The Holocaust in
Luxembourg refers to the persecution and
near-annihilation of the 3,500-strong Jewish population of Luxembourg
begun shortly after the start of the German occupation during World
War II , when the country was officially incorporated into Nazi
Germany . The persecution lasted until October 1941, when the Germans
declared the territory to be free of Jews who had been deported to
extermination camps and ghettos in Eastern Europe.
* 1 History
* 2 See also
* 3 References
* 4 Further reading
* 5 External links
Before the war,
Luxembourg had a population of about 3,500 Jews, many
of them newly arrived in the country to escape persecution in Germany.
Nuremberg Laws , which had applied in Germany since 1935, were
Luxembourg from September 1940 and Jews were encouraged to
leave the country for
Vichy France . Emigration was forbidden in
October 1941, but not before nearly 2,500 had fled. In practice they
were little better off in Vichy France, and many of those who left
were later deported and killed. From September 1941, all Jews in
Luxembourg were forced to wear the yellow Star of David badge to
From October 1941, Nazi authorities began to deport the around 800
remaining Jews from
Łódź Ghetto and the concentration
camps at Theresienstadt and Auschwitz . Around 700 were deported from
the Transit Camp at Fuenfbrunnen in Ulflingen in the north of
Luxembourg was declared "Judenrein " ("cleansed of Jews") except for
those in hiding on 19 October 1941. Of the original Jewish
population of Luxembourg, only 36 are known to have survived the war.
World War II
World War II portal
World War II
World War II
* ^ A B C D E F "Luxembourg". United States Holocaust Memorial
Museum . Retrieved 11 May 2013.
* ^ A B "The Destruction of the Jews of Luxembourg". Holocaust
Education and Archive Research Team. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
* ^ "Commémoration de la Shoah au Luxembourg". Government.lu. 3
July 2005. Retrieved 11 May 2013.
* Artuso, Vincent (October 2012). "Des excuses, mais au nom de qui?
L'administration luxembourgeoise et la Shoah". Forum (322): 9–11.
* Cerf, Paul. L'étoile juive au Luxembourg. Luxembourg: Editions
* Clesse, René (1991). "Die Natur is gnädiger als die Menschen".
Ons Stad. 36: 22–25.
* Clesse, René (2002). "Shoah in Luxemburg". Ons Stad. 71: 18–19.
* Hoffmann, Serge (1996). "Luxemburg - Asyl und Gastfreundschaft in
einem kleinen Land". In Benz, Wolfgang; Wetzel, Juliane. Solidarität
und Hilfe für Juden während der NS-Zeit. Regionalstudien I: Polen,
Rumänien, Griechenland, Luxemburg, Norwegen, Schweiz. Berlin:
Metropol-Verl. pp. 187–204. ISBN 9783926893437 .