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Tamilakam
Tamilakam
refers to the geographical region inhabited by the ancient Tamil people. Tamilakam
Tamilakam
covered today's Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Puducherry, Lakshadweep
Lakshadweep
and southern parts of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Karnataka. Traditional accounts and Tholkāppiyam referred these territories as a single cultural area, where Tamil was the natural language [note 1] and culture of all people.[note 2] The ancient Tamil country was divided into kingdoms. The best known among them were the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyans and Pallavas. During the Sangam period, Tamil culture began to spread outside Tamilakam.[3] Ancient Tamil settlements were also found in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
(Sri Lankan Tamils) and the Maldives
Maldives
(Giravarus).

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Tissamaharama
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History of Eastern Tamils

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portal

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Contents

1 Etymology 2 Extent 3 Subdivisions

3.1 Kingdoms 3.2 Nadus 3.3 Nadus outside Tamiḻakam

4 Geocultural unity 5 Cultural influence 6 Religion 7 See also 8 Notes 9 References 10 Sources

10.1 Printed sources

Etymology[edit] "Tamiḻakam" is a portmanteau of a word and suffix from the Tamil language, namely Tamiḻ and -akam. It can be roughly translated as the "homeland of the Tamils". According to Kamil Zvelebil, the term seems to be the most ancient term used to designate Tamil territory in the Indian subcontinent.[4] The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, as well as Ptolemy's writings, mention the term "Limyrike" which corresponds to the Malabar Coast
Malabar Coast
of south-western India. Based on a misinterpretation of the Roman map Tabula Peutingeriana
Tabula Peutingeriana
and the possible phonetic connection between the words "Damir-" and "Tamil", some modern scholars have wrongly mentioned Limyrike
Limyrike
as "Damirica" (or "Damirice"), considering it as a synonym of "Tamilakam". The "Damirice" mentioned in the Tabula Peutingeriana actually refers to an area between the Himalayas
Himalayas
and the Ganges.[5] Extent[edit] The term "Tamilakam" appears to be the most ancient term used for designating the Tamil territory. The earliest sources to mention it include Purananuru
Purananuru
168.18 and Patiṟṟuppattu Patikam 2.5.[4][6] The Specific Preface (cirappuppayiram) of the more ancient text Tolkāppiyam mentions the terms tamil-kuru nal-lulakam ("the beautiful world [where] Tamil is spoken") and centamil ... nilam ("the territory ... of refined Tamil"). However, this preface, which is of uncertain date, is definitely a later addition to the original Tolkāppiyam.[7] According to the Tolkāppiyam preface, "the virtuous land in which Tamil is spoken as the mother tongue lies between the northern Venkata hill and the southern Kumari."[8] The Silappadikaram
Silappadikaram
(c. 5th-6th century CE) defines the Tamilakam
Tamilakam
as follows:[9]

“ The Tamil region extends from the hills of Vishnu [Tirupati] in the north to the oceans at the cape in the south. In this region of cool waters were the four great cities of: Madurai
Madurai
with its towers; Uraiyur which was famous; tumultuous Kanchi; and Puhar
Puhar
with the roaring waters [of the Kaveri
Kaveri
and the ocean]. ”

While these ancient texts do not clearly define the eastern and western boundaries of the Tamilakam, scholars assume that these boundaries were the seas, which may explain their omission from the ancient definition.[10] The ancient Tamilakam
Tamilakam
thus included the present-day Kerala.[8] However, it excluded the present-day Tamil-inhabited territory in the Jaffna Peninsula
Jaffna Peninsula
of Sri Lanka.[11] Subdivisions[edit] Kingdoms[edit] Main article: History of Tamil Nadu Approximately during the period between 350 BCE to 200 CE, Tamiḻakam
Tamiḻakam
was ruled by the three Tamil dynasties: the Chola
Chola
dynasty, the Pandyan
Pandyan
dynasty, Satyaputra dynasty and the Chera
Chera
dynasty. There were also a few independent chieftains, the Velirs. During the time of the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
in North India (c. 4th century BCE – 3rd century BCE) the Cheras, the Pandyas and the Cholas were in a late megalithic phase on the western coast of Tamiḻakam. The earliest datable references to the Tamil kingdoms are in inscriptions from the 3rd century BCE during the time of the Maurya Empire. The Pandyan
Pandyan
dynasty ruled parts of South India
South India
until the early 17th century. The heartland of the Pandyas was the fertile valley of the Vaigai River. They initially ruled their country from Korkai, a seaport on the southernmost tip of the Indian Peninsula, and in later times moved to Madurai. The Chola
Chola
dynasty ruled from before the Sangam period (3rd century BCE) until the 13th century in central Tamil Nadu. The heartland of the Cholas was the fertile valley of the Kaveri. The Chera
Chera
dynasty ruled from before the Sangam period
Sangam period
(3rd century) until the 12th century over an area corresponding to modern-day western Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Kerala. The Vealirs (Vēḷir) were minor dynastic kings and aristocratic chieftains in Tamiḻakam
Tamiḻakam
in the early historic period of South India.[12][13] Nadus[edit] Tamiḻakam
Tamiḻakam
was divided into political regions called Perunadu or "Great country", "nadu" means country.[14] There were three important political regions which were Chera Nadu,[15][16][17] Chola
Chola
Nadu and Pandya Nadu.[14] Along these three there were two more political regions of Athiyaman Nadu (Sathyaputha) and Thamirabharani Nadu (Then Paandi) which were later on absorbed into Chera
Chera
resp. Pandya Nadu by 3rd century BCE. Thondai Nadu which was under Chola
Chola
Nadu, later emerged as independent Pallava
Pallava
Nadu by 6th century ADE. Again Tamilakam
Tamilakam
resp. Perunadus was resp. were divided into 12 socio-geographical regions called Nadu or "country". Each of this Nadu had their own dialect of Tamil.[18]

Thenpandi Nadu Panri Nadu Kuda nadu Punal nadu Puzhinadu Venad Aruva nadu Kakkanad[19] Kuttanadu Aruva Vadathalai nadu Sida nadu Malai Nadu[20]

Nadus outside Tamiḻakam[edit] Some other Nadus were also mentioned in Tamil literatures which weren't part of Tamilakam, but the countries traded with Tamils
Tamils
in ancient times. Tamil speaking lands:

Eela Nadu (Eelam)[21] Naga Nadu or Yazh Kuthanadu (Jaffna Peninsula)[22] Vanni Nadu (Vanni region)[22]

Other:

Vengi Nadu[23] Chavaka Nadu (Java)[24] Kadara Nadu (Kedah)[24] Kalinga Nadu[24] Singhala Nadu [24] Tulu Nadu
Tulu Nadu
(Land of the Tulu people)[25] Vadugu Nadu [24] Kannada Nadu [24] (Land of Kannada people) Erumai Nadu [24] Telunka Nadu [24] (Land of Telugu people) Kolla Nadu [24] Vanka Nadu [24] Magadha
Magadha
Nadu [24] Kucala Nadu [24] Konkana Nadu [24] Kampocha Nadu (Cambodia) [24] Palantivu Nadu (Maldives) [24] Kupaka Nadu [24] Marattha Nadu [24] Vatuka Nadu [24] Tinmaitivu (Andaman and Nicobar Islands)[26]

Geocultural unity[edit] Although the area covered by the term "Tamilakam" was divided among multiple kingdoms, its occurrence in the ancient literature implies that the region's inhabitants shared a cultural or ethnic identity, or at least regarded themselves as distinct from their neighbours.[27] The ancient Tamil inscriptions, ranging from 3rd or 2nd century BCE to 2nd or 3rd century CE, are also conisdered as linguistic evidence for distinguishing Tamilakam
Tamilakam
from the rest of South India.[28] The ancient non-Tamil inscriptions, such as those of the northern kings Ashoka
Ashoka
and Kharavela, also allude to the distinct identity of the region. For example, Ashoka's inscriptions refer to the independent states lying beyond the southern boundary of his kingdom, and Kharavdela's Hathigumpha inscription
Hathigumpha inscription
refers to the destruction of a "confederacy of Tamil powers".[29] However, the archaeological evidence does not support the existence of "Tamilakam" as a distinct cultural region: the material culture and habitations discovered in present-day Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu
and Kerala
Kerala
are also found elsewhere in peninsular India and Sri Lanka.[30] Cultural influence[edit] See also: Sri Lankan Tamils
Sri Lankan Tamils
and Sri Lankan Civil War With the advent of the early historical period in South India[3] and the ascent of the three Tamil kingdoms in South India
South India
in the 3rd century BCE,[3] Tamil culture
Tamil culture
began to spread outside Tamiḻakam. In the 3rd century BCE, more Tamil settlers arrived in Sri Lanka.[31] The Annaicoddai seal, dated to the 3rd century BCE, contains a bilingual inscription in Tamil-Brahmi.Though Tamils
Tamils
have been living in Sri Lanka since the Ancient era at least[32][33] with universally accepted dates of at least the 10th century BCE showing signs of Tamil civilization in Sri Lanka[34][35][note 3] Excavations in the area of Tissamaharama
Tissamaharama
in southern Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
have unearthed locally issued coins produced between the second century BCE and the second century CE, some of which carry local Tamil personal names written in early Tamil letters,[36] which suggest that local Tamil merchants were present and actively involved in trade along the southern coast of Sri Lanka by the late classical period.[37] Around 237 BCE, "two adventurers from southern India"[38] established the first Tamil rule at Sri Lanka. In 145 BCE Elara, a Chola
Chola
general[38] or prince known as Ellāḷaṉ[39][non-primary source needed] took over the throne at Anuradhapura
Anuradhapura
and ruled for forty-four years.[38] Dutugamunu, a Sinhalese, started a war against him, defeated him, and took over the throne.[38][40] Tamil Kings have been dated in Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
to at least the 3rd century BCE [41][42] with great accuracy and older ones were being excavated throguh archaeological means before the Civil War lead to widespread destruction of historically Tamil Lands in Sri Lanka. Religion[edit] Jains, Buddhists and Hindus have coexisted in Tamil country for at least as early as the second century BCE.[43] See also[edit]

History of Kerala History of Tamil Nadu

Notes[edit]

^ Thapar mentions the existence of a common language of the Dravidian group: " Ashoka
Ashoka
in his inscription refers to the peoples of South India as the Cholas, Cheras, Pandyas and Satiyaputras - the crucible of the culture of Tamilakam
Tamilakam
- called thus from the predominant language of the Dravidian group at the time, Tamil".[1] ^ See, for example, Kanakasabhai.[2] ^ An archaeological team led by K.Indrapala of the University of Jaffna excavated a megalithic burial complex at Anaikoddai in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka. In one of the burials, a metal seal was found assigned by the excavators to c. the 3rd century BCE.[35]

References[edit]

^ Thapar 2004, p. 229. ^ Kanakasabhai 1904, p. 10. ^ a b c Singh 2009, p. 384. ^ a b Zvelebil 1992, p. xi. ^ Lionel Casson (2012). The Periplus Maris Erythraei: Text with Introduction, Translation, and Commentary. Princeton University Press. pp. 213–214. ISBN 1-4008-4320-0.  ^ Peter Schalk; A. Veluppillai; Irāmaccantiran̲ Nākacāmi (2002). Buddhism
Buddhism
among Tamils
Tamils
in pre-colonial Tamilakam
Tamilakam
and Īlam. Almqvist & Wiksell. p. 56. ISBN 978-91-554-5357-2.  ^ Zvelebil 1992, p. x. ^ a b Shu Hikosaka (1989). Buddhism
Buddhism
in Tamilnadu: A New Perspective. Institute of Asian Studies. p. 3.  ^ Kanakalatha Mukund (2015). The World of the Tamil Merchant: Pioneers of International Trade. Penguin Books. p. 27. ISBN 978-81-8475-612-8.  ^ P. C. Alexander (1949). Buddhism
Buddhism
in Kerala. Annamalai University. p. 2.  ^ K. P. K. Pillay (1963). South India
South India
and Ceylon. University of Madras. p. 40.  ^ Mahadevan, Iravatham (2009). "Meluhha and Agastya : Alpha and Omega of the Indus Script" (PDF). Chennai, India. p. 16. The Ventar - Velir - Vellalar groups constituted the ruling and land-owning classes in the Tamil country since the beginning of recorded history  ^ Fairservis, Walter Ashlin (1992) [1921]. The Harappan civilization and its writing. A model for the decipherment of the Indus Script. Oxford & IBH. pp. 52–53. ISBN 978-81-204-0491-5.  ^ a b Iyengar, P. T. Srinivasa (1929-01-01). History of the Tamils from the Earliest Times to 600 A.D. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 9788120601451.  ^ Ponnumuthan, Sylvister (1996). The Spirituality of Basic Ecclesial Communities in the Socio-Religious Context of Trivandrum/Kerala, India. Gregorian&Biblical BookShop.  ^ S. Soundararajan (1991). Ancient Tamil country: its social and economic structure. Navrang. p. 30.  ^ K. Lakshminarasimhan; Muthuswamy Hariharan; Sharada Gopalam (1991). Madhura kala: silver jubilee commemoration volume. CBH Publications. p. 141.  ^ Kanakasabhai 1904. ^ History of the Tamils
Tamils
from the Earliest Times to 600 A.D., P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar, Asian Educational Services 1929, p.151 ^ Sri Varadarajaswami Temple, Kanchi: A Study of Its History, Art and Architecture, K.V. Raman Abhinav Publications, 01.06.2003, p.17 ^ Census of India, 1961: India, India. Office of the Registrar General Manager of Publications. ^ a b The Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Reader: History, Culture, Politics, By John Holt, Duke University Press, 13 April 2011 see (Tamil Nadus in Rajarata p.85.) ^ Ancient India: Collected Essays on the Literary and Political History of Southern India, By Sakkottai Krishnaswami Aiyangar, Asian Educational Services 1911, p.121. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r International Journal of Dravidian Linguistics: IJDL. Department of Linguistics, University of Kerala. 2001-01-01.  ^ Seminar on Social and Cultural History of Salem District, Institute of Kongu Studies, 1982, p.7 ^ Government of India (1908). "The Andaman and Nicobar Islands: Local Gazetteer". Superintendent of Government Printing, Calcutta. ... In the great Tanjore inscription of 1050 AD, the Andamans are mentioned under a translated name along with the Nicobars, as Nakkavaram or land of the naked people.  ^ Abraham 2003, p. 211. ^ Abraham 2003, pp. 211-212. ^ Abraham 2003, p. 212. ^ Abraham 2003, p. 208,217. ^ Wenzlhuemer 2008, p. 19-20. ^ de Silva 2005, p. 129. ^ Indrapala 2007, p. 91. ^ Subramanian, T. S. (27 January 2006). "Reading the past in a more inclusive way:Interview with Dr. Sudharshan Seneviratne". Frontline. 23 (1). Retrieved 9 July 2008.  ^ a b Mahadevan 2002. ^ Mahadevan, I. "Ancient Tamil coins from Sri Lanka", pp. 152–154 ^ Bopearachchi, O. "Ancient Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
and Tamil Nadu", pp. 546–549 ^ a b c d Reddy 2003, p. 45. ^ "The Five Kings - Mahasiva, Suratissa, Elara, Asela, Sena, and Guttika". mahavamsa.org. Retrieved 23 September 2014.  ^ Deegalle 2006, p. 30. ^ Indrapala 2007, p. 324. ^ Mahadevan, Iravatham (24 June 2010). "An epigraphic perspective on the antiquity of Tamil". The Hindu.  ^ John E. Cort 1998, p. 187.

Sources[edit] Printed sources[edit]

Abraham, Shinu (2003). "Chera, Chola, Pandya: using archaeological evidence to identify the Tamil kingdoms of early historic South India". Asian Perspectives. 42 (2): 207. doi:10.1353/asi.2003.0031  John E. Cort, ed. (1998), Open Boundaries: Jain
Jain
Communities and Cultures in Indian History, SUNY Press, ISBN 0-7914-3785-X  Aiyangar, Muttusvami Srinivasa (1986). "Tamil studies: essays on the history of the Tamil people, language, religion, and literature". Asian Educational Services. Retrieved 24 April 2012  Aiyaṅgār, Sākkoṭṭai Krishṇaswāmi (1994). Evolution of Hindu Administrative Institutions in South India. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 978-81-206-0966-2  Deegalle, Mahinda (2006). "Buddhism, Conflict and Violence in Modern Sri Lanka". Routledge  Hanumanthan, Krishnaswamy Ranaganathan (1979). "Untouchability: a historical study upto 1500 A.D. : with special reference to Tamil Nadu". Koodal Publishers  Holt, John (2011). "The Sri Lanka
Sri Lanka
Reader: History, Culture, Politics". Duke University Press  Indrapala, K. (1969). "Early Tamil settlements in Ceylon". Journal of the Ceylon branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1969, XIII:54  Kanakasabhai, V (1904). The Tamils
Tamils
Eighteen Hundred Years Ago. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 8120601505  Krishnan, Shankara (1999). Postcolonial Insecurities: India, Sri Lanka, and the Question of Nationhood. University of Minnesota Press. p. 172. ISBN 0-8166-3330-4  Mahadevan, Iravatham (2002). "Aryan or Dravidian or Neither? – A Study of Recent Attempts to Decipher the Indus Script (1995–2000)". Electronic Journal of Vedic Studies. 8 (1)  Manogaran, Chelvadurai (1987). "Ethnic Conflict and Reconciliation in Sri Lanka". University of Hawaii Press  Rajayyan, K. (2005). "Tamil Nadu, a real history". Ratna Publications  Ramaswamy, Sumathi (1997). Passions of the Tongue: Language Devotion in Tamil India, 1891-1970. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-20805-6  Ramaswamy, Vijaya (2007). Historical Dictionary of the Tamils. Scarecrow Press. ISBN 978-0-8108-5379-9  Reddy, L.R. (2003). "Sri Lanka: Past and Present". APH Publishing  Singh, Upinder (2009). "A History of Ancient and Early Medieval India: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century". Pearson Education India  Smith, Vincent A. (1999). The Early History of India. Atlantic Publishers & Dist. ISBN 978-81-7156-618-1  Thapar, Romila (2004). Early India: From the Origins to AD 1300. University of California Press. ISBN 9780520242258  Wenzlhuemer, Roalnd (2008). "From Coffee to Tea Cultivation in Ceylon, 1880-1900: An Economic and Social History". BRILL  Zvelebil, Kamil (1973). "The smile of Murugan on Tamil literature
Tamil literature
of South India". Leiden: Brill  Zvelebil, Kamil (1992). "Companion studies to the history of Tamil literature". BRILL 

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