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^† Temporary Joint Capital with Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
not more than 10 years ††Common for Telangana
Telangana
and Andhra Pradesh

Symbols of Telangana

Emblem Kakatiya Kala Thoranam, Charminar

Language

Telugu & Urdu

Song Jaya Jaya He Telangana
Telangana
Janani Jayakethanam[3]

Animal

Spotted deer[3]

Bird

Indian Roller[3]

Flower

Senna auriculata[3]

Fruit

Mango

Tree

Prosopis cineraria[3]

River

Godavari, Krishna River, Manjira River
Manjira River
and Musi River

Sport

Kabaddi

Telangana
Telangana
(/tɛlənˈɡɑːnə/ ( listen)) is a state in the south of India. It is situated on the centre-south stretch of the Indian peninsula on the high Deccan Plateau. It is the twelfth largest state and the twelfth-most populated state in India
India
with a geographical area of 112,077 km2 (43,273 sq mi) and 35,193,978 residents as per 2011 census. [4] On 2 June 2014, the area was separated from north western part of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
as the newly formed 29th state with Hyderabad
Hyderabad
as its historic permanent capital. Its other major cities include Warangal, Nizamabad, Khammam
Khammam
and Karimnagar. Telangana
Telangana
is bordered by the states of Maharashtra
Maharashtra
to the north and northwest, Chhattisgarh, Odisha
Odisha
to the northeast, Karnataka
Karnataka
to the west and Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
to the east and south.[5] The terrain of Telangana
Telangana
region comprises mostly of hills, mountain ranges and a thick dense forests distribution of 27,292 sq. km spread over surroundings of wine ganga of Adilabad, Rakhi hill area in Karimnagar district with Rachakonda ghats in east Ranga Reddy district
Ranga Reddy district
to Ananthagiri Hills
Ananthagiri Hills
near Vikarabad.[6] The region now called as Telangana
Telangana
was ruled by several major dynasties in past Indian history
Indian history
like Maurya Empire, Satavahana dynasty, Chalukya dynasty, Kakatiya Dynasty, Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, Bahmani Sultanate, Qutb Shahi dynasty, Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
and Asaf Jahi Dynasty (1724–1948). The region’s vast exposure to Persian tradition has long been a meeting place for diverse cultures by acting as a link between North and South of India. The territory on the whole came to be known for its Ganga-Jamuna Tehzeeb.[7][8] The economy of Telangana
Telangana
is mainly driven by agriculture but with a reflecting Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of US $120 billion and a high growth rate of 14.6% for current fiscal year (2016-17 est.), the state has emerged as a major focus for robust IT software, Industry
Industry
and Services sector. The state is also the main administrative centre to a large number of Indian defence aero-space and research labs like Bharat Dynamics Limited, Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Defence Research and Development Organisation
Defence Research and Development Organisation
and Defence Research and Development Laboratory.[9] The Telugu-speaking region of Telangana
Telangana
was ruled by the Nizam of Hyderabad.[10] It joined the Union of India
India
in 1948 after an Indian military invasion. In 1956, the Hyderabad
Hyderabad
State was dissolved as part of the linguistic reorganisation of states and Telangana
Telangana
was merged with Telugu speaking Andhra State
Andhra State
(previously part of Madras Presidency) to form Andhra Pradesh. Following an early peasant driven movement for separation in early 50s, Telangana
Telangana
was awarded separate statehood on 2 June 2014.[11] The cultural hearts of Telangana, Hyderabad
Hyderabad
and Warangal
Warangal
are noted for its wealth and renowned historical structures – Charminar, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Paigah Tombs, Falaknuma Palace, Chowmahalla Palace, Warangal
Warangal
Fort, Kakatiya Kala Thoranam, Thousand Pillar Temple
Thousand Pillar Temple
pond and the Bhongir Fort
Bhongir Fort
in Yadadri Bhuvanagiri. The historic Golconda
Golconda
during the Kakatiya reign was once known for the mines that have produced some of the world's most famous gems, including the Koh-i-Noor, the Hope Diamond, Daria-i-Noor, Regent Diamond, Nassak Diamond
Nassak Diamond
and the Noor-ul-Ain. Religious edifices like Lakshmi Narasimha Temple in Yadagirigutta, Makkah Masjid in Hyderabad, Medak Cathedral
Medak Cathedral
of Medak are its famous places of worship.

Contents

1 Etymology 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Kakatiya Dynasty 2.3 Qutb Shahi and Asaf Jahi's 2.4 Post-independence 2.5 Telangana
Telangana
Rebellion 2.6 States Reorganisation Commission 2.7 Telangana
Telangana
movement 2.8 Formation of Telangana
Telangana
state in 2014

3 Geography

3.1 Climate

3.1.1 Ecology 3.1.2 National Parks and Sanctuaries

4 Administrative divisions 5 Government and politics 6 Demographics 7 Economy

7.1 Agriculture 7.2 Industries 7.3 Tourism 7.4 Awards

8 Infrastructure

8.1 Power

9 Transport

9.1 Roadways 9.2 Railways 9.3 Airports

10 Culture

10.1 Monuments 10.2 Religious destinations 10.3 Telugu cinema 10.4 Waterfalls

11 Education 12 Sports 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

Etymology[edit] According to Kingshuk Nag who authored "Battleground Telangana" (2011); Etymology of Telangana
Telangana
is uncertain; it is believed that the word Telugu is derived from Telu in Gondi language—a dialact spoken by the tribals of Chhattisgarh
Chhattisgarh
(in present-day a state located north of Telangana)—, and plural form of Telu is Telunga which means "white-skinned people", and thus making the word Telangana.[12] According to Campbell, Alexander Duncan (1789–1857); who authored a book "A Grammar of the Teloogoo language" (1816) mentions that; A theory suggests that the name Telangana
Telangana
is derived from the word Trilinga (Sanskrit: त्रिलिङ्ग), as in the Trilinga Desa, which translates to "the country of the three lingas". According to a Hindu
Hindu
legend, Shiva
Shiva
descended in the lingam form on three mountains, Kaleshwaram, Srisailam
Srisailam
and Draksharama, which marked the boundaries of the Trilingadesa (Sanskrit: त्रिलिङ्गदेश), later called Telinga, Telunga or Telugu.[13][14] The word "Telinga" changed over time to "Telangana" and the name "Telangana" was designated to distinguish the predominantly Telugu-speaking region of the erstwhile Hyderabad
Hyderabad
State from its predominantly Marathi-speaking one, Marathwada. After Asaf Jahis ceded the Seemandhra region to the British, the rest of the Telugu region retained the name Telingana and the other parts were called Madras Presidency's Circars and Ceded.[15] The earliest use of Telangadh, which means south, was found in Gond Script.[16]One of the earliest uses of a word similar to Telangana
Telangana
can also be seen in a name of Malik Maqbul
Malik Maqbul
(14th century CE), who was called the Tilangani, which implies that he was from Tilangana. He was the commander of the Warangal
Warangal
Fort (Kataka Pāludu).[17] According to Prof Jayadhir Thirumala Rao, an expert in oriental manuscripts and languages[citation needed], the Gonds, an ancient tribe with its own language and script dating back to at least two millennia, were the first people to refer to this region as Telangadh. Even today the Gond language uses the term, which means south. Perhaps, the Gonds were geographically positioned in the north. The Gond script dating back to about 2000 years refers to the term, Telangadh, which means south. The Gond language provides the earliest known linguistic reference to the existence of Telangana
Telangana
even before the origin of the Christian
Christian
calendar[16] History[edit] Main article: History of Telangana Telangana
Telangana
was governed by many rulers, including the Maurya Empire(320 BCE to 180 BCE), Satavahana dynasty
Satavahana dynasty
(180 BCE to 220 CE), Vakataka dynasty (250CE - 500CE), Chalukya dynasty
Chalukya dynasty
(543CE - 753CE), Rashtrakuta dynasty ( 753CE - 982CE), the Kakatiya Dynasty
Kakatiya Dynasty
(1083CE –1323CE), the Musunuri Nayaks
Musunuri Nayaks
(1326–1356) the Delhi
Delhi
Sultanate, the Bahmani Sultanate (1347–1512), Vijayanagara Empire (1336–1646), Qutb Shahi dynasty (1512–1687), Mughal Empire
Mughal Empire
(1687–1724) and Asaf Jahi Dynasty (1724–1948). Early history[edit] Main articles: Maurya Empire
Maurya Empire
and Satavahana dynasty The Satavahana dynasty
Satavahana dynasty
(230 BCE to 220 CE) became the dominant power in this region. It originated from the lands between the Godavari
Godavari
and Krishna rivers and was based at Amaravathi and Dharanikota.[18] After the decline of the Satavahanas, various dynasties, such as the Vakataka, Vishnukundina, Chalukya, Rashtrakuta and Western Chalukya, ruled the area.[19] Kakatiya Dynasty[edit] Main article: Kakatiya dynasty

Ramagiri Fort
Ramagiri Fort
ruins at Kalvacherla
Kalvacherla
in Karimnagar
Karimnagar
district is an ancient fort initially built by the Sathavahanas and modified many times by other dynasties till 16th century

Kota Gullu, temple ruins built in the 12th century by Kakatiyas
Kakatiyas
at Ghanpur, Mulug in warangal district

The Telangana
Telangana
area experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty, which ruled most parts of the present-day Andhra Pradesh and Telangana
Telangana
from 1083 to 1323 CE.[19] Rudrama Devi
Rudrama Devi
and Prataparudra II were prominent rulers from the Kakatiya dynasty. The dynasty weakened with the attack of Malik Kafur
Malik Kafur
in 1309 and was dissolved after the defeat of Prataparudra by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1323.[20][21] Qutb Shahi and Asaf Jahi's[edit]

Golkonda
Golkonda
Fort

The area came under the rule of the Delhi Sultanate
Delhi Sultanate
in the 14th century, followed by the Bahmani Sultanate. Quli Qutb Mulk, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate
Bahmani Sultanate
and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty
Qutb Shahi dynasty
in 1518. On 21 September 1687, the Golkonda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb
Aurangzeb
after a year-long siege of the Golkonda
Golkonda
fort.[22] In 1712, Qamar-ud-din Khan was appointed by emperor Farrukhsiyar
Farrukhsiyar
as the viceroy of Deccan with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (meaning "Administrator of the Realm"). He was later recalled to Delhi, with Mubariz Khan appointed as the viceroy. In 1724, Qamar-ud-din Khan defeated Mubariz Khan to reclaim the Deccan suba, establishing it as an autonomous province of the Mughal empire. He took the name Asif Jah, starting what came to be known as the Asif Jahi dynasty.[19] He named the area Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were called Asif Jahi Nizams or nizams of Hyderabad. The Medak
Medak
and Warangal
Warangal
divisions of Telangana
Telangana
were part of their realm.[23] When Asif Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. In 1769, Hyderabad
Hyderabad
city became the formal capital of the Nizams. The Nizam Nasir-ud-dawlah, Asaf Jah IV
Nasir-ud-dawlah, Asaf Jah IV
signed the Subsidiary Alliance with the British in 1799 and lost its control over the state's defence and foreign affairs. Hyderabad
Hyderabad
State became a princely state among the presidencies and provinces of British India.[23]

Telangana
Telangana
was the seat of numerous dynasties. The Chowmahalla Palace was home to the Nizams of Hyderabad.

Hyderabad
Hyderabad
State in 1909

Post-independence[edit] When India
India
became independent from the British Empire in 1947, the Nizam of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
did not want to merge with the Indian Union and wanted to remain independent. The Government of India
India
annexed Hyderabad
Hyderabad
State on 17 September 1948 after a military operation called Operation Polo.[19] It appointed a civil servant, M. K. Vellodi, as first chief minister of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
State on 26 January 1950.[24] He administered the state with the help of English-educated bureaucrats from the Madras and Bombay states, who were familiar with British systems of administration unlike the bureaucrats of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
State who used a completely different administrative system. The official language of the state was switched from Urdu
Urdu
to English. In 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected chief minister of the Hyderabad
Hyderabad
State in its first democratic election. During this time, there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send the Madras state bureaucrats back and implement a rule by the natives (mulkis) of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
(Syed alam sharjil) was elected chief minister of Hyderabad after (Dr Burgula Ramakrishana Rao) for one year he has given resign from the post.[25] Telangana
Telangana
Rebellion[edit] Main article: Telangana
Telangana
Rebellion The Telangana Rebellion
Telangana Rebellion
was a peasant revolt supported by the communists. It originated in the Telangana
Telangana
regions of the Hyderabad State between 1946 and 1951, led by the Communist
Communist
Party of India (CPI).[26] The revolt began in the Nalgonda district
Nalgonda district
against the feudal lords of Reddy
Reddy
and Velama castes. It quickly spread to the Warangal
Warangal
and Bidar districts. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs) and later against the Nizam Osman Ali Khan. The violent phase of the movement ended after the Government of India's Operation Polo.[27] Starting in 1951, the CPI shifted to a more moderate strategy of seeking to bring communism to India
India
within the framework of Indian democracy.[28] States Reorganisation Commission[edit] In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission
States Reorganisation Commission
(SRC) was appointed to form states on a linguistic basis.[29] An agreement was reached between Telangana
Telangana
leaders and Andhra leaders on 20 February 1956 to merge Telangana
Telangana
and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana's interests.[30] After reorganisation in 1956, the region of Telangana
Telangana
was merged with Andhra State
Andhra State
to form Andhra Pradesh. Following this Gentlemen's agreement, the central government established the unified state of Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
on 1 November 1956.[31][32][33] G.O 553 of 1959 from the united Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
state moved two revenue divisions of Bhadrachalam
Bhadrachalam
from East Godavari
Godavari
and Aswaraopeta
Aswaraopeta
from West Godavari
Godavari
to Khammam
Khammam
for administrative convenience. Telangana
Telangana
movement[edit] Main article: Telangana
Telangana
movement There have been several movements to revoke the merger of Telangana and Andhra, major ones occurring in 1969, 1972 and 2009. The movement for a new state of Telangana
Telangana
gained momentum in the 21st century by an initiative of Telangana
Telangana
Political Joint Action Committee, TJAC including political leadership representing Telangana
Telangana
area.[34] On 9 December 2009 the Government of India
India
announced the process of formation of the Telangana
Telangana
state. Violent protests led by people in the Coastal Andhra
Coastal Andhra
and Rayalseema
Rayalseema
regions occurred immediately after the announcement, and the decision was put on hold on 23 December 2009. The movement continued in Hyderabad
Hyderabad
and other districts of Telangana.[35] There have been hundreds of claimed suicides,[36] strikes, protests and disturbances to public life demanding separate statehood. Formation of Telangana
Telangana
state in 2014[edit] See also: Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Reorganisation Act, 2014 On 30 July 2013, the Congress Working Committee unanimously passed a resolution to recommend the formation of a separate Telangana
Telangana
state. After various stages the bill was placed in the Parliament of India
India
in February 2014.[37] In February 2014, Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
Reorganisation Act, 2014 bill was passed by the Parliament of India
India
for the formation of Telangana
Telangana
state comprising ten districts from north-western Andhra Pradesh.[38] The bill received the assent of the President and published in the Gazette on 1 March 2014.[39] The state of Telangana
Telangana
was officially formed on 2 June 2014. Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao
Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao
was elected as the first chief minister of Telangana, following elections in which the Telangana
Telangana
Rashtra Samithi party secured majority.[40] Hyderabad
Hyderabad
will remain as the joint capital of both Telangana
Telangana
and Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
for a period, not more than 10 years after that period Hyderabad
Hyderabad
shall be the capital of the State of Telangana
Telangana
and there shall be a new capital for the State of Andhra Pradesh.[41] Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
picked Amaravati
Amaravati
as its capital; moved its secretariat in 2016 and legislature in March 2017 to its new capital.[42][43] Geography[edit] See also: List of cities in Telangana

Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh
and Telangana
Telangana
Topo Map

Telangana
Telangana
is situated on the Deccan Plateau, in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. It covers 112,077 square kilometres (43,273 sq mi).[1] The region is drained by two major rivers, with about 79% of the Godavari
Godavari
River catchment area and about 69% of the Krishna River
Krishna River
catchment area, but most of the land is arid.[5] Telangana
Telangana
is also drained by several minor rivers such as the Bhima, the Maner, the Manjira and the Musi. The annual rainfall is between 900 and 1500 mm in northern Telangana
Telangana
and 700 to 900 mm in southern Telangana, from the southwest monsoons. Various soil types abound, including chalkas, red sandy soils, dubbas, deep red loamy soils, and very deep black cotton  [clarification needed] soils that facilitate planting mangoes, oranges and flowers.[44] Climate[edit] Telangana
Telangana
is a semi-arid area and has a predominantly hot and dry climate. Summers start in March, and peak in May with average high temperatures in the 42 °C (108 °F) range. The monsoon arrives in June and lasts until September with about 755 mm (29.7 inches) of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until early February with little humidity and average temperatures in the 22–23 °C (72–73 °F) range. Ecology[edit] The Central Deccan Plateau
Deccan Plateau
dry deciduous forests ecoregion covers much of the state, including Hyderabad. The characteristic vegetation is woodlands of Hardwickia binata
Hardwickia binata
and Albizia amara. Over 80% of the original forest cover has been cleared for agriculture, timber harvesting, or cattle grazing, but large blocks of forest can be found in Nagarjunsagar- Srisailam
Srisailam
Tiger Reserve and elsewhere.[45] The more humid Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests
Eastern Highlands moist deciduous forests
cover the Eastern Ghats in the eastern part of the state. National Parks and Sanctuaries[edit] Telangana
Telangana
has three National Parks: Kasu Brahmananda Reddy
Reddy
National Park in Hyderabad
Hyderabad
district, and Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park and Mrugavani National Park
Mrugavani National Park
in Ranga Reddy
Reddy
district.

Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) near Hyderabad

Wildlife Sanctuaries in Telangana
Telangana
include Eturunagaram Wildlife Sanctuary and Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary in Warangal
Warangal
District, Kawal Tiger Reserve and Pranahita Wildlife Sanctuary
Pranahita Wildlife Sanctuary
in Adilabad
Adilabad
district, Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary
Kinnerasani Wildlife Sanctuary
in Khammam
Khammam
district, Manjira Wildlife Sanctuary in Medak
Medak
district, Nagarjunsagar- Srisailam
Srisailam
Tiger Reserve in Nalgonda
Nalgonda
and Mahbubnagar districts, Pocharam Wildlife Sanctuary
Pocharam Wildlife Sanctuary
in Medak
Medak
and Nizamabad districts, Shivaram Wildlife Sanctuary in Karimnagar
Karimnagar
district. Sacred groves are small areas of forest preserved by local people. Sacred groves provide sanctuary to the local flora and fauna. Some are included within other protected areas, like Kadalivanam in Nagarjunsagar– Srisailam
Srisailam
Tiger Reserve, but most stand alone. There are 65 sacred groves Telangana—two in Adilabad
Adilabad
district, thirteen in Hyderabad
Hyderabad
district, four in Karimnagar
Karimnagar
district, four in Khammam district, nine in Mahbubnagar district, four in Medak
Medak
district, nine in Nalgonda
Nalgonda
district, ten in Ranga Reddy
Reddy
district, and three in Warangal
Warangal
district.[46] Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: List of districts in Telangana, List of mandals in Telangana, and List of revenue divisions in Telangana

Telangana
Telangana
new districts created in 2016

Telangana
Telangana
at the time of formation on June 02 2014

The state is divided into 31 districts which are further divided into 68 revenue divisions and they are in turn divided into 584 mandals.[47][48] The districts in the state are

Adilabad Bhadradri Kothagudem Hyderabad Jagtial Jangaon Jayashankar Bhupalpally Jogulamba Gadwal Kamareddy Karimnagar Khammam Komaram Bheem Asifabad Mahabubabad Mahbubnagar Mancherial Medak Medchal Nagarkurnool Nalgonda Nirmal Nizamabad Peddapalli Rajanna Sircilla Ranga Reddy Sangareddy Siddipet Suryapet Vikarabad Wanaparthy Warangal
Warangal
Rural Warangal
Warangal
Urban Yadadri Bhuvanagiri

There are a total of 12 cities which include 6 municipal corporations and 38 municipalities. Hyderabad
Hyderabad
is the only million-plus populated city in the state. Government and politics[edit] Main articles: Government of Telangana
Government of Telangana
and Politics of Telangana See also: List of Chief Ministers of Telangana

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Telangana
Telangana
is governed by a parliamentary system of representative democracy, a feature the state shares with other Indian states. Universal suffrage
Universal suffrage
is granted to residents. There are three branches of government.

Executive authority is vested in the Council of Ministers headed by the Chief Minister, although the titular head of government is the Governor. The Governor is the head of state appointed by the President of India. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the Governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. The Council of Ministers reports to the Legislative Assembly. The legislature, the Telangana Legislative Assembly
Telangana Legislative Assembly
and the Telangana Legislative Council, consists of elected members and special office bearers such as the Speaker and Deputy Speaker, that are elected by the members. Assembly meetings are presided over by the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker in the Speaker's absence. The Assembly is bicameral with 119 Members of the Legislative Assembly and 40 Member of the Legislative Council. Terms of office run for 5 years unless the Assembly is dissolved prior to the completion of the term. The Legislative Council is a permanent body with one-third members retiring every two years. The judiciary is composed of the High Court of Judicature at Hyderabad and a system of lower courts.

Auxiliary authorities known as panchayats, for which local body elections are regularly held, govern local affairs. The state contributes seats to Lok Sabha. The main players in the regional politics are the Telangana
Telangana
Rashtra Samithi, All India
India
Majlis-e-Ittehadul Muslimeen, Telugu Desam Party, Bharatiya Janata Party
Bharatiya Janata Party
and Indian National Congress. Following the Telangana Legislative Assembly
Telangana Legislative Assembly
Election in 2014, the Telangana
Telangana
Rashtra Samithi under Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao
Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao
was elected to power. Demographics[edit] See also: List of cities in Telangana by population, Demographics of Telangana, and List of districts in Telangana

Religion
Religion
in Telangana[49]

Religion

Percent

Hinduism

85.09%

Islam

12.68%

Christianity

1.3%

Others

0.9%

According to the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme 2009–10, there are 9 backward districts (all except Hyderabad) from Telangana and the rest are from other regions.[50] The religious makeup of Telangana
Telangana
is about 85.1% Hindu, 12.7% Muslim, and 1.3% Christian, and 0.9% others.[51][52] Telugu is the official language of Telangana
Telangana
and Urdu
Urdu
is the second official language of the state.[53][54] About 77% of the population of Telangana
Telangana
speak Telugu, 12% speak Urdu, and 13% speak other languages.[55][56] Before 1948, Urdu
Urdu
was the official language of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
State, and due to a lack of Telugu-language educational institutions, Urdu
Urdu
was the language of the educated elite of Telangana.[57] After 1948, once Hyderabad
Hyderabad
State joined the new Republic of India, Telugu became the language of government, and as Telugu was introduced as the medium of instruction in schools and colleges, the use of Urdu
Urdu
among non Hyderabadi Muslims
Hyderabadi Muslims
decreased.[58] Both Telugu and Urdu
Urdu
are used in services across the state, such as the Telangana
Telangana
Legislature website, with Telugu and Urdu
Urdu
versions of the website available[59], as well as the Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Metro, wherein both languages are used on station names and signs. [60]The Urdu spoken in Telangana
Telangana
is called Hyderabadi Urdu, which in itself is a dialect of the larger Dakhini Urdu
Urdu
dialects of South India. Although the language is orally spoken by most Hyderabadi Muslims, the language in a literary context has long been lost, and standard Urdu
Urdu
is used.[61] According to the 2011 census, Telangana's literacy rate is 66.46%. Male literacy and female literacy are 74.95% and 57.92%, respectively.[1] Hyderabad
Hyderabad
district leading with 80.96% and Mahabubnagar district
Mahabubnagar district
at the bottom with 56.06%.[62] Economy[edit]

Coal Handling Ropeway near Aswapuram, Khammam
Khammam
district

Main article: Economy of Telangana The Economy of Telangana
Economy of Telangana
is mainly driven by agriculture. Two important rivers of India, the Godavari
Godavari
and Krishna, flow through the state, providing irrigation. Farmers in Telangana
Telangana
mainly depend on rain-fed water sources for irrigation. Rice is the major food crop. Other important crops are cotton, sugar cane, mango and tobacco. Recently, crops used for vegetable oil production such as sunflower and peanuts have gained favour. There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari
Godavari
River Basin Irrigation Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the world's highest masonry dam.[63][64] The state has also started to focus on the fields of information technology and biotechnology. Telangana
Telangana
is one of top IT-exporting states of India. There are 68 Special
Special
Economic Zones in the state.[65] Telangana
Telangana
is a mineral-rich state, with coal reserves at Singareni Collieries Company.[66] Agriculture[edit]

Paddy fields in Warangal
Warangal
district

Rice is major food crop and staple food of the state. Other important crops are maize, tobacco, mango, cotton and sugar cane.[67] Agriculture has been the chief source of income for the state's economy. Important rivers of India, the Godavari, Krishna flow through the state, providing irrigation. Apart from major rivers, there are small rivers like Tunga Bhadra, Bima, Dindi, Kinnerasani, Manjeera, Manair, Penganga, Pranahitha, peddavagu and Taliperu.There are many multi-state irrigation projects in development, including Godavari River Basin Irrigation
Irrigation
Projects and Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, the world's highest masonry dam.[68] Agri Export Zones for the following produce are proposed at the places mentioned against them:

Gherkins – Mahabubnagar, Rangareddy, Medak, Karimnagar, Warangal Mangoes
Mangoes
and grapes – Hyderabad, Rangareddy, Medak, Mahabubnagar

Industries[edit]

The HITEC City
HITEC City
is a major IT hub of Hyderabad

See also: Software industry in Telangana Several major manufacturing and services industries are in operation mainly around Hyderabad. Automobiles and auto components industry, spices, mines and minerals, textiles and apparels, pharmaceutical, horticulture, poultry farming are the main industries in Telangana.[69] In terms of services, Hyderabad
Hyderabad
is usually nicknamed as Cyberabad due to its information technology foray and location of major software industries in the city.[70][71] Prior to secession, it contributed 10% to India's and 98% to Andhra Pradesh's exports in IT and ITES sectors last 2013[72] With Hyderabad
Hyderabad
as in the front line of Telangana's aims to promote information technology in India, the city boasts the HITEC City
HITEC City
as its premier hub. The state government is in the process of developing Industrial Parks at different places, for specific groups of industries. The existing parks are Software Park at Hyderabad, HITEC City
HITEC City
for software units, Apparel Park at Gundlapochampalli, Export Promotion Park at Pashamylaram, Biotechnology
Biotechnology
park at Turkapally.[citation needed] Hyderabad
Hyderabad
is also a major site for healthcare related industries including hospitals and pharmaceutical organizations such as Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences, Yashoda Hospitals, LV Prasad Eye Care, Akruti Institute of cosmetic and plastic surgery, Fever Hospital, Durgabai Deshmukh, Continental Hospitals and Apollo Hospitals. Many pharma and pharma-related companies like Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, Shantha Biotechnics
Shantha Biotechnics
and GVK BIO are based out of Hyderabad. In addition, Hyderabad-based healthcare non-profits include the Indian Heart Association, a cardiovascular disease NGO.[73] Tourism[edit] Main article: Tourism in Telangana Telangana State Tourism Development Corporation (TSTDC) is a state government agency which promotes tourism in Telangana.[74] Telangana has a variety of tourist attractions including historical places, monuments, forts, waterfalls, forests and temples. Awards[edit] Telangana
Telangana
state has won CNBC-TV18 Promising State of the Year Award for the year of 2015. The Jury for the India
India
Business Leader Awards (IBLA) has collectively chosen Telangana
Telangana
for the award.[75][76] Infrastructure[edit]

Ramagundam
Ramagundam
Thermal Power station

Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Outer Ring Road

Secunderabad
Secunderabad
railway station

Power[edit] Main article: List of Power Stations in Telangana Hydel and thermal power projects in the state meet the power requirements of the State. A number of new power projects are coming up in the State which is expected to generate additional power capacity in the state. Transport[edit] The state is well connected with other states by means of road, rail and airways. The Telangana State Road Transport Corporation
Telangana State Road Transport Corporation
(TSRTC) is the major public transport corporation that connects all the cities and villages.[77] Mahatma Gandhi Bus Station (M.G.B.S) in Hyderabad
Hyderabad
is one of the largest bus stand in Asia.[78][79] Jubilee Bus Station in Secunderabad
Secunderabad
serves inter city bus services. Asia's biggest Inter City Bus Terminal (ICBT) is being built in Miyapur
Miyapur
(Hyderabad), which would house nearly 200 bus bays and parking for nearly 1,000 buses.[80] Roadways[edit] The state has a total of 16 national highways and accounts for a total length of 2,690.23 km (1,671.63 mi).[81] Railways[edit] See also: South Central Railway
South Central Railway
zone The history of railways in this region dates back to the time of Nizam of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
in 1874.[82] It operates under the auspices of the South Central Railway founded in 1966. The landmark building Rail Nilayam in Secunderabad
Secunderabad
is the Zonal Headquarter office of South Central Railway. Secunderabad
Secunderabad
and Hyderabad
Hyderabad
are the main divisions of South Central Railway that fall in the state.[83] Airports[edit] See also: List of airports in Telangana Rajiv Gandhi International Airport
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport
at Shamshabad
Shamshabad
is an international airport serving the city of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
It is the largest airport in the state and one of the busiest airports in the country. The government has plans to upgrade Warangal
Warangal
Airport, Nizamabad Airport[84] and Ramagundam Airport
Ramagundam Airport
It also plans to construct airports in Karimnagar and Kothagudem.[85] Warangal
Warangal
has a domestic airport in Mamunooru which was established in the year 1930 during Nizam period. All the exports and imports of Azam Jahi Mills, Warangal
Warangal
were done through the Warangal
Warangal
Airport.[citation needed] Culture[edit]

Kakatiya Kala Thoranam

Kuntala Waterfalls in Adilabad

Main article: Culture of Telangana Telangana
Telangana
culture combines cultural customs from Persian traditions, embedded during the rule of the region by the Moghuls, Qutub Shahis and Nizams, with prominent and predominantly south Indian traditions and customs. The State has a rich tradition in classical music, painting and folk arts such as Burra Katha, shadow puppet show, and Perini Shivatandavam, Gusadi Dance, Kolatam.[citation needed] Monuments[edit] Charminar, Golconda
Golconda
Fort, Qutb Shahi Tombs, Chowmahalla Palace, Falaknuma Palace, Birla Mandir
Birla Mandir
and Nagarjun sagar, Bhongir Fort, Warangal
Warangal
Fort, Khammam
Khammam
Fort are some of the monuments in and around Hyderabad. Religious destinations[edit] Hindu
Hindu
worship destinations include Bhadrachalam
Bhadrachalam
Temple, Gnana Saraswati Temple, Yadagirigutta Temple, Ramappa Temple, Vemulawada Raja Rajeswara temple, the Thousand Pillar Temple. There are religious worship centers of different religions in the state. These include Muslim
Muslim
worship destinations such as Makkah Masjid near Charminar, Khairtabad Mosque, Koh-e-qaim, Mian Mishk Masjid, Toli Masjid and Spanish Mosque. Christian
Christian
worship centers include the Diocese of Dornakal of the Church of South India, Bahe Church of South India, and Medak Cathedral. There are also some Buddhist
Buddhist
destinations, such as Nelakondapalli, Dhulikatta, Phanigiri and Kolanpaka.[86] Telugu cinema[edit] Main article: Telugu cinema Telugu cinema, also known by its sobriquet as Tollywood, is a part of Indian cinema
Indian cinema
producing films in the Telugu language, and is centered in the Hyderabad, Telangana
Hyderabad, Telangana
neighbourhood of Film Nagar.[87] In the early 1990s, the Telugu film industry had largely shifted from Chennai to Hyderabad. The Telugu film industry is the second-largest film industry in India
India
next to Bollywood
Bollywood
Film Industry
Industry
and followed by Tamil film industry Kollywood)..[88] In the years 2005, 2006 and 2008 the Telugu film industry produced the largest number of films in India, exceeding the number of films produced in Bollywood.[89][90] The industry holds the Guinness World Record for the largest film production facility in the world.[91] Waterfalls[edit] Kuntala Waterfall
Kuntala Waterfall
(45 metres (148 ft)) located in Kuntala, Adilabad
Adilabad
district, is the highest waterfall in the state.[citation needed] Bogatha Waterfall
Bogatha Waterfall
is waterfall located in Koyaveerapuram G, Wazeedu Mandal, Jayashankar Bhupalpally district, Telangana. It is located 120 kilometres (75 mi) from Bhadrachalam, 140 kilometres (87 mi) away from Warangal
Warangal
and 329 kilometres (204 mi) from Hyderabad. Savatula Gundam Waterfalls are one of the many waterfalls located in Adilabad
Adilabad
district, Telangana, India. They are located 30 km (19 mi) from Asifabad and 350 km (220 mi) from Hyderabad, the state capital. Gowri Gundaala waterfalls at Sabitham village near Ramagundam
Ramagundam
in Peddapalli
Peddapalli
district. Education[edit]

NIT Warangal
Warangal
main gate

Main article: Education in Telangana Telangana
Telangana
has multiple institutes of higher education universities along with numerous primary and secondary schools. The state is home to a number of institutes, which impart higher education. The Department of Higher Education deals with matters relating to education at various levels in the State of Telangana. The Government has established Rajiv Gandhi University of Knowledge Technologies Basar (RGUKT Basar) in 2008 to cater to the educational needs of the gifted rural youth of Telangana.[92] The higher education includes many colleges, universities and research institutes providing professional education in the fields of arts, humanities, science, engineering, law, medicine, business, and veterinary sciences, with undergraduate and post-graduation. Sports[edit]

Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium

See also: List of stadiums in Hyderabad The Hyderabad
Hyderabad
cricket team is represented in the Ranji Trophy
Ranji Trophy
and had won twice. The Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium
Rajiv Gandhi International Cricket Stadium
is the home ground of Hyderabad
Hyderabad
cricket team. It hosts international as well as domestic matches. The Sunrisers Hyderabad, an Indian Premier League franchise, is based in Hyderabad. Notable sports persons from the state are Mohammad Azharuddin, V. V. S. Laxman, Mithali Raj, Pragyan Ojha, Saina Nehwal, P.V. Sindhu, Jwala Gutta, Parupalli Kashyap, Gagan Narang, Mukesh Kumar and Pullela Gopichand (Andhra Pradesh), as well as Sania Mirza
Sania Mirza
who has been appointed as the "brand ambassador" of Telangana. Other stadiums include Gachibowli Athletic Stadium, Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium and G. M. C. Balayogi Athletic Stadium. See also[edit]

Temples of Telangana Index of Telangana-related articles List of state highways in Telangana List of Telangana
Telangana
people Telangana
Telangana
Language Day

References[edit]

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govt to create 21 new districts in Oct". Retrieved 22 August 2016.  ^ " Telangana
Telangana
has 44.64 lakh Muslims – GHMC 21 lakh, Khammam
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Further reading[edit]

"India: A country study". Library of Congress, Federal Research Division. September 1995. Regionalism.  (Direct link.) Virendra Kumar (1975). "Committee on Telangana
Telangana
surpluses, 1969 – Report by Justice Bhargava". Committees and commissions in India, 1947–1973. 9. New Delhi: D. K. Publishing House. p. 175. ISBN 8170221978. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  Sarojini Regani (1986). Nizam – British Relations 1724–1857. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 8170221951. Retrieved 11 December 2013.  Duncan B. Forrester (Spring 1970). "Subregionalism in India: The Case of Telangana". Pacific Affairs. University of British Columbia. 43 (1): 5–21. doi:10.2307/2753831. JSTOR 2753831.  Karen Leonard (May 1971). "The Hyderabad
Hyderabad
Political System and its Participants". The Journal of Asian Studies. Association for Asian Studies. 30 (3): 569–582. doi:10.1017/s0021911800154841. JSTOR 2052461.  "ReInventing Telangana
Telangana
– First Steps- Socio Economic Outlook 2105". Planning Department, Govt of Telangana. Retrieved 24 September 2015. 

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