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The Temple Mount
Temple Mount
(Hebrew: הַר הַבַּיִת‎, Har HaBáyit, "Mount of the House [of God, i.e. the Temple]"), known to Muslims as the Haram esh-Sharif (Arabic: الحرم الشريف‎, al-Ḥaram al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary", or الحرم القدسي الشريف, al-Ḥaram al-Qudsī al-Šarīf, "the Noble Sanctuary of Jerusalem") is a hill located in the Old City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
that for thousands of years has been venerated as a holy site, in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Islam
alike. The present site is dominated by three monumental structures from the early Umayyad
Umayyad
period: the al-Aqsa Mosque, the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
and the Dome of the Chain, as well as four minarets. Herodian walls and gates with additions dating back to the late Byzantine
Byzantine
and early Islamic periods cut through the flanks of the Mount. Currently it can be reached through eleven gates, ten reserved for Muslims and one for non-Muslims, with guard posts of Israeli police
Israeli police
in the vicinity of each. According to the Bible, the Jewish Temples stood on the Temple Mount.[2] According to Jewish tradition and scripture,[3] the First Temple was built by King Solomon
Solomon
the son of King David
David
in 957 BCE and destroyed by the Babylonians
Babylonians
in 586 BCE. The second was constructed under the auspices of Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in 516 BCE and destroyed by the Roman Empire in 70 CE. Jewish tradition maintains it is here that a third and final Temple will also be built. The location is the holiest site in Judaism
Judaism
and is the place Jews turn towards during prayer. Due to its extreme sanctity, many Jews will not walk on the Mount itself, to avoid unintentionally entering the area where the Holy of Holies stood, since according to Rabbinical law, some aspect of the divine presence is still present at the site.[4] Among Sunni
Sunni
Muslims, the Mount is widely considered the third holiest site in Islam. Revered as the Noble Sanctuary, the location of Muhammad's journey to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and ascent to heaven, the site is also associated with Jewish biblical prophets who are also venerated in Islam.[5] Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphs commissioned the construction of the al-Aqsa Mosque
Mosque
and Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
on the site.[6] The Dome was completed in 692 CE, making it one of the oldest extant Islamic structures in the world. The Al Aqsa Mosque
Al Aqsa Mosque
rests on the far southern side of the Mount, facing Mecca. The Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
currently sits in the middle, occupying or close to the area where the Holy Temple
Holy Temple
previously stood.[7] In light of the dual claims of both Judaism
Judaism
and Islam, it is one of the most contested religious sites in the world. Since the Crusades, the Muslim community of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
has managed the site as a Waqf, without interruption.[8] As the site is part of the Old City, controlled by Israel
Israel
since 1967, both Israel
Israel
and the Palestinian Authority claim sovereignty over it, and it remains a major focal point of the Arab–Israeli conflict.[9] In an attempt to keep the status quo, the Israeli government enforces a controversial ban on prayer by non-Muslims.[10][11][12]

Contents

1 Location and dimensions 2 Religious significance

2.1 Judaism 2.2 Christianity 2.3 Islam

3 History

3.1 Israelite period 3.2 Persian, Hasmonean and Herodian periods 3.3 Middle Roman period 3.4 Late Roman period 3.5 Byzantine
Byzantine
period 3.6 Sassanid period 3.7 Early Muslim period 3.8 Crusader and Ayyubid period 3.9 Mamluk period 3.10 Ottoman period 3.11 British Mandatory period 3.12 Jordanian period 3.13 Israeli period

4 Status quo

4.1 Under Israeli control

5 Management and access 6 Jewish attitudes towards entering the site

6.1 Jewish religious law concerning entry to the site 6.2 Opinions of contemporary rabbis concerning entry to the site

7 Current features

7.1 Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
platform 7.2 Lower platform 7.3 Gates 7.4 Solomon's Stables/Marwani Mosque 7.5 Minarets

8 Alterations to antiquities and damage to existing structures 9 Recent events 10 Panorama 11 See also 12 References 13 Bibliography 14 External links

Location and dimensions

The Holyland Model of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the late Second Temple
Second Temple
period. The large flat expanse was a base for Herod's Temple, in the center. The view is from outside the Eastern Wall
Eastern Wall
of the Temple Mount.

The Temple Mount
Temple Mount
forms the northern portion of a very narrow spur of hill that slopes sharply downward from north to south. Rising above the Kidron Valley
Kidron Valley
to the east and Tyropoeon Valley
Tyropoeon Valley
to the west,[13] its peak reaches a height of 740 m (2,428 ft) above sea level.[14] In around 19 BCE, Herod the Great
Herod the Great
extended the Mount's natural plateau by enclosing the area with four massive retaining walls and filling the voids. This artificial expansion resulted in a large flat expanse which today forms the eastern section of the Old City of Jerusalem. The trapezium shaped platform measures 488 m along the west, 470 m along the east, 315 m along the north and 280 m along the south, giving a total area of approximately 150,000 m2 (37 acres).[15] The northern wall of the Mount, together with the northern section of the western wall, is hidden behind residential buildings. The southern section of the western flank is revealed and contains what is known as the Western Wall. The retaining walls on these two sides descend many meters below ground level. A northern portion of the western wall may be seen from within the Western Wall
Western Wall
Tunnel, which was excavated through buildings adjacent to the platform. On the southern and eastern sides the walls are visible almost to their full height. The platform itself is separated from the rest of the Old City by the Tyropoeon Valley, though this once deep valley is now largely hidden beneath later deposits, and is imperceptible in places. The platform can be reached via Gate of the Chain Street – a street in the Muslim Quarter
Muslim Quarter
at the level of the platform, actually sitting on a monumental bridge;[16][better source needed] the bridge is no longer externally visible due to the change in ground level, but it can be seen from beneath via the Western Wall
Western Wall
Tunnel.[citation needed] [17] Religious significance See also: Religious significance of Jerusalem The temple mount has historical and religious significance for all three of the major Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity
Christianity
and Islam. It has particular religious significance for Judaism
Judaism
and Islam, and the competing claims of these faith communities has made it one of the most contested religious sites in the world. Judaism See also: Temple in Jerusalem The Temple Mount
Temple Mount
is the holiest site in Judaism, which regards it as the place where God's divine presence is manifested more than in any other place, and is the place Jews turn towards during prayer. Due to its extreme sanctity, many Jews will not walk on the Mount itself, to avoid unintentionally entering the area where the Holy of Holies stood, since according to Rabbinical law, some aspect of the divine presence is still present at the site.[4] It was from the Holy of Holies that the High Priest communicated directly with God. According to the rabbinic sages whose debates produced the Talmud, it was from here the world expanded into its present form and where God gathered the dust used to create the first human, Adam.[18] 2 Chronicles 3:1 refers to the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
in the time before the construction of the temple as Mount Moriah
Moriah
(Hebrew: הַר הַמֹּורִיָּה‎, har ham-Môriyyāh). The "land of Moriah" (Hebrew: אֶרֶץ הַמֹּרִיָּה‎, ʾereṣ ham-Môriyyāh) is the name given by Genesis to the location of Abraham's binding of Isaac.[18] Since at least the first century CE, the two sites have been identified with one another in Judaism, this identification being subsequently perpetuated by Jewish and Christian tradition. Modern scholarship tends to regard them as distinct (see Moriah).

Presumed to be The Foundation Stone, or a large part of it

Jewish connection and veneration to the site arguably stems from the fact that it contains the Foundation Stone
Foundation Stone
which, according to the rabbis of the Talmud, was the spot from where the world was created and expanded into its current form.[19][20] It was subsequently the Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies
of the Temple, the Most Holy Place
Most Holy Place
in Judaism.[21] Jewish tradition names it as the location for a number of important events which occurred in the Bible, including the Binding of Isaac, Jacob's dream, and the prayer of Isaac and Rebekah.[22] Similarly, when the Bible recounts that King David
David
purchased a threshing floor owned by Araunah the Jebusite,[23] tradition locates it as being on this mount. An early Jewish text, the Genesis Rabba, states that this site is one of three about which the nations of the world cannot taunt Israel
Israel
and say "you have stolen them," since it was purchased "for its full price" by David.[24] According to the Bible, David
David
wanted to construct a sanctuary there, but this was left to his son Solomon, who completed the task in c. 950 BCE with the construction of the First Temple.[25] According to the Bible, both Jewish Temples stood at the Temple Mount, though archaeological evidence only exists for the Second Temple.[2] However, the identification of Solomon's Temple
Solomon's Temple
with the area of the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
is widespread. According to the Bible the site should function as the center of all national life—a governmental, judicial and religious center.[26] During the Second Temple
Second Temple
period it functioned also as an economic center. According to Jewish tradition and scripture,[3] the First Temple
First Temple
was built by King Solomon
Solomon
the son of King David
David
in 957 BCE and destroyed by the Babylonians
Babylonians
in 586 BCE. The second was constructed under the auspices of Zerubbabel
Zerubbabel
in 516 BCE and destroyed by the Roman Empire
Roman Empire
in 70 CE. In the 2nd century, the site was used for a temple to Jupiter Capitolinus. It was redeveloped following the Arab conquest.[27] Jewish texts predict that the Mount will be the site of a Third and final Temple, which will be rebuilt with the coming of the Jewish Messiah. A number of vocal Jewish groups now advocate building the Third Holy Temple
Holy Temple
without delay in order to bring to pass God's "end-time prophetic plans for Israel
Israel
and the entire world."[28] Several passages in the Hebrew Bible
Hebrew Bible
indicate that during the time when they were written, the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
was identified as Mount Zion.[29] The Mount Zion
Mount Zion
mentioned in the later parts of the Book of Isaiah (Isaiah 60:14), in the Book of Psalms, and the First Book of Maccabees (c. 2nd century BCE) seems to refer to the top of the hill, generally known as the Temple Mount.[29] According to the Book of Samuel, Mount Zion
Mount Zion
was the site of the Jebusite fortress called the "stronghold of Zion", but once the First Temple
First Temple
was erected, according to the Bible, at the top of the Eastern Hill ("Temple Mount"), the name "Mount Zion" migrated there too.[29] The name later migrated for a last time, this time to Jerusalem's Western Hill.[29] In 1217, Spanish Rabbi Judah al-Harizi found the sight of the Muslim structures on the mount profoundly disturbing. "What torment to see our holy courts converted into an alien temple!" he wrote.[30] Christianity See also: Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Christianity The Temple was of central importance in Jewish worship, in the Tanakh and the Christian Old Testament. In the New Testament, Herod's Temple was the site of several events in the life of Jesus, and Christian loyalty to the site as a focal point remained long after his death.[31][32][33] After the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE, which came to be regarded by early Christians, as it was by Josephus
Josephus
and the sages of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Talmud, to be a divine act of punishment for the sins of the Jewish people,[34][35] the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
lost its significance for Christian worship with the Christians considering it a fulfillment of Christ's prophecy at, for example, Matthew 23:28 and 24:2. It was to this end, proof of a biblical prophecy fulfilled and of Christianity's victory over Judaism
Judaism
with the New Covenant,[36] that early Christian pilgrims also visited the site.[37] Byzantine Christians, despite some signs of constructive work on the esplanade,[38] generally neglected the Temple Mount, especially when a Jewish attempt to rebuild the Temple was destroyed by the earthquake in 363.[39] and it became a desolate local rubbish dump, perhaps outside the city limits,[40] as Christian worship in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
shifted to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and Jerusalem's centrality was replaced by Rome.[41] During the Byzantine
Byzantine
era, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was primarily Christian and pilgrims came by the tens of thousands to experience the places where Jesus
Jesus
walked.[citation needed] After the Persian invasion in 614 many churches were razed and the site was turned into a dumpyard. The Arabs conquered the city from the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
which had retaken it in 629. The Byzantine
Byzantine
ban on the Jews was lifted and they were allowed to live inside the city and visit the places of worship. Christian pilgrims were able to come and experience the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
area.[42] The war between Seljuqs and Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
and increasing Muslim violence against Christian pilgrims to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
instigated the Crusades. The Crusaders captured Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 1099 and the Dome of the Rock was given to the Augustinians, who turned it into a church, and the Al-Aqsa Mosque
Al-Aqsa Mosque
became the royal palace of Baldwin I of Jerusalem in 1104. The Knights Templar, who believed the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
was the site of the Solomon's Temple, gave it the name "Templum Domini" and set up their headquarters in the Al-Aqsa Mosque
Al-Aqsa Mosque
adjacent to the Dome for much of the 12th century.[citation needed] In Christian art, the circumcision of Jesus
Jesus
was conventionally depicted as taking place at the Temple, even though European artists until recently had no way of knowing what the Temple looked like and the Gospels do not state that the event took place at the Temple.[43] Though some Christians believe that the Temple will be reconstructed before, or concurrent with, the Second Coming
Second Coming
of Jesus
Jesus
(also see dispensationalism), pilgrimage to the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
is not viewed as important in the beliefs and worship of most Christians. The New Testament recounts a story of a Samaritan woman asking Jesus
Jesus
about the appropriate place to worship, Jerusalem
Jerusalem
or the Samaritan holy place at Mount Gerizim, to which Jesus
Jesus
replies,

"Woman, believe me, the hour is coming when neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
will you worship the Father. You worship what you do not know; we worship what we know, for salvation is from the Jews. But the hour is coming, and is now here, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and in truth, for the Father is seeking such people to worship him. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth." (John 4:21-24)

This has been construed to mean that Jesus
Jesus
dispensed with physical location for worship, which was a matter rather of spirit and truth.[44] Islam

Facade of the Al-Aqsa Mosque

See also: Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Islam Almost immediately after the Muslim conquest of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 638 CE, Caliph
Caliph
'Omar ibn al Khatab, disgusted by the filth covering the site, had it thoroughly cleaned,[45] and granted Jews access to the site.[46] Among Sunni
Sunni
Muslims, the Mount is widely considered the third holiest site in Islam. Revered as the Noble Sanctuary, the location of Muhammad's journey to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and ascent to heaven, the site is also associated with Jewish biblical prophets who are also venerated in Islam.[5] Muslims preferred to use the esplanade as the heart for the Muslim quarter, since it had been abandoned by Christians, to avoid disturbing the Christian quarters of Jerusalem.[47] Umayyad
Umayyad
Caliphs commissioned the construction of the al-Aqsa Mosque
Mosque
and Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
on the site.[6] The Dome was completed in 692 CE, making it one of the oldest extant Islamic structures in the world. The Al Aqsa Mosque
Al Aqsa Mosque
rests on the far southern side of the Mount, facing Mecca. The Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
currently sits in the middle, occupying or close to the area where the Holy Temple previously stood.[7] A 13th-century claim to an extended region of holiness was made by Ibn Taymiyyah who asserted: "Al-Masjid al-Aqsa is the name for the whole of the place of worship built by Sulaymaan..." which, according to western tradition, presents: "...the place of worship built by Solomon" known as Solomon's Temple. Ibn Taymiyyah
Ibn Taymiyyah
had also opposed giving any undue religious honors to mosques (even that of Jerusalem), to approach or rival in any way the perceived Islamic sanctity of the two most holy mosques within Islam, Masjid al-Haram
Masjid al-Haram
(in Mecca) and Al-Masjid al-Nabawi
Al-Masjid al-Nabawi
(in Madina).[48] Muslims view the site as being one of the earliest and most noteworthy places of worship of God. For a few years in the early stages of Islam, Muhammad
Muhammad
instructed his followers to face the Mount during prayer. The site is also important as being the site of the "Farthest Mosque" (mentioned in the Quran
Quran
as the location of Muhammad's miraculous Night Journey) to heaven.:

"Exalted is He who took His Servant by night from al-Masjid al-Haram (the Sacred Mosque) to al-Masjid al-Aqsa (the Further Mosque), whose surroundings We have blessed, to show him of Our signs. Indeed, He is the Hearing, the Seeing." Quran
Quran
17:1[49]

The hadith, a collection of the sayings of the Prophet Mohammad, confirm that the location of the Al-Aqsa mosque is indeed in Jerusalem:

"When the people of Quraish did not believe me (i.e. the story of my Night Journey), I stood up in Al-Hijr and Allah
Allah
displayed Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in front of me, and I began describing Jerusalem
Jerusalem
to them while I was looking at it." Sahih al-Bukhari: Volume 5, Book 58, Number 226.[50]

Muslim interpretations of the Quran
Quran
agree that the Mount is the site of a Temple built by Sulayman, considered a prophet in Islam, that was later destroyed.[51] After the construction, Muslims believe, the temple was used for the worship of one God by many prophets of Islam, including Jesus.[52][53][54] Other Muslim scholars have used the Torah (called Tawrat
Tawrat
in Arabic) to expand on the details of the temple.[55] History Main article: Archaeological remnants of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Temple Israelite period The hill is believed to have been inhabited since the 4th millennium BCE. Assuming colocation with the biblical Mount Zion, its southern section would have been walled at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BCE, in around 1850 BCE, by Canaanites
Canaanites
who established a settlement there (or in the vicinity) named Jebus. Jewish tradition identifies it with Mount Moriah
Moriah
where the binding of Isaac took place. According to the Hebrew
Hebrew
Bible, the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
was originally a threshing-floor owned by Araunah, a Jebusite. The prophet Gad suggested the area to King David
David
as a fitting place for the erection of an altar to YHWH, since a destroying angel was standing there when God stopped a great plague in Jerusalem.[56] David
David
then bought the property from Araunah, for fifty pieces of silver, and erected the altar. YHWH
YHWH
instructed David
David
to build a sanctuary on the site, outside the city walls on the northern edge of the hill. The building was to replace the Tabernacle, and serve as the Temple of the Israelites in Jerusalem.[57] The Temple Mount
Temple Mount
is an important part of Biblical archaeology. Persian, Hasmonean and Herodian periods Main article: Archaeological remnants of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Temple

The Trumpeting Place inscription, a stone (2.43x1 m) with Hebrew inscription לבית התקיעה להב "To the Trumpeting Place" excavated by Benjamin Mazar
Benjamin Mazar
at the southern foot of the Temple Mount is believed to be a part of the Second Temple.

Much of the Mount's early history is synonymous with events pertaining to the Temple itself. After the destruction of Solomon's Temple
Solomon's Temple
by Nebuchadnezzar
Nebuchadnezzar
II, construction of the Second Temple
Second Temple
began under Cyrus in around 538 BCE, and was completed in 516 BCE. Evidence of a Hasmonean expansion of the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
has been recovered by archaeologist Leen Ritmeyer. Around 19 BCE, Herod the Great
Herod the Great
further expanded the Mount and rebuilt the temple. The ambitious project, which involved the employment of 10,000 workers,[58] more than doubled the size of the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
to approximately 36 acres (150,000 m2). Herod leveled the area by cutting away rock on the northwest side and raising the sloping ground to the south. He achieved this by constructing huge buttress walls and vaults, and filling the necessary sections with earth and rubble.[59] A basilica, called by Josephus
Josephus
"the Royal Stoa", was constructed on the southern end of the expanded platform, which provided a focus for the city's commercial and legal transactions, and which was provided with separate access to the city below via the Robinson's Arch overpass.[60] In addition to restoration of the Temple, its courtyards and porticoes, Herod also built the Antonia Fortress, abutting the northwestern corner of the Temple Mount, and a rainwater reservoir, Birket Israel, in the northeast. As a result of the First Jewish–Roman War, the fortress was destroyed in 70 CE by Titus, the army commander and son of Roman emperor Vespasian. Middle Roman period

Stones from the walls of the Temple Mount

The city of Aelia Capitolina
Aelia Capitolina
was built in 130 CE by the Roman emperor Hadrian, and occupied by a Roman colony
Roman colony
on the site of Jerusalem, which was still in ruins from the First Jewish Revolt
First Jewish Revolt
in 70 CE. Aelia came from Hadrian's nomen gentile, Aelius, while Capitolina meant that the new city was dedicated to Jupiter Capitolinus, to whom a temple was built on the site of the former second Jewish temple, the Temple Mount.[61] Hadrian
Hadrian
had intended the construction of the new city as a gift to the Jews, but since he had constructed a giant statue of himself in front of the Temple of Jupiter and the Temple of Jupiter had a huge statue of Jupiter inside of it, there were on the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
now two enormous graven images, which Jews considered idolatrous. It was also customary in Roman rites to sacrifice a pig in land purification ceremonies.[62] In addition to this, Hadrian
Hadrian
issued a decree prohibiting the practice of circumcision. These three factors, the graven images, the sacrifice of pigs before the altar, and the prohibition of circumcision, are thought to have constituted for non-Hellenized Jews a new abomination of desolation, and thus Bar Kochba launched the Third Jewish Revolt.[citation needed] After the Third Jewish Revolt
Third Jewish Revolt
failed, all Jews were forbidden on pain of death from entering the city or the surrounding territory around the city.[63] Late Roman period From the 1st through the 7th centuries Christianity
Christianity
spread throughout the Roman Empire, gradually became the predominant religion of Palestine and under the Byzantines Jerusalem
Jerusalem
itself was almost completely Christian, with most of the population being Jacobite Christians of the Syrian rite.[36][39] Emperor Constantine I promoted the Christianization of Roman society, giving it precedence over pagan cults.[64] One consequence was that Hadrian's Temple to Jupiter on the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
was demolished immediately following the First Council of Nicea
First Council of Nicea
in 325 CE on orders of Constantine.[65] The Bordaeux Pilgrim, who visited Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 333–334, during the reign of Emperor Constantine I, wrote that "There are two statues of Hadrian, and, not far from them, a pierced stone to which the Jews come every year and anoint. They mourn and rend their garments, and then depart."[66] The occasion is assumed to have been Tisha b'Av, since decades later Jerome
Jerome
related that that was the only day on which Jews were permitted to enter Jerusalem.[67] Constantine's nephew Emperor Julian granted permission in the year 363 for the Jews to rebuild the Temple.[67][68] In a letter attributed to Julian he wrote to the Jews that "This you ought to do, in order that, when I have successfully concluded the war in Persia, I may rebuild by my own efforts the sacred city of Jerusalem, which for so many years you have longed to see inhabited, and may bring settlers there, and, together with you, may glorify the Most High God therein."[67] Julian saw the Jewish God as a fitting member of the pantheon of gods he believed in, and he was also a strong opponent of Christianity.[67][69] Church historians wrote that the Jews began to clear away the structures and rubble on the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
but were thwarted, first by a great earthquake, and then by miracles that included fire springing from the earth.[70] However, no contemporary Jewish sources mention this episode directly.[67] Byzantine
Byzantine
period Archaeological evidence in the form of an elaborate mosaic floor similar to the one in the Church of the Nativity
Church of the Nativity
in Bethlehem
Bethlehem
and multiple fragments of an elaborate marble Templon
Templon
(chancel screen) prove that an elaborate Byzantine
Byzantine
church or monastery or other public building stood on the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
in Byzantine
Byzantine
times.[71] Sassanid period See also: Jewish revolt against Heraclius
Jewish revolt against Heraclius
and Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 In 610, the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
drove the Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
out of the Middle East, giving the Jews control of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
for the first time in centuries. The Jews in Palestine were allowed to set up a vassal state under the Sassanid Empire
Sassanid Empire
called the Sassanid Jewish Commonwealth which lasted for five years. Jewish rabbis ordered the restart of animal sacrifice for the first time since the time of Second Temple
Second Temple
and started to reconstruct the Jewish Temple. Shortly before the Byzantines took the area back five years later in 615, the Persians gave control to the Christian population, who tore down the partially built Jewish Temple edifice and turned it into a garbage dump,[72] which is what it was when the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph
Caliph
Umar
Umar
took the city in 637. Early Muslim period

Southwest qanatir (arches) of the Haram al Sharif

A model of the Haram-al-Sharif made in 1879 by Conrad Schick. The model can be seen in the Bijbels Museum
Bijbels Museum
in Amsterdam

In 637 Arabs besieged and captured the city from the Byzantine
Byzantine
Empire, which had defeated the Persian forces and their allies, and reconquered the city. There are no contemporary records, but many traditions, about the origin of the main Islamic buildings on the mount.[73][74] A popular account from later centuries is that the Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliph
Caliph
Umar
Umar
was led to the place reluctantly by the Christian patriarch Sophronius.[75] He found it covered with rubbish, but the sacred Rock was found with the help of a converted Jew, Ka'b al-Ahbar.[75] Al-Ahbar advised Umar
Umar
to build a mosque to the north of the rock, so that worshippers would face both the rock and Mecca, but instead Umar
Umar
chose to build it to the south of the rock.[75] It became known as the Al-Aqsa Mosque. According to Muslim sources, Jews participated in the construction of the haram, laying the groundwork for both the Al-Aqsa and Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
mosques.[76] The first known eyewitness testimony is that of the pilgrim Arculf who visited about 670. According to Arculf's account as recorded by Adomnán, he saw a rectangular wooden house of prayer built over some ruins, large enough to hold 3,000 people.[73][77] In 691 an octagonal Islamic building topped by a dome was built by the Caliph
Caliph
Abd al-Malik around the rock, for a myriad of political, dynastic and religious reasons, built on local and Quranic traditions articulating the site's holiness, a process in which textual and architectural narratives reinforced one another.[78] The shrine became known as the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
(قبة الصخرة, Qubbat
Qubbat
as-Sakhra). (The dome itself was covered in gold in 1920.) In 715 the Umayyads, led by the Caliph
Caliph
al-Walid I, transformed the temple shops Chanuyot nearby into a mosque (see illustrations [79] and detailed drawing [80]), which they named the Aqsa Mosque
Mosque
(المسجد الأقصى, al-Masjid al-Aqsa, lit. "Furthest Mosque"), corresponding to the Islamic belief of Muhammad's miraculous nocturnal journey as recounted in the Quran
Quran
and hadith. The term "Noble Sanctuary" or "Haram al-Sharif", as it was called later by the Mamluks
Mamluks
and Ottomans, refers to the whole area that surrounds that Rock.[81][21] For Muslims, the importance of the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
and Al-Aqsa Mosque makes Jerusalem
Jerusalem
the third-holiest city, after Mecca
Mecca
and Medina. The mosque and shrine are currently administered by a Waqf
Waqf
(an Islamic trust). The various inscriptions on the Dome walls and the artistic decorations imply a symbolic eschatological significance of the structure. Crusader and Ayyubid period The Crusader period began in 1099 with the First Crusade's capture of Jerusalem. After the city's conquest, the Crusading order known as the Knights Templar
Knights Templar
was granted use of the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
on the Temple Mount. This was probably by Baldwin II of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Warmund, Patriarch of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
at the Council of Nablus
Council of Nablus
in January 1120, which gave the Templars a headquarters in the captured Al-Aqsa Mosque.[82] The Temple Mount
Temple Mount
had a mystique because it was above what were believed to be the ruins of the Temple of Solomon.[83][84] The Crusaders therefore referred to the Al Aqsa Mosque
Al Aqsa Mosque
as Solomon's Temple, and it was from this location that the new Order took the name of "Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon", or "Templar" knights. In 1187, once he retook Jerusalem, Saladin removed all traces of Christian worship from the Temple Mount, returning the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aqsa Mosque
Al-Aqsa Mosque
to their original purposes. It remained in Muslim hands thereafter, even during the relatively short periods of Crusader rule following the Sixth Crusade. Mamluk period There are several Mamluk buildings on and around the Haram esplanade. The Mamluks
Mamluks
also raised the level of Jerusalem's Central or Tyropoean Valey bordering the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
from the west by constructing huge substructures, on which they then built on a large scale. The Mamluk-period substructures and over-ground buildings are thus covering much of the Herodian western wall of the Temple Mount. Ottoman period Following the Ottoman conquest of Palestine in 1516, the Ottoman authorities continued the policy of prohibiting non-Muslims from setting foot on the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
until the early 19th century, when non-Muslims were again permitted to visit the site.[21] In 1867, a team from the Royal Engineers, led by Lieutenant Charles Warren and financed by the Palestine Exploration Fund
Palestine Exploration Fund
(P.E.F.), discovered a series of underground tunnels near the Temple Mount. Warren secretly[citation needed] excavated some tunnels near the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
walls and was the first one to document their lower courses. Warren also conducted some small scale excavations inside the Temple Mount, by removing rubble that blocked passages leading from the Double Gate chamber. British Mandatory period Main article: 1929 Palestine riots Between 1922 and 1924, the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
was restored by the Islamic Higher Council.[85] Jordanian period

King Hussein flying over the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
while it was under Jordanian control, 1965

Jordan
Jordan
undertook two renovations of the Dome of the Rock, replacing the leaking, wooden inner dome with an aluminum dome in 1952, and, when the new dome leaked, carrying out a second restoration between 1959 and 1964.[85] Neither Israeli Arabs nor Israeli Jews could visit their holy places in the Jordanian territories during this period.[86][87] Israeli period On 7 June 1967, during the Six-Day War, Israeli forces advanced beyond the 1949 Armistice Agreement Line
1949 Armistice Agreement Line
into West Bank
West Bank
territories, taking control of the Old City of Jerusalem, inclusive of the Temple Mount. The Chief Rabbi of the Israeli Defense Forces, Shlomo Goren, led the soldiers in religious celebrations on the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
and at the Western Wall. The Israeli Chief Rabbinate also declared a religious holiday on the anniversary, called "Yom Yerushalayim" ( Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Day), which became a national holiday to commemorate the reunification of Jerusalem. Many saw the capture of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
as a miraculous liberation of biblical-messianic proportions.[88] A few days after the war was over 200,000 Jews flocked to the Western Wall in the first mass Jewish pilgrimage near the Mount since the destruction of the Temple in 70 CE. Islamic authorities did not disturb Goren when he went to pray on the Mount until, on the Ninth Day of Av, he brought 50 followers and introduced both a shofar, and a portable ark to pray, an innovation which alarmed the Waqf
Waqf
authorities and led to a deterioration of relations between the Muslim authorities and the Israeli government.[89] The then Prime Minister of Israel, Levi Eshkol, gave control of access to the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
to the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Islamic Waqf. The site has since been a flash-point between Israel
Israel
and local Muslims. In June 1969 an Australian tried to set fire to Al-Aqsa; on April 11, 1982 a Jew hid in the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
and sprayed gunfire, killing 2 Palestinians and wounding 44; in 1974, 1977 and 1983 groups led by Yoel Lerner conspired to blow up both the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
and Al-Aqsa; on 26 January 1984 Waqf
Waqf
guards detected members of B'nei Yehuda, a messianic cult of former gangsters turned mystics based in Lifta, trying to infiltrate the area to blow it up.[90][91][92] On October 8, 1990, Israeli forces patrolling the site blocked worshippers from accessing it. A tear gas canister was detonated among the female worshippers, which caused events to escalate. On 12 October 1990 Palestinian Muslims protested violently the intention of some extremist Jews to lay a cornerstone on the site for a New Temple as a prelude to the destruction of the Muslim mosques. The attempt was blocked by Israeli authorities but demonstrators were widely reported as having stoned Jews at the Western Wall.[90][93] According to Palestinian historian Rashid Khalidi, investigative journalism has shown this allegation to be false.[94] Rocks were eventually thrown, while security forces fired rounds that ended up killing 21 people and injuring 150 more.[90] An Israeli inquiry found Israeli forces at fault, but it also concluded that charges could not be brought against any particular individuals.[95] In December 1997, Israeli security services preempted an attempt by Jewish extremists to throw a pig's head wrapped in the pages of the Quran
Quran
into the area, in order to spark a riot and embarrass the government.[90] Between 1992 and 1994, the Jordanian government undertook the unprecedented step of gilding the dome of the Dome of the Rock, covering it with 5000 gold plates, and restoring and reinforcing the structure. The Salah Eddin minbar was also restored. The project was paid for by King Hussein personally, at a cost of $8 million.[85] The Temple Mount
Temple Mount
remains, under the terms of the 1994 Israel–Jordan peace treaty, under Jordanian custodianship.[96] On September 28, 2000, Israeli opposition leader Ariel Sharon
Ariel Sharon
visited the Temple Mount. He toured the site, together with a Likud party delegation and a large number of Israeli riot police. The visit was seen as a provocative gesture by many Palestinians, who gathered around the site. Demonstrations quickly turned violent, with rubber bullets and tear gas being used. This event is often cited as one of the catalysts of the Second Palestinian Intifada.[97] Evidence reveals, however, that one month earlier, Palestinian Authority Justice Minister Freih Abu Middein warned that: "Violence is near and the Palestinian people are willing to sacrifice even 5,000 casualties."[98] A few weeks before the outbreak, the official PA publication, Al-Sabah, declared: "The time for the Intifada has arrived... the time for jihad has arrived."[99] Palestinian leader Marwan Barghouti would later admit that the Intifada was planned and Sharon merely "provided a good excuse" for the violence.[100] Status quo Since 1757 a status quo has been applied for the ruling of the Holy places in Jerusalem.[101] The situation between Jews and Muslims was confirmed in 1919 and Faisal–Weizmann Agreement
Faisal–Weizmann Agreement
concluded that:

Article V. No regulation nor law shall be made prohibiting or interfering with the free exercise of religion; (...) Article VI. The Mohammedan Holy Places shall be under Mohammedan control.[102]

In 1929 tensions around the Western Wall
Western Wall
in which Jews were accused of violating the status quo generated riots during which 133 Jews and 110 Arabs were killed.[103][104] Following the 1948 Arab-Israeli
Arab-Israeli
War, the status quo was not respected any more after Jordan
Jordan
took control of the Old City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and Jews were prohibited from visiting their Holy Places in the city.[105] Under Israeli control A few days after the Six-Day War, on June 17, 1967, a meeting was held at al-Aqsa between Moshe Dayan and Muslim religious authorities of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
reformulating the status quo.[89] Jews were given the right to visit the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
unobstructed and free of charge if they respected Muslims' religious feelings and acted decently, but they were not allowed to pray. The Western Wall
Western Wall
was to remain the Jewish place of prayer. 'Religious sovereignty' was to remain with the Muslims while 'overall sovereignty' became Israeli.[89] The Muslims objected to Dayan's offer, as they completely rejected the Israeli conquest of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and the Mount. Some Jews, led by Shlomo Goren, then the military chief rabbi, had objected as well, claiming the decision handed over the complex to the Muslims, since the Western Wall's holiness is derived from the Mount and symbolizes exile, while praying on the Mount symbolizes freedom and the return of the Jewish people to their homeland.[89] The President of the High Court of Justice, Aharon Barak, in response to an appeal in 1976 against police interference with an individual's putative right to prayer on the site, expressed the view that, while Jews had a right to prayer there, it was not absolute but subject to the public interest and the rights of other groups. Israel's courts have considered the issue as one beyond their remit, and, given the delicacy of the matter, under political jurisdiction.[89] He wrote:

The basic principle is that every Jew has the right to enter the Temple Mount, to pray there, and to have communion with his maker. This is part of the religious freedom of worship, it is part of the freedom of expression. However, as with every human right, it is not absolute, but a relative right... Indeed, in a case where there is near certainty that injury may be caused to the public interest if a person's rights of religious worship and freedom of expression would be realized, it is possible to limit the rights of the person in order to uphold the public interest.[89]

Police continued to forbid Jews to pray on the Temple Mount.[89] Subsequently, several prime ministers also made attempts to change the status quo, but failed to do so. In October 1986, an agreement between the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
Faithful, the Supreme Muslim Council and police, which would allow short visits in small groups, was exercised once and never repeated, after 2,000 Muslims armed with stones and bottles attacked the group and stoned worshipers at the Western Wall. During the 1990s, additional attempts were made for Jewish prayer on the Temple Mount, which were stopped by Israeli police.[89] Until 2000, non-Muslim visitors could enter the Dome of the Rock, al-Aqsa Mosque
Mosque
and the Islamic Museum by getting a ticket from the Waqf. That procedure ended when the Second Intifada
Second Intifada
erupted. Fifteen years later, negotiation between Israel
Israel
and Jordan
Jordan
might result in reopening of those sites once again.[106] In the 2010s, fear arose among Palestinians that Israel
Israel
planned to change the status quo and permit Jewish prayers or that the al-Aqsa mosque might be damaged or destroyed by Israel. Al-Aqsa was used as a base for attacks on visitors and the police from which stones, firebombs and fireworks were thrown. The Israeli police
Israeli police
had never entered al-Aqsa Mosque
Mosque
until November 5, 2014, when dialog with the leaders of the Waqf
Waqf
and the rioters failed. This resulted in imposing strict limitations on entry of visitors to the Temple Mount. Israeli leadership repeatedly stated that the status quo would not change.[107] According to then Jerusalem
Jerusalem
police commissioner Yohanan Danino, the place is at the center of a "holy war" and "anyone who wants to change the status quo on the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
should not be allowed up there", citing an "extreme right-wing agenda to change the status quo on the Temple Mount"; Hamas and Islamic Jihad continue to erroneously assert that the Israeli government plans to destroy Al-Aksa Mosque, resulting in chronic terrorist attacks and rioting.[108] There have been several changes to the status quo: (1) Jewish visits are often prevented or considerably restricted. (2) Jews and other non-Islamic visitors can only visit from Sunday to Thursday, for four hours each day. (3) Visits inside the mosques are not allowed. (4) Jews with religious appearance must visit in groups monitored by Waqf guards and policemen.[107] Many Palestinians believe the status quo is threatened since right-wing Israelis have been challenging it with more force and frequency, asserting a religious right to pray there. Until Israel banned them, members of Murabitat, a group of women, cried 'Allah Akbar' at groups of Jewish visitors to remind them the Temple Mount was still in Muslim hands.[109][110] Management and access See also: Temple Mount
Temple Mount
entry restrictions

Sign in Hebrew
Hebrew
and English outside the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
stating the Chief Rabbinate's preference that no person should enter the site, since it is the holiest site in Judaism

An Islamic Waqf
Waqf
has managed the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
continuously since the Muslim reconquest of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in 1187. On June 7, 1967, soon after Israel
Israel
had taken control of the area during the Six-Day War, Prime Minister Levi Eshkol
Levi Eshkol
assured that "no harm whatsoever shall come to the places sacred to all religions". Together with the extension of Israeli jurisdiction and administration over east Jerusalem, the Knesset
Knesset
passed the Preservation of the Holy Places Law,[111] ensuring protection of the Holy Places against desecration, as well as freedom of access thereto.[112] The site remains within the area controlled by the State of Israel, with administration of the site remaining in the hands of the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Islamic Waqf. Although freedom of access was enshrined in the law, as a security measure, the Israeli government currently enforces a ban on non-Muslim prayer on the site. Non-Muslims who are observed praying on the site are subject to expulsion by the police.[113] At various times, when there is fear of Arab rioting upon the mount resulting in throwing stones from above towards the Western Wall
Western Wall
Plaza, Israel
Israel
has prevented Muslim men under 45 from praying in the compound, citing these concerns.[114] Sometimes such restrictions have coincided with Friday prayers during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan.[115] Normally, West Bank Palestinians are allowed access to Jerusalem
Jerusalem
only during Islamic holidays, with access usually restricted to men over 35 and women of any age eligible for permits to enter the city.[116] Palestinian residents of Jerusalem, which because of Israel's annexation of Jerusalem, hold Israeli permanent residency cards, and Israeli Arabs, are permitted unrestricted access to the Temple Mount.[citation needed] The Mughrabi Gate is the only entrance to the Temple Mount accessible to non-Muslims.[117][118][119] Jewish attitudes towards entering the site Due to religious restrictions on entering the most sacred areas of the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
(see following section), the Western Wall, a retaining wall for the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
and remnant of the Second Temple
Second Temple
structure, is considered by some rabbinical authorities to be the holiest accessible site for Jews to pray at. A 2013 Knesset
Knesset
committee hearing considered allowing Jews to pray at the site, amidst heated debate. Arab-Israeli
Arab-Israeli
MPs were ejected for disrupting the hearing, after shouting at the chairman, calling her a "pyromaniac". Religious Affairs Minister Eli Ben-Dahan
Eli Ben-Dahan
of Jewish Home
Jewish Home
said his ministry was seeking legal ways to enable Jews to pray at the site.[120] Jewish religious law concerning entry to the site Main article: Temple Warning inscription During Temple times, entry to the Mount was limited by a complex set of purity laws. Those who were not of the Jewish nation were prohibited from entering the inner court of the Temple. A hewn stone measuring 60 x 90 cm. and engraved with Greek uncials was discovered in 1871 near a court on the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in which it outlined this prohibition:

ΜΗΟΕΝΑΑΛΛΟΓΕΝΗΕΙΣΠΟ ΡΕΥΕΣΟΑΙΕΝΤΟΣΤΟΥΠΕ ΡΙΤΟΙΕΡΟΝΤΡΥΦΑΚΤΟΥΚΑΙ ΠΕΡΙΒΟΛΟΥΟΣΔΑΝΛΗ ΦΘΗΕΑΥΤΩΙΑΙΤΙΟΣΕΣ ΤΑΙΔΙΑΤΟΕΞΑΚΟΛΟΥ ΘΕΙΝΘΑΝΑΤΟΝ

Translation: "Let no foreigner enter within the parapet and the partition which surrounds the Temple precincts. Anyone caught [violating] will be held accountable for his ensuing death." Today, the stone is preserved in Istanbul's Museum of Antiquities. Maimonides
Maimonides
wrote that it was only permitted to enter the site to fulfill a religious precept. After the destruction of the Temple there was discussion as to whether the site, bereft of the Temple, still maintained its holiness or not. Jewish codifiers accepted the opinion of Maimonides
Maimonides
who ruled that the holiness of the Temple sanctified the site for eternity and consequently the restrictions on entry to the site are still currently in force.[21] While secular Jews ascend freely, the question of whether ascending is permitted is a matter of some debate among religious authorities, with a majority holding that it is permitted to ascend to the Temple Mount, but not to step on the site of the inner courtyards of the ancient Temple.[21] The question then becomes whether the site can be ascertained accurately.[21] A second complex legal debate centers around the precise divine punishment for stepping onto these forbidden spots. There is debate over whether reports that Maimonides
Maimonides
himself ascended the Mount are reliable.[121] One such report[citation needed] claims that he did so on Thursday, October 21, 1165, during the Crusader period. Some early scholars however, claim that entry onto certain areas of the Mount is permitted. It appears that Radbaz also entered the Mount and advised others how to do this. He permits entry from all the gates into the 135×135 cubits of the Women's Courtyard in the east, since the biblical prohibition only applies to the 187×135 cubits of the Temple in the west.[122] There are also Christian and Islamic sources which indicate that Jews accessed the site,[123] but these visits may have been made under duress.[124] Opinions of contemporary rabbis concerning entry to the site A few hours after the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
came under Israeli control during the Six-Day War, a message from the Chief Rabbis of Israel, Isser Yehuda Unterman and Yitzhak Nissim
Yitzhak Nissim
was broadcast, warning that Jews were not permitted to enter the site.[125] This warning was reiterated by the Council of the Chief Rabbinate a few days later, which issued an explanation written by Rabbi Bezalel Jolti (Zolti) that "Since the sanctity of the site has never ended, it is forbidden to enter the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
until the Temple is built."[125] The signatures of more than 300 prominent rabbis were later obtained.[126] A major critic of the decision of the Chief Rabbinate was Rabbi Shlomo Goren, the chief rabbi of the IDF.[125] According to General Uzi Narkiss, who led the Israeli force that conquered the Temple Mount, Goren proposed to him that the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
be immediately blown up.[126] After Narkiss refused, Goren unsuccessfully petitioned the government to close off the Mount to Jews and non-Jews alike.[126] Later he established his office on the Mount and conducted a series of demonstrations on the Mount in support of the right of Jewish men to enter there.[125] His behavior displeased the government, which restricted his public actions, censored his writings, and in August prevented him from attending the annual Oral Law Conference at which the question of access to the Mount was debated.[127] Although there was considerable opposition, the conference consensus was to confirm the ban on entry to Jews.[127] The ruling said "We have been warned, since time immemorial [lit. for generations and generations], against entering the entire area of the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
and have indeed avoided doing so."[126][127] According to Ron Hassner, the ruling "brilliantly" solved the government's problem of avoiding ethnic conflict, since those Jews who most respected rabbinical authority were those most likely to clash with Muslims on the Mount.[127] Rabbinical consensus in the post-1967 period, held that it is forbidden for Jews to enter any part of the Temple Mount,[128] and in January 2005 a declaration was signed confirming the 1967 decision.[129] While Rabbi Moshe Feinstein
Moshe Feinstein
permitted, in principle, entry to some parts of the site,[130] most other Haredi
Haredi
rabbis are of the opinion that the Mount is off limits to Jews and non-Jews alike.[131] Their opinions against entering the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
are based on the current political climate surrounding the Mount,[132] along with the potential danger of entering the hallowed area of the Temple courtyard and the impossibility of fulfilling the ritual requirement of cleansing oneself with the ashes of a red heifer.[133][134] The boundaries of the areas which are completely forbidden, while having large portions in common, are delineated differently by various rabbinic authorities. However, there is a growing body of Modern Orthodox and national religious rabbis who encourage visits to certain parts of the Mount, which they believe are permitted according to most medieval rabbinical authorities.[21] These rabbis include: Shlomo Goren
Shlomo Goren
(former Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Israel); Chaim David
David
Halevi (former Chief Rabbi of Tel Aviv and Yaffo); Dov Lior
Dov Lior
(Rabbi of Kiryat Arba); Yosef Elboim; Yisrael Ariel; She'ar Yashuv Cohen
She'ar Yashuv Cohen
(Chief Rabbi of Haifa); Yuval Sherlo (rosh yeshiva of the hesder yeshiva of Petah Tikva); Meir Kahane. One of them, Shlomo Goren, held that it is possible that Jews are even allowed to enter the heart of the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
in time of war, according to Jewish Law of Conquest.[135] These authorities demand an attitude of veneration on the part of Jews ascending the Temple Mount, ablution in a mikveh prior to the ascent, and the wearing of non-leather shoes.[21] Some rabbinic authorities are now of the opinion that it is imperative for Jews to ascend in order to halt the ongoing process of Islamization of the Temple Mount. Maimonides, perhaps the greatest codifier of Jewish Law, wrote in Laws of the Chosen House ch 7 Law 15 "One may bring a dead body in to the (lower sanctified areas of the) Temple Mount
Temple Mount
and there is no need to say that the ritually impure (from the dead) may enter there, because the dead body itself can enter". One who is ritually impure through direct or in-direct contact of the dead cannot walk in the higher sanctified areas. For those who are visibly Jewish, they have no choice, but to follow this peripheral route as it has become unofficially part of the status quo on the Mount. Many of these recent opinions rely on archaeological evidence.[21] In December 2013, the two Chief Rabbis of Israel, David
David
Lau and Yitzhak Yosef, reiterated the ban on Jews entering the Temple Mount.[136] They wrote, "In light of [those] neglecting [this ruling], we once again warn that nothing has changed and this strict prohibition remains in effect for the entire area [of the Temple Mount]".[136] In November 2014, the Sephardic
Sephardic
chief rabbi Yitzhak Yosef, reiterated the point of view held by many rabbinic authorities that Jews should not visit the Mount.[96] On the occasion of an upsurge in Palestinian knifing attacks on Israelis, associated with fears that Israel
Israel
was changing the status quo on the Mount, the Haredi newspaper Mishpacha ran a notification in Arabic asking 'their cousins', Palestinians, to stop trying to murder members of their congregation, since they were vehemently opposed to ascending the Mount and consider such visits proscribed by Jewish law.[137] Current features Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
platform A flat platform was built around the peak of the Temple Mount, carrying the Dome of the Rock; the peak just breaches the floor level of the upper platform within the Dome of the Rock, in the shape of a large limestone outcrop, which is part of the bedrock. Beneath the surface of this rock there is a cave known as the Well of Souls, originally accessible only by a narrow hole in the rock itself; the Crusaders hacked open an entrance to the cave from the south, by which it can now be entered.[citation needed] There is also a smaller domed building on the upper platform, slightly to the east of the Dome of the Rock, known as the Dome of the Chain — traditionally the location where a chain once rose to heaven. Several stairways rise to the upper platform from the lower; that at the northwest corner is believed by some archaeologists be part of a much wider monumental staircase, mostly hidden or destroyed, and dating from the Second Temple
Second Temple
era. Lower platform

The al-Kas ablution fountain for Muslim worshippers on the southern portion of the lower platform

The lower platform – which constitutes most of the surface of the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
– has at its southern end the al-Aqsa Mosque, which takes up most of the width of the Mount. Gardens take up the eastern and most of the northern side of the platform; the far north of the platform houses an Islamic school.[138] The lower platform also houses an ablution fountain (known as al-Kas), originally supplied with water via a long narrow aqueduct leading from the so-called Solomon's Pools
Solomon's Pools
pools near Bethlehem, but now supplied from Jerusalem's water mains. There are several cisterns beneath the lower platform, designed to collect rain water as a water supply. These have various forms and structures, seemingly built in different periods, ranging from vaulted chambers built in the gap between the bedrock and the platform, to chambers cut into the bedrock itself. Of these, the most notable are (numbering traditionally follows Wilson's scheme[139]):

Cistern 1 (located under the northern side of the upper platform). There is a speculation that it had a function connected with the altar of the Second Temple
Second Temple
(and possibly of the earlier Temple),[140] or with the bronze sea. Cistern 5 (located under the south eastern corner of the upper platform) — a long and narrow chamber, with a strange anti-clockwise curved section at its north western corner, and containing within it a doorway currently blocked by earth. The cistern's position and design is such that there has been speculation it had a function connected with the altar of the Second Temple
Second Temple
(and possibly of the earlier Temple), or with the bronze sea. Charles Warren
Charles Warren
thought that the altar of burnt offerings was located at the north western end.[141] Cistern 8 (located just north of the al-Aqsa Mosque) — known as the Great Sea, a large rock hewn cavern, the roof supported by pillars carved from the rock; the chamber is particularly cave-like and atmospheric,[142] and its maximum water capacity is several hundred thousand gallons. Cistern 9 (located just south of cistern 8, and directly under the al-Aqsa Mosque) — known as the Well of the Leaf due to its leaf-shaped plan, also rock hewn. Cistern 11 (located east of cistern 9) — a set of vaulted rooms forming a plan shaped like the letter E. Probably the largest cistern, it has the potential to house over 700,000 gallons of water. Cistern 16/17 (located at the centre of the far northern end of the Temple Mount). Despite the currently narrow entrances, this cistern (17 and 16 are the same cistern) is a large vaulted chamber, which Warren described as looking like the inside of the cathedral at Cordoba (which was previously a mosque). Warren believed that it was almost certainly built for some other purpose, and was only adapted into a cistern at a later date; he suggested that it might have been part of a general vault supporting the northern side of the platform, in which case substantially more of the chamber exists than is used for a cistern.

Gates Main article: Gates of the Temple Mount

The eastern set of Hulda gates

Robinson's Arch, situated on the southwestern flank, once supported a staircase that led to the Mount.

Sealed gates

The retaining walls of the platform contain several gateways, all currently blocked. In the eastern wall is the Golden Gate, through which legend states the Jewish Messiah
Jewish Messiah
would enter Jerusalem. On the southern face are the Hulda Gates
Hulda Gates
— the triple gate (which has three arches) and the double gate (which has two arches, and is partly obscured by a Crusader building); these were the entrance and exit (respectively) to the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
from Ophel (the oldest part of Jerusalem), and the main access to the Mount for ordinary Jews. In the western face, near the southern corner, is the Barclay's Gate – only half visible due to a building (the "house of Abu Sa'ud") on the northern side. Also in the western face, hidden by later construction but visible via the recent Western Wall
Western Wall
Tunnels, and only rediscovered by Warren, is Warren's Gate; the function of these western gates is obscure, but many Jews view Warren's Gate
Warren's Gate
as particularly holy, due to its location due west of the Dome of the Rock. Traditional belief considers the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
to have earlier been the location at which the Holy of Holies
Holy of Holies
was placed; numerous alternative opinions exist, based on study and calculations, such as those of Tuvia Sagiv.[143] Warren was able to investigate the inside of these gates. Warren's Gate and the Golden Gate simply head towards the centre of the Mount, fairly quickly giving access to the surface by steps.[144] Barclay's Gate is similar, but abruptly turns south as it does so; the reason for this is currently unknown. The double and triple gates (the Huldah Gates) are more substantial; heading into the Mount for some distance they each finally have steps rising to the surface just north of the al-Aqsa Mosque.[145] The passageway for each is vaulted, and has two aisles (in the case of the triple gate, a third aisle exists for a brief distance beyond the gate); the eastern aisle of the double gates and western of the triple gates reach the surface, the other aisles terminating some way before the steps – Warren believed that one aisle of each original passage was extended when the al-Aqsa Mosque blocked the original surface exits. In the process of investigating Cistern 10, Warren discovered tunnels that lay under the Triple Gate passageway.[146] These passages lead in erratic directions, some leading beyond the southern edge of the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
(they are at a depth below the base of the walls); their purpose is currently unknown – as is whether they predate the Temple Mount – a situation not helped by the fact that apart from Warren's expedition no one else is known to have visited them. Altogether, there are six major sealed gates and a postern, listed here counterclockwise, dating from either the Roman/Herodian, Byzantine, or Early Muslim periods:

Bab al-Jana'iz/al-Buraq (Gate of the Funerals/of al-Buraq); eastern wall; a hardly noticeable postern, or maybe an improvised gate, a short distance south of the Golden Gate Golden Gate (Bab al-Zahabi); eastern wall (northern third), a double gate:

Bab al-Rahma (Door of Mercy) is the southern opening, Bab al-Tauba (Door of Repentance) is the northern opening

Warren's Gate; western wall, now only visible from the Western Wall Tunnel Bab an-Nabi (Gate of the Prophet) or Barclay's Gate; western wall, visible from the al-Buraq Mosque
Mosque
inside the Haram, and from the Western Wall
Western Wall
plaza (women's section) and the adjacent building (the so-called house of Abu Sa'ud) Double Gate (Bab al-Thulathe; possibly one of the Huldah Gates); southern wall, underneath the Al-Aqsa Mosque Triple Gate; southern wall, outside Solomon's Stables/Marwani Mosque Single Gate; southern wall, outside Solomon's Stables/Marwani Mosque

Open gates of the Haram

Main article: Gates of the Temple Mount There are currently eleven open gates offering access to the Muslim Haram al-Sharif.

Bab al-Asbat (Gate of the Tribes); north-east corner Bab al-Hitta/Huttah (Gate of Remission, Pardon, or Absolution); northern wall Bab al-Atim/'Atm/Attim (Gate of Darkness); northern wall Bab al-Ghawanima (Gate of Bani Ghanim); north-west corner Bab al-Majlis / an-Nazir/Nadhir (Council Gate / Inspector's Gate); western wall (northern third) Bab al-Hadid (Iron Gate); western wall (central part) Bab al-Qattanin (Gate of the Cotton Merchants); western wall (central part) Bab al-Matarah/Mathara (Ablution Gate); western wall (central part)

Two twin gates follow south of the Ablution Gate, the Tranquility Gate and the Gate of the Chain:

Bab as-Salam / al-Sakina (Tranquility Gate / Gate of the Dwelling), the northern one of the two; western wall (central part) Bab as-Silsileh (Gate of the Chain), the southern one of the two; western wall (central part) Bab al-Magharbeh/Maghariba (Moroccans' Gate/Gate of the Moors); western wall (southern third); the only entrance for non-Muslims

A twelfth gate still open during Ottoman rule is now closed to the public:

Bab as-Sarai (Gate of the Seraglio); a small gate to the former residence of the Pasha of Jerusalem; western wall, northern part (between the Bani Ghanim and Council gates).

Solomon's Stables/Marwani Mosque East of and joined to the triple gate passageway is a large vaulted area, supporting the southeastern corner of the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
platform – which is substantially above the bedrock at this point – the vaulted chambers here are popularly referred to as Solomon's Stables.[147] They were used as stables by the Crusaders, but were built by Herod the Great
Herod the Great
– along with the platform they were built to support. Minarets Main article: Minarets of the Temple Mount The existing four minarets include three near the Western Wall
Western Wall
and one near the northern wall. The first minaret was constructed on the southwest corner of the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
in 1278. The second was built in 1297 by order of a Mameluk
Mameluk
king, the third by a governor of Jerusalem in 1329, and the last in 1367. Alterations to antiquities and damage to existing structures Main article: Excavations at the Temple Mount See also: Temple Denial
Temple Denial
and Islamization of the Temple Mount Due to the extreme political sensitivity of the site, no real archaeological excavations have ever been conducted on the Temple Mount itself. Protests commonly occur whenever archaeologists conduct projects near the Mount. This sensitivity has not, however, prevented the Muslim Waqf
Waqf
from destroying archeological evidence on a number of occasions.[148][149][150][151] Aside from visual observation of surface features, most other archaeological knowledge of the site comes from the 19th-century survey carried out by Charles Wilson and Charles Warren
Charles Warren
and others. After the Six-Day War
Six-Day War
of 1967, Israeli archeologists began a series of excavations near the site at the southern wall that uncovered finds from the Second Temple
Second Temple
period through Roman, Umayyad
Umayyad
and Crusader times.[152] Over the period 1970–88, a number of tunnels were excavated in the vicinity, including one that passed to the west of the Mount and became known as the Western Wall
Western Wall
Tunnel, which was opened to the public in 1996.[153][154] The same year the Waqf
Waqf
began construction of a new mosque in the structures known since Crusader times as Solomon's Stables. Many Israelis regarded this as a radical change of the status quo, which should not have been undertaken without first consulting the Israeli government. The project was done without attention to the possibility of disturbing historically significant archaeological material, with stone and ancient artifacts treated without regard to their preservation.[155] In October 1999, the Islamic Waqf, and the Islamic Movement conducted an illegal[citation needed] dig which inflicted much archaeological damage. The earth from this operation, which has archeological wealth relevant to Jewish, Christian and Muslim history, was removed by heavy machinery and unceremoniously dumped by trucks into the nearby Kidron Valley. Although the archeological finds in the earth are already not in situ, this soil still contains great archeological potential. No archeological excavation was ever conducted on the Temple Mount, and this soil was the only archeological information that has ever been available to anyone. For this reason Israeli archaeologists Dr. Gabriel Barkay
Gabriel Barkay
and Zachi Zweig
Zachi Zweig
established a project sifting all the earth in this dump: the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
Sifting Project. Among finds uncovered in rubble removed from the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
were:

The imprint of a seal thought to have belonged to a priestly Jewish family mentioned in the Old Testament's Book of Jeremiah. More than 4300 coins from various periods. Many of them are from the Jewish revolt that preceded the destruction of the Second Temple
Second Temple
by Roman legions in 70 CE emblazoned with the words "Freedom of Zion" Arrowheads shot by Babylonian archers 2,500 years ago, and others launched by Roman siege machinery 500 years later. Unique floor slabs of the 'opus sectile' technique that were used to pave the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
courts. This is also mentioned in Josephus accounts and the Babylonian Talmud.

In late 2002, a bulge of about 700 mm was reported in the southern retaining wall part of the Temple Mount. A Jordanian team of engineers recommended replacing or resetting most of the stones in the affected area.[156] In February 2004, the eastern wall of the Mount was damaged by an earthquake. The damage threatened to topple sections of the wall into the area known as Solomon's Stables.[157] A few days later, a portion of retaining wall, supporting the earthen ramp that led from the Western Wall
Western Wall
plaza to the Gate of the Moors on the Temple Mount, collapsed.[158] In 2007 the Israel
Israel
Antiquities Authority started work on the construction of a temporary wooden pedestrian pathway to replace the Mugrabi Gate
Mugrabi Gate
ramp after a landslide in 2005 made it unsafe and in danger of collapse.[159] The works sparked condemnation from Arab leaders.[160] In July 2007 the Muslim religious trust which administers the Mount began digging a 400-metre-long, 1.5-metre-deep trench[161] from the northern side of the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
compound to the Dome of the Rock[162] in order to replace 40-year-old[163] electric cables in the area. Israeli archaeologists accused the waqf of a deliberate act of cultural vandalism.[162]

Southern Wall
Southern Wall
of Temple Mount, southwestern corner

Israelis allege that Palestinians are deliberately removing significant amounts of archaeological evidence about the Jewish past of the site and claim to have found significant artifacts in the fill removed by bulldozers and trucks from the Temple Mount. Since the Waqf is granted almost full autonomy on the Islamic holy sites, Israeli archaeologists have been prevented from inspecting the area, and are restricted to conducting excavations around the Temple Mount.[citation needed] Muslims allege that the Israelis are deliberately damaging the remains of Islamic-era buildings found in their excavations.[164] Recent events

February 2004 Partially collapsed Mughrabi-Bridge: An 800-year-old wall holding back part of the hill jutting out from the Western Wall
Western Wall
leading up to the Mughrabi Gate partially collapsed. Authorities believed a recent earthquake may have been responsible.[165][166]

March 2005 Allah
Allah
inscription: The word "Allah", in approximately a foot-tall Arabic script, was found newly carved into the ancient stones, an act viewed by Jews as vandalism. The carving was attributed to a team of Jordanian engineers and Palestinian laborers in charge of strengthening that section of the wall. The discovery caused outrage among Israeli archaeologists and many Jews were angered by the inscription at Judaism's holiest site.[167]

October 2006 Synagogue
Synagogue
proposal: Uri Ariel, a member of the Knesset
Knesset
from the National Union party (a right wing opposition party) ascended to the mount,[168] and said that he is preparing a plan where a synagogue will be built on the mount. His proposed synagogue would not be built instead of the mosques but in a separate area in accordance with rulings of 'prominent rabbis.' He said he believed that this will be correcting a historical injustice and that it is an opportunity for the Muslim world to prove that it is tolerant to all faiths.[169]

Minaret proposal: Plans are mooted to build a new minaret on the mount, the first of its kind for 600 years.[170] King Abdullah II of Jordan
Jordan
announced a competition to design a fifth minaret for the walls of the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
complex. He said it would "reflect the Islamic significance and sanctity of the mosque". The scheme, estimated to cost $300,000, is for a seven-sided tower – after the seven-pointed Hashemite star – and at 42 metres (138 ft), it would be 3.5 metres (11 ft) taller than the next-largest minaret. The minaret would be constructed on the eastern wall of the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
near the Golden Gate.

February 2007 Mugrabi Gate
Mugrabi Gate
ramp reconstruction: Repairs to an earthen ramp leading to the Mugrabi Gate
Mugrabi Gate
sparked Arab protests.

May 2007 Right-wing Jews ascend the Mount: A group of right-wing Religious Zionist rabbis entered the Temple Mount.[171] This elicited widespread criticism from other religious Jews and from secular Israelis, accusing the rabbis of provoking the Arabs. An editorial in the newspaper Haaretz
Haaretz
accused the rabbis of 'knowingly and irresponsibly bringing a burning torch closer to the most flammable hill in the Middle East,' and noted that rabbinical consensus in both the Haredi and the Religious Zionist worlds forbids Jews from entering the Temple Mount.[172] On May 16, Rabbi Avraham Shapira, former Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
Chief Rabbi of Israel
Israel
and rosh yeshiva of the Mercaz HaRav
Mercaz HaRav
yeshiva, reiterated his opinion that it is forbidden for Jews to enter the Temple Mount.[173] The Litvish Haredi
Haredi
newspaper Yated Ne'eman, which is controlled by leading Litvish Haredi
Haredi
rabbis including Rabbi Yosef Shalom Eliashiv and Rabbi Nissim Karelitz, accused the rabbis of transgressing a decree punishable by 'death through the hands of heaven.'[134]

July 2007 Temple Mount
Temple Mount
cable replacement: The Waqf
Waqf
began digging a ditch from the northern side of the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
compound to the Dome of the Rock as a prelude to infrastructure work in the area. Although the dig was approved by the police, it generated protests from archaeologists.

October 2009 Clashes: Palestinian protesters gathered at the site after rumours that an extreme Israeli group would harm the site, which the Israeli government denied.[174] Israeli police
Israeli police
assembled at the Temple Mount complex to disperse Palestinian protesters who were throwing stones at them. The police used stun grenades on the protesters, of which 15 were later arrested, including the Palestinian President's adviser on Jerusalem
Jerusalem
affairs.[175][176] 18 Palestinians and 3 police officers were injured.[177]

July 2010 A public opinion poll in Israel
Israel
showed that 49% of Israelis want the Temple to be rebuilt, with 27% saying the government should make active steps towards such reconstruction. The poll was conducted by channel 99, the government-owned Knesset
Knesset
channel, in advance of the 9th day of the Hebrew
Hebrew
month of Av, on which Jews commemorate the destruction of both the first and second Temples, which stood at this site.[178]

Knesset
Knesset
Member Danny Danon visited the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
in accordance with rabbinical views of Jewish Law on the 9th of the Hebrew
Hebrew
Month of Av, which commemorates the destruction of both the First and Second Temples in Jerusalem. The Knesset
Knesset
Member condemned the conditions imposed by Muslims upon religious Jews at the site and vowed to work to better conditions.[179]

July 2017 Temple Mount
Temple Mount
shooting: Three men from the Israeli-Arab city of Umm al-Fahm opened fire on two Israeli Druze policemen at the Lions' Gate.[180] Gun attacks have been unusual at the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
in recent decades.[181]

Following the July 14 attack, the site was shut down, and reopened on July 16 with metal detector-equipped checkpoints, spurring calls for protests by Muslim leaders associated with the site.[182]

Panorama

Panorama of the Temple Mount, seen from the Mount of Olives

See also

Jerusalem
Jerusalem
portal

Ayodhya dispute - similarly disputed location in India Committee for the Prevention of Destruction of Antiquities on the Temple Mount Excavations at the Temple Mount Gates of the Temple Mount Hashemite custodianship of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
holy sites Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Christianity Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Islam Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Judaism Temple Mount
Temple Mount
Sifting Project

References

^ "New Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Finds Point to the Temple Mount". cbn.com.  ^ a b " BBC
BBC
- Science & Nature - Horizon". bbc.co.uk.  ^ a b 2 Chron. 3:1-2. ^ a b Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, Avoda (Divine Service): The laws of the Temple in Jerusalem, chapter 6, rule 14 ^ a b Quran
Quran
2:4, 34:13-14. ^ a b Nicolle, David
David
(1994). Yarmuk AD 636: The Muslim Conquest of Syria. Osprey Publishing. ^ a b Rizwi Faizer (1998). "The Shape of the Holy: Early Islamic Jerusalem". Rizwi's Bibliography for Medieval Islam. Archived from the original on 2002-02-10.  ^ Haram al-Sharif Archived 2011-09-24 at the Wayback Machine., ArchNet ^ Israeli Police Storm Disputed Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Holy Site Archived 2009-10-31 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Gilbert, Lela (21 September 2015). "The Temple Mount
Temple Mount
– Outrageous Lies and Escalating Dangers". Hudson Institute. Retrieved 4 November 2015.  ^ Yashar, Ari (28 October 2015). "Watch: Waqf
Waqf
bans 'Religious Christians' from Temple Mount". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 4 November 2015.  ^ "The Temple Mount". Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved 4 November 2015.  ^ Gonen (2003), pp. 9-11 ^ Lundquist (2007), p. 103 ^ Finkelstein, Horbury, Davies & Sturdy (1999), p. 43 ^ " Temple Mount
Temple Mount
- Other sites".  ^ Simon Sebag Montefiore,Jerusalem: The Biography, p.371. Knopf 2011, ISBN 9780307266514 [1] ^ a b Carol Delaney, Abraham on Trial: The Social Legacy of Biblical Myth, Princeton University Press 2000 p.120. ^ Babylonian Talmud
Talmud
Yoma 54b ^ "Jerusalem: Eye of the Universe - Torah.org". torah.org. Archived from the original on 2010-06-16.  ^ a b c d e f g h i "Entering the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
- in Halacha and Jewish History"ת Gedalia Meyer and Henoch Messner, PDF available at [2], Vol 10, Summer 2010, Hakirah. ^ Toledot
Toledot
25:21 ^ 2 Samuel
2 Samuel
24:18–25 ^ Genesis Rabba
Genesis Rabba
79.7: "And he bought the parcel of ground, where he had spread his tent...for a hundred pieces of money." Rav Yudan son of Shimon said: 'This is one of the three places where the non-Jews cannot deceive the Jewish People by saying that they stole it from them, and these are the places: Ma'arat HaMachpela, the Temple and Joseph's burial place. Ma'arat HaMachpela because it is written: 'And Abraham hearkened unto Ephron; and Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver,' (Genesis, 23:16); the Temple because it is written: 'So David gave to Ornan for the place,' (I Chronicles, 21:26); and Joseph's burial place because it is written: 'And he bought the parcel of ground... Jacob
Jacob
bought Shechem.' (Genesis, 33:19)." See also: Kook, Abraham Issac, Moadei Hare'iya, pp. 413–415. ^ "1 Kings - EasyEnglish Bible". easyenglish.info.  ^ Deuteronomy 12:5-26; 14:23-25; 15:20; 16:2-16; 17:8-10; 26: 2; 31: 11; Isaiah 2: 2-5; Obadiah 1:21; Psalms 48 ^ "Dictionary of Islamic Architecture". google.com.  ^ Todd Gitlin, 'Apocalypse Soonest,' Tablet 11 November 2014. ^ a b c d Bargil Pixner (2010). Rainer Riesner, ed. Paths of the Messiah. Translated by Keith Myrick, Miriam Randall. Ignatius Press. pp. 320–322. ISBN 978-0-89870-865-3.  ^ Karen Armstrong (29 April 1997). Jerusalem: one city, three faiths. Ballantine Books. p. 229. Retrieved 25 May 2011.  ^ Jonathan Klawans, Purity, Sacrifice, and the Temple: Symbolism and Supersessionism
Supersessionism
in the Study of Ancient Judaism, Oxford University Press, USA, 2006 p.236:'Some analyses rest on the assumption that the ancient Jewish temple was inherently flawed, and in need of replacement. This kind of approach is contradicted by the rather significant evidence that can be marshaled to the effect that early Christians remained loyal to the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
temple, long after Jesus’ death.' ^ Jacob
Jacob
Jervell, The Theology of the Acts of the Apostles, Cambridge University Press 1996 p.45. ^ Jeff S. Anderson, The Internal Diversification of Second Temple Judaism: An Introduction to the Second Temple
Second Temple
Period, University Press of America, 2002 p.132. ^ Catherine Hezser, 'The (In)Significance of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the Yerushalmi Talmud,' in Peter Schäfer, Catherine Hezser (eds.)The Talmud
Talmud
Yerushalmi and Graeco-Roman Culture, Mohr Siebeck, Volume 2, 2000 pp.11-49, p.17. ^ Jonathan Klawans, Josephus
Josephus
and the Theologies of Ancient Judaism, Oxford University Press, 2013 p.13. ^ a b Andrew Marsham, ‘The Architecture of Allegiance in Early Islamic Late Antiquity,’ in Alexander Beihammer, Stavroula Constantinou, Maria G. Parani (eds.), Court Ceremonies and Rituals of Power in Byzantium and the Medieval Mediterranean: Comparative Perspectives, BRILL, 2013 pp.87-114, p.106. ^ Arieh Kofsky Eusebius of Caesarea Against Paganism, BRILL, 2000 p.303. ^ Gideon Avni, The Byzantine-Islamic Transition in Palestine: An Archaeological Approach , Oxford University Press, 2014 p.132. ^ a b Robert Shick, ‘A Christian City with a Major Muslim Shrine: Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in the Umayyad
Umayyad
Period,’ in Arietta Papaconstantinou (ed.), Conversion in Late Antiquity: Christianity, Islam, and Beyond: Papers from the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Sawyer Seminar, University of Oxford, 2009-2010 pp.299-317 p.300, Routledge
Routledge
2016 p.300. ^ Shick p.301. ^ John M. Lundquist, The Temple of Jerusalem: Past, Present, and Future, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2008 p.158. ^ Davidson, Linda Kay and David
David
Martin Gitlitz "Pilgrimage: From the Ganges to Graceland : an Encyclopedia" Volume 1, ABC-CLIO, Inc, Santa Barbara, CA 2002, p. 274. ^ Schiller, Gertud. Iconography of Christian Art, Vol. I, 1971 (English trans from German), Lund Humphries, London, ISBN 0-85331-270-2; Penny, Nicholas. National Gallery Catalogues (new series): The Sixteenth Century Italian Paintings, Volume I, 2004, National Gallery Publications Ltd, ISBN 1-85709-908-7. ^ Andreas J. Köstenberger, 'The Destruction of the Second Temple
Second Temple
and the Composition of the Fourth Gospel ,' in John Lierman (ed.)Challenging Perspectives on the Gospel of John, Mohr Siebeck 2006 pp.69-108, pp.101-102. ^ Michael D. Coogan The Oxford History of the Biblical World, Oxford University Press, 2001 p.443- ^ Daniel Frank, Search Scripture Well: Karaite Exegetes and the Origins of the Jewish Bible Commentary in the Islamic , East BRILL, 2004 p.209. ^ Gideon Avni, https://books.google.com/books?id=ZLucAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA136 p.136. ^ "A Muslim Iconoclast (Ibn Taymiyyeh) on the 'Merits' of Jerusalem and Palestine", by Charles D. Matthews, Journal of the American Oriental Society, volume 56 (1935), pp. 1–21. [Includes Arabic text of manuscript of Ibn Taymiyya's short work Qa'ida fi Ziyarat Bayt-il-Maqdis قاعدة في زيارة بيت المقدس] ^ The Night Journey, Qurandislam ^ "Merits of the Helpers in Madinah (Ansaar) - Hadith
Hadith
Sahih Bukhari". haditsbukharionline.blogspot.ca.  ^ "The Farthest Mosque
Mosque
must refer to the site of the Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
on the hill of Moriah, at or near which stands the Dome of the Rock... it was a sacred place to both Jews and Christians... The chief dates in connection with the Temple in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
are: It was finished by Solomon
Solomon
about 1004 BCE; destroyed by the Babylonians
Babylonians
under Nebuchadnezzar
Nebuchadnezzar
about 586 BCE; rebuilt under Ezra
Ezra
and Nehemiah
Nehemiah
about 515 BCE; turned into a heathen idol temple by one of Alexander the Great's successors, Antiochus Epiphanes, 167 BCE; restored by Herod, 17 BCE to 29; and completely razed to the ground by the Emperor Titus in 70. These ups and downs are among the greater signs in religious history." (Yusuf Ali, Commentary on the Koran, 2168.) ^ "The city of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
was chosen at the command of Allah
Allah
by Prophet David
David
in the tenth century BCE. After him his son Prophet Solomon built a mosque in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
according to the revelation that he received from Allah. For several centuries this mosque was used for the worship of Allah
Allah
by many Prophets and Messengers of Allah. It was destroyed by the Babylonians
Babylonians
in the year 586 BCE., but it was soon rebuilt and was rededicated to the worship of Allah
Allah
in 516 BCE. It continued afterwards for several centuries until the time of Prophet Jesus. After he departed this world, it was destroyed by the Romans in the year 70 CE." (Siddiqi, Dr. Muzammil. Status of Al-Aqsa Mosque Archived 2011-02-11 at the Wayback Machine., IslamOnline, May 21, 2007. Retrieved July 12, 2007.) ^ "Early Muslims regarded the building and destruction of the Temple of Solomon
Solomon
as a major historical and religious event, and accounts of the Temple are offered by many of the early Muslim historians and geographers (including Ibn Qutayba, Ibn al-Faqih, Mas'udi, Muhallabi, and Biruni). Fantastic tales of Solomon's construction of the Temple also appear in the Qisas al-anbiya', the medieval compendia of Muslim legends about the pre-Islamic prophets." (Kramer, Martin. The Temples of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
in Islam, Israel
Israel
Ministry of Foreign Affairs, September 18, 2000. Retrieved November 21, 2007.)

"While there is no scientific evidence that Solomon's Temple
Solomon's Temple
existed, all believers in any of the Abrahamic faiths perforce must accept that it did." (Khalidi, Rashid. Transforming the Face of the Holy City: Political Messages in the Built Topography of Jerusalem, Bir Zeit University, November 12, 1998.)

^ A Brief Guide to al-Haram al-Sharif, a booklet published in 1925 (and earlier) by the "Supreme Moslem Council", a body established by the British government to administer waqfs and headed by Hajj Amin al-Husayni during the British Mandate period, states on page 4: "The site is one of the oldest in the world. Its sanctity dates from the earliest (perhaps from pre-historic) times. Its identity with the site of Solomon's Temple
Solomon's Temple
is beyond dispute. This, too, is the spot, according to universal belief, on which ' David
David
built there an altar unto the Lord, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings.'(2 Samuel 24:25)" ^

"The Rock was in the time of Solomon
Solomon
the son of David
David
12 cubits high and there was a dome over it...It is written in the Tawrat
Tawrat
[Bible]: 'Be happy Jerusalem,' which is Bayt al-Maqdis and the Rock which is called Haykal." al-Wasati, Fada'il al Bayt al-Muqaddas, ed. Izhak Hasson (Jerusalem, 1979) pp. 72ff.

^ II Sam. xxiv. 16 et seq.; I Chron. xxi. 15 et seq. ^ "Moriah". Easton's Bible Dictionary. Retrieved July 14, 2008.  ^ Gonen (2003), p. 69 ^ Negev (2005), p. 265 ^ Mazar (1975), pp. 124-126, 132 ^  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Aelia Capitolina". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 256.  ^ Brian J. Incigneri,The Gospel to the Romans:the setting and rhetoric of Mark's gospel, BRILL 2003 p.192. ^ Lester L. Grabbe (2010). An Introduction to Second Temple
Second Temple
Judaism: History and Religion of the Jews in the Time of Nehemiah, the Maccabees, Hillel, and Jesus. A&C Black. pp. 19–20, 26–29. ISBN 9780567552488.  ^ Timothy D. Barnes, Constantine and Eusebius, Harvard University Press 1981 pp.50-53, pp.201ff., p.211., pp.245ff. ^ John M. Lundquist, The Temple of Jerusalem: Past, Present, and Future, Greenwood Publishing Group 2008 p.156. ^ F. E. Peters (1985). Jerusalem. Princeton University Press. p. 143.  ^ a b c d e Yoram Tsafrir (2009). "70–638: The Temple-less Mountain". In Oleg Grabar
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and Benjamin Z. Kedar. Where Heaven and Earth Meet: Jerusalem's Sacred Esplanade. University of Texas Press. pp. 86–87.  ^ Har-El, Menashe Golden Jerusalem" Gefen Books 2004 p. 29 ^ Hagith Sivan (2008). Palestine in Late Antiquity. Oxford University Press. p. 205.  ^ F. E. Peters (1985). Jerusalem. Princeton University Press. pp. 145–147.  ^ Was the Aksa Mosque
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built over the remains of a Byzantine
Byzantine
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Jerusalem
Post, November 16, 2008 ^ Karmi, Ghada (1997). Jerusalem
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Today: What Future for the Peace Process?. Garnet & Ithaca Press. p. 116. ISBN 0-86372-226-1.  ^ a b Dan Bahat (1990). The Illustrated Atlas of Jerusalem. Simon & Schuster. pp. 81–82.  ^ Andreas Kaplony (2009). "635/638–1099: The Mosque
Mosque
of Jerusalem (Masjid Bayt al-Maqdis)". In Oleg Grabar
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and Benjamin Z. Kedar. Where Heaven and Earth Meet: Jerusalem's Sacred Esplanade. Yad Ben-Zvi Press. pp. 100–131.  ^ a b c F. E. Peters (1985). Jerusalem. Princeton University Press. pp. 186–192.  ^ Yehoshua Frenkel, ‘Jerusalem’, in Abdelwahab Meddeb, Benjamin Stora (eds.), A History of Jewish-Muslim Relations: From the Origins to the Present Day, Princeton University Press, 2013 p.108. ^ John Wilkinson (2002). Jerusalem
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as Palimpsest, Necipoglu, Muqarnas 2008 ^ "Room 18 ~ El Aksa Mosque, a mosque built from the remains of a Temple building". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2018-04-05.  ^ "Wayback Machine". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2018-04-05.  ^ Oleg Grabar, The Haram ak-Sharif: An essay in interpretation, BRIIFS vol. 2 no 2 (Autumn 2000) Archived 2012-10-04 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Selwood, Dominic. "Birth of the Order". Retrieved 20 April 2013.  ^ The History Channel, Decoding the Past: The Templar Code, 7 November 2005, video documentary written by Marcy Marzuni. ^ Barber, The New Knighthood, p. 7. ^ a b c "Hashemite Restorations of the Islamic Holy Places in Jerusalem", Jordanian government website. ^ Martin Gilbert, Jerusalem
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Divided: The Armistice Regime, 1947–1967. Jerusalem: Routledge. p. 23. ISBN 0-7146-5266-0.  ^ David
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S. New,Holy War: The Rise of Militant Christian, Jewish and Islamic Fundamentalism, McFarland, 2001 pp.140ff. ^ a b c d e f g h Gonen, Rivka (2003). Contested holiness : Jewish, Muslim, and Christian perspectives on the Temple Mount
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in Jerusalem. Jersey City (N. J.): KTAV. pp. 149–155. ISBN 9780881257984.  ^ a b c d Menachem Klein, Jerusalem: The Contested City, C. Hurst & Co. Publishers, 2001 pp.54-63 ^ Urî Huppert, Back to the ghetto: Zionism in retreat, Prometheus Books 1988 p.108. ^ Ofira Seliktar, New Zionism and the Foreign Policy System of Israel, Routledge
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2015 p.267 ^ "RECONSTRUCTION OF EVENTS (REVISED) AL-HARAM AL-SHARIF, JERUSALEM MONDAY, 8 OCTOBER 1990". United Nations. October 8, 1990. Archived from the original on 9 January 2015. Retrieved April 12, 2012.  ^ Rashid Khalidi, Palestinian Identity: The Construction of Modern National Consciousness, Columbia University Press, 2010 pp.215-216 n.22:'The pretext later invoked for the shootings was that the Palestinians inside the Haram were throwing stones at Jewish worshippers at the Wailing Wall plaza below, an allegation that careful journalistic investigation later revealed was false. It is impossible to be able to see the plaza from the Haram, given the high arcade that surrounds that latter, and the Palestinians were in fact throwing stones at Israeli security forces shooting at them from atop the Haram's western wall and adjacent roofs. It has since been established that most Jewish worshippers were gone before stones thrown at the soldiers went over the arcade and into the plaza. See Michael Emery,"New videotapes Reveal Israeli Cover-up," The Village Voice, November 13, 1990, pp.25-29 and the reportage by Mike Wallace on 60 Minutes, December 2, 1990. For a detailed account based on testimonies of eyewitnesses, see Raja Shehadeh The Sealed Room, (London: Quartet, 1992) pp.24-99'. ^ "Judge Blames Israeli Police In Killing Of Palestinians". Sun Sentinel. July 19, 1991. Retrieved April 12, 2012.  ^ a b Itamar Sharon, 'Jews must stop Temple Mount
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visits, Sephardi chief rabbi says', The Times of Israel, 7 November 2014. ^ "2000: 'Provocative' mosque visit sparks riots". BBC. April 12, 2012. Retrieved April 12, 2012.  ^ Al-Hayat Al-Jadida (Palestinian Authority), August 24, 2000. ^ Al-Sabah (Palestinian Authority), September 11, 2000 ^ Jeffrey Goldberg, "Arafat’s Gift," The New Yorker, January 29, 2001 ^ Dumper, Michael; Stanley, Bruce E. (1 January 2007). "Cities of the Middle East and North Africa: A Historical Encyclopedia". ABC-CLIO – via Google Books.  ^ Enrico Molinaro, The Holy Places of Jerusalem
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in Middle East Peace Agreements: The Conflict Between Global and State Identities, Sussex Academic Press, 2009, p.55. ^ Kotzin, Daniel P. (2010). Judah L. Magnes: An American Jewish Nonconformist. Syracuse University Press. p. 222. ISBN 0815651090.  ^ Armstrong, Karen (2011). Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths. Random House Digital, Inc. p. 382. ISBN 0307798593.  ^ Narkiss, Bezalel (1988). The real and ideal Jerusalem
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in Jewish, Christian, and Islamic art. Center for Jewish Art, Hebrew
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in Talks to Readmit non-Muslim Visitors to Temple Mount
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Post, 25 November 2014. ^ Staton, Bethan. "The women of al-Aqsa: the compound's self-appointed guardians". Middle East Eye.  ^ " Israel
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Bans Two Muslim Activist Groups From Temple Mount". Haaretz. September 9, 2015.  ^ Preservation of the Holy Places Law, 1967. ^ Jerusalem
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- The Legal and Political Background, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of Israel. ^ Nadav Shragai, "Three Jews expelled from Temple Mount
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for praying". ^ "Heavy security around al-Aqsa," Al Jazeera
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English, October 5, 2009. ^ "PROTECTION OF CIVILIANS 16 – 29 SEPTEMBER 2009 Archived 24 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.", UNITED NATIONS Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs occupied Palestinian territory. ^ [3][dead link] ^ "Tourism Min. plan to widen Jewish access to Temple Mount
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angers Palestinians". Haaretz. 7 October 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2014.  ^ " Israel
Israel
issues tender for new settlement units". Al Jazeera. 18 December 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2014.  ^ Elaine McArdle, "How to visit Temple Mount
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as a tourist: Old City, Jerusalem, Israel," The Whole World is a Playground, January 1, 2015 ^ " Israel
Israel
MPs mull Jewish prayer at al-Aqsa site". aljazeera.com.  ^ Sefer HaCharedim Mitzvat Tshuva, Chapter 3; Shu"t Minchas Yitzchok, vol. 6 ^ Shaarei Teshuvah, Orach Chaim 561:1; cf. Teshuvoth Radbaz 691 ^ Moshe Sharon. " Islam
Islam
on the Temple Mount" Biblical Archaeology Review July/August 2006. p. 36–47, 68. "Immediately after its construction, five Jewish families from Jerusalem
Jerusalem
were employed to clean the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
and to prepare wicks for its lamps" ^ The Kaf hachaim ( Orach Chaim 94:1:4 citing Radvaz Vol. 2; Ch. 648) mentions a case of a Jew who was forced onto the Temple Mount. ^ a b c d Motti Inbari (2009). Jewish Fundamentalism and the Temple Mount. SUNY Press. pp. 22–24.  ^ a b c d Yoel Cohen (1999). "The Political Role of the Israeli Chief Rabbinate in the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
Question". Jewish Political Studies Review. 11 (1–2): 101–126.  ^ a b c d Ron E. Hassner (2009). War on Sacred Grounds. Cornell University Press. pp. 113–133.  ^ Rabbis who support this opinion include: Mordechai Eliyahu, former Sefardi Chief Rabbi of Israel; Zalman Baruch Melamed, rosh yeshiva of the Beit El yeshiva; Eliezer Waldenberg, former rabbinical judge in the Rabbinical Supreme Court of the State of Israel; Avraham Yitzchak Kook, Chief Rabbi of Palestine (Mikdash-Build (Vol. I, No. 26) Archived 2013-09-27 at the Wayback Machine.); Avigdor Nebenzahl, Rabbi of the Old City of Jerusalem. ^ These rabbis include: Rabbis Yona Metzger
Yona Metzger
( Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
Chief Rabbi of Israel); Shlomo Amar
Shlomo Amar
(Sefardi Chief Rabbi of Israel); Ovadia Yosef (spiritual leader of Sefardi Haredi
Haredi
Judaism
Judaism
and of the Shas
Shas
party, and former Sefardi Chief Rabbi of Israel); Eliyahu Bakshi-Doron
Eliyahu Bakshi-Doron
(former Sefardi Chief Rabbi of Israel); Shmuel Rabinowitz (rabbi of the Western Wall); Avraham Shapiro (former Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
Chief Rabbi of Israel); Shlomo Aviner
Shlomo Aviner
(rosh yeshiva of Ateret Cohanim); Yisrael Meir Lau (former Ashkenazi
Ashkenazi
Chief Rabbi of Israel
Israel
and current Chief Rabbi of Tel Aviv). Source: Leading rabbis rule Temple Mount
Temple Mount
is off-limits to Jews ^ Meyer, Gedalia; Messner, Henoch (2010). "Entering the Temple Mount—in Halacha and Jewish History". Hakirah. 10: 29. ISBN 0-9765665-9-1.  ^ These rabbis include: Yaakov Yisrael Kanievsky
Yaakov Yisrael Kanievsky
(Thoughts on the 28th of Iyar - Yom Yerushalayim
Yom Yerushalayim
Archived March 10, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.); Yosef Sholom Eliashiv
Yosef Sholom Eliashiv
(Rabbi Eliashiv: Don't go to Temple Mount) ^ Margalit, Ruth (2014). "The Politics of Prayer at the Temple Mount". The New Yorker.  ^ Yoel Cohen, The political role of the Israeli Chief Rabbinate in the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
question ^ a b Yated Ne'eman article Archived March 10, 2010, at the Wayback Machine. ^ Nadav Shragai
Nadav Shragai
(May 26, 2006). "In the Holy of Holies". Haaretz.  ^ a b Jeremy Sharon (December 2, 2013). "Chief Rabbis reimpose ban on Jews visiting Temple Mount". Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post.  ^ ' Orthodox Jewish
Orthodox Jewish
newspaper asks Arabs to avoid killing Haredi
Haredi
Jews,' Ma'an News Agency 29 October 2015. ^ "Photograph of the northern wall area". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2018-04-05.  ^ "Wilson's map of the features under the Temple Mount". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2018-04-05.  ^ Kaufman, Asher (May 23, 1991). "The Temple Site" (Abstract). The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post. p. 13. Retrieved March 4, 2007. The most important findings of the superposition of the Second Temple
Second Temple
on the Temple area are that the Dome of the Rock
Dome of the Rock
was not built on the site of the Temple, and that the Temple was taper-shaped on the western side, a form hitherto unknown to the scholars.  ^ "Researcher says found location of the Holy Temple". Ynetnews. February 9, 2007. Retrieved March 4, 2007. Archaeology Professor Joseph Patrich uncovered a large water cistern that points, in his opinion, to the exact location of the altar and sanctuary on the Temple Mount. According to his findings, the rock on which the Dome of the Rock is built is outside the confines of the Temple.  ^ "Under the Temple Mount". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2018-04-05.  ^ "Determination of the location of the Temple based on the angle of sight of Agrippa II". templemount.org.  ^ "Photograph of the inside of the Golden Gate". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2018-04-05.  ^ "image of the double gate passage". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2018-04-05.  ^ "Photograph of one of the chambers ''under'' the Triple Gate passageway". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2018-04-05.  ^ "Photograph of King Solomon's Stables". Web.archive.org. Retrieved 2018-04-05.  ^ See "The Washington Post, Opinion Columns, July 17, 2000 Protect the Temple Mount
Temple Mount
by Hershel Shanks ^ "Policeman Assaulted Trying to Stop Illegal Temple Mount
Temple Mount
Dig". Arutz Sheva.  ^ "Jerusalem's Temple Mount
Temple Mount
Flap - Archaeology Magazine Archive". archaeology.org.  ^ " Waqf
Waqf
Temple Mount
Temple Mount
excavation raises archaeologists' protests". Haaretz.com. 11 July 2007.  ^ Jacqueline Schaalje, Special: The Temple Mount
Temple Mount
in Jerusalem. ^ Violent clashes at key Jerusalem
Jerusalem
mosque on 'day of anger', timesonline, access-date=5 May 2009 ^ Mayor halts Temple Mount
Temple Mount
dig, BBC, access-date = 5 May 2009 ^ Temple Mount
Temple Mount
destruction stirred archaeologist to action, February 8, 2005 by Michael McCormack, Baptist Press "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-07-26. Retrieved 2016-02-06.  ^ Esther Hecht, Battle of the Bulge ^ Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post[permanent dead link] ^ "On-the-Spot Report from the Kotel Women´s Section Construction". Arutz Sheva.  ^ Fendel, Hillel (February 7, 2007). " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Arabs Riot, Kassams Fired, After Old City Excavations". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved February 7, 2007.  ^ Weiss, Efrat (February 7, 2007). "Syria slams Jerusalem
Jerusalem
works". Yedioth Ahronoth. Retrieved February 7, 2007. Israeli excavation works near the al-Aqsa mosque in the holy city of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
have led to a dangerous rise in Middle East tensions and could derail revival of Arab-Israeli
Arab-Israeli
peace talks... what Israel
Israel
is doing in its practices and attacks against our sacred Muslim sites in Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and al-Aqsa is a blatant violation that is not acceptable under any pretext  ^ Fendel, Hillel (September 9, 2007). "Silence in the Face of Continued Temple Mount
Temple Mount
Destruction". Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 2007-09-07.  ^ a b Rapoport, Meron (July 7, 2007). " Waqf
Waqf
Temple Mount
Temple Mount
excavation raises archaeologists' protests". Haaretz. Retrieved 2007-07-11.  ^ Teible, Amy (August 31, 2007). " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Holy Site Dig Questioned". The Guardian. Retrieved 2007-09-07. [dead link] ^ "Revoking the death warrant". Al-Ahram Weekly. Archived from the original on 2013-05-17.  ^ " BBC
BBC
NEWS - Middle East - Warning over Jerusalem
Jerusalem
holy site". bbc.co.uk.  ^ " Jerusalem
Jerusalem
wall collapse sparks Jewish-Muslim row". smh.com.au.  ^ "Arabs Vandalize Judaism's Holiest Site". Arutz Sheva. March 31, 2005. Retrieved July 11, 2007.  ^ "Rightist MK Ariel visits Temple Mount
Temple Mount
as thousands throng Wall". Haaretz.com. 9 October 2006.  ^ Wagner, Matthew (October 10, 2006). Rabbis split on Temple Mount synagogue plan. The Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post. ^ "UK News, World News and Opinion". timesonline.co.uk.  ^ "Rabbis visiting Temple Mount
Temple Mount
'hope for an awakening'". ynet.  ^ "A provocation in religious clothing". Haaretz.com. 15 May 2007.  ^ Sela, Neta (May 16, 2007). "Rabbi Shapira forbids visiting temple Mount". Ynet. Retrieved May 17, 2007.  ^ Kyzer, Liel (October 25, 2009). Israel
Israel
Police battle Arab rioters on Temple Mount; PA official arrested. Haaretz. ^ Arrests at holy site in Jerusalem. BBC
BBC
News. October 25, 2009. ^ Jerusalem
Jerusalem
holy site stormed. The Straits Times. October 25, 2009. ^ Clashes erupt at Aqsa compound. Al Jazeera. October 25, 2009. ^ "Half the Public Wants to See Holy Temple
Holy Temple
Rebuilt". Arutz Sheva.  ^ "Israeli lawmaker visits flashpoint religious site". Reuters.  ^ Ariel, Omri. " Temple Mount
Temple Mount
terrorists named, identified as 3 Israeli Arabs from Umm al-Fahm". Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Online. Retrieved 19 July 2017.  ^ Unattributed. " Israeli police
Israeli police
killed in attack near Jerusalem
Jerusalem
holy site". BBC. Retrieved 19 July 2017.  ^ Shaham, Udi. "Muslim authority protests Temple Mount
Temple Mount
security measures, blocks entrance". Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Post. Retrieved 19 July 2017. 

Bibliography

Books

Finkelstein, Louis; Horbury, William; Davies, William David; Sturdy, John. The Cambridge History of Judaism, Cambridge University Press, 1999. ISBN 0-521-24377-7 Gonen, Rivka. Contested Holiness, KTAV Publishing House, 2003. ISBN 0-88125-799-0 Ha'ivri, David. Reclaiming the Temple Mount, HaMeir L'David, 2006 ISBN 965-90509-6-8 Hassner, Ron E., "War on Sacred Grounds," Cornell University Press, 2009. ISBN 978-0-8014-4806-5 Lundquist, John. The Temple of Jerusalem, Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007. ISBN 0-275-98339-0 Benjamin Mazar: The Mountain of the Lord. Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1975. ISBN 0-385-04843-2 Negev, Avraham & Gibson, Shimon. Archaeological Encyclopedia of the Holy Land, Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005. ISBN 0-8264-8571-5

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Temple Mount.

Templemount.org New Evidence of the Royal Stoa and Roman Flames Biblical Archaeology Review Virtual Walking Tour of Al-Haram Al-Sharif ("The Noble Sanctuary") Temple Mount
Temple Mount
Sifting Project

v t e

Temple Mount

Al-Aqsa Mosque

Al-Qibli Chapel Fountain of Qasim Pasha Murabitat Organisation of Islamic Cooperation

Walls

Western Wall

Little Western Wall Dung Gate Heritage Foundation Modesty guard Mughrabi Bridge Paratroopers at the Western Wall Placing notes Platoon of the Wall Pro–Wailing Wall Committee Western Stone Western Wall
Western Wall
camera Wilson's Arch Women for the Wall Western Wall
Western Wall
Tunnel

Other walls

Eastern Wall Southern Wall Hall of Hewn Stones

Temples

Solomon's Temple Second Temple Third Temple

The Temple Institute

Archaeological remnants

Dome of the Rock

Dome of al-Khalili Dome of the Ascension Dome of the Chain Dome of the Prophet Dome of the Rock Dome of Yusuf Fountain of Qayt Bay

Antiquities

Foundation Stone Acra Antonia Fortress Birket Israel Committee for the Prevention of Destruction of Antiquities on the Temple Mount Excavations Hasmonean Baris Minarets Monastery of the Virgins Pool of Raranj Ptolemaic Baris Robinson's Arch Royal Stoa Solomon's Stables Struthion Pool Temple Mount
Temple Mount
Sifting Project

Gates

Al-Mawazin Golden Gate Huldah Gates Warren's Gate

Conflicts

Assassination of Abdullah I 1990 Temple Mount
Temple Mount
riots 2009 Temple Mount
Temple Mount
riots 2017 Temple Mount
Temple Mount
crisis

2017 Temple Mount
Temple Mount
shooting

See also

Status quo of Holy Land
Holy Land
sites Hashemite custodianship of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
holy sites Islamic Museum Islamization Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Islamic Waqf Temple Mount
Temple Mount
and Eretz Yisrael Faithful Movement Entry restrictions Templum Domini Temple Denial Well of Souls

Category

v t e

Temple in Jerusalem

Structures

Tabernacle First Temple
First Temple
/ Solomon's Temple Second Temple
Second Temple
/ Ezra's Temple / Herod's Temple Third Temple
Third Temple
/ Ezekiel's Temple

Elements

Altar Ark of the Covenant Shekhinah Holy of Holies Seven-branched candelabrum Foundation Stone Mercy seat Solomon's Porch Temple treasury Boaz and Jachin Western Wall Warren's Gate Western Stone Wilson's Arch The Sanctuary Molten Sea Urn for ashes of the Red Heifer

Priesthood

Priestly sash Ephod Holy anointing oil Priestly breastplate Priestly tunic High Priest Sacrifice Priestly robe Priestly undergarments Priestly turban Priestly divisions Shemen Afarsimon Priestly crown Urim and Thummim Priestly covenant

History

Bar Kokhba revolt Siege of Jerusalem Tisha B'Av Judaea Capta coinage

Temple Mount

Gates Excavations Mount Zion City of David

See also

Replicas of the Jewish Temple Navel of the World Temple Denial

v t e

Old City of Jerusalem
Jerusalem
and its walls

World Heritage Site
World Heritage Site
by UNESCO

Judaism (Sephardic/ Ashkenazi Chief Rabbis)

General

Southern Wall Western Wall Western Wall
Western Wall
Tunnel Little Western Wall

Orthodox

Hurva Synagogue Ohel Yitzchak Synagogue Ramban Synagogue Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue

Other

Ari Synagogue Four Sephardic
Sephardic
Synagogues Ohr ha-Chaim Synagogue Tzuf Dvash Synagogue

Areas

Christian Quarter

Muristan

Muslim Quarter

Armenian Quarter

Jewish Quarter

Temple Mount

Gates 1. Jaffa 2. Zion 3. Dung 4. Golden 5. Lions 6. Herod 7. Damascus 8. New (Double, Single, Tanners') Al-Mawazin Surrounding roads:

Hativat Yerushalayim HaTsanhanim Jaffa Road Jericho Ma'ale HaShalom Ofel Sultan Suleiman

Christianity

"Status quo"

Church of the Holy Sepulchre

Deir Es-Sultan

Via Dolorosa See also: New Church of the Theotokos

Catholic (Custody of the Holy Land)

Latin (Patriarch)

Chapel of Simon of Cyrene Monastery of the Flagellation

Church of the Condemnation Church of the Flagellation

Church of the Holy Family Church of Saint James Intercisus Co-Cathedral of the Most Holy Name of Jesus Church of Saint Mary of the Germans Church of Saint Mary of the Latins Convent of the Sisters of Zion

Church of Ecce Homo

Monastery of Saint Saviour Church of Saint Anne Templum Domini

Melkite Catholic (Patriarch)

Cathedral of the Annunciation

Armenian Catholic

Church of Our Lady of the Spasm

Eastern Orthodox

Greek Orthodox (Patriarch)

Church of Saint John the Baptist

Oriental Orthodox

Armenian Orthodox (Patriarch)

Cathedral of Saint James Church of the Holy Archangels Church of Saint Toros

Syriac Orthodox

Monastery of Saint Mark

Protestant

Anglican

Christ Church

Lutheran

Church of the Redeemer

Islam ( Sunni
Sunni
Islamic Grand Mufti)

Noble Sanctuary (Waqf)

Al-Aqsa Mosque Dome of the Ascension Dome of the Chain Dome of al-Khalili Dome of the Prophet Dome of the Rock Dome of Yusuf Marwani Mosque

Other

Al-Buraq Mosque Al-Yaqoubi Mosque Al-Khanqah al-Salahiyya Mosque Mosque
Mosque
of Omar

Remnants or rebuilt buildings in italic (governing authority in small) Jerusalem
Jerusalem
portal Israel
Israel
portal Palestine portal Judaism
Judaism
portal Christianity
Christianity
portal Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Holy sites in Judaism

Temple in Jerusalem

Foundation Stone Holy of Holies Temple Mount Western Wall

Tombs of biblical figures

Israel

Benjamin David Matriarchs

Judea and Samaria
Judea and Samaria
(West Bank)

Joseph Patriarchs Rachel Samuel

Other countries

Esther and Mordechai

Holy Land

Land of Israel

Application of religious law

Four Holy Cities

Jerusalem

Holiness

Hebron Safed Tiberias

v t e

Islamic structures on the Temple Mount

Under the Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Islamic Waqf
Waqf
and the Sunni
Sunni
Islamic Grand Mufti of Jerusalem

Mosque

al-Aqsa Mosque

Al-Qibli Chapel Marwani Prayer Hall

Domes

Dome of the Ascension Dome of the Chain Dome of al-Khalili Dome of the Prophet Dome of the Rock Dome of Yusuf

Fountains

Fountain of Qasim Pasha Fountain of Qayt Bay Pool of Raranj

Other structures

Islamic Museum Al-Mawazin

Minarets

Minaret of Israel Bab al-Silsila Minaret Ghawanima Minaret al-Fakhariyya Minaret

See also

Islamization of the Temple Mount Jerusalem
Jerusalem
Islamic Waqf Hashemite custodianship of Je

.