THE ECONOMIST is an
English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper
owned by the
Economist Group and edited at offices in
Continuous publication began under its founder, James Wilson , in
September 1843. In 2015 its average weekly circulation was a little
over 1.5 million, about half of which were sold in the United States.
The publication belongs to the
Economist Group . It is 50% owned by
the English branch of the
Rothschild family and by the Agnelli family
through its holding company Exor . The remaining 50% is held by
private investors including the editors and staff. The Rothschilds
and the Agnellis are represented on the board of directors. A board
of trustees formally appoints the editor, who cannot be removed
without its permission. Although The
Economist has a global emphasis
and scope, about two-thirds of the 75 staff journalists are based in
London borough of Westminster . For the year to March 2016 the
Economist Group declared operating profit of £61m. Previous major
Pearson PLC .
Economist takes an editorial stance of classical and economic
liberalism that supports free trade , globalisation , free immigration
, and cultural liberalism (such as supporting legal recognition for
same-sex marriage or drug liberalisation ). The publication has
described itself as "...a product of the Caledonian liberalism of Adam
David Hume ". It targets highly educated, cultured readers
and claims an audience containing many influential executives and
policy-makers. The publication's CEO described this recent global
change, which was first noticed in the 1990s and accelerated in the
beginning of the 21st century, as a "new age of Mass Intelligence".
* 1 History
* 1.1 List of editors
* 2 Opinions
* 3 Tone and voice
* 4 Circulation
* 5 Letters
* 6 Features
* 7 The
* 7.1 Innovation Awards
* 7.2 Writing prize
* 8 Censorship
* 9 Criticism, accusation and praise
* 9.1 Praise and accolades
* 10 Notes
* 11 References
* 12 Further reading
* 13 External links
Front page of The
Economist on 16 May 1846
Economist was founded by the British businessman and banker James
Wilson in 1843, to advance the repeal of the
Corn Laws , a system of
import tariffs. A prospectus for the "newspaper" from 5 August 1843
enumerated thirteen areas of coverage that its editors wanted the
publication to focus on:
* Original leading articles , in which free-trade principles will be
most rigidly applied to all the important questions of the day.
* Articles relating to some practical, commercial, agricultural, or
foreign topic of passing interest, such as foreign treaties.
* An article on the elementary principles of political economy ,
applied to practical experience, covering the laws related to prices,
wages, rent, exchange, revenue and taxes.
* Parliamentary reports, with particular focus on commerce,
agriculture and free trade.
* Reports and accounts of popular movements advocating free trade.
* General news from the Court of St. James\'s , the Metropolis , the
Provinces , Scotland, and Ireland.
* Commercial topics such as changes in fiscal regulations, the state
and prospects of the markets, imports and exports, foreign news, the
state of the manufacturing districts, notices of important new
mechanical improvements, shipping news, the money market, and the
progress of railways and public companies.
* Agricultural topics, including the application of geology and
chemistry ; notices of new and improved implements , state of crops,
markets, prices, foreign markets and prices converted into English
money; from time to time, in some detail, the plans pursued in
Belgium, Switzerland, and other well-cultivated countries.
* Colonial and foreign topics, including trade, produce, political
and fiscal changes, and other matters, including exposés on the evils
of restriction and protection, and the advantages of free intercourse
* Law reports, confined chiefly to areas important to commerce,
manufacturing, and agriculture.
* Books, confined chiefly, but not so exclusively, to commerce,
manufacturing, and agriculture, and including all treatises on
political economy, finance, or taxation.
* A commercial gazette , with prices and statistics of the week.
* Correspondence and inquiries from the news magazine's readers.
Wilson described it as taking part in "a severe contest between
intelligence, which presses forward, and an unworthy, timid ignorance
obstructing our progress", a phrase which still appears on its
masthead as the publication's mission.
It has long been respected as "one of the most competent and subtle
Western periodicals on public affairs". The publication was a major
source of financial and economic information for
Karl Marx in the
formulation of socialist theory; he wrote: "the
London Economist, the
European organ of the aristocracy of finance, described most
strikingly the attitude of this class."
Its logo was designed in 1959 by
Reynolds Stone .
In January 2012, The
Economist launched a new weekly section devoted
China , the first new country section since the
introduction of a section about the United States in 1942.
In August 2015, The
Economist Group bought back 5 million of its
shares (worth $284 million) from Pearson. Pearson's remaining shares
(worth $447 million) would be sold to Exor .
LIST OF EDITORS
Walter Bagehot , one of the early Editors of The
The editors of The
Economist have been:
* James Wilson 1843–1857 (
Herbert Spencer was sub-editor from 1848
Richard Holt Hutton 1857–1861
Walter Bagehot , 1861–1877
Daniel Conner Lathbury , 1877–1881 (jointly)
Inglis Palgrave , 1877–1883 (jointly)
* Edward Johnstone, 1883–1907
Francis Wrigley Hirst , 1907–1916
* Hartley Withers, 1916–1921
* Sir Walter Layton , 1922–1938
* Geoffrey Crowther , 1938–1956
Donald Tyerman , 1956–1965
Alastair Burnet , 1965–1974
* Andrew Knight , 1974–1986
Rupert Pennant-Rea , 1986–1993
Bill Emmott , 1993–2006
John Micklethwait , 2006–2014
Zanny Minton Beddoes , 2015–present
Main article: The
Economist editorial stance The Economist
Building (until 2017), St James's Street, by Alison and Peter Smithson
When the news magazine was founded, the term "economism " denoted
what would today be termed "economic liberalism ". The Economist
generally supports free trade , globalisation , and free immigration
. The activist and journalist
George Monbiot has described it as
neo-liberal while occasionally accepting the propositions of Keynesian
economics where deemed more "reasonable". The news magazine favours a
carbon tax to fight global warming . According to one former editor,
Bill Emmott, "the Economist's philosophy has always been liberal, not
conservative". Individual contributors take diverse views. The
Economist favours the support, through central banks , of banks and
other important corporations. This principle can, in a much more
limited form, be traced back to
Walter Bagehot , the third editor of
The Economist, who argued that the Bank of England should support
major banks that got into difficulties.
Karl Marx deemed The Economist
the "European organ" of "the aristocracy of finance".
The news magazine has also supported liberal causes on social issues
such as recognition of gay marriages, legalisation of drugs,
criticises the US tax model , and seems to support some government
regulation on health issues, such as smoking in public, as well as
bans on spanking children. The
Economist consistently favours guest
worker programmes, parental choice of school, and amnesties and once
published an "obituary" of God. The
Economist also has a long record
of supporting gun control.
Economist has endorsed the Labour Party (in 2005) the
Conservative Party (in 2010 and 2015), and the Liberal Democrats (in
2017) at general election time in Britain, and both Republican and
Democratic candidates in the United States. Economist.com puts its
stance this way:
What, besides free trade and free markets, does The
in? "It is to the Radicals that The
Economist still likes to think of
itself as belonging. The extreme centre is the paper's historical
position". That is as true today as when Crowther said it in 1955.
Economist considers itself the enemy of privilege, pomposity and
predictability. It has backed conservatives such as
Ronald Reagan and
Margaret Thatcher . It has supported the Americans in
Vietnam . But it
has also endorsed
Harold Wilson and
Bill Clinton , and espoused a
variety of liberal causes: opposing capital punishment from its
earliest days, while favouring penal reform and decolonisation, as
well as—more recently—gun control and gay marriage.
Economist frequently accuses figures and countries of corruption
or dishonesty. In recent years, for example, it criticised Paul
World Bank president;
Silvio Berlusconi , Italy's Prime
Minister (who dubbed it The Ecommunist);
Laurent-Désiré Kabila ,
the late president of the
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Democratic Republic of the Congo ; Robert
Mugabe , the head of government in
Zimbabwe ; and, recently, Cristina
Fernández de Kirchner , the president of Argentina. The Economist
also called for Bill Clinton\'s impeachment and, after the emergence
Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse
Abu Ghraib torture and prisoner abuse , for
Donald Rumsfeld 's
resignation. Though The
Economist initially gave vigorous support for
the US-led invasion of Iraq , it later called the operation "bungled
from the start" and criticised the "almost criminal negligence" of the
Bush Administration's handling of the war, while maintaining, in 2007,
that pulling out in the short term would be irresponsible. In the
2004 US election, the editors "reluctantly" backed John Kerry. In
the 2008 US election The
Barack Obama , while using
the front cover of the issue published on the eve of the election to
promote his candidacy. In the 2012 US election,
Barack Obama was
again endorsed: the editorial said that they preferred Obama on the
economy, foreign policy and health care, but criticised him for
running a negative campaign against Romney and for a "...poor
appreciation of commerce."
TONE AND VOICE
Though it has many individual columns, by tradition and current
practice the magazine ensures a uniform voice—aided by the anonymity
of writers—throughout its pages, as if most articles were written
by a single author, which may be perceived to display dry, understated
wit, and precise use of language. The
traditionally—albeit not always consistently—persisted in
referring to itself as a "newspaper", rather than a newsmagazine, due
to the gradual pace of its transformation in format from newsprint to
glossy colour (articles were printed on the front page into the 1950s)
in addition to its general focus on current affairs as opposed to
The Economist's treatment of economics presumes a working familiarity
with fundamental concepts of classical economics. For instance, it
does not explain terms like invisible hand , macroeconomics , or
demand curve , and may take just six or seven words to explain the
theory of comparative advantage . Articles involving economics do not
presume any formal training on the part of the reader and aim to be
accessible to the educated layman. It usually does not translate short
French (and German) quotes or phrases. It does describe the business
or nature of even well-known entities, writing, for example, "Goldman
Sachs, an investment bank".
Many articles include some witticism; image captions are often
humorous puns and the letters section usually concludes with an odd or
light-hearted letter. These efforts at humour have sometimes had a
mixed reception. For example, the cover of the 20 September 2003
issue, headlined by a story on the WTO ministerial meeting in Cancún,
featured a cactus giving the middle finger . Readers sent both
positive and negative letters in response.
Articles often take a definite editorial stance and almost never
carry a byline . Not even the name of the editor (since 2015, Zanny
Minton Beddoes ) is printed in the issue. It is a long-standing
tradition that an editor's only signed article during their tenure is
written on the occasion of their departure from the position. The
author of a piece is named in certain circumstances: when notable
persons are invited to contribute opinion pieces; when journalists of
Economist compile special reports (previously known as surveys);
for the Year in Review special edition; and to highlight a potential
conflict of interest over a book review. The names of The Economist
editors and correspondents can be located on the media directory pages
of the website. Online blog pieces are signed with the initials of
the writer and authors of print stories are allowed to note their
authorship from their personal web sites. "This approach is not
without its faults (we have four staff members with the initials
"J.P.", for example) but is the best compromise between total
anonymity and full bylines, in our view", wrote one anonymous writer
of The Economist.
The editors say this is necessary because "collective voice and
personality matter more than the identities of individual journalists"
and reflects "a collaborative effort". In most articles, authors
refer to themselves as "your correspondent" or "this reviewer". The
writers of the titled opinion columns tend to refer to themselves by
the title (hence, a sentence in the "Lexington" column might read
"Lexington was informed...").
The American author Michael Lewis has criticised the magazine's
editorial anonymity, labeling it a means to hide the youth and
inexperience of those writing articles. In 1991 Lewis quipped: "The
magazine is written by young people pretending to be old people ... If
American readers got a look at the pimply complexions of their
economic gurus, they would cancel their subscriptions in droves".
Though widely believed, this description was (and is) factually false:
the four editors appointed in 1965, 1974, 1986 and 1993 were all aged
close to 37, no great age in journalism, even on appointment; and a
fair number of their colleagues were older than they. Although
individual articles are written anonymously, there is no secrecy over
who the writers are as they are listed on The Economist's website,
which also provides summaries of their careers and academic
John Ralston Saul
John Ralston Saul describes The
Economist as a "...magazine which
hides the names of the journalists who write its articles in order to
create the illusion that they dispense disinterested truth rather than
opinion. This sales technique, reminiscent of pre-Reformation
Catholicism, is not surprising in a publication named after the social
science most given to wild guesses and imaginary facts presented in
the guise of inevitability and exactitude. That it is the Bible of the
corporate executive indicates to what extent received wisdom is the
daily bread of a managerial civilization."
Each of The
Economist issue's official date range is from Saturday to
the following Friday. The
Economist posts each week's new content
online at approximately 2100 Thursday evening UK time, ahead of the
official publication date.
In 1877, the publication's circulation was 3,700, and in 1920 it had
risen to 6,000. Circulation increased rapidly after 1945, reaching
100,000 by 1970.
Circulation is audited by the Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC).
From around 30,000 in 1960 it has risen to near 1 million by 2000 and
by 2016 to about 1.3 million. Sales inside North America were in 2007
around 54 per cent of the total, with sales in the UK making up 14 per
cent of the total and continental Europe 19 per cent. The Economist
claims sales, both by subscription and at newsagents, in over 200
countries. Of its American readers, two out of three earn more than
$100,000 a year.
Economist once boasted about its limited circulation. In the
early 1990s it used the slogan "The
Economist – not read by millions
of people". "Never in the history of journalism has so much been read
for so long by so few," wrote Geoffrey Crowther , a former editor.
Newspaper Limited is a wholly owned subsidiary of The
Economist Group . The publications of the group include the CFO brand
family as well as the annual The World in..., the lifestyle bimonthly
European Voice , and
Roll Call . Sir Evelyn Robert de
Rothschild was Chairman of the company from 1972 to 1989.
Economist frequently receives letters from senior businesspeople,
politicians, ambassadors, and from spokespeople for various government
departments, non-governmental organisations and lobbies. Well-written
or witty responses from anyone are considered, and controversial
issues frequently produce a torrent of letters. For example, the
survey of corporate social responsibility , published January 2005,
produced largely critical letters from
Oxfam , the World Food
United Nations Global Compact , the Chairman of
BT Group ,
an ex-Director of Shell and the UK
Institute of Directors .
Many of the letters published are critical of its stance or
commentary. After The
Economist ran a critique of Amnesty
International and human rights in general in its issue dated 24 March
2007, its letters page ran a vibrant reply from Amnesty, as well as
several other letters in support of the organisation, including one
from the head of the
United Nations Commission on Human Rights .
Rebuttals from officials within regimes such as the Singapore
government are routinely printed, to comply with local right-of-reply
laws without compromising editorial independence.
It is extremely rare for any comment by The
Economist to appear
alongside any published letter. Letters published in the news magazine
are typically between 150 and 200 words long (and began with the
salutation "Sir" until the editorship of Zanny Minton Beddoes, the
first female editor; they now have no salutation). Previous to a
change in procedure, all responses to on-line articles were usually
published in "The Inbox". Comments can now be made directly under
Visualisation of the
Big Mac Index
Big Mac Index
The Economist's primary focus is world events, politics and business,
but it also runs regular sections on science and technology as well as
books and the arts. Approximately every two weeks, the publication
includes an in-depth special report (previously called surveys ) on a
given topic. The five main categories are Countries and Regions,
Business, Finance and Economics, Science and Technology, and Other.
Every three months, it publishes a technology report called Technology
Quarterly or TQ, a special section focusing on recent trends and
developments in science and technology.
Since July 2007, there has also been a complete audio edition of the
news magazine available 9pm
London time on Thursdays. The audio
version of The
Economist is produced by the production company Talking
Issues . The company records the full text of the news magazine in mp3
format, including the extra pages in the UK edition. The weekly 130 MB
download is free for subscribers and available for a fee for
The publication's writers adopt a tight style that seeks to include
the maximum amount of information in a limited space. David G.
Bradley , publisher of
The Atlantic , described the formula as "a
consistent world view expressed, consistently, in tight and engaging
There is a section of economic statistics . Tables such as employment
statistics are published each week and there are special statistical
features too. It is unique among British weeklies in providing
authoritative coverage of official statistics and its rankings of
international statistics have been decisive. In addition, The
Economist is known for its
Big Mac Index
Big Mac Index , which it first published in
1986, which uses the price of the hamburger in different countries as
an informal measure of the purchasing power of currencies.
The publication runs several opinion columns whose names reflect
* Analects (China) – named after
The Analects , a collection of
Confucian sayings, this column was established in February 2012.
* Bagehot (Britain) – named for
Walter Bagehot /ˈbædʒət/ ,
19th-century British constitutional expert and early editor of The
Economist. From July 2010 until June 2012 it was written by David
Rennie . Since April 2017 it has been written by
Adrian Wooldridge .
* Bello (Latin America) – named for
Andrés Bello , a diplomat,
poet, legislator and philosopher, who lived and worked in Chile. The
column was established in January 2014 and is written by Michael Reid
Charlemagne (Europe) – named for
Charlemagne , Emperor of the
Frankish Empire . It is written by Tom Nuttall and earlier it was
written by David Rennie (2007–2010) and by Anton La Guardia
* Lexington (United States) – named for
Lexington, Massachusetts ,
the site of the beginning of the
American Revolutionary War
American Revolutionary War . From
June 2010 until May 2012 it was written by Peter David , until his
death in a car accident.
* Buttonwood (Finance) – named for the buttonwood tree where early
Wall Street traders gathered. Until September 2006 this was available
only as an on-line column, but it is now included in the print
edition. It is written by
Philip Coggan .
Banyan (Asia) – named for the banyan tree, this column was
established in April 2009 and focuses on various issues across the
Asian continent, and is written by
Dominic Ziegler .
Baobab (Africa "> Innovation Awards Logo
Economist sponsors the yearly "
Economist Innovation Awards", in
the categories of bioscience, computing and communications, energy and
the environment, social and economic innovation, business-process
innovation, consumer products, and a special "no boundaries" category.
The awards have been held since 2002. Nominations are held between 2
and 30 April. The award ceremony is then hosted on 15 November.
Choices are based off the following factors:
* How much revenue their innovation has made their company or its
economic impact on a specific good cause or society in general
* The effect their work has had on the marketplace (or if it's
created a whole new marketplace altogether)
* The impact their innovation has had on a new type of science or
In 1999, The
Economist organized a global futurist writing
The World in 2050 . Co-sponsored by
Royal Dutch/Shell ,
the competition included a first prize of US$ 20,000 and publication
in The Economist's annual flagship publication, The World In. Over
3,000 entries from around the world were submitted via a website set
up for the purpose and at various
Royal Dutch Shell offices worldwide.
The judging panel included
Bill Emmott ,
Esther Dyson , Sir Mark
Moody-Stuart (then-chairman of
Royal Dutch Shell ), and Matt Ridley
(a British scientist and member of the
House of Lords
House of Lords ).
Sections of The
Economist criticising authoritarian regimes are
frequently removed from the magazine by the authorities in those
Economist regularly has difficulties with the ruling
Singapore , the People\'s Action Party , which had
successfully sued it, in a Singaporean court, for libel .
The Economist, like many other publications, is subjected to
India whenever it depicts a map of
Kashmir . The maps
are stamped by Indian Customs officials as being "neither correct, nor
authentic". Issues are sometimes delayed, but not stopped or seized.
On 15 June 2006,
Iran banned the sale of The
Economist when it
published a map labelling the
Persian Gulf simply as "Gulf"—a choice
that derives its political significance from the
Persian Gulf naming
In a separate incident, the government of
Zimbabwe went further and
imprisoned The Economist's correspondent there,
Andrew Meldrum . The
government charged him with violating a statute on "publishing
untruth" for writing that a woman was decapitated by supporters of the
Zimbabwe African National Union – Patriotic Front party. The
decapitation claim was retracted and allegedly fabricated by the
woman's husband. The correspondent was later acquitted, only to
receive a deportation order.
On 19 August 2013, The
Economist disclosed that the Missouri
Department of Corrections had censored its issue of 29 June 2013.
According to the letter sent by the department, prisoners were not
allowed to receive the issue because "1. it constitutes a threat to
the security or discipline of the institution; 2. may facilitate or
encourage criminal activity; or 3. may interfere with the
rehabilitation of an offender".
CRITICISM, ACCUSATION AND PRAISE
James Fallows argued in
The Washington Post
The Washington Post that The
Economist used editorial lines that contradicted the news stories they
purported to highlight. In 1999,
Andrew Sullivan complained in The
New Republic that it uses "marketing genius" to make up for
deficiencies in analysis and original reporting, resulting in "a kind
of Reader\'s Digest " for America's corporate elite. Although he
acknowledged that the magazine's claim about the dotcom bubble
bursting would probably be accurate in the long run (the bubble burst
in the US market two years later), Sullivan pointed out that the
magazine greatly exaggerated the danger the US economy was in after
the Dow Jones fell to 7,400 during the 1998 Labor Day weekend. He also
said that The
Economist is editorially constrained because so many
scribes graduated from the same college at
Oxford University ,
Magdalen College .
The Guardian wrote that "its writers rarely see a
political or economic problem that cannot be solved by the trusted
three-card trick of privatisation, deregulation and liberalisation".
Jon Meacham , former editor of
Newsweek and a self-described
"fan", criticised The Economist's focus on analysis over original
In 2012, The
Economist was accused of hacking into the computer of
Mohammed Nizamul Huq of the Bangladesh Supreme Court, leading
to his resignation as the chairman of the International Crimes
Tribunal . The magazine denied the accusations.
In 2014, the magazine withdrew a harshly-criticised review of a book
by Edward Baptist on slavery and American capitalism; The Economist
had complained that "lmost all the blacks in his book are victims,
almost all the whites villains." Baptist attributed the harsh review
to the magazine's adherence to "free-market fundamentalist " theories,
"the idea that everything would be better if measured first and last
by its efficiency at producing profit."
PRAISE AND ACCOLADES
In 2005, the
Chicago Tribune named it the best English-language
magazine noting its strength in international reporting "where it does
not feel moved to cover a faraway land only at a time of unmitigated
disaster" and that it kept a wall between its reporting and its more
conservative editorial policies.
* ^ The title and its design are references to the book No Logo
* ^ Contrastive Media Analysis. 2012. p. 51.
* ^ A B C D About us – The Economist
* ^ "Is The
Economist left- or right-wing?". The Economist. 2
September 2013. Retrieved 24 April 2016.
* ^ "True Progressivism". The Economist. 13 October 2012. Retrieved
16 October 2016.
* ^ A B C "Seriously popular: The
Economist now claims to reach
5.3m readers a week in print and online". pressgazette.co.uk.
Retrieved 22 June 2015.
* ^ "Why does The
Economist call itself a newspaper?". The
Economist. 1 September 2013.
* ^ Locations.
Economist Group. Retrieved 12 September 2009.
* ^ Maps Archived 5 September 2011 at the
Wayback Machine .. City
of Westminster. Retrieved 28 August 2009.
* ^ Brook, Stephen (25 February 2008). "Let the bad times roll".
The Guardian. London. Retrieved 26 March 2010.
* ^ "Exor to get 40 percent of The
Economist after Pearson stake
sale". Reuters, 11 August 2015.
* ^ "Ownership –
* ^ "So what\'s the secret of \'The Economist\'?". The Independent.
London. 26 February 2006. Retrieved 27 April 2008.
* ^ "Results at a glance
www.economistgroup.com. Retrieved 21 September 2016.
* ^ "Pearson sells Financial Times with
Economist next on the
block". Business Sale Report. 26 July 2015.
* ^ "Don\'t leave us this way". The Economist. 12 July 2014.
Retrieved 26 July 2014.
* ^ "How our readers view The Economist". The Economist. Archived
from the original on 7 September 2006. Retrieved 27 December 2006.
* ^ Oberholzer-Gee, Felix; Bharat, N. Anand; Lizzie, Gomez. "The
Economist". Harvard Business School Case 710-441, July 2010. Hbs.edu.
* ^ Oberholzer-Gee, Felix; Bharat, N. Anand; Lizzie, Gomez. "The
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American.edu. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2013.
* ^ From the
Corn Laws to Your Mailbox, The MIT Press Log, 30
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* ^ "Prospectus". The Economist. 5 August 1843. Retrieved 27
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Retrieved 1 May 2011.
* ^ Nathan Leites (1952). "The Politburo Through Western Eyes".
World Politics . 4 (2): 159–185. doi :10.2307/2009044 . JSTOR
2009044 . (subscription required)
* ^ Karl Marx, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, VI
* ^ A B C "About us". The Economist. 18 November 2010. Retrieved 21
* ^ "The
Economist Launches New
China Section". Asian Media
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Huffington Post. 12 August 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
* ^ West, Karl (15 August 2015). "The
Economist becomes a family
affair". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 15 August 2015. Pearson, the
education and publishing giant that has held a non-controlling 50%
stake since 1928, is selling the holding for £469m. The deal will
make Italy's Agnelli family, founders of the Fiat car empire, the
* ^ The Concise Dictionary of National Biography makes him
assistant editor 1858–1860
* ^ He was Wilson's son-in-law
* ^ A journalist and biographer
* ^ Discuz! Team and Comsenz UI Team. "economist150周年（1993）
– 经济学人资料库 – ECO中文网 – Powered by Discuz!
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* ^ "
John Micklethwait leaving the
Economist to join Bloomberg
News". The Guardian.
* ^ "
Zanny Minton Beddoes appointed new editor of The Economist".
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December 2010. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
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Retrieved 25 May 2012.
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* ^ How to stop the drug wars, cover article on 7 March 2009. The
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