ListMoto - Thailand

--- Advertisement ---

(i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Coordinates : 15°24′N 101°18′E / 15.4°N 101.3°E / 15.4; 101.3

Kingdom of Thailand ราชอาณาจักรไทย (Thai ) _Ratcha-anachak Thai_

_ Flag Emblem

ANTHEM: Phleng Chat Thai _ (English: "Thai National Anthem")

ROYAL ANTHEM : _ Sansoen Phra Barami
Sansoen Phra Barami
_ (English: "Glorify His prestige")

Location of Thailand (green)

(dark grey) –

Capital and largest city Bangkok
13°45′N 100°29′E / 13.750°N 100.483°E / 13.750; 100.483



* Isan * Kam Mueang
* Pak Tai

ETHNIC GROUPS (2009; 2011 :95–99)

* Thai ∟ 34.1% Central Thai ∟ 24.9% Khon
Isan ∟ 9.9% Khon
Muang ∟ 7.5% Southern Thai :95–99 * 14% Thai Chinese
Thai Chinese
* 12% Others (incl. Malay , Mon , Khmer , "Hill tribes ")


* 93.2% Buddhism * 5.5% Islam * 0.9% Christianity * 0.1% Hinduism
* 0.3% Unaffiliated

DEMONYM Thai Siamese (archaic)


* Unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy (_de jure_) * Military junta
Military junta
under a constitutional monarchy (_de facto_)

• MONARCH Maha Vajiralongkorn

• PRIME MINISTER Prayut Chan-o-cha
Prayut Chan-o-cha

LEGISLATURE National Legislative Assembly (acting as National Assembly )









• TOTAL 513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) (50th )

• WATER (%) 0.4 (2,230 km2)


• 2015 ESTIMATE 67,959,000 (20th )

• 2010 CENSUS 64,785,909

• DENSITY 132.1/km2 (342.1/sq mi) (88th )

GDP (PPP ) 2017 estimate

• TOTAL $1.226 trillion

• PER CAPITA $17,750

GDP (NOMINAL) 2017 estimate

• TOTAL $432.898 billion

• PER CAPITA $6,265

GINI (2010) 39.4 medium

HDI (2015) 0.740 high · 87th

CURRENCY Baht (฿) (THB )






* .th
* .ไทย

You may need rendering support to display the Thai text in this article correctly.

THAILAND (/ˈtaɪlænd/ _TY-land_ ), officially the KINGDOM OF THAILAND and formerly known as SIAM, is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula
Indochinese peninsula
in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
. With a total area of approximately 513,000 km2 (198,000 sq mi), Thailand is the world's 50th-largest country . It is the 20th-most-populous country in the world, with around 66 million people.

Thailand is a constitutional monarchy and has switched between parliamentary democracy and military junta for decades, the latest coup being in May 2014 by the National Council for Peace and Order
National Council for Peace and Order
. Its capital and most populous city is Bangkok
. It is bordered to the north by Myanmar
and Laos
, to the east by Laos
and Cambodia
, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
and Malaysia
, and to the west by the Andaman Sea
Andaman Sea
and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam
in the Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
to the southeast, and Indonesia
and India
on the Andaman Sea
Andaman Sea
to the southwest.

The Thai economy is the world's 20th largest by GDP at PPP and the 27th largest by nominal GDP. It became a newly industrialised country and a major exporter in the 1990s. Manufacturing, agriculture, and tourism are leading sectors of the economy. It is considered a middle power in the region and around the world.


* 1 Etymology

* 1.1 Etymology of "Siam" * 1.2 Etymology of "Thailand" * 1.3 Name

* 2 History

* 2.1 20th century * 2.2 World War II * 2.3 Modern history * 2.4 Historical gallery

* 3 Politics and government

* 4 Administrative divisions

* 4.1 Regions * 4.2 Southern region

* 5 Foreign relations * 6 Armed forces

* 7 Geography

* 7.1 Climate * 7.2 Environment * 7.3 Wildlife

* 8 Education

* 9 Science and technology

* 9.1 Internet

* 10 Economy

* 10.1 Recent economic history * 10.2 Exports and manufacturing * 10.3 Tourism * 10.4 Agriculture * 10.5 Energy * 10.6 Transportation

* 11 Demographics

* 11.1 Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
* 11.2 Population centres * 11.3 Language * 11.4 Religion

* 12 Culture

* 12.1 Cuisine * 12.2 Media * 12.3 Units of measurement

* 13 Sports

* 13.1 Sporting venues

* 14 International rankings * 15 See also

* 16 References

* 16.1 Bibliography

* 17 External links


THAILAND (/ˈtaɪlænd/ _TY-land_ or /ˈtaɪlənd/ _TY-lənd_ ; Thai : ประเทศไทย, rtgs : _Prathet Thai_, pronounced (_ listen )), officially the KINGDOM OF THAILAND (Thai : ราชอาณาจักรไทย, rtgs : Ratcha-anachak Thai_ (_ listen )), formerly known as SIAM (Thai : สยาม, rtgs : Sayam_ ), is a country at the centre of the Indochinese peninsula in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia


The country has always been called _ Mueang
Thai _ by its citizens. By outsiders prior to 1949, it was usually known by the exonym _Siam_ (Thai : สยาม rtgs : Sayam, pronounced , also spelled _Siem_, _Syâm_, or _Syâma_). The word _Siam_ has been identified with the Sanskrit
_Śyāma_ (श्याम, meaning "dark" or "brown"). The names _Shan _ and _A-hom_ seem to be variants of the same word. The word _Śyâma_ is possibly not its origin, but a learned and artificial distortion. Another theory is the name derives from Chinese: "Ayutthaya emerged as a dominant centre in the late fourteenth century. The Chinese called this region Xian, which the Portuguese converted into Siam." (Baker and Phongpaichit, A History of Thailand, 8) A further possibility is that Mon -speaking peoples migrating south called themselves 'syem' as do the autochthonous Mon-Khmer
-speaking inhabitants of the Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
. _ SPPM Mongkut
Rex Siamensium_, King Mongkut
King Mongkut
's signature

The signature of King Mongkut
King Mongkut
(r. 1851 – 1868) reads _SPPM_ (Somdet Phra Poramenthra Maha) _ Mongkut
King of the Siamese_, giving the name "Siam" official status until 24 June 1939 when it was changed to Thailand. Thailand was renamed Siam from 1945 to 11 May 1949, after which it again reverted to Thailand.


According to George Cœdès , the word _Thai_ (ไทย) means "free man" in the Thai language, "differentiating the Thai from the natives encompassed in Thai society as serfs." A famous Thai scholar argued that Thai (ไท) simply means "people" or "human being", since his investigation shows that in some rural areas the word "Thai" was used instead of the usual Thai word "khon" (คน) for people.

While Thai people
Thai people
will often refer to their country using the polite form _prathet Thai_ (Thai : ประเทศไทย), they most commonly use the more colloquial term _mueang Thai_ (Thai : เมืองไทย) or simply _Thai_, the word _mueang _, archaically a city-state, commonly used to refer to a city or town as the centre of a region. _Ratcha Anachak Thai_ (Thai : ราชอาณาจักรไทย) means "kingdom of Thailand" or "kingdom of Thai". Etymologically, its components are: _ratcha_ ( Sanskrit
_raja _ "king, royal, realm") ; _-ana-_ (Pali _āṇā_ "authority, command, power", itself from an Old Indo-Aryan form _ājñā_ of the same meaning) _-chak_ (from Sanskrit चक्र _cakra-_ "wheel", a symbol of power and rule). The Thai National Anthem (Thai : เพลงชาติ), written by Luang Saranupraphan during the extremely patriotic 1930s, refers to the Thai nation as: _prathet Thai_ (Thai: ประเทศไทย). The first line of the national anthem is: _prathet thai ruam lueat nuea chat chuea thai_ (Thai : ประเทศไทยรวมเลือดเนื้อชาติเชื้อไทย), " Thailand is the unity of Thai flesh and blood."


The "Kingdom of Thailand" is the official English name of the country.


1238–1438 KINGDOM OF SUKHOTHAI อาณาจักรสุโขทัย

1351–1767 KINGDOM OF AYUTTHAYA อาณาจักรอยุธยา

1768–1782 KINGDOM OF THONBURI อาณาจักรธนบุรี

1782–1939 KINGDOM OF RATTANAKOSIN อาณาจักรรัตนโกสินทร์ (Siam)

1939–1946 KINGDOM OF THAILAND ราชอาณาจักรไทย

1946–1949 ROYAL KINGDOM OF SIAM พระราชอาณาจักรสยาม

1949–present KINGDOM OF THAILAND ราชอาณาจักรไทย


Main article: History of Thailand
History of Thailand

There is evidence of human habitation in Thailand that has been dated at 40,000 years before the present, with stone artifacts dated to this period at Tham Lod Rockshelter
Tham Lod Rockshelter
in Mae Hong Son
Mae Hong Son
. Similar to other regions in Southeast Asia, Thailand was heavily influenced by the culture and religions of India
, starting with the Kingdom of Funan around the 1st century CE to the Khmer Empire
Khmer Empire
. Thailand in its earliest days was under the rule of the Khmer Empire
Khmer Empire
, which had strong Hindu roots, and the influence among Thais remains even today. The ruins of Wat Chaiwatthanaram
Wat Chaiwatthanaram
at Ayutthaya

Indian influence on Thai culture was partly the result of direct contact with Indian settlers, but mainly it was brought about indirectly via the indianized kingdoms of Dvaravati
, Srivijaya
, and Cambodia. E.A. Voretzsch believes that Buddhism must have been flowing into Siam from India
in the time of the Indian Emperor Ashoka of the Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
and far on into the first millennium after Christ. Later Thailand was influenced by the south Indian Pallava dynasty and north Indian Gupta Empire
Gupta Empire

According to George Cœdès, "The Thai first enter history of Farther India
in the eleventh century with the mention of _Syam_ slaves or prisoners of war in" Champa
epigraphy, and "in the twelfth century, the bas-reliefs of Angkor Wat
Angkor Wat
" where "a group of warriors" are described as _Syam_. Additionally, "the Mongols
, after the seizure of Ta-li on January 7, 1253 and the pacification of Yunnan
in 1257, did not look with disfavor on the creation of a series of Thai principalities at the expense of the old Indianized kingdoms." The Menam
Basin was originally populated by the Mons, and the location of Dvaravati
in the 7th century, followed by the Khmer Empire
Khmer Empire
in the 11th. The _History of the Yuan _ mentions an embassy from the kingdom of Sukhothai in 1282. In 1287, three Thai chiefs, Mangrai
, Ngam Muang, and Ram Khamhaeng
Ram Khamhaeng
formed a "strong pact of friendship".

After the fall of the Khmer Empire
Khmer Empire
in the 13th century, various states thrived there, established by the various Tai peoples
Tai peoples
, Mons , Khmers , Chams
and Ethnic Malays
Ethnic Malays
, as seen through the numerous archaeological sites and artefacts that are scattered throughout the Siamese landscape. Prior to the 12th century however, the first Thai or Siamese state is traditionally considered to be the Buddhist Sukhothai Kingdom
Sukhothai Kingdom
, which was founded in 1238.

Following the decline and fall of the Khmer empire in the 13th–15th century, the Buddhist Tai kingdoms of Sukhothai, Lanna
, and Lan Xang (now Laos) were on the rise. However, a century later, the power of Sukhothai was overshadowed by the new Kingdom of Ayutthaya , established in the mid-14th century in the lower Chao Phraya River
Chao Phraya River
or Menam
area. Siamese envoys presenting letter to Pope Innocent XI , 1688

Ayutthaya's expansion centred along the Menam
while in the northern valleys the Lanna
Kingdom and other small Tai city-states ruled the area. In 1431, the Khmer abandoned Angkor
after Ayutthaya forces invaded the city. Thailand retained a tradition of trade with its neighbouring states, from China to India, Persia
, and Arab
lands. Ayutthaya became one of the most vibrant trading centres in Asia. European traders arrived in the early 16th century, beginning with the envoy of Portuguese duke Afonso de Albuquerque
Afonso de Albuquerque
in 1511, followed by the French, Dutch, and English. The Burmese–Siamese War (1765–1767) left Ayutthaya burned and sacked by King Hsinbyushin Konbaung .

After the fall of Ayutthaya in 1767 to the Burmese, Taksin
moved the capital to Thonburi
for approximately 15 years. The current Rattanakosin era of Thai history began in 1782 following the establishment of Bangkok
as capital of the Chakri dynasty
Chakri dynasty
under King Rama I
Rama I
the Great. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica
Encyclopædia Britannica
, "A quarter to a third of the population of some areas of Thailand and Burma were slaves in the 17th through the 19th centuries."


Territorial losses to western powers by year

Despite European pressure, Thailand is the only Southeast Asian nation to never have been colonized. This has been ascribed to the long succession of able rulers in the past four centuries who exploited the rivalry and tension between the French and British Empire . In 1896, Britain and France guaranteed of the Chao Phraya valley as their buffer state (not the whole of Siam), while the remaining parts of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
were colonized by the western powers. Western influence nevertheless led to many reforms in the 19th century and major concessions, most notably the loss of a large territory on the east side of the Mekong
to the French and the step-by-step absorption by Britain of the Shan and Karen people areas and Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula

As part of the concessions which the Chakri dynasty
Chakri dynasty
offered to the British Empire
British Empire
in return for their support, Siam ceded four predominantly ethnic-Malay southern provinces to the British Empire
British Empire
in the Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909
Anglo-Siamese Treaty of 1909
. These four provinces ( Kelantan
, Terengganu
, Kedah
, and Perlis
) would later became Malaysia
's four northern states.

In 1917, Siam joined the Allies of World War I
Allies of World War I
and is counted as one of the victors of World War I
World War I
. The bloodless revolution took place in 1932 carried out by the Khana Ratsadon
Khana Ratsadon
group of military and civilian officials resulted in a transition of power, when King Prajadhipok
was forced to grant the people of Siam their first constitution, thereby ending centuries of absolute monarchy .

In 1939, the name of the kingdom, "Siam", was changed to "Thailand".


Main article: Thailand in World War II
Thailand in World War II

During World War II, the Empire of Japan
Empire of Japan
demanded the right to move troops across Thailand to the Malayan frontier. The Japanese invasion on 8 December 1941 occurred in co-ordination with attacks throughout Asia and engaged the Royal Thai Army
Royal Thai Army
for six to eight hours before Plaek Phibunsongkhram
Plaek Phibunsongkhram
ordered an armistice . Shortly thereafter, Japan was granted free passage, and on 21 December 1941, Thailand and Japan signed a military alliance with a secret protocol, wherein Tokyo agreed to help Thailand regain territories lost to the British and French.

Subsequently, Thailand declared war on the United States and the United Kingdom on 25 January 1942, and undertook to "assist" Japan in its war against the Allies, while at the same time maintaining an active anti-Japanese Free Thai Movement
Free Thai Movement
. Approximately 200,000 Asian labourers (mainly romusha ) and 60,000 Allied prisoners of war (POWs) worked on the Burma Railway
Burma Railway
, which is commonly known as the "Death Railway".


See also: History of Thailand
History of Thailand
(1932–1973) and History of Thailand since 1973

The history of Thailand from 1932 to 1973 was dominated by military dictatorships which were in power for much of the period. The main personalities of the period were the dictator Luang Phibunsongkhram (better known as Phibun), who allied the country with Japan during the Second World War, and the civilian politician Pridi Phanomyong
Pridi Phanomyong
, who founded Thammasat University
Thammasat University
and was briefly the prime minister after the war.

A succession of military dictators followed Pridi's ousting — Phibun again, Sarit Dhanarajata
Sarit Dhanarajata
and Thanom Kittikachorn
Thanom Kittikachorn
— under whom traditional, authoritarian rule was combined with increasing modernisation and westernisation under the influence of the US . The end of the period was marked by Thanom's resignation, following a massacre of pro-democracy protesters led by Thammasat students. Thanom misread the situation as a coup d'état, and fled, leaving the country leaderless. HM appointed Thammasat University
Thammasat University
chancellor Sanya Dharmasakti PM by royal command.

Thailand helped the USA and South Vietnam
in the Vietnam
War between 1965–1971. The USAF based F-4 Phantom fighters at Udon and Ubon Air Base, and stationed B-52s at U-Tapao. Thai forces also saw heavy action in the covert war in Laos
that occurred from 1964 to 1972.

In 1973, there was a popular uprising which resulted in the end of the ruling military dictatorship of anti-communist Thanom Kittikachorn and altered the Thai political system . Notably, it highlighted the growing influence of Thai university students in politics.

For most of the 1980s, Thailand was ruled by prime minister Prem Tinsulanonda , a democratically-inclined strongman who restored parliamentary politics. Thereafter the country remained a democracy apart from a brief period of military rule from 1991 to 1992. The populist Thai Rak Thai
Thai Rak Thai
party, led by prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra , governed from 2001 until 2006. In 2006 mass protests against the Thai Rak Thai
Thai Rak Thai
party's alleged corruption, prompted the military to stage a coup d'état, in September. A general election in December 2007 restored a civilian government, but in May 2014 another military coup returned the absolute power to the army.



Pottery discovered near Ban Chiang
Ban Chiang
in Udon Thani Province, the earliest dating to 2100 BCE *

, Prasat Phimai
is the largest temple in the country from the Khmer Empire
Khmer Empire
. *

The immense 19-metre-high (62-foot) gilded statue of a seated Buddha in Wat Phanan Choeng
Wat Phanan Choeng
, the latter from 1324, pre-dates the founding of the city of Ayutthaya *

A 15 metres (49 feet) Buddha image in Sukhothai , Phra Achana, built in the 13th century *

Painting of Ayutthaya C 1665, by Johannes Vingboons
Johannes Vingboons
, ordered by the Dutch East India
Company *

Kosa Pan
Kosa Pan
presents King Narai's letter to Louis XIV at Versailles, 1 September 1686. *

Napoleon III receiving Siamese envoys, 1864


Main articles: Politics of Thailand
Politics of Thailand
, Constitutions of Thailand
Constitutions of Thailand
, Law of Thailand , and Government of Thailand
Government of Thailand

The politics of Thailand is currently conducted within the framework of a constitutional monarchy , whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government and a hereditary monarch is head of state . The judiciary is supposed to be independent of the executive and the legislative branches, although judicial rulings are suspected of being based on political considerations rather than on existing law. Bangkok's Democracy
Monument : a representation of the 1932 Constitution sits on top of two golden offering bowls above a turret.

Since the political reform of the absolute monarchy in 1932, Thailand has had 19 constitutions and charters. Throughout this time, the form of government has ranged from military dictatorship to electoral democracy, but all governments have acknowledged a hereditary monarch as the head of state.

Prior to 1932, the Kingdom of Siam did not possess a legislature, as all legislative powers were vested in the person of the monarch. This had been the case since the foundation of the Sukhothai Kingdom
Sukhothai Kingdom
in the 12th century as the king was seen as a "Dharmaraja" or "king who rules in accordance with Dharma
", (the Buddhist law of righteousness). However, on 24 June 1932 a group of civilians and military officers, calling themselves the Khana Ratsadon
Khana Ratsadon
(or People's Party) carried out a bloodless revolution in which the 150 years of absolute rule of the Chakri Dynasty
Chakri Dynasty
ended. In its stead the group advocated a constitutional form of monarchy with an elected legislature.

The "Draft Constitution" of 1932 signed by King Prajadhipok
created Thailand's first legislature, a People's Assembly with 70 appointed members. The assembly met for the first time on 28 June 1932, in the Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall
Ananta Samakhom Throne Hall
. The Khana Ratsadon
Khana Ratsadon
decided that the people were not yet ready for an elected assembly. They later changed their minds. By the time the "permanent" constitution came into force in December of that year, elections were scheduled for 15 November 1933. The new constitution changed the composition of the assembly to 78 directly elected and 78 appointed (by the Khana Ratsadon), together totalling 156 members.

Since May 2014 Thailand has been ruled by a military junta , the National Council for Peace and Order
National Council for Peace and Order
, which has partially repealed the 2007 constitution , declared martial law and nationwide curfew, banned political gatherings, arrested and detained politicians and anti-coup activists, imposed internet censorship and taken control of the media.

The King of Thailand, King Vajiralongkorn
(or Rama X), is the current monarch, reigning since the death of his father Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX) on 13 October 2016, in actuality he has only exercised the role of monarch since 1 December 2016. The constitution stipulates that although the sovereignty of the state is vested in the people, the king will exercise such powers through the three branches of the Thai government. Under the constitution the king is given very little power, but remains a figurehead and symbol of the Thai nation. As the head of state , however, he is given some powers and has a role to play in the workings of government. According to the constitution, the king is head of the armed forces . He is required to be Buddhist as well as the defender of all faiths in the country. The king also retained some traditional powers such as the power to appoint his heirs, the power to grant pardons, and the royal assent . The king is aided in his duties by the Privy Council of Thailand
Privy Council of Thailand


Main articles: Organization of the government of Thailand
Organization of the government of Thailand
and Provinces of Thailand
Provinces of Thailand

Thailand is divided into 76 provinces (จังหวัด, changwat), which are gathered into five groups of provinces by location. There are also two specially-governed districts: the capital Bangkok
(Krung Thep Maha Nakhon) and Pattaya
. Bangkok
is at provincial level and thus often counted as a province.

Each province is divided into districts and the districts are further divided into sub-districts (tambons). As of 2006 there were 877 districts (อำเภอ, amphoe) and the 50 districts of Bangkok (เขต, khet). Some parts of the provinces bordering Bangkok
are also referred to as Greater Bangkok
(ปริมณฑล, pari monthon). These provinces include Nonthaburi , Pathum Thani , Samut Prakan , Nakhon Pathom and Samut Sakhon . The name of each province's capital city (เมือง, mueang) is the same as that of the province. For example, the capital of Chiang Mai Province (_Changwat Chiang Mai_) is _ Mueang
Chiang Mai_ or _Chiang Mai_. A clickable map of Thailand exhibiting its provinces.


Main article: Regions of Thailand

Thai provinces are administrated by regions, the regions that Thailand usually uses to division the provinces is four-region division system, It divides the country into the four regions: Northern Thailand , Northeastern Thailand , Central Thailand
Central Thailand
and Southern Thailand
Southern Thailand

In each regions has it own different Historical Background, Culture, Language and People.

Thai local people in the four regions ideally admire the administration of the regions based on Administrative divisions in Germany and British Devolved administrations such as Scotland , Wales and Northern Ireland .

In contrast to the administrative divisions of the Provinces of Thailand , Thailand is Unitary state
Unitary state
, the provincial Governors, district chiefs, and district clerks are appointed by the central government. the regions no longer have an administrative character, but are used for geographical , statistical , geological , meteorological or touristic purposes. Thailand four-region division.


See also: South Thailand insurgency Southern provinces of Thailand showing the Malay-Muslim majority areas

Thailand controlled the Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
as far south as Malacca in the 15th century and held much of the peninsula, including Temasek (Singapore), some of the Andaman Islands , and a colony on Java , but eventually contracted when the British used force to guarantee their suzerainty over the sultanate.

Mostly the northern states of the Malay Sultanate presented annual gifts to the Thai king in the form of a golden flower —a gesture of tribute and an acknowledgement of vassalage. The British intervened in the Malay State and with the Anglo-Siamese Treaty tried to build a railway from the south to Bangkok. Thailand relinquished sovereignty over what are now the northern Malay provinces of Kedah
, Perlis
, Kelantan
, and Terengganu
to the British. Satun and Pattani
Provinces were given to Thailand.

The Malay peninsular provinces were occupied by the Japanese during World War II, and infiltrated by the Malayan Communist Party (CPM) from 1942 to 2008, when they sued for peace with the Malaysian and Thai governments after the CPM lost its support from Vietnam
and China subsequent to the Cultural Revolution . Recent insurgent uprisings may be a continuation of separatist fighting which started after World War II with Sukarno's support for the PULO . Most victims since the uprisings have been Buddhist and Muslim bystanders.


Main article: Foreign relations of Thailand Royal Thai Embassy in Washington, D.C. Royal Thai Embassy in Wellington , New Zealand

The foreign relations of Thailand are handled by the Minister of Foreign Affairs.

Thailand participates fully in international and regional organisations. It is a major non-NATO ally and Priority Watch List Special 301 Report of the United States. The country remains an active member of ASEAN
Association of Southeast Asian Nations . Thailand has developed increasingly close ties with other ASEAN
members: Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Brunei, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, and Vietnam, whose foreign and economic ministers hold annual meetings. Regional co-operation is progressing in economic, trade, banking, political, and cultural matters. In 2003, Thailand served as APEC ( Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation) host. Dr. Supachai Panitchpakdi, the former Deputy Prime Minister of Thailand, currently serves as Secretary-General of the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). In 2005 Thailand attended the inaugural East Asia Summit.

In recent years, Thailand has taken an increasingly active role on the international stage. When East Timor gained independence from Indonesia, Thailand, for the first time in its history, contributed troops to the international peacekeeping effort. Its troops remain there today as part of a UN peacekeeping force. As part of its effort to increase international ties, Thailand has reached out to such regional organisations as the Organization of American States (OAS) and the Organisation for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE). Thailand has contributed troops to reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan and Iraq.

Thaksin initiated negotiations for several free trade agreements with China, Australia, Bahrain, India, and the US. The latter especially was criticised, with claims that uncompetitive Thai industries could be wiped out.

Thaksin also announced that Thailand would forsake foreign aid, and work with donor countries to assist in the development of neighbours in the Greater Mekong
Sub-region. Thaksin sought to position Thailand as a regional leader, initiating various development projects in poorer neighbouring countries like Laos. More controversially, he established close, friendly ties with the Burmese dictatorship.

Thailand joined the US-led invasion of Iraq, sending a 423-strong humanitarian contingent. It withdrew its troops on 10 September 2004. Two Thai soldiers died in Iraq in an insurgent attack.

Abhisit appointed Peoples Alliance for Democracy
leader Kasit Piromya as foreign minister. In April 2009, fighting broke out between Thai and Cambodian troops on territory immediately adjacent to the 900-year-old ruins of Cambodia's Preah Vihear Hindu temple near the border. The Cambodian government claimed its army had killed at least four Thais and captured 10 more, although the Thai government denied that any Thai soldiers were killed or injured. Two Cambodian and three Thai soldiers were killed. Both armies blamed the other for firing first and denied entering the other's territory.


Main article: Royal Thai Armed Forces
Royal Thai Armed Forces
_ Royal Thai Army
Royal Thai Army
firing M198 howitzer during training in Lopburi, Thailand June 2016 The HTMS Chakri Naruebet_ , an aircraft carrier of the Royal Thai Navy A Royal Thai Air Force F-16 Fighting Falcon

The Royal Thai Armed Forces
Royal Thai Armed Forces
(Thai : กองทัพไทย, _Kong Thap Thai_) constitute the military of the Kingdom of Thailand. It consists of the Royal Thai Army (กองทัพบกไทย), the Royal Thai Navy (กองทัพเรือไทย), and the Royal Thai Air Force (กองทัพอากาศไทย). It also incorporates various paramilitary forces.

The Thai Armed Forces have a combined manpower of 306,000 active duty personnel and another 245,000 active reserve personnel. The head of the Thai Armed Forces (จอมทัพไทย, _Chom Thap Thai_) is the king, although this position is only nominal. The armed forces are managed by the Ministry of Defence of Thailand , which is headed by the Minister of Defence (a member of the cabinet of Thailand ) and commanded by the Royal Thai Armed Forces
Royal Thai Armed Forces
Headquarters , which in turn is headed by the Chief of Defence Forces of Thailand . In 2011, Thailand's known military expenditure totalled approximately US$5.1 billion.

According to the constitution, serving in the armed forces is a duty of all Thai citizens. However, only males over the age of 21, who have not gone through reserve training of the Army Reserve Force Students , are given the option of volunteering for the armed forces, or participating in the random draft. The candidates are subjected to varying lengths of training, from six months to two years of full-time service, depending on their education, whether they have partially completed the reserve training course, and whether they volunteered prior to the draft date (usually 1 April every year).

Candidates with a recognised bachelor's degree serve one year of full-time service if they are conscripted, or six months if they volunteer at their district office (สัสดี, _satsadi_). Likewise, the training length is also reduced for those who have partially completed the three-year reserve training course (ร.ด., _ro do_). A person who completed one year out of three will only have to serve full-time for one year. Those who completed two years of reserve training will only have to do six months of full-time training, while those who complete three years or more of reserve training will be exempted entirely.

Royal Thai Armed Forces
Royal Thai Armed Forces
Day is celebrated on 18 January, commemorating the victory of Naresuan of the Ayutthaya Kingdom
Ayutthaya Kingdom
in battle against the crown prince of the Taungoo Dynasty in 1593.


Main article: Geography of Thailand
Geography of Thailand
View of the Luang Prabang Range , which straddles the Thai-Lao border, in Nan Province , Northern Thailand A typical limestone island in Thailand Phi Phi Islands

Totalling 513,120 square kilometres (198,120 sq mi), Thailand is the world's 50th-largest country by total area. It is slightly smaller than Yemen and slightly larger than Spain .

Thailand comprises several distinct geographic regions, partly corresponding to the provincial groups. The north of the country is the mountainous area of the Thai highlands , with the highest point being Doi Inthanon in the Thanon Thong Chai Range at 2,565 metres (8,415 ft) above sea level . The northeast, Isan , consists of the Khorat Plateau , bordered to the east by the Mekong
River . The centre of the country is dominated by the predominantly flat Chao Phraya river valley, which runs into the Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand

Southern Thailand
Southern Thailand
consists of the narrow Kra Isthmus that widens into the Malay Peninsula
Malay Peninsula
. Politically, there are six geographical regions which differ from the others in population, basic resources, natural features, and level of social and economic development. The diversity of the regions is the most pronounced attribute of Thailand's physical setting.

The Chao Phraya
Chao Phraya
and the Mekong
River are the indispensable water courses of rural Thailand. Industrial scale production of crops use both rivers and their tributaries. The Gulf of Thailand
Gulf of Thailand
covers 320,000 square kilometres (124,000 sq mi) and is fed by the Chao Phraya, Mae Klong , Bang Pakong , and Tapi Rivers. It contributes to the tourism sector owing to its clear shallow waters along the coasts in the southern region and the Kra Isthmus. The eastern shore of the Gulf of Thailand is an industrial centre of Thailand with the kingdom's premier deepwater port in Sattahip and its busiest commercial port, Laem Chabang .

The Andaman Sea
Andaman Sea
is a precious natural resource as it hosts the most popular and luxurious resorts in Asia. Phuket , Krabi , Ranong , Phang Nga and Trang , and their islands, all lay along the coasts of the Andaman Sea
Andaman Sea
and, despite the 2004 tsunami , they are a tourist magnet for visitors from around the world.

Plans have resurfaced for a canal which would connect the Andaman Sea to the Gulf of Thailand, analogous to the Suez and the Panama Canals . The idea has been greeted positively by Thai politicians as it would cut fees charged by the Ports of Singapore , improve ties with China and India, lower shipping times, and eliminate pirate attacks in the Strait of Malacca , and support the Thai government's policy of being the logistical hub for Southeast Asia. The canal, it is claimed, would improve economic conditions in the south of Thailand, which relies heavily on tourism income, and it would also change the structure of the Thai economy by making it an Asia logistical hub. The canal would be a major engineering project and has an expected cost of US$20–30 billion.


Thailand map of Köppen climate classification Satellite image of flooding in Thailand, Oct 2011

Thailand's climate is influenced by monsoon winds that have a seasonal character (the southwest and northeast monsoon). :2 The southwest monsoon, which starts from May until October is characterized by movement of warm, moist air from the Indian Ocean to Thailand, causing abundant rain over most of the country. :2 The northeast monsoon, starting from October until February brings cold and dry air from China over most of Thailand. :2 In southern Thailand, the northeast monsoon brings mild weather and abundant rainfall on the eastern coast of that region. :2 Most of Thailand has a "tropical wet and dry or savanna climate" type (Köppen 's Tropical savanna climate ). The south and the eastern tip of the east have a tropical monsoon climate .

Thailand is divided into three seasons. :2 The first is the rainy or southwest monsoon season (mid–May to mid–October) which prevails over most of the country. :2 This season is characterized by abundant rain with August and September being the wettest period of the year. :2 This can occasionally lead to floods. :4 In addition to rainfall caused by the southwest monsoon, the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and tropical cyclones also contribute to producing heavy rainfall during the rainy season. :2 Nonetheless, dry spells commonly occur for 1 to 2 weeks from June to early July. :4 This is due to the northward movement of the Intertropical Convergence Zone to southern China. :4 Winter or the northeast monsoon starts from mid–October until mid–February. :2 Most of Thailand experiences dry weather during this season with mild temperatures. :2:4 The exception is the southern parts of Thailand where it receives abundant rainfall, particularly during October to November. :2 Summer or the pre–monsoon season runs from mid–February until mid–May and is characterized by warmer weather. :3

Due to its inland nature and latitude, the north, northeast, central and eastern parts of Thailand experience a long period of warm weather. :3 During the hottest time of the year (March to May), temperatures usually reach up to 40 °C (104 °F) or more with the exception of coastal areas where sea breezes moderate afternoon temperatures. :3 In contrast, outbreaks of cold air from China can bring colder temperatures; in some cases (particularly the north and northeast) close to or below 0 °C (32 °F). :3 Southern Thailand
Southern Thailand
is characterized by mild weather year-round with less diurnal and seasonal variations in temperatures due to maritime influences. :3

Most of the country receives a mean annual rainfall of 1,200 to 1,600 mm (47 to 63 in). :4 However, certain areas on the windward sides of mountains such as Ranong province in the west coast of southern Thailand and eastern parts of Trat Province receive more than 4,500 mm (180 in) of rainfall per year. :4 The driest areas are on the leeward side in the central valleys and northernmost portion of south Thailand where mean annual rainfall is less than 1,200 mm (47 in). :4 Most of Thailand (north, northeast, central and east) is characterized by dry weather during the northeast monsoon and abundant rainfall during the southwest monsoon. :4 In the southern parts of Thailand, abundant rainfall occurs in both the northeast and southwest monsoon seasons with a peak in September for the western coast and a peak in November–January on the eastern coast. :4


Thailand has a mediocre but improving performance in the global Environmental Performance Index (EPI) with an overall ranking of 91 out of 180 countries in 2016. This is also a mediocre rank in the Asia Pacific region specifically, but ahead of countries like Indonesia
and China. The EPI was established in 2001 by the World Economic Forum as a global gauge to measure how well individual countries perform in implementing the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals . The environmental areas where Thailand performs worst (i.e. highest ranking) are air quality (167), environmental effects of the agricultural industry (106) and the climate and energy sector (93), the later mainly because of a high CO2 emission per KWh produced. Thailand performs best (i.e. lowest ranking) in water resource management (66), with some major improvements expected for the future too, and sanitation (68).


Main article: List of species native to Thailand The population of Asian elephants in Thailand's wild has dropped to an estimated 2,000–3,000.

The elephant is Thailand's national symbol . Although there were 100,000 domesticated elephants in Thailand in 1850, the population of elephants has dropped to an estimated 2,000. Poachers have long hunted elephants for ivory , meat , and hides. Young elephants are often captured for use in tourist attractions or as work animals, although their use has declined since the government banned logging in 1989. There are now more elephants in captivity than in the wild, and environmental activists claim that elephants in captivity are often mistreated.

Poaching of protected species remains a major problem. Hunters have decimated the populations of tigers , leopards , and other large cats for their valuable pelts. Many animals (including tigers, bears, crocodiles , and king cobras ) are farmed or hunted for their meat, which is considered a delicacy, and for their supposed medicinal properties. Although such trade is illegal, the famous Bangkok
market Chatuchak is still known for the sale of endangered species.

The practice of keeping wild animals as pets threatens several species. Baby animals are typically captured and sold, which often requires killing the mother. Once in captivity and out of their natural habitat, many pets die or fail to reproduce. Affected populations include the Asiatic black bear , Malayan sun bear , white-handed lar , pileated gibbon and binturong .


Main article: Education in Thailand Primary school students in Thailand

In 2014 the literacy rate was 93.5%. Education is provided by a well-organized school system of kindergartens, primary, lower secondary and upper secondary schools, numerous vocational colleges, and universities. The private sector of education is well developed and significantly contributes to the overall provision of education which the government would not be able to meet with public establishments. Education is compulsory up to and including age 14, with the government providing free education through to age 17. Chulalongkorn University , established in 1917, is the oldest university in Thailand.

Teaching relies heavily on rote learning rather than on student-centred methodology. The establishment of reliable and coherent curricula for its primary and secondary schools is subject to such rapid changes that schools and their teachers are not always sure what they are supposed to be teaching, and authors and publishers of textbooks are unable to write and print new editions quickly enough to keep up with the volatility. Issues concerning university entrance has been in constant upheaval for a number of years. Nevertheless, Thai education has seen its greatest progress in the years since 2001. Most of the present generation of students are computer literate. Thailand was ranked 54th out of 56 countries globally for English proficiency, the second-lowest in Asia.

Students in ethnic minority areas score consistently lower in standardised national and international tests. This is likely due to unequal allocation of educational resources, weak teacher training, poverty, and low Thai language
Thai language
skill, the language of the tests.

Extensive nationwide IQ tests were administered to 72,780 Thai students from December 2010 to January 2011. The average IQ was found to be 98.59, which is higher than previous studies have found. IQ levels were found to be inconsistent throughout the country, with the lowest average of 88.07 found in the southern region of Narathiwat Province and the highest average of 108.91 reported in Nonthaburi Province . The Ministry of Public Health blames the discrepancies on iodine deficiency and steps are being taken to require that iodine be added to table salt, a practice common in many Western countries.

In 2013, the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology announced that 27,231 schools would receive classroom-level access to high-speed internet .


Main article: List of Thai inventions and discoveries

The National Science and Technology Development Agency is an agency of the government of Thailand which supports research in science and technology and its application in the Thai economy .

The Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI) is a Thai synchrotron light source for physics, chemistry, material science, and life sciences. It is at the Suranaree University of Technology (SUT), in Nakhon Ratchasima , about 300 kilometres (190 miles) northeast of Bangkok. The institute, financed by the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), houses the only large scale synchrotron in Southeast Asia. It was originally built as the SORTEC synchrotron in Japan and later moved to Thailand and modified for 1.2 GeV operation. It provides users with regularly scheduled light.


In Bangkok, there are 23,000 free public Wi-Fi Internet hotspots. The Internet in Thailand includes 10 Gbit /s high speed fibre-optic lines that can be leased and ISPs such as KIRZ that provide residential Internet services.

The Internet is censored by the Thai government, making some sites unreachable. The organisations responsible are the Royal Thai Police , the Communications Authority of Thailand , and the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology (MICT ).


Main article: Economy of Thailand
Economy of Thailand

Thailand is an emerging economy and is considered a newly industrialised country . Thailand had a 2013 GDP of US$673 billion (on a purchasing power parity basis). Thailand is the 2nd largest economy in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
after Indonesia. Thailand ranks midway in the wealth spread in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
as it is the 4th richest nation according to GDP per capita, after Singapore, Brunei, and Malaysia.

Thailand functions as an anchor economy for the neighbouring developing economies of Laos, Myanmar, and Cambodia. In the third quarter of 2014, the unemployment rate in Thailand stood at 0.84% according to Thailand's National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB).


The BTS Skytrain passes through Sathon , the business district of Bangkok
, the capital of Thailand and the country's largest commercial and financial centre. The MahaNakhon skyscraper in Bangkok

Thailand experienced the world's highest economic growth rate from 1985 to 1996 – averaging 12.4% annually. In 1997 increased pressure on the baht , a year in which the economy contracted by 1.9%, led to a crisis that uncovered financial sector weaknesses and forced the Chavalit Yongchaiyudh administration to float the currency . Prime Minister Chavalit Yongchaiyudh was forced to resign after his cabinet came under fire for its slow response to the economic crisis. The baht was pegged at 25 to the US dollar from 1978 to 1997. The baht reached its lowest point of 56 to the US dollar in January 1998 and the economy contracted by 10.8% that year, triggering the Asian financial crisis .

Thailand's economy started to recover in 1999, expanding 4.2–4.4% in 2000, thanks largely to strong exports. Growth (2.2%) was dampened by the softening of the global economy in 2001, but picked up in the subsequent years owing to strong growth in Asia, a relatively weak baht encouraging exports, and increased domestic spending as a result of several mega projects and incentives of Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra , known as Thaksinomics . Growth in 2002, 2003, and 2004 was 5–7% annually.

Growth in 2005, 2006, and 2007 hovered around 4–5%. Due both to the weakening of the US dollar and an increasingly strong Thai currency, by March 2008 the dollar was hovering around the 33 baht mark. While Thaksinomics has received criticism, official economic data reveals that between 2001 and 2011, Isan's GDP per capita more than doubled to US$1,475, while, over the same period, GDP in the Bangkok
area increased from US$7,900 to nearly US$13,000.

With the instability surrounding major 2010 protests, the GDP growth of Thailand settled at around 4–5%, from highs of 5–7% under the previous civilian administration. Political uncertainty was identified as the primary cause of a decline in investor and consumer confidence. The IMF predicted that the Thai economy would rebound strongly from the low 0.1% GDP growth in 2011, to 5.5% in 2012 and then 7.5% in 2013, due to the monetary policy of the Bank of Thailand, as well as a package of fiscal stimulus measures introduced by the former Yingluck Shinawatra government.

Following the Thai military coup of 22 May 2014, the AFP global news agency published an article that claimed that the nation was on the verge of recession. The article focused on the departure of nearly 180,000 Cambodians from Thailand due to fears of an immigration clampdown, but concluded with information on the Thai economy's contraction of 2.1% quarter-on-quarter, from January to the end of March 2014.


Automotive production in Thailand , 2004–2013 A proportional representation of Thailand's exports

The economy of Thailand is heavily export-dependent, with exports accounting for more than two-thirds of gross domestic product (GDP). Thailand exports over US$105 billion worth of goods and services annually. Major exports include rice , textiles and footwear, fishery products, rubber, jewellery, cars, computers, and electrical appliances.

Substantial industries include electric appliances, components, computer components, and vehicles. Thailand's recovery from the 1997–1998 Asian financial crisis depended mainly on exports, among various other factors. As of 2012 , the Thai automotive industry was the largest in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
and the 9th largest in the world . The Thailand industry has an annual output of near 1.5 million vehicles, mostly commercial vehicles.

Most of the vehicles built in Thailand are developed and licensed by foreign producers, mainly Japanese and South Korean . The Thai car industry takes advantage of the ASEAN
Free Trade Area (AFTA) to find a market for many of its products. Eight manufacturers, five Japanese, two US, and Tata of India, produce pick-up trucks in Thailand. Thailand is the second largest consumer of pick-up trucks in the world, after the US. In 2014, pick-ups accounted for 42% of all new vehicle sales in Thailand.


Further information: Tourism in Thailand
Tourism in Thailand
_ Wat Phra Kaew in Bangkok
Statue of a mythical Kinnon _, Wat Phra Kaew , Bangkok An Airbus A380 of the national carrier Thai Airways

Tourism makes up about 6% of the economy. Thailand was the most visited country in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
in 2013, according to the World Tourism Organisation. Estimates of tourism receipts directly contributing to the Thai GDP of 12 trillion baht range from 9 percent (1 trillion baht) (2013) to 16 percent. When including the indirect effects of tourism, it is said to account for 20.2 percent (2.4 trillion baht) of Thailand's GDP. :1

The Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT) uses the slogan "Amazing Thailand" to promote Thailand internationally. In 2015, this was supplemented by a "Discover Thainess" campaign.

Asian tourists primarily visit Thailand for Bangkok
and the historical, natural, and cultural sights in its vicinity. Western tourists not only visit Bangkok
and surroundings, but in addition many travel to the southern beaches and islands. The north is the chief destination for trekking and adventure travel with its diverse ethnic minority groups and forested mountains. The region hosting the fewest tourists is Isan in the northeast. To accommodate foreign visitors, the Thai government established a separate tourism police with offices in the major tourist areas and its own central emergency telephone number. "Amazing Thailand" – Thailand Tourism booth at a Travel and Tour Expo

Thailand's attractions include diving , sandy beaches, hundreds of tropical islands , nightlife, archaeological sites, museums, hill tribes , flora and bird life, palaces, Buddhist temples and several World Heritage sites. Many tourists follow courses during their stay in Thailand. Popular are classes in Thai cooking, Buddhism and traditional Thai massage . Thai national festivals range from Thai New Year Songkran to Loy Krathong . Many localities in Thailand also have their own festivals. Among the best-known are the " Elephant Round-up " in Surin , the " Rocket Festival " in Yasothon and the "Phi Ta Khon
" festival in Dan Sai . Thai cuisine has become famous worldwide with its enthusiastic use of fresh herbs and spices.

shopping malls offer a variety of international and local brands. Towards the north of the city, and easily reached by skytrain or underground , is the Chatuchak Weekend Market . It is possibly the largest market in the world, selling everything from household items to live, and sometimes endangered, animals. The " Pratunam Market " specialises in fabrics and clothing. The night markets in the Silom area and on Khaosan Road are mainly tourist-oriented, selling items such as T-shirts, handicrafts, counterfeit watches and sunglasses. In the vicinity of Bangkok
one can find several floating markets such as the one in Damnoen Saduak . The "Sunday Evening Walking Street Market", held on Rachadamnoen Road inside the old city, is a shopping highlight of a visit to Chiang Mai up in northern Thailand. It attracts many locals as well as foreigners. The "Night Bazaar" is Chiang Mai's more tourist-oriented market, sprawling over several city blocks just east of the old city walls towards the river.

Prostitution in Thailand and sex tourism also form a _de facto_ part of the economy. Campaigns promote Thailand as exotic to attract tourists. Cultural milieu combined with poverty and the lure of money have caused prostitution and sex tourism in particular to flourish in Thailand. One estimate published in 2003 placed the trade at US$4.3 billion per year or about 3% of the Thai economy. According to research by Chulalongkorn University on the Thai illegal economy, prostitution in Thailand in the period between 1993 and 1995, made up around 2.7% of the GDP. It is believed that at least 10% of tourist dollars are spent on the sex trade. The head of Buddha, Wat Mahathat, at Ayutthaya Historical Park , World Heritage Site .

Thailand is at the forefront of the growing practice of sex-reassignment surgery (SRS). Statistic taken from 2014, illustrated the country's medical tourism industry attracting over 2.5 million visitors per year. In 1985–1990, only 5% of foreign transsexual patients visited Thailand for sex-reassignment surgery. In more recent years, 2010–2012, more than 90% of the visitors traveled to Thailand for SRS.


Further information: Agriculture in Thailand Thailand had long been the largest rice exporter in the world . Forty-nine percent of Thailand's labour force is employed in agriculture.

Forty-nine per cent of Thailand's labour force is employed in agriculture . This is down from 70% in 1980. Rice is the most important crop in the country and Thailand had long been the world's leading exporter of rice, until recently falling behind both India
and Vietnam. Thailand has the highest percentage of arable land, 27.25%, of any nation in the Greater Mekong
Subregion . About 55% of the arable land area is used for rice production.

Agriculture has been experiencing a transition from labour-intensive and transitional methods to a more industrialised and competitive sector. Between 1962 and 1983, the agricultural sector grew by 4.1% per year on average and continued to grow at 2.2% between 1983 and 2007. The relative contribution of agriculture to GDP has declined while exports of goods and services have increased.


Further information: Energy in Thailand

75% of Thailand's electrical generation is powered by natural gas in 2014. Coal-fired power plants produce an additional 20% of electricity, with the remainder coming from biomass, hydro, and biogas.

Thailand produces roughly one-third of the oil it consumes. It is the second largest importer of oil in SE Asia. Thailand is a large producer of natural gas, with reserves of at least 10 trillion cubic feet. After Indonesia, it is the largest coal producer in SE Asia, but must import additional coal to meet domestic demand.


Main articles: Transport in Thailand and List of airports in Thailand


Main article: Demographics of Thailand
Demographics of Thailand

Thailand had a population of 66,720,153 as of 2013 . Thailand's population is largely rural, concentrated in the rice-growing areas of the central, northeastern, and northern regions. Thailand had an urban population of 45.7% as of 2010 , concentrated mostly in and around the Bangkok
Metropolitan Area .

Thailand's government-sponsored family planning program resulted in a dramatic decline in population growth from 3.1% in 1960 to around 0.4% today. In 1970, an average of 5.7 people lived in a Thai household. At the time of the 2010 census, the average Thai household size was 3.2 people.


Further information: Ethnic groups
Ethnic groups
in Thailand _ A procession during the Hae Pha Khuen That_ festival of Wat Phra Mahathat

Thai nationals make up the majority of Thailand's population, 95.9% in 2010. The remaining 4.1% of the population are Burmese (2.0%), others 1.3%, and unspecified 0.9%.

According to the Royal Thai Government's 2011 Country Report to the UN Committee responsible for the International Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination , available from the Department of Rights and Liberties Promotion of the Thai Ministry of Justice, :3 62 ethnic communities are officially recognised in Thailand. Twenty million Central Thai (together with approximately 650,000 Khorat Thai ) make up approximately 20,650,000 (34.1 percent) of the nation's population of 60,544,937 at the time of completion of the Mahidol University _Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand_ data (1997).

The 2011 Thailand Country Report provides population numbers for mountain peoples ('hill tribes') and ethnic communities in the Northeast and is explicit about its main reliance on the Mahidol University Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand data. Thus, though over 3.288 million people in the Northeast alone could not be categorised, the population and percentages of other ethnic communities circa 1997 are known for all of Thailand and constitute minimum populations. In descending order, the largest (equal to or greater than 400,000) are a) 15,080,000 Lao (24.9 percent) consisting of the Thai Lao (14 million) and other smaller Lao groups, namely the Thai Loei (400–500,000), Lao Lom (350,000), Lao Wiang/Klang (200,000), Lao Khrang (90,000), Lao Ngaew (30,000), and Lao Ti (10,000; b) six million Khon
Muang (9.9 percent, also called Northern Thais); c) 4.5 million Pak Tai (7.5 percent, also called Southern Thais); d) 1.4 million Khmer Leu (2.3 percent, also called Northern Khmer); e) 900,000 Malay (1.5%); f) 500,000 Ngaw (0.8 percent); g) 470,000 Phu Thai (0.8 percent); h) 400,000 Kuy/Kuay (also known as Suay) (0.7 percent), and i) 350,000 Karen (0.6 percent). :7–13 Thai Chinese
Thai Chinese
, those of significant Chinese heritage, are 14% of the population, while Thais with partial Chinese ancestry comprise up to 40% of the population. Thai Malays
Thai Malays
represent 3% of the population, with the remainder consisting of Mons , Khmers and various "hill tribes ". The country's official language is Thai and the primary religion is Theravada Buddhism , which is practised by around 95% of the population.

Increasing numbers of migrants from neighbouring Myanmar, Laos, and Cambodia, as well as from Nepal and India, have pushed the total number of non-national residents to around 3.5 million as of 2009 , up from an estimated 2 million in 2008, and about 1.3 million in 2000. Some 41,000 Britons live in Thailand.


Further information: List of cities in Thailand

* v * t * e

Largest municipalities in Thailand See template



Nonthaburi City 1 Bangkok
5,686,646 11 Pattaya
City Chonburi 117,371

Pak Kret City

Hat Yai City

2 Nonthaburi City Nonthaburi 255,793 12 Nakhon Si Thammarat City Nakhon Si Thammarat 104,948

3 Pak Kret City Nonthaburi 189,258 13 Nakhon Sawan City Nakhon Sawan 84,122

4 Hat Yai City Songkhla 159,627 14 Laem Chabang City Chonburi 82,960

5 Nakhon Ratchasima City Nakhon Ratchasima 131,286 15 Rangsit City Pathum Thani 81,084

6 Udon Thani City Udon Thani 131,192 16 Phuket City Phuket 78,923

7 Chiang Mai City Chiang Mai 131,091 17 Nakhon Pathom City Nakhon Pathom 77,651

8 Surat Thani City Surat Thani 130,114 18 Ubon Ratchathani City Ubon Ratchathani 77,306

9 Chaophraya Surasak City Chonburi 128,664 19 Chiang Rai City Chiang Rai 74,226

10 Khon Kaen
Khon Kaen
City Khon Kaen
Khon Kaen
120,045 20 Phitsanulok
City Phitsanulok


Main article: Languages of Thailand
Languages of Thailand



1910 8,131,247 —

1919 9,207,355 +13.2%

1929 11,506,207 +25.0%

1937 14,464,105 +25.7%

1947 17,442,689 +20.6%

1960 26,257,916 +50.5%

1970 34,397,371 +31.0%

1980 44,824,540 +30.3%

1990 54,548,530 +21.7%

2000 60,916,441 +11.7%

2010 65,926,261 +8.2%

Source: National Statistical Office of Thailand

The official language of Thailand is Thai , a Tai–Kadai language closely related to Lao , Shan in Myanmar, and numerous smaller languages spoken in an arc from Hainan
and Yunnan
south to the Chinese border. It is the principal language of education and government and spoken throughout the country. The standard is based on the dialect of the central Thai people, and it is written in the Thai alphabet
Thai alphabet
, an abugida script that evolved from the Khmer alphabet
Khmer alphabet
. Sixty-two languages were recognised by the Royal Thai Government in the 2011 Country Report to the UN Committee responsible for the _International Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination_ , which employed an ethnolinguistic approach and is available from the Department of Rights and Liberties Promotion of the Thai Ministry of Justice. :3 Southern Thai is spoken in the southern provinces, and Northern Thai is spoken in the provinces that were formerly part of the independent kingdom of Lan Na
Lan Na
. For the purposes of the national census, which does not recognise all 62 languages recognised by the Royal Thai Government in the 2011 Country Report, four dialects of Thai exist; these partly coincide with regional designations.

The largest of Thailand's minority languages is the Lao dialect of Isan spoken in the northeastern provinces. Although sometimes considered a Thai dialect, it is a Lao dialect, and the region where it is traditionally spoken was historically part of the Lao kingdom of Lan Xang
Lan Xang
. In the far south, Kelantan-Pattani Malay is the primary language of Malay Muslims. Varieties of Chinese are also spoken by the large Thai Chinese
Thai Chinese
population, with the Teochew dialect best-represented.

Numerous tribal languages are also spoken, including many Austroasiatic languages
Austroasiatic languages
such as Mon , Khmer , Viet , Mlabri and Orang Asli ; Austronesian languages
Austronesian languages
such as Cham and Moken ; Sino-Tibetan languages like Lawa , Akha , and Karen ; and other Tai languages
Tai languages
such as Tai Yo , Phu Thai , and Saek . Hmong is a member of the Hmong–Mien languages
Hmong–Mien languages
, which is now regarded as a language family of its own.

English is a mandatory school subject, but the number of fluent speakers remains low, especially outside cities.


Main article: Religion in Thailand
Religion in Thailand




Buddhism   93.2%

Islam   4.9%

Christianity   0.9%


Unaffiliated   0.3%

Thailand's prevalent religion is Theravada Buddhism , which is an integral part of Thai identity and culture. Active participation in Buddhism is among the highest in the world. According to the 2000 census, 94.6% of the country's population self-identified as Buddhists of the Theravada tradition. Muslims constitute the second largest religious group in Thailand, comprising 4.9% of the population.

Islam is concentrated mostly in the country's southernmost provinces: Pattani
, Yala , Satun , Narathiwat , and part of Songkhla Chumphon , which are predominantly Malay , most of whom are Sunni Muslims . Christians represent 0.9% of the population, with the remaining population consisting of Sikhs and Hindus , who live mostly in the country's cities. There is also a small but historically significant Jewish community in Thailand dating back to the 17th century.


Main article: Culture of Thailand
Culture of Thailand
See also: Music of Thailand
Music of Thailand
, Isan , and Cinema of Thailand
Cinema of Thailand
Theravada Buddhism , highly practised in Thailand

Thai culture has been shaped by many influences, including Indian, Lao, Burmese, Cambodian, and Chinese.

Its traditions incorporate a great deal of influence from India, China, Cambodia, and the rest of Southeast Asia. Thailand's national religion, Theravada Buddhism, is central to modern Thai identity. Thai Buddhism has evolved over time to include many regional beliefs originating from Hinduism
, animism , as well as ancestor worship. The official calendar in Thailand is based on the Eastern version of the Buddhist Era (BE), which is 543 years ahead of the Gregorian (Western) calendar . Thus the year 2015 is 2558 BE in Thailand.

Several different ethnic groups, many of which are marginalised, populate Thailand. Some of these groups spill over into Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia
and Malaysia
and have mediated change between their traditional local culture, national Thai, and global cultural influences. Overseas Chinese
Overseas Chinese
also form a significant part of Thai society, particularly in and around Bangkok. Their successful integration into Thai society has allowed for this group to hold positions of economic and political power. Thai Chinese
Thai Chinese
businesses prosper as part of the larger bamboo network , a network of overseas Chinese businesses operating in the markets of Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
that share common family and cultural ties. Khon
show is the most stylised form of Thai performance.

The traditional Thai greeting, the _wai _, is generally offered first by the younger of the two people meeting, with their hands pressed together, fingertips pointing upwards as the head is bowed to touch face to fingertips, usually coinciding with the spoken words "sawatdi khrap" for male speakers, and "sawatdi kha" for females. The elder may then respond in the same way. Social status and position, such as in government, will also have an influence on who performs the _wai_ first. For example, although one may be considerably older than a provincial governor, when meeting it is usually the visitor who pays respect first. When children leave to go to school, they are taught to _wai_ their parents to indicate their respect. The wai is a sign of respect and reverence for another, similar to the namaste greeting of India
and Nepal.

As with other Asian cultures, respect towards ancestors is an essential part of Thai spiritual practice. Thais have a strong sense of hospitality and generosity, but also a strong sense of social hierarchy. Seniority is paramount in Thai culture. Elders have by tradition ruled in family decisions or ceremonies. Older siblings have duties to younger ones.

Taboos in Thailand include touching someone's head or pointing with the feet, as the head is considered the most sacred and the foot the lowest part of the body.


Further information: Cuisine of Thailand

Thai cuisine blends five fundamental tastes: sweet, spicy, sour, bitter, and salty. Common ingredients used in Thai cuisine include garlic, chillies, lime juice, lemon grass, coriander , galangal , palm sugar, and fish sauce (_nam pla_). The staple food in Thailand is rice, particularly jasmine variety rice (also known as "hom Mali" rice) which forms a part of almost every meal. Thailand was long the world's largest exporter of rice, and Thais domestically consume over 100 of milled rice per person per year. Over 5,000 varieties of rice from Thailand are preserved in the rice gene bank of the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), based in the Philippines. The king of Thailand is the official patron of IRRI.


Further information: Media of Thailand

Thai society has been influenced in recent years by its widely available multi-language press and media. There are some English and numerous Thai and Chinese newspapers in circulation. Most Thai popular magazines use English headlines as a chic glamour factor. Many large businesses in Bangkok
operate in English as well as other languages.

Thailand is the largest newspaper market in Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
with an estimated circulation of over 13 million copies daily in 2003. Even upcountry, out of Bangkok, the media flourish. For example, according to Thailand's Public Relations Department Media Directory 2003–2004, the nineteen provinces of Isan , Thailand's northeastern region, hosted 116 newspapers along with radio, TV, and cable. Since then, another province, Bueng Kan, was incorporated, totalling twenty provinces. In addition, a military coup on 22 May 2014 led to severe state restrictions on all media and forms of expression.


Further information: Thai units of measurement

Thailand generally uses the metric system , but traditional units of measurement for land area are used, and imperial units of measurement are occasionally used for building materials, such as wood and plumbing fixtures. Years are numbered as B.E. (Buddhist Era ) in educational settings, the civil service, government, and on contracts and newspaper datelines. In banking, and increasingly in industry and commerce, standard Western year (Christian or Common Era) counting is the standard practice.


See also: Thailand at the Olympics , Rugby union in Thailand , Golf in Thailand , Football in Thailand , and List of sporting events held in Thailand Muay Thai , Thailand's signature sport

Muay Thai (Thai : มวยไทย, RTGS: Muai Thai, , lit. "Thai boxing") is a native form of kickboxing and Thailand's signature sport. It incorporates kicks, punches, knees and elbow strikes in a ring with gloves similar to those used in Western boxing and this has led to Thailand gaining medals at the Olympic Games in boxing .

Association football has overtaken muay Thai as the most widely followed sport in contemporary Thai society. Thailand national football team has played the AFC Asian Cup six times and reached the semifinals in 1972 . The country has hosted the Asian Cup twice, in 1972 and in 2007 . The 2007 edition was co-hosted together with Indonesia
, Malaysia
and Vietnam
. It is not uncommon to see Thais cheering their favourite English Premier League teams on television and walking around in replica kit. Another widely enjoyed pastime, and once a competitive sport, is kite flying . Rajamangala National Stadium

Volleyball is rapidly growing as one of the most popular sports. The women\'s team has often participated in the World Championship , World Cup , and World Grand Prix Asian Championship . They have won the Asian Championship twice and Asian Cup once. By the success of the women's team, the men team has been growing as well.

Takraw (Thai: ตะกร้อ) is a sport native to Thailand, in which the players hit a rattan ball and are only allowed to use their feet, knees, chest, and head to touch the ball. Sepak takraw is a form of this sport which is similar to volleyball. The players must volley a ball over a net and force it to hit the ground on the opponent's side. It is also a popular sport in other countries in Southeast Asia. A rather similar game but played only with the feet is buka ball .

Snooker has enjoyed increasing popularity in Thailand in recent years, with interest in the game being stimulated by the success of Thai snooker player James Wattana in the 1990s. Other notable players produced by the country include Ratchayothin Yotharuck , Noppon Saengkham and Dechawat Poomjaeng .

Rugby is also a growing sport in Thailand with the Thailand national rugby union team rising to be ranked 61st in the world. Thailand became the first country in the world to host an international 80 welterweight rugby tournament in 2005. The national domestic Thailand Rugby Union (TRU) competition includes several universities and services teams such as Chulalongkorn University , Mahasarakham University , Kasetsart University , Prince of Songkla University , Thammasat University
Thammasat University
, Rangsit University , the Thai Police , the Thai Army , the Thai Navy and the Royal Thai Air Force . Local sports clubs which also compete in the TRU include the British Club of Bangkok, the Southerners Sports Club (Bangkok) and the Royal Bangkok
Sports Club.

Thailand has been called the golf capital of Asia as it is a popular destination for golf. The country attracts a large number of golfers from Japan, Korea, Singapore, South Africa, and Western countries who come to play golf in Thailand every year. The growing popularity of golf, especially among the middle classes and immigrants, is evident as there are more than 200 world-class golf courses nationwide, and some of them are chosen to host PGA and LPGA tournaments, such as Amata Spring Country Club , Alpine Golf and Sports Club, Thai Country Club, and Black Mountain Golf Club.

Basketball is a growing sport in Thailand, especially on the professional sports club level. The Chang Thailand Slammers won the 2011 ASEAN
Basketball League Championship. The Thailand national basketball team had its most successful year at the 1966 Asian Games where it won the silver medal.

Other sports in Thailand are slowly growing as the country develops its sporting infrastructure. The success in sports like weightlifting and taekwondo at the last two summer Olympic Games has demonstrated that boxing is no longer the only medal option for Thailand.


Thammasat Stadium is a multi-purpose stadium in Bangkok. It is currently used mostly for football matches. The stadium holds 25,000. It is on Thammasat University's Rangsit campus. It was built for the 1998 Asian Games by construction firm Christiani and Nielsen, the same company that constructed the Democracy
Monument in Bangkok.

Rajamangala National Stadium is the biggest sporting arena in Thailand. It currently has a capacity of 65,000. It is in Bang Kapi, Bangkok. The stadium was built in 1998 for the 1998 Asian Games and is the home stadium of the Thailand national football team .

The well-known Lumpini Boxing Stadium will host its final Muay Thai boxing matches on 7 February 2014 after the venue first opened in December 1956. Managed by the Royal Thai Army, the stadium was officially selected for the purpose of muay Thai bouts following a competition that was staged on 15 March 1956. From 11 February 2014, the stadium will relocate to Ram Intra Road, due to the new venue's capacity to accommodate audiences of up to 3,500. Foreigners typically pay between 1,000–2,000 baht to view a match, with prices depending on the location of the seating.


Main article: International rankings of Thailand


The Heritage Foundation Indices of Economic Freedom 60 of 179

A.T. Kearney /_ Foreign Policy _ magazine Global Services Location Index 2011 7 of 50

Reporters Without Borders Worldwide Press Freedom Index, 2014 130 of 180

Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 80 of 179

United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index
Human Development Index
89 of 187

World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report (2008) 34 of 134

World Gold Council Gold reserve (2010) 24 of 111

HSBC International Expat Explorer Survey (2012) 2 of 30


* Thailand portal * Asia portal * Geography portal * Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia

* Book: Thailand

* Outline of Thailand * Index of Thailand-related articles * Royal Thai Police * Law of Thailand
Law of Thailand
* Telecommunications in Thailand * Thai ceramics * Thai temple art and architecture * Transport in Thailand * Corruption in Thailand


* ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ Thailand, _The World Factbook_. * ^ _A_ _B_ Draper, John; Kamnuansilpa, Peerasit (2016). "The Thai Lao Question: The Reappearance of Thailand’s Ethnic Lao Community and Related Policy Questions". _Asian Ethnicity_. doi :10.1080/14631369.2016.1258300 . Retrieved 23 November 2016. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; Reports submitted by States parties under article 9 of the Convention: Thailand_ (PDF) (in English with appended Thai government translation). United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2016. CS1 maint: Unrecognized language (link ) * ^ David Levinson (1998), _Ethnic Groups Worldwide: A Ready Reference Handbook_, Oryx Pres, p. 287, ISBN 1573560197 * ^ Paul, Lewis M.; Simons, Gary F.; Fennig, Charles D. (2013), _Ethnologue: Languages of the World_, SIL International, ISBN 978-1-55671-216-6 * ^ _A_ _B_ Barbara A. West (2009), _Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania_, Facts on File, p. 794, ISBN 1438119135 * ^ "Religious Composition by Country, 2010–2050". 2 April 2015. * ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2015 Revision, Key Findings and Advance Tables" (PDF). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population Division. p. 17. Retrieved 10 January 2016. * ^ (in Thai) National Statistics Office, "100th anniversary of population censuses in Thailand: Population and housing census 2010: 11th census of Thailand". popcensus.nso.go.th. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ "Thailand". International Monetary Fund . Retrieved 9 July 2017. * ^ "Gini Index". World Bank. Retrieved 2 June 2015. * ^ _Global 2016 Human Development Report Overview – English_ (PDF). New York: United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 2017. pp. 22–24. Retrieved 22 March 2017. * ^ Thailand and the World Bank, World Bank on Thailand country overview. * ^ The Guardian, Country profile: Thailand, 25 April 2009. * ^ Jonathan H. Ping Middle Power Statecraft (p 104) * ^ "Merriam-Webster Online". Merriam-webster.com. 25 April 2007. Retrieved 25 April 2010. * ^ Charles Eliot (1921). _The Project Gutenberg EBook of Hinduism and Buddhism, An Historical Sketch, Vol. 3 (of 3) _. London: Routledge citing in turn Footnote 189: The name is found on Champan inscriptions of 1050 CE and according to Gerini appears in Ptolemy 's Samarade = Sâmaraṭṭha. See Gerini, Ptolemy, p. 170. But Samarade is near Bangkok
and there can hardly have been Thais there in Ptolemy's time; and Footnote 190: So too in Central Asia Kustana appears to be a learned distortion of the name Khotan , made to give it a meaning in Sanskrit. * ^ Thailand (Siam) History, CSMngt-Thai. Archived 24 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ Cœdès 1968 , p. 197. * ^ จิตร ภูมิศักดิ์ 1976: "ความเป็นมาของคำสยาม ไทย ลาวและขอม และลักษณะทางสังคม ของชื่อชนชาติ" (Jid Phumisak 1976: "Coming Into Existence for the Siamese Words for Thai, Laotian and Khmer and Societal Characteristics for Nation-names") * ^ Thailand. History. _Encyclopædia Britannica_ * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ Some Aspects of Asian History and Culture by Upendra Thakur p.157 * ^ Cœdès 1968 , pp. 190–191,194–195. * ^ "Science news: What happened at Angkor
Wat". _The Washington Post_. 13 April 2010. * ^ Slave-owning societies. _Encyclopædia Britannica_. * ^ Slavery in Nineteenth-Century Northern Thailand. Kyoto Review of South East Asia. * ^ "King, country and the coup". _The Indian Express_. Mumbai. 22 September 2006. Retrieved 3 November 2011. * ^ _Declaration between Great Britain and France with regard of the Kingdom of Siam and other matters_ London. January 15, 1896. Treaty Series. No. 5 * ^ _A_ _B_ Werner Gruhl, _Imperial Japan\'s World War Two, 1931–1945_, Transaction Publishers, 2007 ISBN 978-0-7658-0352-8 * ^ http://asiapacific.anu.edu.au/newmandala/2014/05/17/thailands-juristocracy/ * ^ Bangkok
Post: _Section 44 is necessary: NCPO_. This list contains 2 errors: it states that the 6th constitution was promulgated in 1912 (rather than 1952), and it states that the 11th constitution was promulgated in 1976 (rather than 1974). * ^ Thanet Aphornsuvan, "The Search for Order: Constitutions and Human Rights in Thai Political History" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2008-02-26. (152 KB), 2001 Symposium: Constitutions and Human Rights in a Global Age: An Asia Pacific perspective * ^ "A list of previous coups in Thailand". Associated Press. 19 September 2006. Archived from the original on 16 October 2007. Retrieved 25 April 2010. * ^ "Raw Data: List of Recent Coups in Thailand\'s History". Fox News Channel. 19 September 2006. Archived from the original on 6 July 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010. * ^ "FTA Watch Group website". Ftawatch.org. Retrieved 25 April 2010. * ^ John D. Ciorciari (10 March 2004). "Thaksin\'s Chance for Leading Role in the Region". _The Straits Times_. Singapore. * ^ \'Thaksin to face charges over Burma telecom deal. ICT News, 2 August 2007 * ^ " Thailand sends troops to bolster US occupation of Iraq". _World Socialist Web Site_. Retrieved 28 January 2015. * ^ The Telegraph, Troops from Thailand and Cambodia
fight on border, 3 April 2009 * ^ Bloomberg, Thai, Cambodian Border Fighting Stops, Thailand Says, 3 April 2009 * ^ " Thailand Military Strength". _Global Firepower_. Retrieved 15 December 2014. * ^ Chapter 2 of the 2007 Constitution of Thailand * ^ John Pike (27 April 2005). "Ministry of Defense". GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved 25 April 2010. * ^ SIPRI Military Expenditure Database – Thailand Archived 3 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine .. SIPRI , 2012. Retrieved 3 May 2012. * ^ Chapter 4 of the 2007 Constitution of Thailand * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ _F_ _G_ _H_ _I_ _J_ _K_ _L_ _M_ _N_ _O_ _P_ _Q_ _R_ _S_ _T_ _U_ _V_ _W_ _X_ "The Climate of Thailand" (PDF). Thai Meteorological Department. Retrieved 18 August 2016. * ^ Dr. Susan L. Woodward (1997–2014). "Tropical Savannas". _Biomes of the World_. S. L. Woodward. Retrieved 23 February 2014. * ^ "2016 Report". _EPI Report_. Yale University. Retrieved 17 December 2016. * ^ EPI (2016): Thailand * ^ _A_ _B_ "Thailand\'s Elephants". _Thai Elephant Conservation Center_. Retrieved 3 March 2015. * ^ Jennifer Hile (6 October 2002). "Activists Denounce Thailand\'s Elephant "Crushing" Ritual". National Geographic Today. Retrieved 7 June 2007. * ^ Teena Amrit Gill (18 February 1997). "Endangered Animals on Restaurant Menus". Albion Monitor/News. Archived from the original on 16 May 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2007. * ^ "Thai Forests: Dept. National Parks, Wildlife & Plants". Thai Society for the Conservation of Wild Animals. * ^ BTI 2014 Thailand country Report * ^ Thai university applicants scored an average 28.34% in English in recent university entrance exams. In a recent IMD World Competitiveness Report, Thailand was ranked 54th out of 56 countries globally for English proficiency, the second-lowest in Asia. Singapore was third, Malaysia
28th, and Korea 46th: The Sorry State of Thai Education – Part 4: Dismal English-language education, Reuters & The Korea Herald, 23 March 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ Draper, John (2012), "Revisiting English in Thailand", _Asian EFL Journal_, Asian EFL Journal, 14 (4): 9–38, ISSN 1738-1460 * ^ OECD (2013), _Structural Policy Country Notes: Thailand_ (PDF), OECD * ^ Khaopa, Wannapa (12 December 2012). "Thai students drop in world maths and science study". _The Nation_. * ^ Draper, John (12 December 2011). "Solving Isaan\'s education problem". The Isaan Record. * ^ Draper, John (21 February 2014). "PISA Thailand regional breakdown shows inequalities between Bangkok
and Upper North with the rest of Thailand". The Isaan Record. * ^ "MOPH reports low IQ among Thai youth : National News Bureau of Thailand". Thainews.prd.go.th. 8 July 2011. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 3 November 2011. * ^ " Thailand Provides 27,231 Schools With Internet". 11 March 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2015. * ^ Bangkok\'s free internet: 23,000 hotspots Bangkok
Post: learning. Bangkok
Post (2 May 2012). Retrieved 16 April 2013. * ^ "Thailand’s Massive Internet Censorship", Asian Correspondent.com, Hybrid News Limited, 22 July 2010 * ^ "GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)". _The World Factbook_. US CIA. Retrieved 4 January 2015. * ^ "NESDB: Thailand facing unemployment problem". _ Pattaya
Mail_. 25 November 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2015. * ^ Aidan Jones (31 January 2014). "Thai northeast vows poll payback to Shinawatra clan". Agence France-Presse. Retrieved 8 February 2014. * ^ Phisanu Phromchanya (24 February 2012). " Thailand Economy To Rebound Strongly In 2012,". _The Wall Street Journal_. Retrieved 26 April 2012. * ^ "Cambodian exodus from Thailand jumps to nearly 180,000". Agence France-Presse. 17 June 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2014. * ^ Santivimolnat, Santan (18 August 2012). "2-million milestone edges nearer". _ Bangkok
Post_. The Post Publishing. * ^ Languepin, Olivier (3 January 2013). " Thailand poised to Surpass Car Production target". _ Thailand Business News_. Archived from the original on 15 January 2013. Retrieved 20 January 2013. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Production Statistics". OICA (International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers). Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2012. * ^ _A_ _B_ Takahashi, Toru (27 November 2014). "Thailand\'s love affair with the pickup truck". _Nikkei Asian Review_. Retrieved 4 January 2015. * ^ "Government moves to head off tourist fears". _ Bangkok
Post_. 2015-08-24. Retrieved 24 August 2015. * ^ _Travel and Tourism, Economic Impact 2014: Thailand_ (PDF) (2014 ed.). London: World Travel & Tourism Council. 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2015. * ^ "History". _TATnews.org_. Tourism Authority of Thailand (TAT). 2015. Retrieved 7 May 2015. * ^ Tourist Police in Thailand Archived 3 July 2008 at the Wayback Machine .. Amazing-Thailand.com. Retrieved on 16 September 2010. * ^ IUCN – Home. Cms.iucn.org (24 April 2008). Retrieved on 16 September 2010. * ^ Ocha, Witchayanee. "Transsexual emergence: gender variant identities in Thailand." _Culture, Health & Sexuality_14.5 (2012): 563–75. Web. * ^ Thailand mulls legal prostitution. _ The Age _, 26 November 2003 * ^ Pasuk Phongpaichit Thailand\'s illegal economy and public policy. Seminar paper delivered at the Centre of Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University, Nov 1999 * ^ Martin, Lorna. "Paradise Revealed". _Taipei Times_. Retrieved 29 January 2015. * ^ Finch, Steve. " Thailand top destination for medical tourists." _CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal_. Canadian Medical Association, 07 Jan. 2014. Web. 1 Mar. 2017. * ^ Chokrungvaranont, Prayuth, Gennaro Selvaggi, Sirachai Jindarak, Apichai Angspatt, Pornthep Pungrasmi, Poonpismai Suwajo, and Preecha Tiewtranon. "The Development of Sex Reassignment Surgery in Thailand: A Social Perspective." _The Scientific World Journal_. Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2014. Web. 23 Mar. 2017. * ^ _A_ _B_ _C_ _D_ _E_ Henri Leturque and Steve Wiggins 2010. Thailand\'s progress in agriculture: Transition and sustained productivity growth. London: Overseas Development Institute * ^ International Grains Council. "Grain Market Report (GMR444)", London, 14 May 2014. Retrieved 13 June 2014. * ^ "CIA World Factbook – Greater Mekong
Subregion". Cia.gov. Retrieved 3 November 2011. * ^ _A_ _B_ "Rice Around The World. Thailand". Irri.org. Archived from the original on 27 March 2008. Retrieved 25 April 2010. * ^ _A_ _B_ "International Index of Energy Security Risk" (PDF). _Institute for 21st Century Energy_. Institute for 21st Century Energy. 2013. Retrieved 14 September 2014. * ^ ประกาศสานักทะเบียนกลาง กรมการปกครอง เรื่อง จานวนราษฎรทั่วราชอาณาจักร แยกเป็นกรุงเทพมหานครและจังหวัดต่าง ๆ ตามหลักฐานการทะเบียนราษฎร ณ วันที่ 31 ธันวาคม 2553. Web.archive.org (16 July 2011). Retrieved 20 May 2012. * ^ World Bank Group. (n.d.). Population, total . Washington, DC: Author. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL?locations=TH * ^ _A_ _B_ _Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand_ (PDF) (in Thai). Office of the National Culture Commission. 2004. Retrieved 8 October 2016. * ^ Theraphan Luangthongkum (2007). "The Position of Non-Thai Languages in Thailand". _Language, Nation and Development in Southeast Asia_. ISEAS Publishing: 191. * ^ Thailand: Burmese migrant children missing out on education. IRIN Asia. 15 June 2009. Archived 27 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine . * ^ McGeown, Kate (14 December 2006). "Hard lessons in expat paradise". BBC News. Retrieved 1 March 2015. * ^ _A_ _B_ "US Department of State, Thailand". State.gov. Retrieved 25 April 2010. * ^ Murray L Weidenbaum (1 January 1996). _The Bamboo Network: How Expatriate Chinese Entrepreneurs are Creating a New Economic Superpower in Asia_. Martin Kessler Books, Free Press. pp. 4–8. ISBN 978-0-684-82289-1 . * ^ "Cooperation of IRRI and Thailand" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 June 2005. (38.7 KB) * ^ "Weights and measures in Thailand". Cockatoo.com. 17 December 1923. Retrieved 25 April 2010. * ^ Hodgson, Guy (18 April 1993). "Snooker: A storm coming in from the East: Thailand doesn\'t boast many world-beating sportsmen. But over the next fortnight James Wattana might just become one". _The Independent _. London. Retrieved 25 January 2015. * ^ Goyder, James (11 January 2014). "South East Asians proving high earners on the tables". _thenational.ae _. Retrieved 25 January 2015. * ^ "International Rugby Board – THAILAND". International Rugby Board. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2010. * ^ The Nation, 19 July 2005 * ^ " Golf in Thailand by". Golfasia.com. Retrieved 25 April 2010. * ^ Chawadee Nualkhair (10 July 2009). " Thailand woos foreign golfers with sun, sand traps". Reuters. Retrieved 25 April 2010. * ^ "Why to book with golf2thailand.com : Thailand Golf Courses Thailand Golf Packages". Golf2thailand.com. Retrieved 25 April 2010. * ^ "Chang Thailand Slammers – Air Asia ASEAN
Basketball League". aseanbasketballleague.com. Retrieved 2 June 2012. * ^ " Thailand Basketball". best-basketball-tips.com. Retrieved 2 June 2012. * ^ "End of an era for Muay Thai at Lumpini". _ Bangkok
Post_. 6 February 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014. * ^ Global Services Location Index 2011 * ^ " Global Competitiveness Report 2008-2009" (PDF). _World Economic Forum_. weforum.org. 2008. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 March 2009. Retrieved 12 September 2008. * ^ "Expat Explorer Survey 2012" (PDF). _Expat_. HSBC Group. Retrieved 24 October 2012.


* Cœdès, George (1968). Walter F. Vella, ed. _The Indianized States of Southeast Asia_. trans.Susan Brown Cowing. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 978-0-8248-0368-1 .


Find more aboutTHAILANDat's sister projects

* _Definitions from Wiktionary * Media from Commons * News from Wikinews * Quotations from Wikiquote * Texts from Wikisource * Textbooks from Wikibooks * Travel guide from Wikivoyage * Learning resources from Wikiversity

Wikimedia Commons has media related to CATEGORY:THAILAND _.


* Thaigov.go .th
– Government of Thailand * Chief of State and Cabinet Members * Mfa.go .th
– Ministry of Foreign Affairs * Thailand Internet information – National Electronics and Computer Technology Center * Ministry of Culture

General information

* "Thailand". _ The World Factbook _. Central Intelligence Agency . * Thailand entry in Library of Congress Country Studies . 1987 * Thailand from _UCB Libraries GovPubs_ * Thailand at DMOZ * Thailand from the BBC News * Thailand _Encyclopædia Britannica_ entry * _ Wikimedia Atlas of Thailand * Longdo Map – Thailand maps in English and Thai * Key Development Forecasts for Thailand from International Futures * 2010 Thailand population census by Economic and Social statistics Bureau


* Thailand travel guide from Wikivoyage * Tourism Authority of Thailand – official tourism website


* Thailand Country Fact Sheet from the Common Language Project * Southeast Asia
Southeast Asia
Visions. "Browse the Southeast