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Tennessee
Tennessee
(/tɛnɪˈsiː/ ( listen); Cherokee: ᏔᎾᏏ, translit. Tanasi) is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. Tennessee
Tennessee
is the 36th largest and the 16th most populous of the 50 United States. Tennessee
Tennessee
is bordered by Kentucky and Virginia
Virginia
to the north, North Carolina
North Carolina
to the east, Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi
Mississippi
to the south, and Arkansas
Arkansas
and Missouri
Missouri
to the west. The Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
dominate the eastern part of the state, and the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
forms the state's western border. Nashville is the state's capital and largest city, with a population of 660,388. Tennessee's second largest city is Memphis, which has a population of 652,717.[6] The state of Tennessee
Tennessee
is rooted in the Watauga Association, a 1772 frontier pact generally regarded as the first constitutional government west of the Appalachians.[7] What is now Tennessee
Tennessee
was initially part of North Carolina, and later part of the Southwest Territory. Tennessee
Tennessee
was admitted to the Union as the 16th state on June 1, 1796. Tennessee
Tennessee
was the last state to leave the Union and join the Confederacy at the outbreak of the American Civil War
American Civil War
in 1861. Occupied by Union forces from 1862, it was the first state to be readmitted to the Union at the end of the war.[8] Tennessee
Tennessee
furnished more soldiers for the Confederate Army than any other state besides Virginia, and more soldiers for the Union Army than the rest of the Confederacy combined.[8] Beginning during Reconstruction, it had competitive party politics, but a Democratic takeover in the late 1880s resulted in passage of disenfranchisement laws that excluded most blacks and many poor whites from voting. This sharply reduced competition in politics in the state until after passage of civil rights legislation in the mid-20th century.[9] In the 20th century, Tennessee
Tennessee
transitioned from an agrarian economy to a more diversified economy, aided by massive federal investment in the Tennessee Valley Authority
Tennessee Valley Authority
and, in the early 1940s, the city of Oak Ridge. This city was established to house the Manhattan Project's uranium enrichment facilities, helping to build the world's first atomic bombs, two of which were dropped on Imperial Japan
Imperial Japan
near the end of World War II. Tennessee's major industries include agriculture, manufacturing, and tourism. Poultry, soybeans, and cattle are the state's primary agricultural products,[10] and major manufacturing exports include chemicals, transportation equipment, and electrical equipment.[11] The Great Smoky Mountains
Great Smoky Mountains
National Park, the nation's most visited national park, is headquartered in the eastern part of the state, and a section of the Appalachian Trail
Appalachian Trail
roughly follows the Tennessee-North Carolina border.[12] Other major tourist attractions include the Tennessee Aquarium
Tennessee Aquarium
in Chattanooga; Dollywood
Dollywood
in Pigeon Forge; Ripley's Aquarium of the Smokies and Ober Gatlinburg
Ober Gatlinburg
in Gatlinburg; the Parthenon, the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, and Ryman Auditorium in Nashville; the Jack Daniel's
Jack Daniel's
Distillery in Lynchburg; Elvis Presley's Graceland
Graceland
residence and tomb, the Memphis Zoo, the National Civil Rights Museum
National Civil Rights Museum
in Memphis; and Bristol Motor Speedway
Bristol Motor Speedway
in Bristol.

Contents

1 Etymology

1.1 Nickname

2 Geography

2.1 East Tennessee 2.2 Middle Tennessee 2.3 West Tennessee 2.4 Public lands 2.5 Climate

3 Major cities 4 History

4.1 Early history 4.2 Statehood (1796) 4.3 Civil War and Reconstruction 4.4 20th century 4.5 21st century

5 Demographics

5.1 Birth data 5.2 Religion

6 Economy

6.1 Tax 6.2 Tourism

7 Culture

7.1 Music 7.2 Literature 7.3 Sports

7.3.1 Sports teams

8 Transportation

8.1 Interstate highways 8.2 Airports 8.3 Railroads

9 Governance

9.1 Politics 9.2 Law enforcement

9.2.1 State agencies 9.2.2 Local 9.2.3 Firearms 9.2.4 Capital punishment

9.3 Tribal

10 Media 11 Education

11.1 Colleges and universities 11.2 Local school districts

12 State symbols 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Etymology

Monument near the old site of Tanasi
Tanasi
in Monroe County

The earliest variant of the name that became Tennessee
Tennessee
was recorded by Captain Juan Pardo, the Spanish explorer, when he and his men passed through an American Indian village named "Tanasqui" in 1567 while traveling inland from South Carolina. In the early 18th century, British traders encountered a Cherokee
Cherokee
town named Tanasi
Tanasi
(or "Tanase") in present-day Monroe County, Tennessee. The town was located on a river of the same name (now known as the Little Tennessee
Tennessee
River), and appears on maps as early as 1725. It is not known whether this was the same town as the one encountered by Juan Pardo, although recent research suggests that Pardo's "Tanasqui" was located at the confluence of the Pigeon River and the French Broad River, near modern Newport.[13] The meaning and origin of the word are uncertain. Some accounts suggest it is a Cherokee
Cherokee
modification of an earlier Yuchi
Yuchi
word. It has been said to mean "meeting place", "winding river", or "river of the great bend".[14][15] According to ethnographer James Mooney, the name "can not be analyzed" and its meaning is lost.[16] The modern spelling, Tennessee, is attributed to James Glen, the governor of South Carolina, who used this spelling in his official correspondence during the 1750s. The spelling was popularized by the publication of Henry Timberlake's "Draught of the Cherokee
Cherokee
Country" in 1765. In 1788, North Carolina
North Carolina
created " Tennessee
Tennessee
County", the third county to be established in what is now Middle Tennessee. (Tennessee County was the predecessor to current-day Montgomery County and Robertson County.) When a constitutional convention met in 1796 to organize a new state out of the Southwest Territory, it adopted "Tennessee" as the name of the state. Nickname Tennessee
Tennessee
is known as The Volunteer State, a nickname some claimed was earned during the War of 1812
War of 1812
because of the prominent role played by volunteer soldiers from Tennessee, especially during the Battle of New Orleans.[17] Other sources differ on the origin of the state nickname; according to the Columbia Encyclopedia, the name refers to volunteers for the Mexican–American War. This explanation is more likely, because President Polk's call for 2,600 nationwide volunteers at the beginning of the Mexican-American War
Mexican-American War
resulted in 30,000 volunteers from Tennessee
Tennessee
alone, largely in response to the death of Davy Crockett and appeals by former Tennessee
Tennessee
Governor and then Texas politician, Sam Houston.[18] Geography See also: List of counties in Tennessee
List of counties in Tennessee
and Geology of Tennessee

Map of Tennessee

Tennessee
Tennessee
borders eight other states: Kentucky
Kentucky
and Virginia
Virginia
to the north; North Carolina
North Carolina
to the east; Georgia, Alabama, and Mississippi on the south; Arkansas
Arkansas
and Missouri
Missouri
on the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
to the west. Tennessee
Tennessee
ties Missouri
Missouri
as the state bordering the most other states. The state is trisected by the Tennessee
Tennessee
River. The highest point in the state is Clingmans Dome
Clingmans Dome
at 6,643 feet (2,025 m).[19] Clingmans Dome, which lies on Tennessee's eastern border, is the highest point on the Appalachian Trail, and is the third highest peak in the United States
United States
east of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. The state line between Tennessee
Tennessee
and North Carolina
North Carolina
crosses the summit. The state's lowest point is the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
at the Mississippi
Mississippi
state line: 178 feet (54 m). The geographical center of the state is located in Murfreesboro. The state of Tennessee
Tennessee
is geographically, culturally, economically, and legally divided into three Grand Divisions: East Tennessee, Middle Tennessee, and West Tennessee. The state constitution allows no more than two justices of the five-member Tennessee Supreme Court
Tennessee Supreme Court
to be from one Grand Division and a similar rule applies to certain commissions and boards. Tennessee
Tennessee
features six principal physiographic regions: the Blue Ridge, the Appalachian Ridge and Valley Region, the Cumberland Plateau, the Highland Rim, the Nashville Basin, and the Gulf Coastal Plain. Tennessee
Tennessee
is home to the most caves in the United States, with over 10,000 documented caves to date.[20] East Tennessee Main article: East Tennessee

Map of Tennessee
Tennessee
highlighting East Tennessee

The Blue Ridge area lies on the eastern edge of Tennessee, bordering North Carolina. This region of Tennessee
Tennessee
is characterized by the high mountains and rugged terrain of the western Blue Ridge Mountains, which are subdivided into several subranges, namely the Great Smoky Mountains, the Bald Mountains, the Unicoi Mountains, the Unaka Mountains and Roan Highlands, and the Iron Mountains. The average elevation of the Blue Ridge area is 5,000 feet (1,500 m) above sea level. Clingmans Dome, the state's highest point, is located in this region. The Blue Ridge area was never more than sparsely populated, and today much of it is protected by the Cherokee
Cherokee
National Forest, the Great Smoky Mountains
Great Smoky Mountains
National Park, and several federal wilderness areas and state parks.

Bald Mountains

Stretching west from the Blue Ridge for approximately 55 miles (89 km) is the Ridge and Valley region, in which numerous tributaries join to form the Tennessee River
Tennessee River
in the Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley. This area of Tennessee
Tennessee
is covered by fertile valleys separated by wooded ridges, such as Bays Mountain
Bays Mountain
and Clinch Mountain. The western section of the Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley, where the depressions become broader and the ridges become lower, is called the Great Valley. In this valley are numerous towns and two of the region's three urban areas, Knoxville, the third largest city in the state, and Chattanooga, the fourth largest city in the state. The third urban area, the Tri-Cities, comprising Bristol, Johnson City, and Kingsport and their environs, is located to the northeast of Knoxville. The Cumberland Plateau
Cumberland Plateau
rises to the west of the Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley; this area is covered with flat-topped mountains separated by sharp valleys. The elevation of the Cumberland Plateau
Cumberland Plateau
ranges from 1,500 to about 2,000 feet (460 to about 610 m) above sea level. East Tennessee
East Tennessee
has several important transportation links with Middle and West Tennessee, as well as the rest of the nation and the world, including several major airports and interstates. Knoxville's McGhee Tyson Airport (TYS) and Chattanooga's Chattanooga Metropolitan Airport (CHA), as well as the Tri-Cities' Tri-Cities Regional Airport
Tri-Cities Regional Airport
(TRI), provide air service to numerous destinations. I-24, I-81, I-40, I-75, and I-26 along with numerous state highways and other important roads, traverse the Grand Division and connect Chattanooga, Knoxville, and the Tri-Cities, along with other cities and towns such as Cleveland, Athens, and Sevierville. Middle Tennessee Main article: Middle Tennessee

Map of Tennessee
Tennessee
highlighting Middle Tennessee

West of the Cumberland Plateau
Cumberland Plateau
is the Highland Rim, an elevated plain that surrounds the Nashville Basin. The northern section of the Highland Rim, known for its high tobacco production, is sometimes called the Pennyroyal Plateau; it is located primarily in Southwestern Kentucky. The Nashville Basin
Nashville Basin
is characterized by rich, fertile farm country and great diversity of natural wildlife. Middle Tennessee
Middle Tennessee
was a common destination of settlers crossing the Appalachians from Virginia
Virginia
in the late 18th century and early 19th century. An important trading route called the Natchez Trace, created and used for many generations by American Indians, connected Middle Tennessee
Tennessee
to the lower Mississippi River
Mississippi River
town of Natchez. The route of the Natchez Trace
Natchez Trace
was used as the basis for a scenic highway called the Natchez Trace
Natchez Trace
Parkway. Some of the last remaining large American chestnut
American chestnut
trees grow in this region. They are being used to help breed blight-resistant trees. Middle Tennessee
Middle Tennessee
is one of the primary state population and transportation centers along with the heart of state government. Nashville (the capital), Clarksville, and Murfreesboro are its largest cities. Fifty percent of the US population is within 600 miles (970 km) of Nashville.[21] Interstates I-24, I-40, and I-65 service the Division, meeting in Nashville. West Tennessee Main article: West Tennessee

Map of Tennessee
Tennessee
highlighting West Tennessee

West of the Highland Rim
Highland Rim
and Nashville Basin
Nashville Basin
is the Gulf Coastal Plain, which includes the Mississippi
Mississippi
embayment. The Gulf Coastal Plain is, in terms of area, the predominant land region in Tennessee. It is part of the large geographic land area that begins at the Gulf of Mexico and extends north into southern Illinois. In Tennessee, the Gulf Coastal Plain
Gulf Coastal Plain
is divided into three sections that extend from the Tennessee River
Tennessee River
in the east to the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
in the west. The easternmost section, about 10 miles (16 km) in width, consists of hilly land that runs along the western bank of the Tennessee
Tennessee
River. To the west of this narrow strip of land is a wide area of rolling hills and streams that stretches all the way to the Mississippi
Mississippi
River; this area is called the Tennessee
Tennessee
Bottoms or bottom land. In Memphis, the Tennessee
Tennessee
Bottoms end in steep bluffs overlooking the river. To the west of the Tennessee
Tennessee
Bottoms is the Mississippi
Mississippi
Alluvial Plain, less than 300 feet (91 m) above sea level. This area of lowlands, flood plains, and swamp land is sometimes referred to as the Delta region. Memphis is the economic center of West Tennessee. Most of West Tennessee
West Tennessee
remained Indian land until the Chickasaw Cession of 1818, when the Chickasaw
Chickasaw
ceded their land between the Tennessee River
Tennessee River
and the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. The portion of the Chickasaw
Chickasaw
Cession that lies in Kentucky
Kentucky
is known today as the Jackson Purchase. Public lands

View from atop Mount Le Conte in the Great Smoky Mountains
Great Smoky Mountains
National Park, April 2007

Areas under the control and management of the National Park Service include the following:

Andrew Johnson National Historic Site
Andrew Johnson National Historic Site
in Greeneville Appalachian National Scenic Trail Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park Cumberland Gap
Cumberland Gap
National Historical Park Foothills Parkway Fort Donelson National Battlefield
Fort Donelson National Battlefield
and Fort Donelson National Cemetery near Dover Great Smoky Mountains
Great Smoky Mountains
National Park Natchez Trace
Natchez Trace
Parkway Obed Wild and Scenic River
Obed Wild and Scenic River
near Wartburg Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail Shiloh National Cemetery
Shiloh National Cemetery
and Shiloh National Military Park
Shiloh National Military Park
near Shiloh Stones River National Battlefield
Stones River National Battlefield
and Stones River National Cemetery near Murfreesboro Trail of Tears
Trail of Tears
National Historic Trail

Fifty-four state parks, covering some 132,000 acres (530 km2) as well as parts of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park
Great Smoky Mountains National Park
and Cherokee National Forest, and Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
Cumberland Gap National Historical Park
are in Tennessee. Sportsmen and visitors are attracted to Reelfoot Lake, originally formed by the 1811–12 New Madrid earthquakes; stumps and other remains of a once dense forest, together with the lotus bed covering the shallow waters, give the lake an eerie beauty. See also: List of Tennessee
Tennessee
state parks Climate

A map of Köppen climate types in Tennessee

Autumn in Tennessee. Roadway to Lindsey Lake in David Crockett
David Crockett
State Park, located a half mile west of Lawrenceburg.

Most of the state has a humid subtropical climate, with the exception of some of the higher elevations in the Appalachians, which are classified as having a mountain temperate or humid continental climate due to cooler temperatures.[22] The Gulf of Mexico
Gulf of Mexico
is the dominant factor in the climate of Tennessee, with winds from the south being responsible for most of the state's annual precipitation. Generally, the state has hot summers and mild to cool winters with generous precipitation throughout the year, with highest average monthly precipitation generally in the winter and spring months, between December and April. The driest months, on average, are August to October. On average the state receives 50 inches (130 cm) of precipitation annually. Snowfall ranges from 5 inches (13 cm) in West Tennessee
West Tennessee
to over 16 inches (41 cm) in the higher mountains in East Tennessee.[23] Summers in the state are generally hot and humid, with most of the state averaging a high of around 90 °F (32 °C) during the summer months. Winters tend to be mild to cool, increasing in coolness at higher elevations. Generally, for areas outside the highest mountains, the average overnight lows are near freezing for most of the state. The highest recorded temperature is 113 °F (45 °C) at Perryville on August 9, 1930, while the lowest recorded temperature is −32 °F (−36 °C) at Mountain City on December 30, 1917. While the state is far enough from the coast to avoid any direct impact from a hurricane, the location of the state makes it likely to be impacted from the remnants of tropical cyclones which weaken over land and can cause significant rainfall, such as Tropical Storm Chris in 1982 and Hurricane
Hurricane
Opal in 1995.[24] The state averages around 50 days of thunderstorms per year, some of which can be severe with large hail and damaging winds. Tornadoes are possible throughout the state, with West and Middle Tennessee
Middle Tennessee
the most vulnerable. Occasionally, strong or violent tornadoes occur, such as the devastating April 2011 tornadoes that killed 20 people in North Georgia and Southeast Tennessee.[25] On average, the state has 15 tornadoes per year.[26] Tornadoes in Tennessee
Tennessee
can be severe, and Tennessee
Tennessee
leads the nation in the percentage of total tornadoes which have fatalities.[27] Winter storms are an occasional problem, such as the infamous Blizzard of 1993, although ice storms are a more likely occurrence. Fog
Fog
is a persistent problem in parts of the state, especially in East Tennessee.

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Tennessee
Tennessee
Cities (F)[28]

City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

Bristol 44/25 49/27 57/34 66/41 74/51 81/60 85/64 84/62 79/56 68/43 58/35 48/27

Chattanooga 49/30 54/33 63/40 72/47 79/56 86/65 90/69 89/68 82/62 72/48 61/40 52/33

Knoxville 47/30 52/33 61/40 71/48 78/57 85/65 88/69 87/68 81/62 71/50 60/41 50/34

Memphis 49/31 55/36 63/44 72/52 80/61 89/69 92/73 91/71 85/64 75/52 62/43 52/34

Nashville 46/28 52/31 61/39 70/47 78/57 85/65 90/70 89/69 82/61 71/49 59/40 49/32

Major cities See also: List of municipalities in Tennessee
List of municipalities in Tennessee
and List of largest cities and towns in Tennessee
Tennessee
by population The capital and largest city is Nashville, though Knoxville, Kingston, and Murfreesboro have all served as state capitals in the past. Nashville's 13-county metropolitan area has been the state's largest since c. 1990. Chattanooga and Knoxville, both in the eastern part of the state near the Great Smoky Mountains, each has approximately one-third of the population of Memphis or Nashville. The city of Clarksville is a fifth significant population center, 45 miles (72 km) northwest of Nashville. Murfreesboro is the sixth-largest city in Tennessee, consisting of 108,755 residents.

 

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Largest cities or towns in Tennessee Source:[29]

Rank Name County Pop.

Nashville

Memphis 1 Nashville Davidson 660,388

Knoxville

Chattanooga

2 Memphis Shelby 652,717

3 Knoxville Knox 186,239

4 Chattanooga Hamilton 177,571

5 Clarksville Montgomery 150,287

6 Murfreesboro Rutherford 131,947

7 Franklin Williamson 74,794

8 Jackson Madison 67,005

9 Johnson City Washington 66,677

10 Bartlett Shelby 58,622

History Main article: History of Tennessee Early history

Mississippian-period shell gorget, Castalian Springs, Sumner County

Reconstruction of Fort Loudon, the first British settlement in Tennessee

The area now known as Tennessee
Tennessee
was first inhabited by Paleo-Indians nearly 12,000 years ago.[30] The names of the cultural groups that inhabited the area between first settlement and the time of European contact are unknown, but several distinct cultural phases have been named by archaeologists, including Archaic (8000–1000 BC), Woodland (1000 BC–1000 AD), and Mississippian (1000–1600 AD), whose chiefdoms were the cultural predecessors of the Muscogee people who inhabited the Tennessee River
Tennessee River
Valley before Cherokee
Cherokee
migration into the river's headwaters. The first recorded European excursions into what is now called Tennessee
Tennessee
were three expeditions led by Spanish explorers, namely Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto
in 1540, Tristan de Luna in 1559, and Juan Pardo in 1567. Pardo recorded the name "Tanasqui" from a local Indian village, which evolved to the state's current name. At that time, Tennessee
Tennessee
was inhabited by tribes of Muscogee and Yuchi
Yuchi
people. Possibly because of European diseases devastating the Indian tribes, which would have left a population vacuum, and also from expanding European settlement in the north, the Cherokee
Cherokee
moved south from the area now called Virginia. As European colonists spread into the area, the Indian populations were forcibly displaced to the south and west, including all Muscogee and Yuchi
Yuchi
peoples, the Chickasaw
Chickasaw
and Choctaw, and ultimately, the Cherokee
Cherokee
in 1838. The first British settlement in what is now Tennessee
Tennessee
was built in 1756 by settlers from the colony of South Carolina
South Carolina
at Fort Loudoun, near present-day Vonore. Fort Loudoun became the westernmost British outpost to that date. The fort was designed by John William Gerard de Brahm and constructed by forces under British Captain Raymond Demeré. After its completion, Captain Raymond Demeré relinquished command on August 14, 1757, to his brother, Captain Paul Demeré. Hostilities erupted between the British and the neighboring Overhill Cherokees, and a siege of Fort Loudoun ended with its surrender on August 7, 1760. The following morning, Captain Paul Demeré and a number of his men were killed in an ambush nearby, and most of the rest of the garrison was taken prisoner.[31] In the 1760s, long hunters from Virginia
Virginia
explored much of East and Middle Tennessee, and the first permanent European settlers began arriving late in the decade. The vast majority of 18th century settlers were English or of primarily English descent but nearly 20% of them were also Scotch-Irish.[32] These settlers formed the Watauga Association, a community built on lands leased from the Cherokee peoples. During the American Revolutionary War, Fort Watauga at Sycamore Shoals (in present-day Elizabethton) was attacked (1776) by Dragging Canoe and his warring faction of Cherokee
Cherokee
who were aligned with the British Loyalists. These renegade Cherokee
Cherokee
were referred to by settlers as the Chickamauga. They opposed North Carolina's annexation of the Washington District and the concurrent settling of the Transylvania Colony further north and west. The lives of many settlers were spared from the initial warrior attacks through the warnings of Dragging Canoe's cousin, Nancy Ward. The frontier fort on the banks of the Watauga River
Watauga River
later served as a 1780 staging area for the Overmountain Men in preparation to trek over the Appalachian Mountains, to engage, and to later defeat the British Army at the Battle of Kings Mountain in South Carolina. Three counties of the Washington District (now part of Tennessee) broke off from North Carolina
North Carolina
in 1784 and formed the State of Franklin. Efforts to obtain admission to the Union failed, and the counties (now numbering eight) had re-joined North Carolina
North Carolina
by 1789. North Carolina
North Carolina
ceded the area to the federal government in 1790, after which it was organized into the Southwest Territory. In an effort to encourage settlers to move west into the new territory, in 1787 the mother state of North Carolina
North Carolina
ordered a road to be cut to take settlers into the Cumberland Settlements—from the south end of Clinch Mountain
Clinch Mountain
(in East Tennessee) to French Lick (Nashville). The Trace was called the " North Carolina
North Carolina
Road" or "Avery's Trace", and sometimes "The Wilderness Road" (although it should not be confused with Daniel Boone's "Wilderness Road" through the Cumberland Gap). Statehood (1796) Tennessee
Tennessee
was admitted to the Union on June 1, 1796 as the 16th state. It was the first state created from territory under the jurisdiction of the United States
United States
federal government. Apart from the former Thirteen Colonies
Thirteen Colonies
only Vermont
Vermont
and Kentucky
Kentucky
predate Tennessee's statehood, and neither was ever a federal territory.[33] The Constitution of the State of Tennessee, Article I, Section 31, states that the beginning point for identifying the boundary is the extreme height of the Stone Mountain, at the place where the line of Virginia intersects it, and basically runs the extreme heights of mountain chains through the Appalachian Mountains
Appalachian Mountains
separating North Carolina from Tennessee
Tennessee
past the Indian towns of Cowee and Old Chota, thence along the main ridge of the said mountain (Unicoi Mountain) to the southern boundary of the state; all the territory, lands and waters lying west of said line are included in the boundaries and limits of the newly formed state of Tennessee. Part of the provision also stated that the limits and jurisdiction of the state would include future land acquisition, referencing possible land trade with other states, or the acquisition of territory from west of the Mississippi
Mississippi
River. During the administration of U.S. President Martin Van Buren, nearly 17,000 Cherokees—along with approximately 2,000 black slaves owned by Cherokees—were uprooted from their homes between 1838 and 1839 and were forced by the U.S. military to march from "emigration depots" in Eastern Tennessee
Tennessee
(such as Fort Cass) toward the more distant Indian Territory
Indian Territory
west of Arkansas
Arkansas
(now the state of Oklahoma).[34] During this relocation an estimated 4,000 Cherokees died along the way west.[35] In the Cherokee
Cherokee
language, the event is called Nunna daul Isunyi—"the Trail Where We Cried." The Cherokees were not the only American Indians forced to emigrate as a result of the Indian removal efforts of the United States, and so the phrase "Trail of Tears" is sometimes used to refer to similar events endured by other American Indian peoples, especially among the "Five Civilized Tribes". The phrase originated as a description of the earlier emigration of the Choctaw
Choctaw
nation. Civil War and Reconstruction Main article: Tennessee
Tennessee
in the American Civil War In February 1861, secessionists in Tennessee's state government—led by Governor Isham Harris—sought voter approval for a convention to sever ties with the United States, but Tennessee
Tennessee
voters rejected the referendum by a 54–46% margin. The strongest opposition to secession came from East Tennessee
East Tennessee
(which later tried to form a separate Union-aligned state). Following the Confederate attack upon Fort Sumter in April and Lincoln's call for troops from Tennessee
Tennessee
and other states in response, Governor Isham Harris
Isham Harris
began military mobilization, submitted an ordinance of secession to the General Assembly, and made direct overtures to the Confederate government. The Tennessee legislature ratified an agreement to enter a military league with the Confederate States on May 7, 1861. On June 8, 1861, with people in Middle Tennessee
Middle Tennessee
having significantly changed their position, voters approved a second referendum calling for secession, becoming the last state to do so. Many major battles of the American Civil War
American Civil War
were fought in Tennessee—most of them Union victories. Ulysses S. Grant
Ulysses S. Grant
and the U.S. Navy
U.S. Navy
captured control of the Cumberland and Tennessee
Tennessee
rivers in February 1862. They held off the Confederate counterattack at Shiloh in April. Memphis fell to the Union in June, following a naval battle on the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
in front of the city. The Capture of Memphis and Nashville gave the Union control of the western and middle sections; this control was confirmed at the Battle of Murfreesboro in early January 1863 and by the subsequent Tullahoma Campaign.

The Battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864

Confederates held East Tennessee
East Tennessee
despite the strength of Unionist sentiment there, with the exception of extremely pro-Confederate Sullivan County. The Confederates, led by General James Longstreet, did attack General Burnside's Fort Sanders at Knoxville and lost. It was a big blow to East Tennessee
East Tennessee
Confederate momentum, but Longstreet won the Battle of Bean's Station
Battle of Bean's Station
a few weeks later. The Confederates besieged Chattanooga during the Chattanooga Campaign
Chattanooga Campaign
in early fall 1863, but were driven off by Grant in November. Many of the Confederate defeats can be attributed to the poor strategic vision of General Braxton Bragg, who led the Army of Tennessee
Army of Tennessee
from Perryville, Kentucky
Kentucky
to another Confederate defeat at Chattanooga. The last major battles came when the Confederates invaded Middle Tennessee
Tennessee
in November 1864 and were checked at Franklin, then completely dispersed by George Thomas at Nashville in December. Meanwhile, the civilian Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
was appointed military governor of the state by President Abraham Lincoln. When the Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipation Proclamation
was announced, Tennessee
Tennessee
was mostly held by Union forces. Thus, Tennessee
Tennessee
was not among the states enumerated in the Proclamation, and the Proclamation did not free any slaves there. Nonetheless, enslaved African Americans
African Americans
escaped to Union lines to gain freedom without waiting for official action. Old and young, men, women and children camped near Union troops. Thousands of former slaves ended up fighting on the Union side, nearly 200,000 in total across the South. Tennessee's legislature approved an amendment to the state constitution prohibiting slavery on February 22, 1865.[36] Voters in the state approved the amendment in March.[37] It also ratified the Thirteenth Amendment to the United States
United States
Constitution (abolishing slavery in every state) on April 7, 1865. In 1864, Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
(a War Democrat from Tennessee) was elected Vice President under Abraham Lincoln. He became President after Lincoln's assassination in 1865. Under Johnson's lenient re-admission policy, Tennessee
Tennessee
was the first of the seceding states to have its elected members readmitted to the U.S. Congress, on July 24, 1866. Because Tennessee
Tennessee
had ratified the Fourteenth Amendment, it was the only one of the formerly secessionist states that did not have a military governor during the Reconstruction period. After the formal end of Reconstruction, the struggle over power in Southern society continued. Through violence and intimidation against freedmen and their allies, White Democrats regained political power in Tennessee
Tennessee
and other states across the South in the late 1870s and 1880s. Over the next decade, the state legislature passed increasingly restrictive laws to control African Americans. In 1889 the General Assembly passed four laws described as electoral reform, with the cumulative effect of essentially disfranchising most African Americans in rural areas and small towns, as well as many poor Whites. Legislation included implementation of a poll tax, timing of registration, and recording requirements. Tens of thousands of taxpaying citizens were without representation for decades into the 20th century.[9] Disfranchising legislation accompanied Jim Crow laws passed in the late 19th century, which imposed segregation in the state. In 1900, African Americans
African Americans
made up nearly 24% of the state's population, and numbered 480,430 citizens who lived mostly in the central and western parts of the state.[38] In 1897, Tennessee
Tennessee
celebrated its centennial of statehood (though one year late of the 1896 anniversary) with a great exposition in Nashville. A full-scale replica of the Parthenon
Parthenon
was constructed for the celebration, located in what is now Nashville's Centennial Park. 20th century

A group of workers at Norris Dam
Norris Dam
construction camp site. The TVA was formed as part of Roosevelt's New Deal
New Deal
legislation.

On August 18, 1920, Tennessee
Tennessee
became the thirty-sixth and final state necessary to ratify the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, which provided women the right to vote. Disfranchising voter registration requirements continued to keep most African Americans and many poor whites, both men and women, off the voter rolls. The need to create work for the unemployed during the Great Depression, a desire for rural electrification, the need to control annual spring flooding and improve shipping capacity on the Tennessee River were all factors that drove the federal creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority
Tennessee Valley Authority
(TVA) in 1933. Through the power of the TVA projects, Tennessee
Tennessee
quickly became the nation's largest public utility supplier. During World War II, the availability of abundant TVA electrical power led the Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
to locate one of the principal sites for production and isolation of weapons-grade fissile material in East Tennessee. The planned community of Oak Ridge was built from scratch to provide accommodations for the facilities and workers. These sites are now Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the Y-12 National Security Complex, and the East Tennessee
East Tennessee
Technology Park. Despite recognized effects of limiting voting by poor whites, successive legislatures expanded the reach of the disfranchising laws until they covered the state. Political scientist V. O. Key, Jr. argued in 1949 that:

...the size of the poll tax did not inhibit voting as much as the inconvenience of paying it. County officers regulated the vote by providing opportunities to pay the tax (as they did in Knoxville), or conversely by making payment as difficult as possible. Such manipulation of the tax, and therefore the vote, created an opportunity for the rise of urban bosses and political machines. Urban politicians bought large blocks of poll tax receipts and distributed them to blacks and whites, who then voted as instructed.[9]

In 1953 state legislators amended the state constitution, removing the poll tax. In many areas both blacks and poor whites still faced subjectively applied barriers to voter registration that did not end until after passage of national civil rights legislation, including the Voting Rights Act of 1965.[9] Tennessee
Tennessee
celebrated its bicentennial in 1996. With a yearlong statewide celebration entitled " Tennessee
Tennessee
200", it opened a new state park (Bicentennial Mall) at the foot of Capitol Hill in Nashville. The state has had major disasters, such as the Great Train Wreck of 1918, one of the worst train accidents in U.S. history,[39] and the Sultana explosion on the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
near Memphis, the deadliest maritime disaster in U.S. history.[40] 21st century In 2002, businessman Phil Bredesen
Phil Bredesen
was elected to become the 48th governor in January 2003. Also in 2002, Tennessee
Tennessee
amended the state constitution to allow for the establishment of a lottery. Tennessee's Bob Corker
Bob Corker
was the only freshman Republican elected to the United States Senate in the 2006 midterm elections. The state constitution was amended to reject same-sex marriage. In January 2007, Ron Ramsey became the first Republican elected as Speaker of the State Senate since Reconstruction, as a result of the realignment of the Democratic and Republican parties in the South since the late 20th century, with Republicans now elected by conservative voters, who previously had supported Democrats. In 2010, during the 2010 midterm elections, Bill Haslam
Bill Haslam
was elected to succeed Bredesen, who was term-limited, to become the 49th Governor of Tennessee
Tennessee
in January 2011. In April and May 2010, flooding in Middle Tennessee
Tennessee
devastated Nashville and other parts of Middle Tennessee. In 2011, parts of East Tennessee, including Hamilton County and Apison in Bradley County, were devastated by the April 2011 tornado outbreak. Demographics

Historical population

Census Pop.

1790 35,691

1800 105,602

195.9%

1810 261,727

147.8%

1820 422,823

61.6%

1830 681,904

61.3%

1840 829,210

21.6%

1850 1,002,717

20.9%

1860 1,109,801

10.7%

1870 1,258,520

13.4%

1880 1,542,359

22.6%

1890 1,767,518

14.6%

1900 2,020,616

14.3%

1910 2,184,789

8.1%

1920 2,337,885

7.0%

1930 2,616,556

11.9%

1940 2,915,841

11.4%

1950 3,291,718

12.9%

1960 3,567,089

8.4%

1970 3,923,687

10.0%

1980 4,591,120

17.0%

1990 4,877,185

6.2%

2000 5,689,283

16.7%

2010 6,346,105

11.5%

Est. 2017 6,715,984

5.8%

Source: 1910–2010[41] 2017 estimate[2]

The United States
United States
Census Bureau estimates that the population of Tennessee
Tennessee
was 6,715,984 on July 1, 2017,[2] an increase of 369,689 people since the 2010 United States
United States
Census, or 5.8%.[42] This includes a natural increase since the last census of 124,385 people (that is 584,236 births minus 459,851 deaths), and an increase from net migration of 244,537 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States
United States
resulted in a net increase of 66,412 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 178,125 people.[43] Twenty percent of Tennesseans were born outside the South in 2008, compared to a figure of 13.5% in 1990.[44] In recent years, Tennessee has received an influx of people relocating from California, Florida, and several northern states for the low cost of living, and the booming healthcare and automobile industries. Metropolitan Nashville is one of the fastest-growing areas in the country due in part to these factors.[citation needed] The center of population of Tennessee
Tennessee
is located in Rutherford County, in the city of Murfreesboro.[45] As of the 2010 census, the racial composition of Tennessee's population was as follows:

Racial composition 1990[46] 2000[47] 2010[47] 2013 est.

White 83.0% 80.2% 77.6% 79.1%

Black 16.0% 16.4% 16.7% 17.0%

Asian 0.7% 1.0% 1.4% 1.6%

Native 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4%

Native Hawaiian
Native Hawaiian
and other Pacific Islander – – 0.1% 0.1%

Other race 0.2% 1.0% 2.2% –

Two or more races – 1.1% 1.7% 1.7%

In the same year 4.6% of the total population was of Hispanic or Latino origin (they may be of any race).[47][48]

Tennessee
Tennessee
population density map, 2010

In 2000, the five most common self-reported ethnic groups in the state were: American (17.3%), African American
African American
(13.0%), Irish (9.3%), English (9.1%), and German (8.3%).[49] Most Tennesseans who self-identify as having American ancestry
American ancestry
are of English and Scotch-Irish ancestry. An estimated 21–24% of Tennesseans are of predominantly English ancestry.[50][51] In the 1980 census 1,435,147 Tennesseans claimed "English" or "mostly English" ancestry out of a state population of 3,221,354 making them 45% of the state at the time.[52] According to the 2010 census, 6.4% of Tennessee's population were reported as under 5 years of age, 23.6% under 18, and 13.4% were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51.3% of the population.[53] On June 19, 2010, the Tennessee Commission of Indian Affairs granted state recognition to six Indian tribes which was later repealed by the state's Attorney General because the action by the commission was illegal. The tribes were as follows:

The Cherokee
Cherokee
Wolf Clan in western Tennessee, with members in Carroll County, Benton, Decatur, Henderson, Henry, Weakley, Gibson and Madison counties. The Chikamaka Band, based historically on the South Cumberland Plateau, said to have members in Franklin, Grundy, Marion, Sequatchie, Warren and Coffee counties. Central Band of Cherokee, also known as the Cherokee
Cherokee
of Lawrence County, Tennessee. United Eastern Lenapee Nation of Winfield, Tennessee. The Tanasi
Tanasi
Council, said to have members in Shelby, Dyer, Gibson, Humphreys and Perry counties; and Remnant Yuchi
Yuchi
Nation, with members in Sullivan, Carter, Greene, Hawkins, Unicoi, Johnson and Washington counties.[54]

Birth data As of 2011, 36.3% of Tennessee's population younger than age 1 were minorities.[55]

Live births by race/ethnicity of mother

Race 2013[56] 2014[57] 2015[58]

White: 59,804 (74.7%) 61,391 (75.2%) 61,814 (75.7%)

   Non-Hispanic White 54,377 (68.0%) 55,499 (68.0%) 55,420 (67.8%)

Black 17,860 (22.3%) 17,791 (21.8%) 17,507 (21.4%)

Asian 2,097 (2.6%) 2,180 (2.7%) 2,153 (2.6%)

Native 231 (0.3%) 240 (0.3%) 211 (0.2%)

Hispanic (of any race) 6,854 (8.6%) 6,986 (8.6%) 7,264 (8.9%)

Total Tennessee 79,992 (100%) 81,602 (100%) 81,685 (100%)

Note: Births in table do not add up, because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number. Religion The religious affiliations of the people of Tennessee
Tennessee
as of 2014:[59]

Christian: 81%

Protestant: 73%

Evangelical Protestant: 52% Mainline Protestant: 13% Historically Black Protestant: 8%

Roman Catholic: 6% Mormon: 1% Orthodox Christian: <1% Other Christian (includes unspecified "Christian" and "Protestant"): <1%

Islam: 1% Jewish: 1% Other religions: 3% Non-religious: 14%

Atheist: 1% Agnostic: 3% Nothing in particular: 11%

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Southern Baptist Convention
Southern Baptist Convention
with 1,483,356; the United Methodist Church with 375,693; the Roman Catholic Church
Roman Catholic Church
with 222,343; and the Churches of Christ
Churches of Christ
with 214,118.[60] As of January 1, 2009, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) reported 43,179 members, 10 stakes, 92 Congregations (68 wards and 24 branches), two missions, and two temples in Tennessee.[61] Tennessee
Tennessee
is home to several Protestant
Protestant
denominations, such as the National Baptist Convention (headquartered in Nashville); the Church of God in Christ and the Cumberland Presbyterian Church
Cumberland Presbyterian Church
(both headquartered in Memphis); the Church of God and The Church of God of Prophecy (both headquartered in Cleveland). The Free Will Baptist denomination is headquartered in Antioch; its main Bible college is in Nashville. The Southern Baptist Convention
Southern Baptist Convention
maintains its general headquarters in Nashville. Publishing houses of several denominations are located in Nashville. Economy See also: List of Tennessee
Tennessee
locations by per capita income

A geomap showing the counties of Tennessee
Tennessee
colored by the relative range of that county's median income. Data is sourced from the 2014 ACS 5-year Estimate Report put out by the US Census Bureau

Chart showing percentage of the population of Tennessee
Tennessee
(divided by age and gender) living below the poverty line as of 2015. Red is female. Blue is male.

According to the U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis, in 2011 Tennessee's real gross state product was $233.997 billion. In 2003, the per capita personal income was $28,641, 36th in the nation, and 91% of the national per capita personal income of $31,472. In 2004, the median household income was $38,550, 41st in the nation, and 87% of the national median of $44,472. For 2012, the state held an asset surplus of $533 million, one of only eight states in the nation to report a surplus.[62] Major outputs for the state include textiles, cotton, cattle, and electrical power. Tennessee
Tennessee
has over 82,000 farms, roughly 59 percent of which accommodate beef cattle.[63] Although cotton was an early crop in Tennessee, large-scale cultivation of the fiber did not begin until the 1820s with the opening of the land between the Tennessee
Tennessee
and Mississippi
Mississippi
Rivers. The upper wedge of the Mississippi
Mississippi
Delta extends into southwestern Tennessee, and it was in this fertile section that cotton took hold. Soybeans are also heavily planted in West Tennessee, focusing on the northwest corner of the state.[64] Major corporations with headquarters in Tennessee
Tennessee
include FedEx, AutoZone
AutoZone
and International Paper, all based in Memphis; Pilot Corporation and Regal Entertainment Group, based in Knoxville; Eastman Chemical Company, based in Kingsport; the North American headquarters of Nissan Motor Company, based in Franklin; Hospital Corporation of America and Caterpillar Financial, based in Nashville; and Unum, based in Chattanooga. Tennessee
Tennessee
is also the location of the Volkswagen assembly plant in Chattanooga, a $2 billion polysilicon production facility by Wacker Chemie
Wacker Chemie
in Bradley County, and a $1.2 billion polysilicon production facility by Hemlock Semiconductor in Clarksville. Tennessee
Tennessee
is a right to work state, as are most of its Southern neighbors. Unionization has historically been low and continues to decline as in most of the U.S. generally. As of May 2016, the state had an unemployment rate of 4.3%.[65] As of 2015, 16.7% of the population of Tennessee
Tennessee
lives below the poverty line, which is higher than the national average of 14.7%.[66] Tax Tennessee's Hall income tax does not apply to salaries and wages, but most dividends and interest are taxable. The tax rate was 6% from 1937 to 2016, but is 3% for the 2018 tax year and is set to ramp down to zero in 2021. The first $1,250 of individual income and $2,500 of joint income is exempt from this tax. The state's sales and use tax rate for most items is 7%. Food is taxed at a lower rate of 5.25%, but candy, dietary supplements and prepared food are taxed at the full 7% rate. Local sales taxes are collected in most jurisdictions, at rates varying from 1.5% to 2.75%, bringing the total sales tax to between 8.5% and 9.75%, one of the highest levels in the nation. Intangible property tax is assessed on the shares of stock of stockholders of any loan company, investment company, insurance company or for-profit cemetery companies. The assessment ratio is 40% of the value multiplied by the tax rate for the jurisdiction. Tennessee
Tennessee
imposes an inheritance tax on decedents' estates that exceed maximum single exemption limits ($1,000,000 for deaths in 2006 and thereafter).[67] Tourism Tourism contributes billions of dollars each year to the state's economy and Tennessee
Tennessee
is ranked among the Top 10 destinations in the US.[68] In 2014 a record 100 million people visited the state resulting in $17.7 billion in tourism related spending within the state, an increase of 6.3% over 2013; tax revenue from tourism equaled $1.5 billion. Each county in Tennessee
Tennessee
saw at least $1 million from tourism while 19 counties received at least $100 million (Davidson, Shelby, and Sevier counties were the top three). Tourism-generated jobs for the state reached 152,900, a 2.8% increase.[68] International travelers to Tennessee
Tennessee
accounted for $533 million in spending.[69] In 2013 tourism within the state from local citizens accounted for 39.9% of tourists, the second highest originating location for tourists to Tennessee
Tennessee
is the state of Georgia, accounting for 8.4% of tourists.[70]:17 Forty-four percent of stays in the state were "day trips", 25% stayed one night, 15% stayed two nights, and 11% stayed 4 or more nights. The average stay was 2.16 nights, compared to 2.03 nights for the US as a whole.[70]:40 The average person spent $118 per day: 29% on transportation, 24% on food, 17% on accommodation, and 28% on shopping and entertainment.[70]:44 Some of the top tourist attractions in the state are:[71] the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Graceland, Dollywood, Beale Street, Lower Broadway, the Ryman Auditorium, Gaylord Opryland Resort, Lookout Mountain, the Ocoee River, and the Tennessee
Tennessee
Aquarium. Culture Music Main articles: Music of Tennessee
Music of Tennessee
and Music of East Tennessee Tennessee
Tennessee
has played a critical role in the development of many forms of American popular music, including rock and roll, blues, country, and rockabilly. Beale Street
Beale Street
in Memphis is considered by many to be the birthplace of the blues, with musicians such as W. C. Handy performing in its clubs as early as 1909.[72] Memphis is also home to Sun Records, where musicians such as Elvis Presley, Johnny Cash, Carl Perkins, Jerry Lee Lewis, Roy Orbison, and Charlie Rich
Charlie Rich
began their recording careers, and where rock and roll took shape in the 1950s.[73] The 1927 Victor recording sessions in Bristol generally mark the beginning of the country music genre and the rise of the Grand Ole Opry
Grand Ole Opry
in the 1930s helped make Nashville the center of the country music recording industry.[74][75] Three brick-and-mortar museums recognize Tennessee's role in nurturing various forms of popular music: the Memphis Rock N' Soul Museum, the Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum in Nashville, and the International Rock-A-Billy Museum in Jackson. Moreover, the Rockabilly
Rockabilly
Hall of Fame, an online site recognizing the development of rockabilly in which Tennessee played a crucial role, is based in Nashville. Literature Main article: Tennessee
Tennessee
literature Sports

Tennessee
Tennessee
Titans

Memphis Grizzlies

Nashville Predators

Tennessee Volunteers
Tennessee Volunteers
football

Tennessee
Tennessee
is home to three major professional sports franchises: the Tennessee Titans
Tennessee Titans
play in the National Football League
National Football League
since 1997, the Memphis Grizzlies
Memphis Grizzlies
play in the National Basketball Association
National Basketball Association
since 2001, and the Nashville Predators
Nashville Predators
play in the National Hockey League since 1998. In Knoxville, the Tennessee Volunteers
Tennessee Volunteers
college team has played in the Southeastern Conference
Southeastern Conference
(SEC) of the National Collegiate Athletic Association since the conference was formed in 1932. The football team has won 13 SEC championships and 25 bowls, including four Sugar Bowls, three Cotton Bowls, an Orange Bowl
Orange Bowl
and a Fiesta Bowl. Meanwhile, the men's basketball team has won four SEC championships and reached the NCAA Elite Eight in 2010. In addition, the women's basketball team has won a host of SEC regular-season and tournament titles along with 8 national titles. In Nashville, the Vanderbilt Commodores
Vanderbilt Commodores
are also charter members of the SEC. The Tennessee–Vanderbilt football rivalry
Tennessee–Vanderbilt football rivalry
began in 1892, having played 111 times. In June 2014, Vanderbilt won its first men's national championship by winning the 2014 College World Series. The state is home to 10 other NCAA Division I
NCAA Division I
programs. Two of these participate in the top level of college football, the Football Bowl Subdivision. The Memphis Tigers
Memphis Tigers
are members of the American Athletic Conference, and the Middle Tennessee
Middle Tennessee
Blue Raiders from Murfreesboro play in Conference USA. In addition to the Commodores, Nashville is also home to the Belmont Bruins
Belmont Bruins
and Tennessee
Tennessee
State Tigers, both members of the Ohio Valley Conference
Ohio Valley Conference
(OVC), and the Lipscomb Bisons, members of the Atlantic Sun Conference. Tennessee
Tennessee
State plays football in Division I's second level, the Football Championship Subdivision (FCS), while Belmont and Lipscomb do not have football teams. Belmont and Lipscomb have an intense rivalry in men's and women's basketball known as the Battle of the Boulevard, with both schools' men's and women's teams playing two games each season against each other (a rare feature among non-conference rivalries). The OVC also includes the Austin Peay Governors from Clarksville, the Tennessee–Martin Skyhawks from Martin, and the Tennessee Tech Golden Eagles
Tennessee Tech Golden Eagles
from Cookeville. These three schools, along with fellow OVC member Tennessee
Tennessee
State, play each season in football for the Sgt. York Trophy. The Chattanooga Mocs
Chattanooga Mocs
and Johnson City's East Tennessee
East Tennessee
State Buccaneers are full members, including football, of the Southern Conference. Nashville SC
Nashville SC
is scheduled to debut in the United Soccer League
United Soccer League
in 2018, and a Memphis team is set to join the league in 2019.[76][77] Nashville has also been confirmed as the home of a future Major League Soccer franchise, although no time frame for that team's first season has yet been set.[78] Tennessee
Tennessee
is also home to Bristol Motor Speedway
Bristol Motor Speedway
which features NASCAR Cup Series racing two weekends a year, routinely selling out more than 160,000 seats on each date; it also was the home of the Nashville Superspeedway, which held Nationwide and IndyCar races until it was shut down in 2012. Tennessee's only graded stakes horse race, the Iroquois Steeplechase, is also held in Nashville each May. The FedEx
FedEx
St. Jude Classic is a PGA Tour
PGA Tour
golf tournament held at Memphis since 1958. The U.S. National Indoor Tennis Championships has been held at Memphis since 1976 (men's) and 2002 (women's). Sports teams

Club Sport League

Tennessee
Tennessee
Titans Football National Football League

Memphis Grizzlies Basketball National Basketball
Basketball
Association

Nashville Predators Ice hockey National Hockey League

Memphis Redbirds Baseball Pacific Coast League
Pacific Coast League
(Triple-A)

Nashville Sounds Baseball Pacific Coast League
Pacific Coast League
(Triple-A)

Chattanooga Lookouts Baseball Southern League (Double-A)

Tennessee
Tennessee
Smokies Baseball Southern League (Double-A)

Jackson Generals Baseball Southern League (Double-A)

Elizabethton Twins Baseball Appalachian League
Appalachian League
(Rookie)

Johnson City Cardinals Baseball Appalachian League
Appalachian League
(Rookie)

Kingsport Mets Baseball Appalachian League
Appalachian League
(Rookie)

Knoxville Ice Bears Ice hockey Southern Professional Hockey League

Chattanooga FC Soccer National Premier Soccer League

Knoxville Force Soccer National Premier Soccer League

Nashville FC Soccer National Premier Soccer League

Memphis City FC Soccer National Premier Soccer League

Transportation Interstate highways

The Hernando de Soto
Hernando de Soto
Bridge spans the Mississippi River
Mississippi River
in Memphis

Interstate 40 crosses the state in a west-east orientation. Its branch interstate highways include I-240 in Memphis; I-440 in Nashville; I-840 in Nashville; I-140 from Knoxville to Alcoa; and I-640
I-640
in Knoxville. I-26, although technically an east-west interstate, runs from the North Carolina
North Carolina
border below Johnson City to its terminus at Kingsport. I-24 is an east-west interstate that runs cross-state from Chattanooga to Clarksville. In a north-south orientation are highways I-55, I-65, I-75, and I-81. Interstate 65 crosses the state through Nashville, while Interstate 75 serves Chattanooga and Knoxville and Interstate 55 serves Memphis. Interstate 81 enters the state at Bristol and terminates at its junction with I-40 near Dandridge. I-155 is a branch highway from I-55. The only spur highway of I-75 in Tennessee
Tennessee
is I-275, which is in Knoxville. When completed, I-69 will travel through the western part of the state, from South Fulton to Memphis. A branch interstate, I-269 also exists from Millington to Collierville. Airports Major airports within the state include Memphis International Airport (MEM), Nashville International Airport
Nashville International Airport
(BNA), McGhee Tyson Airport (TYS) outside of Knoxville in Blount County, Chattanooga Metropolitan Airport (CHA), Tri-Cities Regional Airport
Tri-Cities Regional Airport
(TRI), and McKellar-Sipes Regional Airport (MKL), in Jackson. Because Memphis International Airport is the major hub for FedEx
FedEx
Corporation, it is the world's largest air cargo operation. Railroads For passenger rail service, Memphis and Newbern, are served by the Amtrak
Amtrak
City of New Orleans
New Orleans
line on its run between Chicago, Illinois, and New Orleans, Louisiana. Nashville is served by the Music City Star commuter rail service. Cargo services in Tennessee
Tennessee
are primarily served by CSX Transportation, which has a hump yard in Nashville called Radnor Yard. Norfolk Southern Railway
Norfolk Southern Railway
operates lines in East Tennessee, through cities including Knoxville and Chattanooga, and operates a classification yard near Knoxville, the John Sevier
John Sevier
Yard. BNSF operates a major intermodal facility in Memphis. Governance

Tennessee State Capitol
Tennessee State Capitol
in Nashville

Similar to the United States
United States
Federal Government, Tennessee's government has three parts. The Executive Branch is led by Tennessee's governor, who holds office for a four-year term and may serve a maximum of two consecutive terms. The governor is the only official who is elected statewide. Unlike most states, the state does not elect the lieutenant governor directly; the Tennessee Senate
Tennessee Senate
elects its Speaker, who serves as lieutenant governor. The governor is supported by 22 cabinet-level departments, most headed by a commissioner who serves at the pleasure of the governor:

Department of Agriculture Department of Children's Services Department of Commerce and Insurance Department of Correction Department of Economic & Community Development Department of Education Department of Environment and Conservation Department of Finance & Administration Department of Financial Institutions Department of General Services Department of Health Department of Human Resources Department of Human Services Department of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities Department of Labor and Workforce Development Department of Mental Health and Substance Abuse Services Department of Military Department of Revenue Department of Safety and Homeland Security Department of Tourist Development Department of Transportation Department of Veterans Affairs

The Executive Branch also includes several agencies, boards and commissions, some of which are under the auspices of one of the cabinet-level departments.[79] The bicameral Legislative Branch, known as the Tennessee
Tennessee
General Assembly, consists of the 33-member Senate and the 99-member House of Representatives. Senators serve four-year terms, and House members serve two-year terms. Each chamber chooses its own speaker. The speaker of the state Senate also holds the title of lieutenant-governor. Constitutional officials in the legislative branch are elected by a joint session of the legislature. The highest court in Tennessee
Tennessee
is the state Supreme Court. It has a chief justice and four associate justices. No more than two justices can be from the same Grand Division. The Supreme Court of Tennessee also appoints the Attorney General, a practice that is not found in any of the other 49 states. Both the Court of Appeals and the Court of Criminal Appeals have 12 judges.[80] A number of local, circuit, and federal courts provide judicial services. Tennessee's current state constitution was adopted in 1870. The state had two earlier constitutions. The first was adopted in 1796, the year Tennessee
Tennessee
joined the union, and the second was adopted in 1834. The 1870 Constitution outlaws martial law within its jurisdiction. This may be a result of the experience of Tennessee
Tennessee
residents and other Southerners during the period of military control by Union (Northern) forces of the U.S. government after the American Civil War. Politics See also: List of Governors of Tennessee, United States
United States
congressional delegations from Tennessee, Tennessee's congressional districts, and Political party strength in Tennessee

Presidential elections results

Year Republican Democratic

2016 60.72% 1,522,925 34.72% 870,695

2012 59.42% 1,462,330 39.04% 960,709

2008 56.85% 1,479,178 41.79% 1,087,437

2004 56.80% 1,384,375 42.53% 1,036,477

2000 51.15% 1,061,949 47.28% 981,720

1996 45.59% 863,530 48.00% 909,146

1992 42.43% 841,300 47.08% 933,521

1988 57.89% 947,233 41.55% 679,794

1984 57.84% 990,212 41.57% 711,714

1980 48.70% 787,761 48.41% 783,051

1976 42.94% 633,969 55.94% 825,879

1972 67.70% 813,147 29.75% 357,293

1968 37.85% 472,592 28.13% 351,233

1964 44.49% 508,965 55.50% 634,947

1960 52.92% 556,577 45.77% 481,453

Tennessee
Tennessee
politics, like that of most U.S. states, are dominated by the Republican and the Democratic parties. Historian Dewey W. Grantham traces divisions in the state to the period of the American Civil War: for decades afterward, the eastern third of the state was Republican and the western two thirds voted Democrat.[81] This division was related to the state's pattern of farming, plantations and slaveholding. The eastern section was made up of yeoman farmers, but Middle and West Tennessee
West Tennessee
farmers cultivated crops such as tobacco and cotton which were dependent on the use of slave labor. These areas became defined as Democratic after the war. During Reconstruction, freedmen and former free people of color were granted the right to vote; most joined the Republican Party. Numerous African Americans
African Americans
were elected to local offices, and some to state office. Following Reconstruction, Tennessee
Tennessee
continued to have competitive party politics; but in the 1880s, the white-dominated state government passed four laws, the last of which imposed a poll tax requirement for voter registration. These served to disenfranchise most African Americans, and their power in the Republican Party, the state, and cities where they had significant population was markedly reduced. In 1900 African Americans
African Americans
comprised 23.8 percent of the state's population, concentrated in Middle and West Tennessee.[82] In the early 1900s, the state legislature approved a form of commission government for cities based on at-large voting for a few positions on a Board of Commission; several adopted this as another means to limit African-American
African-American
political participation. In 1913 the state legislature enacted a bill enabling cities to adopt this structure without legislative approval.[83] After disenfranchisement of blacks, the GOP (U.S. Republican Party) in Tennessee
Tennessee
was historically a sectional party supported by whites only in the eastern part of the state. In the 20th century, except for two nationwide Republican landslides of the 1920s (in 1920, when Tennessee narrowly supported Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
over Ohio
Ohio
Governor James Cox, and in 1928, when it more decisively voted for Herbert Hoover
Herbert Hoover
over New York Governor Al Smith, a Catholic), the state was part of the Democratic Solid South
Solid South
until the 1950s. In that postwar decade, it twice voted for Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower, former Allied Commander of the Armed Forces during World War II. Since then, more of the state's voters have shifted to supporting Republicans, and Democratic presidential candidates have carried Tennessee
Tennessee
only four times. By 1960 African Americans
African Americans
comprised 16.45% of the state's population. It was not until after the mid-1960s and passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 that they were able to vote in full again, but new devices, such as at-large commission city governments, had been adopted in several jurisdictions to limit their political participation. Former Gov. Winfield Dunn
Winfield Dunn
and former U.S. Sen. Bill Brock wins in 1970 helped make the Republican Party competitive among whites for the statewide victory. Tennessee
Tennessee
has selected governors from different parties since 1970. Increasingly the Republican Party has become the party of white conservatives. In the early 21st century, Republican voters control most of the state, especially in the more rural and suburban areas outside of the cities; Democratic strength is mostly confined to the urban cores of the four major cities, and is particularly strong in the cities of Nashville and Memphis. The latter area includes a large African-American
African-American
population.[84] Historically, Republicans had their greatest strength in East Tennessee
East Tennessee
before the 1960s. Tennessee's 1st and 2nd congressional districts, based in the Tri-Cities and Knoxville, respectively, are among the few historically Republican districts in the South. Those districts' residents supported the Union over the Confederacy during the Civil War; they identified with the GOP after the war and have stayed with that party ever since. The first has been in Republican hands continuously since 1881, and Republicans (or their antecedents) have held it for all but four years since 1859. The second has been held continuously by Republicans or their antecedents since 1859. In the 2000 presidential election, Vice President Al Gore, a Democratic U.S. Senator from Tennessee, failed to carry his home state, an unusual occurrence but indicative of strengthening Republican support. Republican George W. Bush
George W. Bush
received increased support in 2004, with his margin of victory in the state increasing from 4% in 2000 to 14% in 2004.[85] Democratic presidential nominees from Southern states (such as Lyndon B. Johnson, Jimmy Carter, Bill Clinton) usually fare better than their Northern counterparts do in Tennessee, especially among split-ticket voters outside the metropolitan areas. Tennessee
Tennessee
sends nine members to the US House of Representatives, of whom there are seven Republicans and two Democrats. Lieutenant Governor Ron Ramsey
Ron Ramsey
is the first Republican speaker of the state Senate in 140 years. In the 2008 elections, the Republican party gained control of both houses of the Tennessee
Tennessee
state legislature for the first time since Reconstruction. In 2008, some 30% of the state's electorate identified as independents.[86] The Baker v. Carr
Baker v. Carr
(1962) decision of the US Supreme Court established the principle of "one man, one vote", requiring state legislatures to redistrict to bring Congressional apportionment in line with decennial censuses. It also required both houses of state legislatures to be based on population for representation and not geographic districts such as counties. This case arose out of a lawsuit challenging the longstanding rural bias of apportionment of seats in the Tennessee legislature.[87][88][89] After decades in which urban populations had been underrepresented in many state legislatures, this significant ruling led to an increased (and proportional) prominence in state politics by urban and, eventually, suburban, legislators and statewide officeholders in relation to their population within the state. The ruling also applied to numerous other states long controlled by rural minorities, such as Alabama, Vermont, and Montana. Law enforcement State agencies The state of Tennessee
Tennessee
maintains four dedicated law enforcement entities: the Tennessee
Tennessee
Highway Patrol, the Tennessee
Tennessee
Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA), the Tennessee Bureau of Investigation (TBI), and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC). The Highway Patrol is the primary law enforcement entity that concentrates on highway safety regulations and general non-wildlife state law enforcement and is under the jurisdiction of the Tennessee Department of Safety. The TWRA is an independent agency tasked with enforcing all wildlife, boating, and fisheries regulations outside of state parks. The TBI maintains state-of-the-art investigative facilities and is the primary state-level criminal investigative department. Tennessee
Tennessee
State Park Rangers are responsible for all activities and law enforcement inside the Tennessee
Tennessee
State Parks system. Local Local law enforcement is divided between County Sheriff's Offices and Municipal Police Departments. Tennessee's Constitution requires that each County have an elected Sheriff. In 94 of the 95 counties the Sheriff is the chief law enforcement officer in the county and has jurisdiction over the county as a whole. Each Sheriff's Office is responsible for warrant service, court security, jail operations and primary law enforcement in the unincorporated areas of a county as well as providing support to the municipal police departments. Incorporated municipalities are required to maintain a police department to provide police services within their corporate limits. The three counties in Tennessee
Tennessee
to adopt metropolitan governments have taken different approaches to resolving the conflict that a Metro government presents to the requirement to have an elected Sheriff.

Nashville/Davidson County converted law enforcement duties entirely to the Metro Nashville Police Chief. In this instance the Sheriff is no longer the chief law enforcement officer for Davidson County. The Davidson County Sheriff's duties focus on warrant service and jail operations. The Metropolitan Police Chief is the chief law enforcement officer and the Metropolitan Police Department provides primary law enforcement for the entire county. Lynchburg/Moore County took a much simpler approach and abolished the Lynchburg Police Department when it consolidated and placed all law enforcement responsibility under the sheriff's office. Hartsville/Trousdale County, although the smallest county in Tennessee, adopted a system similar to Nashville's that retains the sheriff's office but also has a metropolitan police department.

Firearms Main article: Gun laws in Tennessee Gun laws in Tennessee
Gun laws in Tennessee
regulate the sale, possession, and use of firearms and ammunition. Concealed carry and open-carry of a handgun is permitted with a Tennessee
Tennessee
handgun carry permit or an equivalent permit from a reciprocating state. As of July 1, 2014, a permit is no longer required to possess a loaded handgun in a motor vehicle.[90] Capital punishment Capital punishment has existed in Tennessee
Tennessee
at various times since statehood. Before 1913, the method of execution was hanging. From 1913 to 1915, there was a hiatus on executions but they were reinstated in 1916 when electrocution became the new method. From 1972 to 1978, after the Supreme Court ruled (Furman v. Georgia) capital punishment unconstitutional, there were no further executions. Capital punishment was restarted in 1978, although those prisoners awaiting execution between 1960 and 1978 had their sentences mostly commuted to life in prison.[91] From 1916 to 1960 the state executed 125 inmates.[92] For a variety of reasons there were no further executions until 2000. Since 2000, Tennessee
Tennessee
has executed six prisoners. Tennessee
Tennessee
has 73 prisoners on death row (as of April 2015).[93] Lethal injection
Lethal injection
was approved by the legislature in 1998, though those who were sentenced to death before January 1, 1999, may request electrocution.[91] In May 2014, the Tennessee General Assembly
Tennessee General Assembly
passed a law allowing the use of the electric chair for death row executions when lethal injection drugs are not available.[94][95] Tribal The Mississippi
Mississippi
Band of Choctaw
Choctaw
Indians is the only federally recognized Native American Indian tribe in the state. It owns 79 acres (32 ha) in Henning, which was placed into federal trust by the tribe in 2012. This is governed directly by the tribe.[96][97] Media

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (March 2017)

See also: Category: Tennessee
Tennessee
media Education

University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Vanderbilt University, Nashville

Rhodes College, Memphis

Tennessee
Tennessee
State University, Nashville

Middle Tennessee
Middle Tennessee
State University, Murfreesboro

Tennessee
Tennessee
has a rich variety of public, private, charter, and specialized education facilities ranging from pre-school through university education. Colleges and universities Main article: List of colleges and universities in Tennessee Public higher education is under the oversight of the Tennessee
Tennessee
Higher Education Commission which provides guidance to two public university systems – the University of Tennessee
University of Tennessee
system and the Tennessee
Tennessee
Board of Regents. In addition a number of private colleges and universities are located throughout the state.

American Baptist College Aquinas College The Art Institute of Tennessee
Tennessee
– Nashville Austin Peay State University Baptist College of Health Sciences Belmont University Bethel College Bryan College Carson–Newman University Chattanooga State Community College Christian Brothers University Cleveland State Community College Columbia State Community College Crown College Cumberland University Dyersburg State Community College East Tennessee
East Tennessee
State University Emmanuel Christian Seminary Fisk University Freed–Hardeman University Jackson State Community College Johnson University King University Knoxville College Lane College Lee University LeMoyne–Owen College Lincoln Memorial University Lipscomb University Martin Methodist College Maryville College Meharry Medical College Memphis College of Art Memphis Theological Seminary Mid-America Baptist Theological Seminary Middle Tennessee
Middle Tennessee
State University Milligan College Motlow State Community College Nashville School of Law Nashville State Community College Northeast State Community College O'More College of Design Pellissippi State Community College Rhodes College Roane State Community College Sewanee: The University of the South Southern Adventist University Southern College of Optometry Southwest Tennessee
Tennessee
Community College Tennessee
Tennessee
Colleges of Applied Technology Tennessee
Tennessee
State University Tennessee
Tennessee
Technological University Tennessee
Tennessee
Temple University Tennessee
Tennessee
Wesleyan University Trevecca Nazarene University Tusculum College Union University University of Memphis University of Tennessee
University of Tennessee
system

University of Tennessee
University of Tennessee
(Knoxville)

University of Tennessee
University of Tennessee
Health Science Center (Memphis) University of Tennessee
University of Tennessee
Space Institute

University of Tennessee
University of Tennessee
at Chattanooga University of Tennessee
University of Tennessee
at Martin

Vanderbilt University Volunteer State Community College Walters State Community College Watkins College of Art, Design & Film Welch College Williamson College
Williamson College
[98]

Local school districts Main articles: List of school districts in Tennessee
List of school districts in Tennessee
and List of high schools in Tennessee Public primary and secondary education systems are operated by county, city, or special school districts to provide education at the local level. These school districts operate under the direction of the Tennessee
Tennessee
Department of Education. Private schools are found in many counties. State symbols Main article: List of Tennessee
Tennessee
state symbols State symbols, found in Tennessee
Tennessee
Code Annotated; Title 4, Chapter 1, Part 3, include:

State amphibian – Tennessee
Tennessee
cave salamander State bird – mockingbird State game bird – bobwhite quail State butterfly – zebra swallowtail State sport fish – smallmouth bass State commercial fish – channel catfish State cultivated flower – iris State wild flowers – passion flower and Tennessee
Tennessee
echinacea State insects – firefly and lady beetle State agricultural insect – honey bee State wild animal – raccoon State horse – Tennessee
Tennessee
Walking Horse State reptile – eastern box turtle State firearm – Barrett M82[99] State tree – tulip poplar State evergreen tree – eastern red cedar State beverage – milk State dance – square dance State fruit – tomato State fossil – Pterotrigonia (Scabrotrigonia) thoracica State gem – Tennessee River
Tennessee River
pearl State mineral – agate State rock – limestone State motto – Agriculture and Commerce State poem – "Oh Tennessee, My Tennessee" by Admiral William Lawrence State slogan – Tennessee
Tennessee
– America at its Best State songs – nine songs

See also

Tennessee
Tennessee
portal

Outline of Tennessee
Outline of Tennessee
– organized list of topics about Tennessee Index of Tennessee-related articles

References

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Tennessee
Frontiers: Three Regions in Transition (Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana
Indiana
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Tennessee
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Tennessee
Agriculture" (PDF). Agclassroom.org. Retrieved November 1, 2006.  ^ Roth, David M; Hydrometeorological Prediction Center. "Tropical Cyclone Rainfall in the Southeastern United States". Tropical Cyclone Rainfall Point Maxima. United States
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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service. Retrieved June 5, 2012.  ^ "US Thunderstorm distribution". src.noaa.gov. Archived from the original on October 15, 2006. Retrieved November 1, 2006.  ^ "Mean Annual Average Number of Tornadoes 1953–2004". ncdc.noaa.gov. Retrieved November 1, 2006.  ^ "Top ten list". tornadoproject.com. Archived from the original on February 4, 2012. Retrieved November 1, 2006.  ^ "National and Local Weather Forecast, Hurricane, Radar and Report". Weather.com. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ " Tennessee
Tennessee
(USA): State, Major Cities, Towns & Places". City Population. February 19, 2011. Retrieved July 13, 2015.  ^ "Archaeology and the Native Peoples of Tennessee". University of Tennessee, Frank H. McClung Museum. Retrieved on April 26, 2012. Archived July 2, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Stanley Folmsbee, Robert Corlew, and Enoch Mitchell, Tennessee: A Short History (Knoxville, Tenn.: University of Tennessee
University of Tennessee
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Tennessee
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Chicago
Press. p. 55. ISBN 978-0-226-35591-7.  ^ Carter (III), Samuel (1976). Cherokee
Cherokee
sunset: A nation betrayed: a narrative of travail and triumph, persecution and exile. New York: Doubleday, p. 232. ^ Satz, Ronald (1979). Tennessee's Indian Peoples. Knoxville, Tennessee: University of Tennessee
University of Tennessee
Press. ISBN 0-87049-285-3.  ^ "Chronology of Emancipation during the Civil War". University of Maryland: Department of History.  ^ "This Honorable Body: African American
African American
Legislators in 19th Century Tennessee". Tennessee
Tennessee
State Library and Archives.  ^ Historical Census Browser, 1900 US Census, University of Virginia Archived August 23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.. Retrieved March 15, 2008. ^ Allen R. Coggins (January 15, 2012). Tennessee
Tennessee
Tragedies: Natural, Technological, and Societal Disasters in the Volunteer State. Univ. of Tennessee
Tennessee
Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-1-57233-829-6. Retrieved November 23, 2012.  ^ Professor Peter N Stearns; Peter N. Stearns Jan Lewis (1998). An Emotional History of the United States. NYU Press. p. 157. ISBN 978-0-8147-8088-6.  ^ Resident Population Data. "Resident Population Data – 2010 Census". 2010.census.gov. Archived from the original on October 19, 2013. Retrieved December 23, 2012.  ^ "Table 2. Cumulative Estimates of Resident Population Change for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico
Puerto Rico
and Region and State Rankings: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (NST-EST2017-02)" (XLS). U.S. Census Bureau. December 2017. Retrieved December 24, 2017.  ^ "Table 4. Cumulative Estimates of the Components of Resident Population Change for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017 (NST-EST2017-04)" (XLS). U.S. Census Bureau. December 2017. Retrieved December 24, 2017.  ^ Dade, Corey (November 22, 2008). " Tennessee
Tennessee
Resists Obama Wave". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved November 23, 2008.  ^ "Population and Population Centers by State: 2000". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on January 17, 2010. Retrieved December 6, 2008.  ^ "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on December 24, 2014.  ^ a b c "Population of Tennessee: Census 2010 and 2000 Interactive Map, Demographics, Statistics, Quick Facts". Censusviewer.com. Archived from the original on December 25, 2017.  ^ " Tennessee
Tennessee
QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau". Quickfacts.census.gov. Archived from the original on February 7, 2015. Retrieved July 10, 2013.  ^ Brittingham, Angela; de la Cruz, G. Patricia (June 2004). "Ancestry: 2000" (PDF). U.S. Census Bureau. p. 6. C2KBR-35. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 20, 2004. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ Fischer, David Hackett (1989). Albion's Seed: Four British Folkways in America. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 633–639. ISBN 0195037944.  ^ Pulera, Dominic J. (2004). Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America. New York: Continuum. p. 57. ISBN 0826416438.  ^ "Ancestry of the Population by State: 1980 – Table 3" (PDF). Retrieved December 9, 2011.  ^ U.S. Census Bureau
U.S. Census Bureau
(2010). "Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data, Tennessee".  ^ Tom Humphrey, "State grants six Indian tribes recognition: Cherokee Nation may try to have action by Indian Affairs voided", Knoxville News Sentinel, June 21, 2010, accessed June 30, 2010 ^ Exner, Rich (June 3, 2012). "Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot". The Plain Dealer.  ^ "Births: Final Data for 2013" (PDF). Cdc.gov. Retrieved September 4, 2017.  ^ "Births: Final Data for 2014" (PDF). Cdc.gov. Retrieved September 4, 2017.  ^ "Births: Final Data for 2015" (PDF). Cdc.gov. Retrieved September 4, 2017.  ^ "Religious Landscape Study". Pewforum.org. May 11, 2015. Retrieved September 4, 2017.  ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives State Membership Report". www.thearda.com. Retrieved December 12, 2013.  ^ United States
United States
Information: Tennessee, Church News, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints website, February 2, 2010. Retrieved: February 7, 2013. ^ "State Data and Comparisons: Tennessee". State Data Lab. Institute for Truth in Accounting. Retrieved February 26, 2014.  ^ [1] Archived January 2, 2009, at the Wayback Machine. ^ "USDA 2002 Census of Agriculture, Maps and Cartographic Resources". Nass.usda.gov. Archived from the original on July 8, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ "April 2016 County Unemployment Rates - TN.Gov". Tn.gov. Retrieved September 4, 2017.  ^ "Tennessee: Poverty by Age and Gender". Data USA. Retrieved October 12, 2017.  ^ "A Guide to Tennessee
Tennessee
Inheritance and Estate Taxes" (PDF). State of Tennessee. Retrieved December 9, 2011.  ^ a b Dennis Ferrier (August 18, 2015). "2014 was best year ever for Tennessee
Tennessee
tourism". WSMV News 4. Retrieved August 18, 2015.  ^ U. S. Travel Association (2014). The Economic Impact of Travel on Tennessee
Tennessee
Counties, 2013 (PDF). USA: Tennessee
Tennessee
Department of Tourist Development. p. 21. Retrieved August 18, 2015.  ^ a b c D. K. Shifflet & Associates (2014). 2013 Tennessee
Tennessee
Visitor Profile (PDF). USA: D. K. Shifflet & Associates/State of Tennessee. Retrieved August 18, 2015.  ^ Johnny Kampis. "Top Ten Places to Go in Tennessee". USA Today. Retrieved August 18, 2015.  ^ Lovett, Bobby L. (2002). "Beale Street". Tennessee
Tennessee
Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Retrieved November 25, 2009.  ^ Bertrand, Michael T. (2002). "Sun Records". Tennessee
Tennessee
Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Retrieved November 25, 2009.  ^ Wolfe, Charles K. (2002). "Music". Tennessee
Tennessee
Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Retrieved November 25, 2009.  ^ Olson, Ted; Kalra, Ajay (2006). "Appalachian Music: Examining Popular Assumptions". In Edwards, Grace Toney; Asbury, JoAnn Aust; Cox, Ricky L. A Handbook to Appalachia: An Introduction to the Region. Knoxville, TN: University of Tennessee
University of Tennessee
Press. pp. 163–170. ISBN 978-1-57233-459-5.  ^ "USL Expanding to Nashville: Music City, USA". United Soccer League. May 19, 2016. Retrieved May 19, 2016.  ^ "Edwards Confirms Memphis Set for USL in 2019". United Soccer League (USL). November 11, 2017. Retrieved November 11, 2017.  ^ "Nashville awarded MLS expansion club" (Press release). Major League Soccer. December 20, 2017. Retrieved December 20, 2017.  ^ "Section II: Executive Branch" (PDF). Tennessee
Tennessee
Blue Book, 2013-2014. Tennessee
Tennessee
Department of State. 2013. pp. 162–393.  ^ "Court of Criminal Appeals". Tsc.state.tn.us. Archived from the original on July 31, 2010. Retrieved July 31, 2010.  ^ Shaun A. Martin, "Dewey W. Grantham", Tennessee
Tennessee
Encyclopedia of History and Culture, 2010 ^ Historical Census Browser, 1900 Federal Census, University of Virginia
Virginia
Archived August 23, 2007, at the Wayback Machine., accessed March 15, 2008 ^ BUCHANAN v. CITY OF JACKSON, 683 F. Supp. 1515 (W.D. Tenn. 1988), Case Text website ^ Tennessee
Tennessee
by County – GCT-PL. Race and Hispanic or Latino 2000 U.S. Census Bureau ^ Tennessee: McCain Leads Both Democrats by Double Digits Archived December 24, 2008, at the Wayback Machine. Rasumussen Reports, April 6, 2008 ^ DADE, COREY (November 22, 2008). " Tennessee
Tennessee
Resists Obama Wave". Wall Street Journal.  ^ Eisler, Kim Isaac (1993). A Justice for All: William J. Brennan, Jr., and the Decisions that Transformed America. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-76787-9.  ^ Peltason, Jack W. (1992). "Baker v. Carr". In Hall, Kermit L. (ed.). The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 67–70. ISBN 0-19-505835-6. CS1 maint: Extra text: editors list (link) ^ Tushnet, Mark (2008). I Dissent: Great Opposing Opinions in Landmark Supreme Court Cases. Boston: Beacon Press. pp. 151–166. ISBN 978-0-8070-0036-6.  ^ "Bill Information for SB1774". Tennessee
Tennessee
General Assembly. Retrieved June 1, 2014.  ^ a b "Death Penalty in Tennessee". State of Tennessee
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Dept. of Correction. Retrieved August 18, 2015.  ^ Jim Matheny (May 23, 2014). " Electric chair
Electric chair
brings life to old death penalty debates". WBIR/NBC. Retrieved August 18, 2015.  ^ "Death Row Inmates by State". Death Penalty Information Center. April 1, 2015. Retrieved August 18, 2015.  ^ Dockterman, Eliana (May 22, 2014). " Tennessee
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Says It Will Bring Back the Electric Chair". Time. Retrieved May 23, 2014.  ^ Ghianni, Tim (May 23, 2014). " Tennessee
Tennessee
reinstates electric chair as death penalty option". Reuters. Retrieved May 23, 2014.  ^ "Department of Children&amp;amp;amp;#039;s Services Home - TN.Gov". Tn.gov. Retrieved September 4, 2017.  ^ "Vision of Trust Management Model, Responsibility and Reform", Chief Phyliss J. Anderson, Mississippi
Mississippi
Band of Choctaw
Choctaw
Indians, April 29, 2013, to the Secretarial Commission on Indian Trust Administration and Reform ^ "Williamson College". Williamsoncc.edu. Retrieved September 4, 2017.  ^ Sher, Andy (February 24, 2016). " Tennessee
Tennessee
names the Barrett .50 caliber as the state's official rifle". Chattanooga Times Free Press. Retrieved February 26, 2016. 

Further reading

Bergeron, Paul H. (1982). Antebellum Politics in Tennessee. University of Kentucky
Kentucky
Press. ISBN 0-8131-1469-1.  Bontemps, Arna (1941). William C. Handy: Father of the Blues: An Autobiography. New York: Macmillan Company.  Brownlow, W. G. (1862). Sketches of the Rise, Progress, and Decline of Secession: With a Narrative of Personal Adventures among the Rebels.  Cartwright, Joseph H. (1976). The Triumph of Jim Crow: Tennessee's Race Relations in the 1880s. University of Tennessee
University of Tennessee
Press.  Cimprich, John (1985). Slavery's End in Tennessee, 1861–1865. University of Alabama. ISBN 0-8173-0257-3.  Finger, John R. (2001). Tennessee
Tennessee
Frontiers: Three Regions in Transition. Indiana
Indiana
University Press. ISBN 0-253-33985-5.  Honey, Michael K. (1993). Southern Labor and Black Civil Rights: Organizing Memphis Workers. University of Illinois
Illinois
Press. ISBN 0-252-02000-6.  Lamon, Lester C. (1980). Blacks in Tennessee, 1791–1970. University of Tennessee
Tennessee
Press. ISBN 0-87049-324-8.  Mooney, James (1900). Myths of the Cherokee. New York: reprinted Dover, 1995. ISBN 0-914875-19-1.  Norton, Herman (1981). Religion in Tennessee, 1777–1945. University of Tennessee
Tennessee
Press. ISBN 0-87049-318-3.  Olson, Ted (2009). A Tennessee
Tennessee
Folklore Sampler: Selected Readings from the Tennessee
Tennessee
Folklore Society Bulletin, 1934–2009. University of Tennessee
Tennessee
Press. ISBN 1-57233-668-4.  Schaefer, Richard T. (2006). Sociology Matters. New York: NY: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-299775-3.  Van West, Carroll (1998). Tennessee
Tennessee
history: the land, the people, and the culture. University of Tennessee
University of Tennessee
Press. ISBN 1-57233-000-7.  Van West, Carroll, ed. (1998). The Tennessee
Tennessee
Encyclopedia of History and Culture. ISBN 1-55853-599-3. 

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Landforms Ramsey, J. G. M. (1853). The Annals of Tennessee
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Preceded by Kentucky List of U.S. states
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by date of admission to the Union Admitted on June 1, 1796 (16th) Succeeded by Ohio

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Mayors of cities with populations exceeding 100,000 in Tennessee

Jim Strickland (D) (Memphis) David Briley
David Briley
(D) (Nashville) Madeline Rogero
Madeline Rogero
(D) (Knoxville) Andy Berke
Andy Berke
(D) (Chattanooga) Kim McMillan (D) (Clarksville) Shane McFarland (R) (Murfreesboro)

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Protected areas of Tennessee

Federal

National Parks

Great Smoky Mountains
Great Smoky Mountains
National Park

National Historical Parks & Sites

Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
National Historic Site Cumberland Gap
Cumberland Gap
National Historical Park Manhattan Project
Manhattan Project
National Historical Park

National Military Parks

Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park Fort Donelson National Battlefield Fort Donelson National Cemetery Shiloh National Cemetery Shiloh National Military Park Stones River National Battlefield Stones River National Cemetery

National Recreation Areas

Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area

National Trails System

Appalachian National Scenic Trail Natchez Trace
Natchez Trace
National Scenic Trail Overmountain Victory National Historic Trail Trail of Tears
Trail of Tears
National Historic Trail

National Forests

Cherokee
Cherokee
National Forest

National Wildlife
Wildlife
Refuges

Chickasaw Cross Creeks Hatchie Lake Isom Lower Hatchie Reelfoot Tennessee

Wilderness Areas

Bald River Gorge Big Frog Big Laurel Branch Citico Creek Cohutta Gee Creek Joyce Kilmer-Slickrock Little Frog Mountain Pond Mountain Sampson Mountain Unaka Mountain

Other Protected Areas

Foothills Parkway Gatlinburg Bypass Natchez Trace
Natchez Trace
Parkway Obed Wild and Scenic River

State

East Tennessee State Parks

Big Ridge Booker T. Washington Cove Lake Cumberland Mountain David Crockett
David Crockett
Birthplace Fall Creek Falls Fort Loudoun Frozen Head Harrison Bay Hiwassee/Ocoee Indian Mountain Justin P. Wilson Cumberland Trail Norris Dam Panther Creek Red Clay Roan Mountain Rocky Fork Seven Islands Sycamore Shoals Warriors' Path

Middle Tennessee State Parks

Bicentennial Capitol Mall Bledsoe Creek Burgess Falls Cedars Of Lebanon Cordell Hull Birthplace Cummins Falls David Crockett Dunbar Cave Edgar Evins Fall Creek Falls Harpeth River Henry Horton Johnsonville Long Hunter Montgomery Bell Mousetail Landing Old Stone Fort Pickett Port Royal Rock Island Sgt. Alvin C. York South Cumberland Standing Stone Tims Ford

West Tennessee State Parks

Big Cypress Tree Big Hill Pond Chickasaw Fort Pillow Meeman-Shelby Forest Nathan Bedford Forrest Natchez Trace Paris Landing Pickwick Landing Pinson Mounds Reelfoot Lake T.O. Fuller

State Forests

Bledsoe Cedars of Lebanon Chickasaw Chuck Swan Franklin John Tully Lewis Lone Mountain Martha Sundquist Natchez Trace Pickett Prentice Cooper Scott Standing Stone Stewart

State Natural Areas

Auntney Hollow Barnett's Woods Bays Mountain Beaman Park Big Bone Cave Campbell Bend Barrens Carroll Cabin Barrens Glade Mr. and Mrs. Harry Lee Carter Chimneys Colditz Cove Couchville Cedar Glade Crowder Cemetery Barrens Devils Backbone Dry Branch Duck River Complex Elsie Quarterman Cedar Glade Falling Water Falls Fate Sanders Barrens Flat Rock Cedar Glade & Barrens Gattinger’s Cedar Glade & Barrens Ghost River Grundy Forest Hampton Creek Cove Hawkins Cove Hicks Gap Hill Forest Honey Creek House Mountain Hubbard’s Cave John & Hester Lane Cedar Glades John Noel at Bon Aqua Langford Branch Laurel-Snow Lost Creek Lucius Burch Jr. Forest Manus Road Cedar Glade May Prairie North Chickamauga Creek Gorge Overbridge Old Forest Ozone Falls Piney Falls Pogue Creek Powell River Radnor Lake Riverwoods Roundtop Mountain Rugby Savage Gulf Sequatchie Cave Short Mountain Short Springs Sneed Road Cedar Glade Stillhouse Hollow Falls Stinging Fork Falls Stones River Cedar Glade & Barrens Sunk Lake Sunnybell Cedar Glade Taylor Hollow Twin Arches Vesta Cedar Glade Vine Cedar Glade Virgin Falls Walker Branch Walls of Jericho Walterhill Floodplain Washmorgan Hollow Watauga River
Watauga River
Bluffs William B. Clark William R. Davenport Refuge Wilson School Road Window Cliffs

Other

Catoosa Wildlife
Wildlife
Management Area

Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (web) - Tennessee Department of Agriculture (web)

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States

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Major cities

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Oklahoma
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State capitals

Atlanta Austin Baton Rouge Charleston Columbia Jackson Little Rock Montgomery Nashville Raleigh Richmond Oklahoma
Oklahoma
City Tallahassee

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 Free Republic of Franklin

Jonesborough (capital)

Topics

Background Secession Independence Dissolution Brief history

Regions

Blue Ridge Mountains Cumberland Mountains Cumberland Plateau Ridge-and-Valley Appalachians Tennessee
Tennessee
Valley

Geographic features

Cumberland Gap French Broad River Holston River Long Island Nolichucky River Sycamore Shoals Tennessee
Tennessee
River Watauga River

Settlements

Greeneville Rogersville Jonesborough Salt Lick (Kingsport) White's Fort
White's Fort
(Knoxville)

Counties

Blount Caswell

Hamblen Jefferson

Greene

Cocke Greene

Spencer Sevier Sullivan Washington

Unicoi Washington

Wayne

Carter Johnson

Notable Franklinites

William Cage David Campbell Landon Carter William Cocke David "Davy" Crockett Samuel Doak Col. Joseph Hardin Col. John Sevier James White

Impediments

To settlers

Chickamauga Cherokee Chickasaw

To statehood

Congress of the Confederation North Carolina John Tipton

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Political divisions of the Confederate States (1861–65)

States

Alabama Arkansas Florida Georgia Louisiana Mississippi North Carolina South Carolina Tennessee Texas Virginia

West Virginia1

States in exile

Kentucky Missouri

Territory

Arizona2

1 Admitted to the Union June 20, 1863. 2 Organized January 18, 1862.

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Political divisions of the United States

States

Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware Florida Georgia Hawaii Idaho Illinois Indiana Iowa Kansas Kentucky Louisiana Maine Maryland Massachusetts Michigan Minnesota Mississippi Missouri Montana Nebraska Nevada New Hampshire New Jersey New Mexico New York North Carolina North Dakota Ohio Oklahoma Oregon Pennsylvania Rhode Island South Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming

Federal district

Washington, D.C.

Insular areas

American Samoa Guam Northern Mariana Islands Puerto Rico U.S. Virgin Islands

Outlying islands

Baker Island Howland Island Jarvis Island Johnston Atoll Kingman Reef Midway Atoll Navassa Island Palmyra Atoll Wake Island

Indian reservations

List of Indian reservations

Coordinates: 36°N 86°W / 36°N 86°W / 36; -86

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 312794257 LCCN: n79060965 ISNI: 0000 0004 0509 5731 GND: 4119557-7 BNF: cb11952980b (d

.