gets Famous " mocks
catchphrase-based humor, as Bart achieves fame on the Krusty the Clown
Show solely for saying "I didn't do it."
INFLUENCE AND LEGACY
A number of neologisms that originated on
The Simpsons have entered
Mark Liberman , director of the Linguistic Data
Consortium , remarked, "
The Simpsons has apparently taken over from
Shakespeare and the Bible as our culture's greatest source of idioms,
catchphrases and sundry other textual allusions." The most famous
catchphrase is Homer's annoyed grunt: "D\'oh! " So ubiquitous is the
expression that it is now listed in the
Oxford English Dictionary
Oxford English Dictionary ,
but without the apostrophe.
Dan Castellaneta says he borrowed the
phrase from James Finlayson , an actor in many Laurel and Hardy
comedies, who pronounced it in a more elongated and whining tone. The
The Simpsons told Castellaneta to shorten the noise, and it
went on to become the well-known exclamation in the television series.
Groundskeeper Willie 's description of the French as "cheese-eating
surrender monkeys " was used by
National Review columnist Jonah
Goldberg in 2003, after France's opposition to the proposed invasion
of Iraq . The phrase quickly spread to other journalists.
"Cromulent" and "Embiggen", words used in "
Lisa the Iconoclast ", have
since appeared in the Dictionary.com 's 21st Century Lexicon, and
scientific journals respectively. "Kwyjibo", a fake
invented by Bart in "
Bart the Genius ", was used as one of the aliases
of the creator of the Melissa worm . "I, for one, welcome our new
insect overlords", was used by
Kent Brockman in "
Deep Space Homer "
and has become a common phrase. Variants of Brockman's utterance are
used to express obsequious submission. It has been used in media, such
New Scientist magazine. The dismissive term "Meh", believed to
have been popularized by the show, entered the Collins English
Dictionary in 2008. Other words credited as stemming from the show
include "yoink" and "craptacular".
The Oxford Dictionary of Modern Quotations includes several
quotations from the show. As well as "cheese-eating surrender
monkeys", Homer's lines, "Kids, you tried your best and you failed
miserably. The lesson is never try", from "Burns\' Heir " (season five
, 1994) as well as "Kids are the best, Apu. You can teach them to hate
the things you hate. And they practically raise themselves, what with
the Internet and all", from "Eight Misbehavin\' " (season 11 , 1999),
entered the dictionary in August 2007.
The Simpsons was the first successful animated program in American
prime time since
Wait Till Your Father Gets Home in the 1970s. During
most of the 1980s, US pundits considered animated shows as appropriate
only for children, and animating a show was too expensive to achieve a
quality suitable for prime-time television.
The Simpsons changed this
perception, initially leading to a short period where networks
attempted to recreate prime-time cartoon success with shows like
Capitol Critters , Fish Police , and Family Dog , which were expensive
and unsuccessful. The Simpsons' use of Korean animation studios for
tweening , coloring, and filming made the episodes cheaper. The
The Simpsons and the lower production cost prompted US
television networks to take chances on other animated series. This
development led US producers to a 1990s boom in new, animated
prime-time shows, such as
South Park ,
Family Guy ,
King of the Hill ,
The Critic . For
Family Guy creator
Seth MacFarlane ,
The Simpsons created an audience for prime-time animation that had
not been there for many, many years ... As far as I'm concerned, they
basically re-invented the wheel. They created what is in many
ways—you could classify it as—a wholly new medium."
The Simpsons has had crossovers with four other shows. In the episode
A Star Is Burns ", Marge invites Jay Sherman, the main character of
The Critic, to be a judge for a film festival in Springfield. Matt
Groening had his name removed from the episode since he had no
involvement with The Critic.
South Park later paid homage to The
Simpsons with the episode "
Simpsons Already Did It ". In "Simpsorama
", the Planet Express crew from
Futurama come to Springfield in the
present to prevent the Simpsons from destroying the future. In the
Family Guy episode "
The Simpsons Guy ", the Griffins visit Springfield
and meet the Simpsons.
The Simpsons has also influenced live-action shows like Malcolm in
the Middle , which featured the use of sight gags and did not use a
laugh track unlike most sitcoms.
Malcolm in the Middle
Malcolm in the Middle debuted
January 9, 2000, in the time slot after The Simpsons. Ricky Gervais
The Simpsons an influence on The Office , and fellow British
Spaced was, according to its director
Edgar Wright , "an
attempt to do a live-action The Simpsons." In Georgia , the animated
The Samsonadzes , launched in November 2009, has
been noted for its very strong resemblance with The Simpsons, which
its creator Shalva Ramishvili has acknowledged.
RECEPTION AND ACHIEVEMENTS
episodes ORIGINALLY AIRED
TIME SLOT (ET )
(in millions) MOST WATCHED EPISODE
(millions) EPISODE TITLE
December 17, 1989
May 13, 1990
Sunday 8:30 PM
Life on the Fast Lane "
October 11, 1990
July 11, 1991
Thursday 8:00 PM
Bart Gets an F "
September 19, 1991
August 27, 1992
Colonel Homer "
September 24, 1992
May 13, 1993
"Lisa\'s First Word "
September 30, 1993
May 19, 1994
Treehouse of Horror IV "
September 4, 1994
May 21, 1995
Sunday 8:00 PM
Treehouse of Horror V "
September 17, 1995
May 19, 1996
Treehouse of Horror VI "
October 27, 1996
May 18, 1997
Sunday 8:30 PM (Episodes 1–3)
Sunday 8:00 PM (Episodes 4–25) 14.5
The Springfield Files "
September 21, 1997
May 17, 1998
Sunday 8:00 PM
The Two Mrs. Nahasapeemapetilons
The Two Mrs. Nahasapeemapetilons "
August 23, 1998
May 16, 1999
Maximum Homerdrive "
September 26, 1999
May 21, 2000
The Mansion Family
The Mansion Family "
November 1, 2000
May 20, 2001
Worst Episode Ever "
November 6, 2001
May 22, 2002
Tuesday 8:30 PM (Episode 1)
Sunday 8:00 PM (Episodes 2–20)
Sunday 7:30 PM (Episode 21)
Wednesday 8:00 PM (Episode 22) 12.5
The Parent Rap "
November 3, 2002
May 18, 2003
Sunday 8:00 PM (Episodes 1–11, 13–21)
Sunday 8:30 PM (Episodes 12, 22) 14.4
"I\'m Spelling as Fast as I Can "
November 2, 2003
May 23, 2004
Sunday 8:00 PM
I, (Annoyed Grunt)-Bot "
November 7, 2004
May 15, 2005
Sunday 8:00 PM (Episodes 1–7, 9–16, 18, 20)
Sunday 10:30 PM (Episode 8)
Sunday 8:30 PM (Episodes 17, 19, 21) 10.2
"Homer and Ned\'s Hail Mary Pass "
September 11, 2005
May 21, 2006
Sunday 8:00 PM
Treehouse of Horror XVI "
September 10, 2006
May 20, 2007
The Wife Aquatic "
September 23, 2007
May 18, 2008
Treehouse of Horror XVIII "
September 28, 2008
May 17, 2009
Treehouse of Horror XIX "
September 27, 2009
May 23, 2010
Once Upon a Time in Springfield
Once Upon a Time in Springfield "
September 26, 2010
May 22, 2011
"Moms I\'d Like to Forget "
September 25, 2011
May 20, 2012
"The D\'oh-cial Network "
September 30, 2012
May 19, 2013
Homer Goes to Prep School "
September 29, 2013
May 18, 2014
Steal This Episode "
September 28, 2014
May 17, 2015
The Man Who Came to Be Dinner "
September 27, 2015
May 22, 2016
Teenage Mutant Milk-Caused Hurdles "
September 25, 2016
May 21, 2017 (2017-05-21)
Pork and Burns "
The Simpsons was the Fox network's first television series to rank
among a season's top 30 highest-rated shows. In 1990, Bart quickly
became one of the most popular characters on television in what was
termed "Bartmania". He became the most prevalent Simpsons
character on memorabilia, such as T-shirts . In the early 1990s,
millions of T-shirts featuring Bart were sold; as many as one million
were sold on some days. Believing Bart to be a bad role model,
several American public schools banned T-shirts featuring Bart next to
captions such as "I'm Bart Simpson. Who the hell are you?" and
"Underachiever ('And proud of it, man!')".
The Simpsons merchandise
sold well and generated $2 billion in revenue during the first 14
months of sales. Because of his popularity, Bart was often the most
promoted member of the
Simpson family in advertisements for the show,
even for episodes in which he was not involved in the main plot.
Due to the show's success, over the summer of 1990 the Fox Network
decided to switch The Simpsons' time slot so that it would move from
8:00 p.m. ET on Sunday night to the same time on Thursday, where it
would compete with
The Cosby Show
The Cosby Show on
NBC , the number one show at the
time. Through the summer, several news outlets published stories
about the supposed "Bill vs. Bart" rivalry. "
Bart Gets an F "
(season two , 1990) was the first episode to air against The Cosby
Show, and it received a lower
Nielsen ratings , tying for eighth
Cosby Show, which had an 18.5 rating. The rating is based
on the number of household televisions that were tuned into the show,
Nielsen Media Research estimated that 33.6 million viewers watched
the episode, making it the number one show in terms of actual viewers
that week. At the time, it was the most watched episode in the history
of the Fox Network, and it is still the highest rated episode in the
history of The Simpsons. The show moved back to its Sunday slot in
1994 and has remained there ever since.
The Simpsons has been praised by many critics, being described as
"the most irreverent and unapologetic show on the air." In a 1990
review of the show, Ken Tucker of
Entertainment Weekly described it as
"the American family at its most complicated, drawn as simple
cartoons. It's this neat paradox that makes millions of people turn
away from the three big networks on Sunday nights to concentrate on
The Simpsons." Tucker would also describe the show as a "pop-cultural
phenomenon, a prime-time cartoon show that appeals to the entire
RUN LENGTH ACHIEVEMENTS
On February 9, 1997,
The Simpsons surpassed
The Flintstones with the
episode "The Itchy & Scratchy ">'s record of 435 episodes and is now
Guinness World Records
Guinness World Records as the world's longest running
sitcom (in terms of episode count). In October 2004, Scooby-Doo
The Simpsons as the American animated show with the
highest number of episodes. However, network executives in April 2005
again cancelled Scooby-Doo, which finished with 371 episodes, and The
Simpsons reclaimed the title with 378 episodes at the end of their
seventeenth season. In May 2007,
The Simpsons reached their 400th
episode at the end of the eighteenth season. While
The Simpsons has
the record for the number of episodes by an American animated show,
other animated series have surpassed The Simpsons. For example, the
Japanese anime series Sazae-san has over 7,000 episodes to its credit.
In 2009, Fox began a year-long celebration of the show titled "Best.
20 Years. Ever." to celebrate the 20th anniversary of the premiere of
The Simpsons. One of the first parts of the celebration is the
"Unleash Your Yellow" contest in which entrants must design a poster
for the show. The celebration ended on January 10, 2010 (almost 20
years after "
Bart the Genius " aired on January 14, 1990), with The
Simpsons 20th Anniversary
Special – In 3-D! On Ice! , a documentary
special by documentary filmmaker
Morgan Spurlock that examines the
"cultural phenomenon of The Simpsons".
As of the twenty-first season (2009–2010),
The Simpsons became the
longest-running American scripted primetime television series, having
Gunsmoke . However, Gunsmoke's episode count of 635 episodes
surpasses The Simpsons, which will not reach that mark until some time
in its 29th season or so, under normal programming schedules.
Gunsmoke was a full-hour series for its latter fourteen
The Simpsons is the longest-running half-hour series in
primetime television. In May 2015, Fox renewed the show up to the end
of a 28th season. On November 4, 2016,
The Simpsons was renewed for
season 29 (2017-18) and season 30 (2018-19), surpassing
the most episodes of a scripted primetime TV series. During Season
Norman Lear will make a cameo as himself in a scene involving the
theme song from one of his TV shows and Shaquille O\'Neal will make a
cameo in an episode where Homer asks for his help.
Ed Sheeran will
guest star as Brendan, a musician with whom Lisa becomes smitten in
the episode "Haw-Haw Land", a spoof of the movie La La Land . Nikolaj
Coster-Waldau will guest star on "The Serfsons", which executive
Matt Selman describes as “a love letter to the fantasy
genre of books and movies and TV shows.”
AWARDS AND ACCOLADES
Main article: List of awards and nominations received by The Simpsons
The Simpsons has been awarded a star on the Hollywood Walk of
The Simpsons has won dozens of awards since it debuted as a series,
including 31 Primetime Emmy Awards , 30 Annie Awards and a Peabody
Award . In a 1999 issue celebrating the 20th century's greatest
achievements in arts and entertainment, Time magazine named The
Simpsons the century's best television series. In that same issue,
Bart Simpson in the
Time 100 , the publication's list of
the century's 100 most influential people. Bart was the only
fictional character on the list. On January 14, 2000, the Simpsons
were awarded a star on the
Hollywood Walk of Fame
Hollywood Walk of Fame . Also in 2000,
Entertainment Weekly magazine TV critic Ken Tucker named The Simpsons
the greatest television show of the 1990s . Furthermore, viewers of
the UK television channel
Channel 4 have voted
The Simpsons at the top
of two polls: 2001's 100 Greatest Kids' TV shows, and 2005's The 100
Greatest Cartoons, with
Homer Simpson voted into first place in
2001's 100 Greatest TV Characters. Homer would also place ninth on
Entertainment Weekly's list of the "50 Greatest TV icons". In 2002,
The Simpsons ranked #8 on TV Guide\'s 50 Greatest TV Shows of All Time
, and in 2007 it was included in Time's list of the "100 Best TV
Shows of All Time". In 2008 the show was placed in first on
Entertainment Weekly's "Top 100 Shows of the Past 25 Years". Empire
named it the greatest TV show of all time. In 2010, Entertainment
Weekly named Homer "the greatest character of the last 20 years",
while in 2013 the
Writers Guild of America listed
The Simpsons as the
11th "best written" series in television history. In 2013, TV Guide
The Simpsons as the greatest TV cartoon of all time and the
tenth greatest show of all time. Television critics Alan Sepinwall
Matt Zoller Seitz ranked
The Simpsons as the greatest American TV
series of all time in their 2016 book TV (The Book).
Bart's rebellious, bad boy nature, which underlies his misbehavior
and rarely leads to any punishment, led some parents and conservatives
to characterize him as a poor role model for children. In schools,
educators claimed that Bart was a "threat to learning" because of his
"underachiever and proud of it" attitude and negative attitude
regarding his education. Others described him as "egotistical,
aggressive and mean-spirited". In a 1991 interview, Bill Cosby
described Bart as a bad role model for children, calling him "angry,
confused, frustrated". In response,
Matt Groening said, "That sums up
Bart, all right. Most people are in a struggle to be normal he thinks
normal is very boring, and does things that others just wished they
dare do." On January 27, 1992, then-President
George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush said,
"We are going to keep on trying to strengthen the American family, to
make American families a lot more like the Waltons and a lot less like
the Simpsons." The writers rushed out a tongue-in-cheek reply in the
form of a short segment which aired three days later before a rerun of
Stark Raving Dad " in which Bart replied, "Hey, we're just like the
Waltons. We're praying for an end to the Depression, too."
Various episodes of the show have generated controversy. The Simpsons
visit Australia in "
Bart vs. Australia " (season six , 1995) and
Brazil in "
Blame It on Lisa " (season 13 , 2002) and both episodes
generated controversy and negative reaction in the visited countries.
In the latter case, Rio de Janeiro's tourist board—which claimed
that the city was portrayed as having rampant street crime,
kidnappings, slums, and monkey and rat infestations—went so far as
to threaten Fox with legal action. Groening was a fierce and vocal
critic of the episode "
A Star Is Burns " (season six , 1995) which
featured a crossover with
The Critic . He felt that it was just an
advertisement for The Critic, and that people would incorrectly
associate the show with him. When he was unsuccessful in getting the
episode pulled, he had his name removed from the credits and went
public with his concerns, openly criticizing
James L. Brooks and
saying the episode "violates the Simpsons' universe." In response,
Brooks said, "I am furious with Matt, ... he's allowed his opinion,
but airing this publicly in the press is going too far. ... his
behavior right now is rotten."
The Principal and the Pauper " (season nine , 1997) is one of the
most controversial episodes of The Simpsons. Many fans and critics
reacted negatively to the revelation that Seymour Skinner , a
recurring character since the first season, was an impostor. The
episode has been criticized by Groening and by
Harry Shearer , who
provides the voice of Skinner. In a 2001 interview, Shearer recalled
that after reading the script, he told the writers, "That's so wrong.
You're taking something that an audience has built eight years or nine
years of investment in and just tossed it in the trash can for no good
reason, for a story we've done before with other characters. It's so
arbitrary and gratuitous, and it's disrespectful to the audience."
The show has reportedly been taken off the air in several countries.
China banned it from prime-time television in August 2006, "in an
effort to protect China's struggling animation studios." In 2008,
Venezuela barred the show from airing on morning television as it was
deemed "unsuitable for children". The same year, several Russian
Pentecostal churches demanded that The Simpsons,
South Park and some
other Western cartoons be removed from broadcast schedules "for
propaganda of various vices" and the broadcaster's license to be
revoked. However, the court decision later dismissed this request.
Finding Fatimah producer Sol Harris showing the decline
in quality of the show from Season 1 - Season 28
Critics' reviews of early Simpsons episodes praised the show for its
sassy humor, wit, realism, and intelligence. However, in the late
1990s, around the airing of season 10, the tone and emphasis of the
show began to change. Some critics started calling the show "tired".
By 2000, some long-term fans had become disillusioned with the show,
and pointed to its shift from character-driven plots to what they
perceived as an overemphasis on zany antics. Jim Schembri of The
Sydney Morning Herald attributed the decline in quality to an
abandonment of character-driven storylines in favor of and overuse of
celebrity cameo appearances and references to popular culture.
Schembri wrote: "The central tragedy of
The Simpsons is that it has
gone from commanding attention to merely being attention-seeking. It
began by proving that cartoon characters don't have to be caricatures;
they can be invested with real emotions. Now the show has in essence
fermented into a limp parody of itself. Memorable story arcs have been
sacrificed for the sake of celebrity walk-ons and punchline-hungry
In 2010, the BBC noted "the common consensus is that The Simpsons'
golden era ended after season nine ", and Todd Leopold of CNN, in an
article looking at its perceived decline, stated "for many fans ...
the glory days are long past." Similarly, Tyler Wilson of Coeur
d\'Alene Press has referred to seasons one to nine as the show's
"golden age", and Ian Nathan of Empire described the show's classic
era as being "say, the first ten seasons."
Jon Heacock of LucidWorks
stated that "for the first ten years , the show was consistently at
the top of its game", with "so many moments, quotations, and
references – both epic and obscure – that helped turn the Simpson
family into the cultural icons that they remain to this day."
Mike Scully , who was showrunner during seasons nine through twelve ,
has been the subject of criticism. Chris Suellentrop of Slate wrote
that "under Scully's tenure,
The Simpsons became, well, a cartoon ...
Episodes that once would have ended with Homer and Marge bicycling
into the sunset now end with Homer blowing a tranquilizer dart into
Marge's neck. The show's still funny, but it hasn't been touching in
years." When asked in 2007 how the series' longevity is sustained,
Scully joked: "Lower your quality standards. Once you've done that you
can go on forever."
Al Jean , showrunner since season thirteen, has also been the subject
of criticism, with some arguing that the show has continued to decline
in quality under his tenure. Former writers have complained that under
Jean, the show is "on auto-pilot", "too sentimental", and the episodes
are "just being cranked out." Some critics believe that the show has
"entered a steady decline under Jean and is no longer really funny."
John Ortved, author of The Simpsons: An Uncensored, Unauthorized
History , characterized the Jean era as "toothless", and criticized
what he perceived as the show's increase in social and political
commentary. Jean responded: "Well, it's possible that we've declined.
But honestly, I've been here the whole time and I do remember in
season two people saying, 'It's gone downhill.' If we'd listened to
that then we would have stopped after episode 13. I'm glad we didn't."
Harry Shearer criticized what he perceived as the show's
declining quality: "I rate the last three seasons as among the worst,
so season four looks very good to me now." Dan Castellaneta
responded: "I don't agree, ... I think Harry's issue is that the show
isn't as grounded as it was in the first three or four seasons, that
it's gotten crazy or a little more madcap. I think it organically
changes to stay fresh." Also in 2004 author Douglas Coupland
described claims of declining quality in the series as "hogwash",
The Simpsons hasn't fumbled the ball in fourteen years, it's
hardly likely to fumble it now." In an April 2006 interview, Groening
said: "I honestly don't see any end in sight. I think it's possible
that the show will become too financially cumbersome ... but right
now, the show is creatively, I think, as good or better than it's ever
been. The animation is incredibly detailed and imaginative, and the
stories do things that we haven't done before. So creatively there's
no reason to quit."
In 2016, popular culture writer Anna Leszkiewicz suggested that even
The Simpsons still holds cultural relevance, contemporary
appeal is only for the first ten seasons, with recent episodes only
garnering mainstream attention when a favorite character from the
golden era is killed off, or when new information and shock twists are
given for old characters. The series' ratings have also declined;
while the first season enjoyed an average of 13.4 million viewing
households per episode in the U.S., the twenty-first season had an
average of 7.2 million viewers.
Alan Sepinwall and
Matt Zoller Seitz argued in their 2016 book titled
TV (The Book) that the peak of
The Simpsons are "roughly seasons ",
and that despite the decline, episodes from the later seasons such as
Eternal Moonshine of the Simpson Mind " and "Holidays of Future
Passed " could be considered on par with the earlier classic episodes,
further stating that "even if you want to call the show today a thin
shadow of its former self, think about how mind-boggingly great its
former self had to be for so-diminished a version to be watchable at
The Simpsons (franchise)
Main article: List of
The Simpsons comics
Numerous Simpson-related comic books have been released over the
years. So far, nine comic book series have been published by Bongo
Comics since 1993. The first comic strips based on The Simpsons
appeared in 1991 in the magazine
Simpsons Illustrated , which was a
companion magazine to the show. The comic strips were popular and a
one-shot comic book titled Simpsons Comics and Stories , containing
four different stories, was released in 1993 for the fans. The book
was a success and due to this, the creator of The Simpsons, Matt
Groening, and his companions Bill Morrison , Mike Rote, Steve Vance
and Cindy Vance created the publishing company Bongo Comics. Issues
of Simpsons Comics , Bart Simpson\'s
Treehouse of Horror and Bart
Simpson have been collected and reprinted in trade paperbacks in the
United States by
The Simpsons Movie A
transformed into a
Kwik-E-Mart as part of a promotion for The Simpsons
20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox ,
Gracie Films , and
Film Roman produced The
Simpsons Movie , an animated film that was released on July 27, 2007.
The film was directed by long-time Simpsons producer David Silverman
and written by a team of Simpsons writers comprising Matt Groening,
James L. Brooks, Al Jean, George Meyer,
Mike Reiss , John Swartzwelder
Jon Vitti ,
David Mirkin ,
Mike Scully ,
Matt Selman , and Ian
Maxtone-Graham . Production of the film occurred alongside continued
writing of the series despite long-time claims by those involved in
the show that a film would enter production only after the series had
concluded. There had been talk of a possible feature-length Simpsons
film ever since the early seasons of the series. James L. Brooks
originally thought that the story of the episode "
Kamp Krusty " was
suitable for a film, but he encountered difficulties in trying to
expand the script to feature-length. For a long time, difficulties
such as lack of a suitable story and an already fully engaged crew of
writers delayed the project.
The Simpsons discography
Collections of original music featured in the series have been
released on the albums
Songs in the Key of Springfield , Go Simpsonic
The Simpsons and The Simpsons: Testify . Several songs have been
recorded with the purpose of a single or album release and have not
been featured on the show. The album
The Simpsons Sing the Blues was
released in September 1990 and was a success, peaking at #3 on the
Billboard 200 and becoming certified 2× platinum by the Recording
Industry Association of America . The first single from the album was
the pop rap song "
Do the Bartman ", performed by
Nancy Cartwright and
released on November 20, 1990. The song was written by Michael Jackson
, although he did not receive any credit.
The Yellow Album
The Yellow Album was
released in 1998, but received poor reception and did not chart in any
THE SIMPSONS RIDE
The Simpsons Ride
The Simpsons Ride at Universal
Studios Florida .
In 2007, it was officially announced that
The Simpsons Ride , a
simulator ride , would be implemented into the Universal Studios
Universal Studios Hollywood . It officially opened May
15, 2008 in Florida and May 19, 2008, in Hollywood. In the ride,
patrons are introduced to a cartoon theme park called Krustyland built
Krusty the Clown . However,
Sideshow Bob is loose from prison to
get revenge on Krusty and the
Simpson family . It features more than
24 regular characters from
The Simpsons and features the voices of the
regular cast members, as well as
Pamela Hayden ,
Russi Taylor and
Kelsey Grammer .
Harry Shearer did not participate in the ride, so
none of his characters have vocal parts. The Cover of The
Simpsons Skateboarding for the PS2
Further information: List of
The Simpsons video games
Numerous video games based on the show have been produced. Some of
the early games include
Konami 's arcade game
The Simpsons (1991) and
Acclaim Entertainment 's The Simpsons: Bart vs. the Space Mutants
(1991). More modern games include The Simpsons: Road Rage (2001),
The Simpsons: Hit celebrating that program's 40th anniversary). The
first day of the marathon was the highest rated broadcast day in the
history of the network so far, the ratings more than tripled that
those of regular prime time programming for FXX. Ratings during the
first six nights of the marathon grew night after night, with the
network ranking within the top 5 networks in basic cable each night.
On October 21, 2014, a digital service courtesy of the FXNOW app,
called Simpsons World, launched. Simpsons World has every episode of
the series accessible to authenticated FX subscribers, and is
available on game consoles such as
Xbox One , streaming devices such
Apple TV , and online via web browser. There was early
criticism of both wrong aspect ratios for earlier episodes and the
length of commercial breaks on the streaming service, but there are
now fewer commercial breaks during individual episodes. Later it was
announced that Simpsons World would now let users watch all of the SD
episodes in their original format.
In July 2017, all episodes were made available for purchase on the
iTunes Store .
See also: List of
The Simpsons books and List of
The Simpsons home
The popularity of
The Simpsons has made it a billion-dollar
merchandising industry. The title family and supporting characters
appear on everything from T-shirts to posters.
The Simpsons has been
used as a theme for special editions of well-known board games,
including Clue ,
Scrabble , Monopoly , Operation , and The Game of
Life , as well as the trivia games What Would Homer Do? and Simpsons
Jeopardy! . Several card games such as trump cards and The Simpsons
Trading Card Game have also been released. Many official or unofficial
Simpsons books such as episode guides have been published. Many
episodes of the show have been released on DVD and VHS over the years.
When the first season DVD was released in 2001, it quickly became the
best-selling television DVD in history, although it was later
overtaken by the first season of Chappelle\'s Show . In particular,
seasons one through seventeen have been released on DVD in the U.S.
Region 1 ), Europe (
Region 2 ) and Australia/New Zealand/Latin
Region 4 ). However, on April 19, 2015,
Al Jean announced
that the Season 17 DVD would be the last one ever produced, leaving
the collection from Season 1 to 17, Season 20 (released out of
schedule in 2009), with Seasons 18, 19, and 21 onwards unreleased.
Jean also stated that the deleted scenes and commentary would try to
be released to the Simpsons World app, and that they were pushing for
Simpsons World to be expanded outside of the U.S. Two years later,
however, on July 22, 2017, it was announced that Season 18 will be
released on December 5, 2017 on DVD.
In 2003, about 500 companies around the world were licensed to use
Simpsons characters in their advertising. As a promotion for The
Simpsons Movie , twelve
7-Eleven stores were transformed into
Kwik-E-Marts and sold
The Simpsons related products. These included
"Buzz Cola", "Krusty-O" cereal, pink doughnuts with sprinkles, and
In 2008 consumers around the world spent $750 million on merchandise
related to The Simpsons, with half of the amount originating from the
United States. By 2009,
20th Century Fox
20th Century Fox had greatly increased
merchandising efforts. On April 9, 2009, the United States Postal
Service unveiled a series of five 44-cent stamps featuring Homer,
Marge, Bart, Lisa and Maggie, to commemorate the show's twentieth
The Simpsons is the first television series still in
production to receive this recognition. The stamps, designed by Matt
Groening, were made available for purchase on May 7, 2009.
Approximately one billion were printed, but only 318 million were
sold, costing the Postal Service $1.2 million.
* ^ Ortved, John (October 12, 2010). The Simpsons: An Uncensored,
Unauthorized History. Faber & Faber. p. 287. ISBN 978-0-86547-939-5 .
Retrieved February 2, 2014.
* ^ Facts On File, Incorporated (2010). Animation. Infobase
Publishing. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-4381-3249-5 . Retrieved February 2, 2014.
* ^ Irwin, William; Conard, Mark T.; Skoble, Aeon J. (August 21,
The Simpsons and Philosophy: The D\'oh! of Homer. Open Court.
p. 1972. ISBN 978-0-8126-9694-3 . Retrieved February 2, 2014.
* ^ Porter, Rick (November 4, 2016). "\'The Simpsons\' is forever:
Series renewed through Season 30 on FOX".
TV by the Numbers .
Retrieved November 4, 2016.
* ^ A B Wilson, Tyler (July 27, 2007). "The 10 best 'Simpsons'
episodes out on DVD". Coeur d\'Alene Press . p. D3.
* ^ A B "The Simpsons: 10 classic episodes". BBC News Online.
January 14, 2010. Retrieved January 15, 2010.
* ^ A B Nathan, Ian. "
The Simpsons Movie (PG)". Empire . Retrieved
July 25, 2007.
* ^ A B "Best. Episodes. Ever. \'The Simpsons\': Seasons 1–10".
* ^ "The Best of the Century". Time .
* ^ "The best animated series ever".
The A.V. Club .
* ^ A B Turner 2004 , p. 28.
* ^ Oakley, Bill (2005).
The Simpsons season 7 DVD commentary for
the episode "Home Sweet Homediddly-Dum-Doodily" (DVD). 20th Century
* ^ "
I, (Annoyed Grunt)-Bot ". The Simpsons. 2004-01-11. Fox.
* ^ Rabin, Nathan (April 26, 2006). "Matt Groening: Interview". The
A.V. Club. Retrieved October 22, 2006.
* ^ For example, in the 1991 episode "
I Married Marge ", Bart (who
is always 10 years old) appears to be born in 1980 or 1981. But in the
1995 episode "
And Maggie Makes Three ", Maggie (who always appears to
be around 1 year old) appears to be born in 1993 or 1994.
* ^ Turner 2004 , pp. 289–290.
* ^ Turner 2004 , p. 30.
* ^ Hamilton, Don (July 19, 2002). "Matt Groening\'s Portland".
Portland Tribune . Archived from the original on February 24, 2007.
Retrieved August 4, 2007.
* ^ "GeoNames".
GeoNames . Retrieved March 19, 2010.
* ^ De La Roca, Claudia (May 2012). "
Matt Groening Reveals the
Location of the Real Springfield". Smithsonian . Smithsonian.com.
Retrieved April 10, 2012.
* ^ "Is
The Simpsons Actually Set in Australia?".
Time Magazine .
February 22, 2015. Retrieved February 24, 2015.
* ^ A B C D The Simpsons: America's First Family (television
documentary). BBC. 2000.
* ^ Groening, Matt (February 14, 2003). "Fresh Air". NPR
(Interview). Interview with David Bianculli. Philadelphia: WHYY .
Retrieved August 8, 2007.
* ^ Richmond & Coffman 1997 , p. 14.
* ^ A B C D E F Deneroff, Harvey (January 2000). "Matt Groening's
Baby Turns 10". Animation. 14 (1): 10, 12.
* ^ Beck 2005 , p. 239.
* ^ A B C D Cagle, Daryl. "The David Silverman Interview".
msnbc.com . Archived from the original on June 7, 2008. Retrieved June
* ^ Kuipers, Dean (April 15, 2004). "\'3rd Degree: Harry
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