HOME
ListMoto - Tatar Language


--- Advertisement ---



 Russia

 Tatarstan

Regulated by Institute of Language, Literature and Arts of the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan

Language codes

ISO 639-1 tt

ISO 639-2 tat

ISO 639-3 tat – inclusive code Individual code: sty – Siberian Tatar

Glottolog tata1255[2]

Linguasphere 44-AAB-be

This article contains IPA phonetic symbols. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Unicode
Unicode
characters. For an introductory guide on IPA symbols, see Help:IPA.

The Tatar
Tatar
language (Tatar: татар теле; татарча)[3] is a Turkic language
Turkic language
spoken by Tatars
Tatars
mainly located in modern Tatarstan, Bashkortostan
Bashkortostan
and Nizhny Novgorod
Nizhny Novgorod
Oblast, Siberia. It should not be confused with the Crimean Tatar
Tatar
language, to which it is closely related and with which it is partially mutually intelligible.

Contents

1 Geographic distribution

1.1 Official status 1.2 Dialects of Tatar

1.2.1 Mişär 1.2.2 Middle

1.2.2.1 Gäp

1.2.3 Siberian Tatar

2 Phonology

2.1 Vowels 2.2 Consonants 2.3 Pronunciation of loanwords 2.4 Palatalisation 2.5 Syllable types 2.6 Phonetic replacement

3 Grammar

3.1 Plural 3.2 Declension of pronouns

4 Writing system 5 History 6 Examples 7 See also 8 Notes 9 Further reading 10 External links

10.1 Language studies 10.2 Forums 10.3 History and literature 10.4 Dictionaries 10.5 Dialogues

Geographic distribution[edit] The Tatar
Tatar
language is spoken in Russia
Russia
(about 5.3 million people), Ukraine, China, Finland, Turkey, Uzbekistan, the United States
United States
of America, Romania, Azerbaijan, Israel, Kazakhstan, Georgia, Lithuania, Latvia, and other countries. There are more than 7 million speakers of Tatar
Tatar
in the world. Tatar
Tatar
is also native for several thousand Maris. Mordva's Qaratay group also speak a variant of Kazan
Kazan
Tatar. In the 2010 census, 69% of Russian Tatars
Tatars
who responded to the question about language ability claimed a knowledge of the Tatar language.[4] In Tatarstan, 93% of Tatars
Tatars
and 3.6% of Russians
Russians
did so. In neighbouring Bashkortostan, 67% of Tatars, 27% of Bashkirs, and 1.3% of Russians
Russians
did.[5] Official status[edit]

The word Qazan – قازان is written in Yaña imlâ
Yaña imlâ
in the semblance of a Zilant

Tatar
Tatar
Latin
Latin
(Jaꞑalif) and Arabic scripts, 1927

Cover page of Tatar
Tatar
Yana imla
Yana imla
book, printed with Separated Tatar language in Arabic script
Arabic script
in 1924

Pamphlet in Tatar
Tatar
language in Arabic script
Arabic script
in 1778. Хальфин, Сагит. Азбука татарского языка. — М., 1778. — 52 с.

Bilingual guide in Kazan
Kazan
Metro.

A subway sign in Tatar
Tatar
(top) and Russian

Tatar, along with Russian, is the official language of the Republic of Tatarstan. The official script of Tatar
Tatar
language is based on the Cyrillic
Cyrillic
script with some additional letters. The Republic of Tatarstan
Tatarstan
passed a law in 1999, which came into force in 2001, establishing an official Tatar
Tatar
Latin
Latin
alphabet. A Russian federal law overrode it in 2002, making Cyrillic
Cyrillic
the sole official script in Tatarstan
Tatarstan
since. Unofficially, other scripts are used as well, mostly Latin
Latin
and Arabic. All official sources in Tatarstan
Tatarstan
must use Cyrillic on their websites and in publishing. In other cases, where Tatar
Tatar
has no official status, the use of a specific alphabet depends on the preference of the author. The Tatar
Tatar
language was made a de facto official language in Russia
Russia
in 1917, but only in the Tatar
Tatar
Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. Tatar
Tatar
is also considered to have been the official language in the short-lived Idel-Ural State, briefly formed during the Russian Civil War. However, that Bolshevist Russia
Russia
did not recognize official languages as such; however, there were a number of languages that could be used in trial in some republics. In the Soviet era, Tatar
Tatar
was such a language[citation needed] in Bashkortostan, Mari El
Mari El
and other regions of the Russian SFSR. The usage of Tatar
Tatar
declined from the 1930s onwards. In the 1980s, the study and teaching of Tatar
Tatar
in the public education system was limited to rural schools. However, Tatar-speaking pupils had little chance of entering university because higher education was available in Russian almost exclusively. As of 2001 Tatar
Tatar
was considered a potentially endangered language while Siberian and Crimean Tatar
Tatar
languages received "endangered" and "seriously endangered" statuses, respectively.[6] Higher education in Tatar
Tatar
can only be found in Tatarstan, and is restricted to the humanities. In other regions Tatar
Tatar
is primarily a spoken language and the number of speakers as well as their proficiency tends to decrease. Tatar
Tatar
is popular as a written language only in Tatar-speaking areas where schools with Tatar
Tatar
language lessons are situated. On the other hand, Tatar
Tatar
is the only language in use in rural districts of Tatarstan. Dialects of Tatar[edit] There are three main dialects of Tatar: Western (Mişär or Mishar), Middle (Kazan), and Eastern (Siberian). All of these dialects also have subdivisions. Significant contribution to the study of the Tatar language and its dialects, were made by a scientist Gabdulkhay Akhatov, who is considered to be the founder of the modern Tatar dialectological school. Mişär[edit] Main article: Mishar Tatar
Tatar
dialect In the Western (Mişär) dialect Ç is pronounced [tʃ] (southern or Lambir Mişärs) and as [ts] (northern Mişärs or Nizhgars). C is pronounced [dʒ]. There are no differences between v and w, q and k, g and ğ in the Mişär dialect. (The Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet doesn't have special letters for q, ğ and w, so Mişär speakers have no difficulty reading Tatar
Tatar
written in Cyrillic.) This is the dialect spoken by the Tatar
Tatar
minority of Finland. Middle[edit]

Minzälä

In the Minzälä subdialect of the Middle Dialect z is pronounced [ð], as opposed to other dialects where it is silent.

Slang

Main article: Tatar-Russian code-switching In bilingual cities people often pronounce h as [x], q as [k], ğ as [ɡ], w as [v]. This could be due to Russian influence. Another possibility is that these cities were places where both the western and middle dialects were used. The influence of Russian is significant. Russian words and phrases are used with Tatar
Tatar
grammar or Russian grammar in Tatar
Tatar
texts. Some Russian verbs are taken entirely, un-nativized, and followed with itärgä. Some English words and phrases are also used. Gäp[edit] The Yaña Bistä slang, Yaña Bistä gäbe or simply Gäp was a distinct cryptolect of the Tatar
Tatar
language, spoken in Yaña Bistä (The New Quarter) of Kazan. It has been extinct or near extinct since the 1920s. The vocabulary and grammar of this sociolect differ from those of standard Tatar. The vocabulary includes some words from Central Asian languages. Modern Tatar
Tatar
slang is also sometimes known as gäp. Gäp is phonetically equivalent to the English word gap and is Standard Tatar
Tatar
for a talk. Siberian Tatar[edit] Main article: Siberian Tatar
Tatar
language Siberian Tatars
Tatars
pronounce ç as [ts], c as [j] and sometimes b as [p], d as [t], f as p, j as ch, t as d, z as s and h as k. There are also grammatical differences within the dialect, scattered across Siberia.[7] Many linguists claim the origins of Siberian Tatar
Tatar
dialects are actually independent of Volga–Ural Tatar; these dialects are quite remote both from Standard Tatar
Tatar
and from each other, often preventing mutual comprehension. The claim that this language is part of the modern Tatar
Tatar
language is typically supported by linguists in Kazan
Kazan
and denounced by Siberian Tatars. Over time, some of these dialects were given distinct names and recognized as separate languages (e.g. the Chulym language) after detailed linguistic study. A brief linguistic analysis shows that many of these dialects exhibit features which are quite different from the Volga–Ural Tatar
Tatar
varieties, and should be classified as Turkic varieties belonging to several sub-groups of the Turkic languages, distinct from Kipchak languages
Kipchak languages
to which Volga–Ural Tatar
Tatar
belongs. By studying the phonetic peculiarities of the dialect of the local population of Siberia, Professor Gabdulkhay Akhatov
Gabdulkhay Akhatov
first among the scientists discovered in the Speech of the Siberian Tatars
Tatars
is such a thing as 'clip-clop',[8] which in his opinion, was obtained for the Siberian Tatars
Tatars
of Kipchaks.[9] In his classic fundamental research work "Dialect of the West Siberian Tatars" (1963) Gabdulkhay Akhatov wrote about a territorial resettlement of the Tobol–Irtysh Tatars
Tatars
in Tyumen and Omsk areas. Subjecting a comprehensive integrated analysis of the phonetic system, the lexical composition and grammatical structure, the scientist concluded that the language of the Siberian Tatars
Tatars
is a separate language, it is divided into three dialects and it is one of the most ancient Turkic languages.[8] Phonology[edit] Vowels[edit]

Front Back

Long Short Long Short

High i /iː/ ü /yː/ e /ɪ/ ö /ʏ/ (ı /ɯː/) u /uː/ ë /ɯ̽/ o /ʊ/

Low ä /a,æ/ a /ɑ/

Phonemically, Tatar
Tatar
may be argued to have two vowel heights, high and low. There are two low vowels, front and back, while there are eight high vowels: front and back, round and unround, long and short. However, phonetically, the short high vowels are reduced: they are mid-centralized. They are therefore generally transcribed with mid vowel letters such as e and o: high front i ü, high back ı u, reduced (mid) front e ö, reduced (mid) back ë o, and low ä, a. The high back unrounded vowel ı is only found in Russian loans, though the native diphthong ëy, which only occurs word-finally, has been argued to be phonemically ï.[10] Loaned vowels are considered to be back vowels. Phonetically, the native vowels are approximately high и/i [i], ү/ü [ʉ], у/u [u], reduced е (э)/e [ɘ̆], ө/ө [ɵ̆], ы/ı [ɤ̆~ʌ̆] о/o [ŏ] (ë may be mid-low), and low ә/ə [a~æ], а/а [ɑ]. In polysyllabic words, the front-back distinction is lost in reduced vowels: all become mid-central.[10] Reduced vowels in unstressed position are frequently elided. Low back /ɑ/ is rounded [ɒ] word-initially and after [ɒ], as in bala 'child'. In Russian loans there are also [ɨ], [ɛ], and [ɔ][11] Historically, the Turkic high vowels have become the Tatar
Tatar
reduced series, whereas the Turkic mid vowels have replaced them. Thus Kazakh til 'language' and kün 'day' correspond to Tatar
Tatar
tel and kön, while Kazakh men 'I', qol 'hand', and kök 'sky' are in Tatar
Tatar
min, qul, kük. Consonants[edit]

The consonants of Tatar

Labial Labio- velar Alveolar Post- alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Glottal

Nasals m /m/

n /n/

ñ /ŋ/

Plosives Voiceless p /p/

t /t/

k /k/ q [q] ' /ʔ/

Voiced b /b/

d /d/

g /ɡ/

Fricatives Voiceless f /f/

s /s/ ş /ʃ/ ç /tɕ~ɕ/

x /χ/ h /h/

Voiced v /v/

z /z/ j /ʒ/ c /dʑ~ʑ/

ğ [ʁ~ɢ]

Trill

r /r/

Approximants

w /w/ l /l/

y /j/ ([j~ɪ])

Most of these phonemes are common to or have equivalents in all Turkic languages, but the phonemes /v/, /ts/, /h/ and /ʒ/ are only found in loanwords in Literary Tatar. /f/ is also of foreign origin, but is also found in native words,[vague] e.g. yafraq "leaf".[12] Pronunciation of loanwords[edit] While the consonants [ʒ], [f] and [v] are not native to Tatar, they are well established. However, Tatars
Tatars
usually substitute fricatives for affricates, for example [ɕ] for [tʃ], [ʒ] or [ʑ] for [dʒ], and [s] for [ts]. Nevertheless, literary traditions recommend the pronunciation of affricates in loanwords. [ʔ] (hamza) is a sound found in Arabic loanwords and Islamic prayers. It is usually pronounced [e] in loanwords. Palatalisation[edit] Palatalisation is not common in Tatar. As a result, speakers have no problem using the Arabic and Jaꞑalif scripts, neither of which has an accepted method for indicating palatalisation. In general, Russian words with palatalisation have entered into the speech of bilingual Tatars
Tatars
since the 1930s. When writing in the Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet, Russian words are spelled as they are in Russian. In today's Latin
Latin
orthography, palatalisation is sometimes represented by an acute diacritic under the vowel. Some Tatars
Tatars
speak Russian without palatalisation, which is known as a Tatar
Tatar
accent. Syllable types[edit]

V (ı-lıs, u-ra, ö-rä) VC (at-law, el-geç, ir-kä) CV (qa-la, ki-ä, su-la) CVC (bar-sa, sız-law, köç-le, qoş-çıq) VCC (ant-lar, äyt-te, ilt-kän) CVCC (tört-te, qart-lar, 'qayt-qan)

Stress is on the final syllable. Phonetic replacement[edit]

Tatar
Tatar
sign on a madrasah in Nizhny Novgorod, written in both Arabic and Cyrilic Tatar
Tatar
scripts

Tatar
Tatar
phonotactics dictate many pronunciation changes. Unrounded vowels may be pronounced as rounded after o or ö: qorı /qoro/ borın /boron/ közge /közgö/ sorı /soro/) Nasals are assimilated to following stops: unber /umber/ mengeç /meñgeç/ Voicing may also undergo assimilation: küzsez /küssez/ Unstressed vowels may be syncopated or reduced: urını /urnı/ kilene /kilne/ bezne /bĕzne/ kerdem /kĕrdem/ qırğıç /qĭrğıç/ Vowels may also be elided: qara urman /qar'urman/ kilä ide /kilä'yde/ turı uram /tur'uram/ bula almím /bul'almím/ In consonant clusters longer than two phones, ı or e (whichever is dictated by vowel harmony) is inserted into speech as an epenthetic vowel. tekst → /tekest/ bank → /banık/ (not /bañk/) Final devoicing is also frequent: tabíb (doctor) → [tabíp] Grammar[edit] Like other Turkic languages, Tatar
Tatar
is an agglutinative language. Grammatical case:

Nominative - Accusative: -ны/-не, -н Possessive: -ның/-нең Dative: -га/-гә, -ка/-кә, -а/-ә, -на/-нә Locative: -да/-дә, -та/-тә, -нда/-ндә Ablative: -дан/-дән, -тан/-тән, -нан/-нән, -ннан/-ннән

Plural:

Nominative: -лар/-ләр, -нар/-нәр Accusative: -ларны Possessive: -ларның Dative: -ларга Locative: -ларда Ablative: -лардан

Plural[edit]

After vowels, consonants, hard: -lar (bala-lar, abí-lar, kitap-lar, qaz-lar, malay-lar, qar-lar, ağaç-lar) After vowels, consonants, soft: -lär (äni-lär, sölge-lär, däftär-lär, kibet-lär, süz-lär, bäbkä-lär, mäktäp-lär, xäref-lär) After nasals, hard: -nar (uram-nar, urman-nar, tolım-nar, moñ-nar, tañ-nar, şalqan-nar) After nasals, soft: -när (ülän-när, keläm-när, çräm-när, iñ-när, ciñ-när, isem-när)

Declension of pronouns[edit]

Personal pronouns

Case Singular Plural

Nominative мин min син sin ул ul без bez сез sez алар alar

Genitive минем minem синең sineñ аның anıñ безнең bezneñ сезнең sezneñ аларның alarnıñ

Dative миңа miña сиңа siña аңа aña безгә bezgä сезгә sezgä аларга alarğa

Accusative мине mine сине sine аны anı безне bezne сезне sezne аларны alarnı

Locative миндә mindä синдә sindä анда anda бездә bezdä сездә sezdä аларда alarda

Ablative миннән minnän синнән sinnän аннан annan бездән bezdän сездән sezdän алардан alardan

Demonstrative pronouns

Case Singular Plural

Case "This" "That" "These" "Those"

Nominative бу bu шул şul болар bolar шулар şular

Genitive моның monıñ шуның şunıñ боларның bolarnıñ шуларның şularnıñ

Dative моңа moña шуңа şuña боларга bolarğa шуларга şularğa

Accusative моны monı шуны şunı боларны bolarnı шуларны şularnı

Locative монда monda шунда şunda боларда bolarda шуларда şularda

Ablative моннан monnan шуннан şunnan болардан bolardan шулардан şulardan

Interrogative pronouns

Case Who? What?

Nominative кем kem нәрсә närsä

Genitive кемнең kemneñ нәрсәнең närsäneñ

Dative кемгә kemgä нәрсәгә närsägä

Accusative кемне kemne нәрсәне närsäne

Locative кемдә kemdä нәрсәдә närsädä

Ablative кемнән kemnän нәрсәдән närsädän

[13]

This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (January 2011)

Writing system[edit] Main articles: Tatar alphabet and Jaꞑalif

Some guides in Kazan
Kazan
are in Latin
Latin
script, especially in fashion boutiques

Tatar
Tatar
has been written in a number of different alphabets. Writing was adopted from the Bolgar language, which used the Orkhon script, before the 920s. Later, the Arabic script
Arabic script
was also used, as well as Latin
Latin
and Cyrillic. Before 1928, Tatar
Tatar
was written with an Arabic alphabet ( İske imlâ
İske imlâ
to 1920; Yaña imlâ
Yaña imlâ
1920–1928). In the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
after 1928, Tatar
Tatar
was written with a Latin alphabet called Jaꞑalif. In 1939, in Tatarstan
Tatarstan
(a republic of Russia
Russia
where Tatar
Tatar
is most commonly used) and all other parts of the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
a Cyrillic script was developed and is still used to write Tatar. It is also used in Kazakhstan. The Republic of Tatarstan
Tatarstan
passed a law in 1999 that came into force in 2001 establishing an official Tatar
Tatar
Latin
Latin
alphabet. A Russian federal law overrode it in 2002, making Cyrillic
Cyrillic
the sole official script in Tatarstan
Tatarstan
since. In 2004, an attempt to introduce a Latin-based alphabet for Tatar
Tatar
was further abandoned when the Constitutional Court ruled that the federal law of the 15th of November 2002 mandating the use of Cyrillic
Cyrillic
for the state languages of the republics of the Russian Federation[14] does not contradict the Russian constitution.[15] In accordance with this Constitutional Court ruling, on 28 December 2004, the Tatar
Tatar
Supreme Court overturned the Tatarstani law that made the Latin
Latin
alphabet official.[16] In China, Tatars
Tatars
still use the Arabic script.

Tatar
Tatar
Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet (letter order adopted in 1997):

А а Ә ә Б б В в Г г Д д Е е Ё ё

Ж ж Җ җ З з И и Й й К к Л л М м

Н н Ң ң О о Ө ө П п Р р С с Т т

У у Ү ү Ф ф Х х Һ һ Ц ц Ч ч Ш ш

Щ щ Ъ ъ Ы ы Ь ь Э э Ю ю Я я

1999 Tatar
Tatar
Latin
Latin
alphabet, made official by a law adopted by Tatarstani authorities but annulled by the Tatar
Tatar
Supreme Court in 2004:[16]

A a Ə ə B b C c Ç ç D d E e F f

G g Ğ ğ H h I ı İ i J j K k Q q

L l M m N n Ꞑ ꞑ O o Ɵ ɵ P p R r

S s Ş ş T t U u Ü ü V v W w X x

Y y Z z ’

Tatar
Tatar
Arabic alphabet (Historical):

آ ا ب پ ت ث ج چ

ح خ د ذ ر ز ژ س

ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف

ق ك گ نك ل م ن ه

و ۇ ڤ ی ئ

History[edit] Main article: Turkic languages
Turkic languages
§  Vocabulary comparison Tatar's ancestors are the extinct Bulgar and Kipchak languages. Crimean Tatar, although another Kipchak language, is more akin to standard Turkish due to influence from it. The literary Tatar
Tatar
language is based on the Middle Tatar
Tatar
dialect and on the Old Tatar language (İske Tatar
Tatar
Tele). Both are members of the Kipchak group of Turkic languages, although they also partly derive from the ancient Volga Bulgar language. Most of the Uralic languages
Uralic languages
in the Volga River
Volga River
area have strongly influenced the Tatar
Tatar
language,[17] as have the Arabic, Persian and Russian languages.[18] Examples[edit]

әйе - äye – yes юк - yuq – no исәнме(сез)/саумы(сыз) - isänme(sez)/sawmı(sız) – hello сәлам - sälam – hi сау бул(ыгыз)/хуш(ыгыз) - saw bul(ığız)/xuş(ığız) – bye bye зинһар өчен - zinhar öçen – please рәхмәт - räxmät – thank you гәфу ит(егез) - ğafu it(egez) – excuse me мин - min – I син - sin – you (sg.) сез - sez – you (pl.) ул - ul – he / she / it без - bez – we алар - alar – they милләт - millät – nation Инглизчә - İnglizçä – English

See also[edit]

Tatar
Tatar
alphabet Tatar
Tatar
name Tatars

Notes[edit]

^ Tatar
Tatar
at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) Siberian Tatar
Tatar
at Ethnologue
Ethnologue
(18th ed., 2015) ^ Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Tatar". Glottolog
Glottolog
3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.  ^ [File:Хальфин_Азбука_татарского_языка_1778.pdf Хальфин, Сагит. Азбука татарского языка. — М., 1778. — 52 с.] ^ Russian Census 2010. Владение языками населением (in Russian) ^ Russian Census 2010. Владение языками населением наиболее многочисленных национальностей по субъектам Российской Федерации (in Russian) ^ Wurm, S; Unesco. (2001). Atlas of the world's languages in danger of disappearing. Paris: Unesco Pub.,. ISBN 978-92-3-103798-6.  ^ Information about Siberian Tatar ^ a b Gabdulkhay Akhatov. The Dialect of the West Siberian Tatars. Ufa, 1963, 195 p. (in Russian) ^ Gabdulkhay Akhatov. Dialects of the West Siberian Tatars. Doctoral Dissertation. Tashkent, 1965. (in Russian) ^ a b Harrison and Kaun, "Vowels and Vowel Harmony in Namangan Tatar", in Aronson, Holisky, & Tuite (2003) Current Trends in Caucasian, East European and Inner Asian Linguistics ^ Árpád Berta, " Tatar
Tatar
and Bashkir". In Johanson & Csató (1998) The Turkic languages ^ Árpád Berta, " Tatar
Tatar
and Bashkir," The Turkic Languages (1998, Routledge), pg. 283 ^ Pronoun declensions based on or extrapolated from information contained on Грамматика татарского языка ^ Spolsky, Bernard (2004). Language Policy. Cambridge University Press. p. 2. ISBN 978-0-521-01175-4.  ^ " Russia
Russia
court sticks to letter law". BBC News. 16 November 2004. Retrieved 20 February 2012.  ^ a b "The Tatar
Tatar
language will continue to be written through the Cyrillic
Cyrillic
alphabet". U.S. English Foundation. February 2005. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 20 February 2012.  ^ Tatar
Tatar
language – Princeton University ^ (in Russian) Татарский язык в Интернете: информация о методах и средствах обучения

Further reading[edit]

Akhatov G. (1982). "Phraseological Dictionary of the Tatar
Tatar
Language" (monograph). Kazan. (in Russian) ( Tatar
Tatar
language) Akhatov G. (1984). " Tatar
Tatar
Dialectology" ( Textbook
Textbook
for university students). Kazan. (in Russian) ( Tatar
Tatar
language) Bukharaev, R., & Matthews, D. J. (2000). Historical anthology of Kazan
Kazan
Tatar
Tatar
verse: voices of eternity. Richmond, Surrey: Curzon. ISBN 0-7007-1077-9 PEN (Organization). (1998). Tatar
Tatar
literature today. Kazan: Magarif Publishers. Poppe, N. N. (1963). Tatar
Tatar
manual: descriptive grammar and texts with a Tatar-English glossary. Bloomington: Indiana University.

External links[edit]

Tatar
Tatar
edition of, the free encyclopedia

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Tatar
Tatar
phrasebook.

Tatar
Tatar
language at Curlie (based on DMOZ) (in English) Tatar
Tatar
language at Curlie (based on DMOZ) (in Tatar), (in Russian) Tatar
Tatar
dictionaries at Curlie (based on DMOZ) (in English) Web directory at Curlie (based on DMOZ) (in Tatar) website of the National Library of the Republic of Tatarstan Corpus of Written Tatar
Tatar
(website of the Corpus of Written Tatar)

Language studies[edit]

Information about Tatar
Tatar
writing Textbook
Textbook
on morphology of Tatar
Tatar
language[permanent dead link] (in Russian) Course of Tatar
Tatar
language[permanent dead link] (in Russian) tatar.org.ru Tatar.com.ru: Tatar
Tatar
language course (in Russian)

Forums[edit]

Tatar
Tatar
mailing list (in English) #tatar connect on the freenode network

History and literature[edit]

Tatar
Tatar
poetry (in Tatar) Tatar
Tatar
myths, including the story of Şüräle (in Russian) Tatar
Tatar
library Tatar
Tatar
Electronic Library (in Russian) (in Tatar) Links to other Tatar
Tatar
language resources

Dictionaries[edit]

Russian- Tatar
Tatar
On-Line Dictionary (a) Russian- Tatar
Tatar
On-Line Dictionary (b) Russian- Tatar
Tatar
On-Line Dictionary (c) Russian- Tatar
Tatar
On-Line Dictionary (d) Turkish- Tatar
Tatar
On-Line Dictionary

Dialogues[edit]

Tatarsko-russkīe razgovory (1850) ( Tatar
Tatar
Russian dialogues)

v t e

State languages of Russia

Federal language

Russian

State languages of federal subjects

Abaza Adyghe Agul Altai Avar Azerbaijani Bashkir Buryat Chechen Chuvash Crimean Tatar Dargwa Erzya Ingush Kabardian Kalmyk Karachay-Balkar Khakas Komi Kumyk Lak Lezgian Mari

Hill Meadow

Moksha Nogai Ossetic Rutul Sakha Tabasaran Tat Tatar Tsakhur Tuvan Ukrainian Udmurt

Languages with official status

Chukchi Dolgan Even Evenki Finnish Karelian Kazakh Khanty Komi-Permyak Mansi Nenets Selkup Veps Yukaghir

Scripts

Cyrillic Cyrillic
Cyrillic
Braille

v t e

Languages of China

Official

Standard Mandarin

Regional

Provinces / SARs

CantoneseHK/MC EnglishHK MongolianNM PortugueseMC TibetanXZ UyghurXJ ZhuangGX

Prefecture

Hmong Dong Bouyei Tujia Korean Qiang Yi Kyrgyz Kazakh Tai Nüa Tai Lü Zaiwa Lisu Bai Hani Zhuang

Counties/Banners

numerous

Indigenous

Sino-Tibetan languages

Lolo- Burmese

Mondzish

Kathu Maang Manga Mango Maza Mondzi Muangphe

Burmish

Achang Xiandao Pela Lashi Chashan Lhao Vo Zaiwa

Loloish

Hanoish

Akeu Akha Amu Angluo Asuo Baihong Bisu Budu Bukong Cosao Duoni Duota Enu Habei Hani Honi Jino Kabie Kaduo Lami Laomian Laopin Mpi Muda Nuobi Nuomei Phana’ Piyo Qidi Sadu Sangkong Suobi Tsukong Woni Yiche

Lisoish

Eka Hlersu Kua-nsi Kuamasi Laizisi Lalo Lamu Lavu Lawu Limi Lipo Lisu Lolopo Mangdi Micha Mili Sonaga Toloza Xuzhang Yangliu Zibusi

Nisoish

Alingpo Alugu Aluo Axi Azha Azhe Bokha Gepo Khlula Lope Moji Muji Muzi Nasu Nisu Nuosu Phala Phola Phowa Phukha Phuma Phupa Phupha Phuza Samei Sani Thopho Zokhuo

Other

Gokhy Katso Kucong Lahu Naruo Namuyi Naxi Nusu Samu Sanie Zauzou

Qiangic

Baima Choyo Ersu Guiqiong Horpa Japhug Khroskyabs Laze Lizu Na Muya Namuyi Naxi Pumi Northern Qiang Southern Qiang Shixing Situ Tshobdun Zbu Zhaba

Tibetic

Amdo Baima Basum Central Choni Dao Dongwang Drugchu Groma Gserpa Khalong Khams Ladakhi Tseku Zhongu Zitsadegu

Other

Bai Caijia Derung Jingpho Longjia Nung Tujia Waxianghua

Other languages

Austroasiatic

Bit Blang Bolyu Bugan Bumang Hu Kuan Mang Man Met Muak Sa-aak Palaung Riang U Va Wa

Hmong-Mien

Hmongic

A-Hmao Bu-Nao Gejia Guiyang Hm Nai Hmong Hmu Huishui Kiong Nai Luobohe Mashan Pa-Hng Pa Na Pingtang Qo Xiong Raojia She Small Flowery Xixiu Younuo

Mienic

Biao Min Dzao Min Iu Mien Kim Mun

Mongolic

Bonan Buryat Daur Eastern Yugur Kangjia Khamnigan Monguor Oirat Ordos Santa Torgut

Tai-Kadai

Zhuang

Bouyei Dai Min Ningming Nong Tai Dam Tai Dón Tai Hongjin Tai Lü Tai Nüa Tai Ya Yang Yei

Other

Ai-Cham Biao Buyang Cao Miao Chadong Cun Gelao Hlai Jiamao Kam Lakkja Mak Maonan Mulam Naxi Yao Ong Be Paha Qabiao Sui Then

Tungusic

Evenki Manchu Nanai Oroqen Xibe

Turkic

Äynu Fuyu Kyrgyz Ili Turki Lop Salar Western Yugur

Other

Sarikoli(Indo-European) Tsat(Austronesian) Languages with Taiwan Origin(Austronesian)

Minority

Kazakh Korean Kyrgyz Russian Tatar Tuvan Uzbek Wakhi

Varieties of Chinese

Gan Hakka Huizhou Jin Min

varieties

Pinghua Wu Xiang Yue

Creole/Mixed

E Kinh (Việt) Hezhou Lingling Macanese Maojia Qoqmončaq Sanqiao Tangwang Wutun

Extinct

Ba-Shu Jie Khitan Ruan-ruan Saka Tangut Tocharian Tuoba Tuyuhun Xianbei Zhang-Zhung

Sign

Chinese Sign

Hong Kong SignHK/MC

Tibetan SignXZ

GX = Guangxi HK = Hong Kong MC = Macau NM = Inner Mongolia XJ = Xinjiang XZ = Tibet

v t e

Turkic languages

Italics indicate extinct languages

Proto-language

Proto-Altaic Proto-Turkic

Common Turkic

Arghu

Khalaj

Karluk

Äynu1 Khorezmian Turki1 Chagatai Ili Turki Lop Uyghur Uzbek

Kipchak

Ponto-Caspian

Cuman Crimean Tatar Karachay-Balkar Karaim Kipchak Krymchak Kumyk Urum2

Aralo-Caspian

Siberian Tatar Fergana Kipchak Karakalpak Kazakh Kyrgyz Nogai

Uralo-Caspian

Bashkir Old Tatar Tatar

Oghuz

Afshar Azerbaijani

Salchuq

Crimean Turkish Gagauz Balkan Gagauz Turkish Khorasani Turkic Old Anatolian Turkish Ottoman Turkish Pecheneg2 Qashqai Salar (Anatolian) Turkish Turkmen Urum2

Siberian

Altai Chulym Dolgan Fuyu Kyrgyz Khakas Old Turkic Old Uyghur Shor Tofa Tuvan

Dukhan

Yakut (Sakha) Western Yugur2

Oghur

Bulgar Chuvash Khazar

1 Mixed language. 2 Classification disputed.

Authority control

GND: 41203

.