HOME
ListMoto - Tajikistan


--- Advertisement ---



(i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i) (i)

Coordinates: 39°N 71°E / 39°N 71°E / 39; 71

Republic of Tajikistan

Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон (Tajik)

Flag

Emblem

Anthem: Суруди Миллӣ National Anthem

Location of  Tajikistan  (green)

Capital and largest city Dushanbe 38°33′N 68°48′E / 38.550°N 68.800°E / 38.550; 68.800

Official languages Tajik

Inter-ethnic language Russian

Ethnic groups (2010)

84.3% Tajik 13.8% Uzbek 0.8% Kyrgyz 1.1% others

[1]

Demonym Tajikistani[2]

Government Unitary dominant-party presidential republic

• President

Emomali Rahmon

• Prime Minister

Kokhir Rasulzoda

Legislature Supreme Assembly

• Upper house

National Assembly

• Lower house

Assembly of Representatives

Independence from the Soviet Union

• Declared

9 September 1991

• CIS full membership

21 December 1991

• Recognized

26 December 1991

• Admitted to the United Nations

2 March 1992

• Current constitution

6 November 1994

Area

• Total

143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi) (94th)

• Water (%)

1.8

Population

• 2016 estimate

8,734,951[3] (97th)

• 2010 census

7,564,500

• Density

48.6/km2 (125.9/sq mi) (155th)

GDP (PPP) 2017 estimate

• Total

$27.802 billion[4] (128th)

• Per capita

$3,146[4]

GDP (nominal) 2017 estimate

• Total

$7.242 billion[4] (136th)

• Per capita

$819[4]

Gini (2009) 30.8 medium

HDI (2015)  0.627[5] medium · 129th

Currency Somoni
Somoni
(TJS)

Time zone TJT (UTC+5)

Drives on the right

Calling code +992

ISO 3166 code TJ

Internet TLD .tj

Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(/tɑːˈdʒiːkɪstɑːn/ ( listen), /təˈdʒiːkɪstæn/, or /tæˈdʒiːkiːstæn/; Tajik: Тоҷикистон [tɔːd͡ʒikɪsˈtɔːn]), officially the Republic of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(Tajik: Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Çumhuriji Toçikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia
Central Asia
with an estimated population of 8.7 million people as of 2016, and an area of 143,100 km2 (55,300 sq mi). It is bordered by Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to the south, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
to the west, Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
to the north, and China
China
to the east. Traditional homelands of Tajik people
Tajik people
included present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Uzbekistan. The territory that now constitutes Tajikistan
Tajikistan
was previously home to several ancient cultures, including the city of Sarazm[6] of the Neolithic
Neolithic
and the Bronze Age, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including the Oxus civilisation, Andronovo culture, Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism
Manichaeism
and Islam. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Achaemenid Empire, Sasanian Empire, Hephthalite Empire, Samanid
Samanid
Empire, Mongol Empire, Timurid dynasty, the Russian Empire, and subsequently the Soviet Union, upon whose dissolution in 1991 Tajikistan
Tajikistan
became an independent nation. A civil war was fought almost immediately after independence, lasting from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. Like all other Central Asian neighbouring states, the country, led by President Emomali Rahmon
Emomali Rahmon
since 1994, has been criticised for authoritarian leadership, lack of religious freedom, corruption and widespread violations of human rights by a number of non-governmental organizations. Tajikistan
Tajikistan
is a presidential republic consisting of four provinces. Most of Tajikistan's 8.7 million people belong to the Tajik ethnic group, who speak Tajik (a dialect of Persian). Many Tajiks
Tajiks
also speak Russian as their second language. While the state is constitutionally secular, Islam
Islam
is practiced by 98% of the population. The Gorno-Badakhshan
Gorno-Badakhshan
Oblast of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
despite its sparse population is home to incredible linguistic diversity where Rushani, Shughni, Ishkashimi, Wakhi and Tajik number among the languages spoken. Mountains cover more than 90% of the country. It has a transition economy that is highly dependent on remittances, aluminium and cotton production. Tajikistan
Tajikistan
is a member of the United Nations, CIS, OSCE, OIC, ECO, SCO and CSTO as well as an NATO
NATO
PfP partner.

Contents

1 Name 2 History

2.1 Early history 2.2 Russian Tajikistan 2.3 Soviet Tajikistan 2.4 Independence

3 Politics 4 Geography

4.1 Administrative divisions 4.2 Lakes

5 Economy 6 Transportation

6.1 Rail 6.2 Air 6.3 Roads

7 Demographics

7.1 Languages 7.2 Education 7.3 Employment 7.4 Culture 7.5 Religion

8 Health 9 Education 10 Sport 11 Notable individuals 12 See also 13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

Name[edit]

Main article: Tajik people Tajikistan
Tajikistan
means the "Land of the Tajiks". The suffix "-stan" is Persian for "place of"[7] or "country"[8] and Tajik is, most likely, the name of a pre-Islamic (before the seventh century A.D.) tribe.[9] According to the Library of Congress's 1997 Country Study of Tajikistan, it is difficult to definitively state the origins of the word "Tajik" because the term is "embroiled in twentieth-century political disputes about whether Turkic or Iranian peoples were the original inhabitants of Central Asia."[9] Tajikistan
Tajikistan
appeared as Tadjikistan or Tadzhikistan in English prior to 1991. This is due to a transliteration from the Russian: "Таджикистан". In Russian, there is no single letter j to represent the phoneme /ʤ/ and дж, or dzh, is used. Tadzhikistan is the most common alternate spelling and is widely used in English literature derived from Russian sources.[10] "Tadjikistan" is the spelling in French and can occasionally be found in English language texts. The way of writing Tajikistan
Tajikistan
in the Perso-Arabic script is: تاجیکستان. History[edit] Main article: History of Tajikistan Early history[edit] See also: Samanid
Samanid
Empire Cultures in the region have been dated back to at least the 4th millennium BCE, including the Bronze Age
Bronze Age
Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex, the Andronovo cultures and the pro-urban site of Sarazm, a UNESCO World Heritage site.[11] The earliest recorded history of the region dates back to about 500 BCE when much, if not all, of modern Tajikistan
Tajikistan
was part of the Achaemenid Empire.[9] Some authors have also suggested that in the 7th and 6th century BCE parts of modern Tajikistan, including territories in the Zeravshan valley, formed part of Kambojas
Kambojas
before it became part of the Achaemenid Empire.[12] After the region's conquest by Alexander the Great it became part of the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, a successor state of Alexander's empire. Northern Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(the cities of Khujand
Khujand
and Panjakent) was part of Sogdia, a collection of city-states which was overrun by Scythians
Scythians
and Yuezhi
Yuezhi
nomadic tribes around 150 BCE. The Silk Road
Silk Road
passed through the region and following the expedition of Chinese explorer Zhang Qian
Zhang Qian
during the reign of Wudi (141–87 BCE) commercial relations between Han China
China
and Sogdiana flourished.[13][14] Sogdians played a major role in facilitating trade and also worked in other capacities, as farmers, carpetweavers, glassmakers, and woodcarvers.[15] The Kushan Empire, a collection of Yuezhi
Yuezhi
tribes, took control of the region in the first century CE and ruled until the 4th century CE during which time Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and Manichaeism
Manichaeism
were all practised in the region.[16] Later the Hephthalite Empire, a collection of nomadic tribes, moved into the region and Arabs brought Islam
Islam
in the early eighth century.[16] Central Asia
Central Asia
continued in its role as a commercial crossroads, linking China, the steppes to the north, and the Islamic heartland.

The Samanid
Samanid
ruler Mansur I
Mansur I
(961–976)

Flag of Tajik SSR

19th-century painting of lake Zorkul
Zorkul
and a local Tajik inhabitant

It was temporarily under the control of the Tibetan empire
Tibetan empire
and Chinese from 650–680 and then under the control of the Umayyads in 710. The Samanid
Samanid
Empire, 819 to 999, restored Persian control of the region and enlarged the cities of Samarkand
Samarkand
and Bukhara
Bukhara
(both cities are today part of Uzbekistan) which became the cultural centres of Iran
Iran
and the region was known as Khorasan. The Kara-Khanid Khanate
Kara-Khanid Khanate
conquered Transoxania
Transoxania
(which corresponds approximately with modern-day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, southern Kyrgyzstan
Kyrgyzstan
and southwest Kazakhstan) and ruled between 999–1211.[17][18] Their arrival in Transoxania signalled a definitive shift from Iranian to Turkic predominance in Central Asia,[19] but gradually the Kara-khanids became assimilated into the Perso- Arab
Arab
Muslim
Muslim
culture of the region.[20] During Genghis Khan's invasion of Khwarezmia in the early 13th century the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
took control over nearly all of Central Asia. In less than a century the Mongol Empire
Mongol Empire
broke up and modern Tajikistan came under the rule of the Chagatai Khanate. Tamerlane
Tamerlane
created the Timurid dynasty and took control of the region in the 14th century. Modern Tajikistan
Tajikistan
fell under the rule of the Khanate of Bukhara
Bukhara
during the 16th century and with the empire's collapse in the 18th century it came under the rule of both the Emirate of Bukhara
Bukhara
and Khanate of Kokand. The Emirate of Bukhara
Bukhara
remained intact until the 20th century but during the 19th century, for the second time in world history, a European power (the Russian Empire) began to conquer parts of the region. Russian Tajikistan[edit] See also: The Great Game, Russian conquest of Turkestan, and Russian Turkestan Russian Imperialism
Imperialism
led to the Russian Empire's conquest of Central Asia
Asia
during the late 19th century's Imperial Era. Between 1864 and 1885, Russia
Russia
gradually took control of the entire territory of Russian Turkestan, the Tajikistan
Tajikistan
portion of which had been controlled by the Emirate of Bukhara
Bukhara
and Khanate of Kokand. Russia
Russia
was interested in gaining access to a supply of cotton and in the 1870s attempted to switch cultivation in the region from grain to cotton (a strategy later copied and expanded by the Soviets).[citation needed] By 1885 Tajikistan's territory was either ruled by the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
or its vassal state, the Emirate of Bukhara, nevertheless Tajiks
Tajiks
felt little Russian influence.[citation needed] During the late 19th Century the Jadidists established themselves as an Islamic social movement throughout the region. Although the Jadidists were pro-modernization and not necessarily anti-Russian, the Russians
Russians
viewed the movement as a threat.[citation needed] Russian troops were required to restore order during uprisings against the Khanate of Kokand
Khanate of Kokand
between 1910 and 1913. Further violence occurred in July 1916 when demonstrators attacked Russian soldiers in Khujand
Khujand
over the threat of forced conscription during World War I. Despite Russian troops quickly bringing Khujand
Khujand
back under control, clashes continued throughout the year in various locations in Tajikistan.[citation needed] Soviet Tajikistan[edit] Main articles: Basmachi movement
Basmachi movement
and Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

Soviet negotiations with basmachi, 1921

After the Russian Revolution
Russian Revolution
of 1917 guerrillas throughout Central Asia, known as basmachi, waged a war against Bolshevik
Bolshevik
armies in a futile attempt to maintain independence. The Bolsheviks prevailed after a four-year war, in which mosques and villages were burned down and the population heavily suppressed. Soviet authorities started a campaign of secularisation. Practising Islam, Judaism, and Christianity
Christianity
was discouraged and repressed, and many mosques, churches, and synagogues were closed.[21] As a consequence of the conflict and Soviet agriculture policies, Central Asia, Tajikistan included, suffered a famine that claimed many lives.[22] In 1924, the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic
was created as a part of Uzbekistan, but in 1929 the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik SSR) was made a separate constituent republic; however, the predominantly ethnic Tajik cities of Samarkand
Samarkand
and Bukhara
Bukhara
remained in the Uzbek SSR. Between 1927 and 1934, collectivisation of agriculture and a rapid expansion of cotton production took place, especially in the southern region.[23] Soviet collectivisation policy brought violence against peasants and forced resettlement occurred throughout Tajikistan. Consequently, some peasants fought collectivisation and revived the Basmachi
Basmachi
movement. Some small scale industrial development also occurred during this time along with the expansion of irrigation infrastructure.[23] Two rounds of Soviet purges directed by Moscow (1927–1934 and 1937–1938) resulted in the expulsion of nearly 10,000 people, from all levels of the Communist Party of Tajikistan.[24] Ethnic Russians were sent in to replace those expelled and subsequently Russians dominated party positions at all levels, including the top position of first secretary.[24] Between 1926 and 1959 the proportion of Russians among Tajikistan's population grew from less than 1% to 13%.[25] Bobojon Ghafurov, Tajikistan's First Secretary of the Communist Party of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
from 1946–1956 was the only Tajikistani politician of significance outside of the country during the Soviet Era.[26] He was followed in office by Tursun Uljabayev (1956–61), Jabbor Rasulov (1961–1982), and Rahmon Nabiyev
Rahmon Nabiyev
(1982–1985, 1991–1992). Tajiks
Tajiks
began to be conscripted into the Soviet Army in 1939 and during World War II
World War II
around 260,000 Tajik citizens fought against Germany, Finland and Japan. Between 60,000 (4%)[27] and 120,000 (8%)[28] of Tajikistan's 1,530,000 citizens were killed during World War II.[29] Following the war and Stalin's reign attempts were made to further expand the agriculture and industry of Tajikistan.[26] During 1957–58 Nikita Khrushchev's Virgin Lands Campaign
Virgin Lands Campaign
focused attention on Tajikistan, where living conditions, education and industry lagged behind the other Soviet Republics.[26] In the 1980s, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
had the lowest household saving rate in the USSR,[30] the lowest percentage of households in the two top per capita income groups,[31] and the lowest rate of university graduates per 1000 people.[32] By the late 1980s Tajik nationalists were calling for increased rights. Real disturbances did not occur within the republic until 1990. The following year, the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
collapsed, and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
declared its independence.

Tajik men and women rally on Ozodi square in Dushanbe
Dushanbe
shortly after independence, 1992.

Independence[edit] See also: Tajikistani Civil War

Spetsnaz
Spetsnaz
soldiers during the civil war, 1992

The nation almost immediately fell into civil war that involved various factions fighting one another; these factions were often distinguished by clan loyalties.[33] More than 500,000 residents fled during this time because of persecution, increased poverty and better economic opportunities in the West or in other former Soviet republics.[34] Emomali Rahmon
Emomali Rahmon
came to power in 1992, defeating former prime minister Abdumalik Abdullajanov in a November presidential election with 58% of the vote.[35] The elections took place shortly after the end of the war, and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
was in a state of complete devastation. The estimated dead numbered over 100,000. Around 1.2 million people were refugees inside and outside of the country.[33] In 1997, a ceasefire was reached between Rahmon and opposition parties under the guidance of Gerd D. Merrem, Special
Special
Representative to the Secretary General, a result widely praised as a successful United Nations peacekeeping initiative. The ceasefire guaranteed 30% of ministerial positions would go to the opposition.[36] Elections were held in 1999, though they were criticised by opposition parties and foreign observers as unfair and Rahmon was re-elected with 98% of the vote. Elections in 2006 were again won by Rahmon (with 79% of the vote) and he began his third term in office. Several opposition parties boycotted the 2006 election and the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) criticised it, although observers from the Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
claimed the elections were legal and transparent.[37][38] Rahmon's administration came under further criticism from the OSCE in October 2010 for its censorship and repression of the media. The OSCE claimed that the Tajik Government censored Tajik and foreign websites and instituted tax inspections on independent printing houses that led to the cessation of printing activities for a number of independent newspapers.[39] Russian border troops were stationed along the Tajik–Afghan border until summer 2005. Since the September 11, 2001 attacks, French troops have been stationed at the Dushanbe
Dushanbe
Airport in support of air operations of NATO's International Security Assistance Force
International Security Assistance Force
in Afghanistan. United States Army
United States Army
and Marine Corps personnel periodically visit Tajikistan
Tajikistan
to conduct joint training missions of up to several weeks duration. The Government of India
Government of India
rebuilt the Ayni Air Base, a military airport located 15 km southwest of Dushanbe, at a cost of $70 million, completing the repairs in September 2010.[40] It is now the main base of the Tajikistan
Tajikistan
air force. There have been talks with Russia
Russia
concerning use of the Ayni facility,[41] and Russia
Russia
continues to maintain a large base on the outskirts of Dushanbe.[42] In 2010, there were concerns among Tajik officials that Islamic militarism in the east of the country was on the rise following the escape of 25 militants from a Tajik prison in August, an ambush that killed 28 Tajik soldiers in the Rasht Valley in September,[43] and another ambush in the valley in October that killed 30 soldiers,[44] followed by fighting outside Gharm
Gharm
that left 3 militants dead. To date the country's Interior Ministry asserts that the central government maintains full control over the country's east, and the military operation in the Rasht Valley was concluded in November 2010.[45] However, fighting erupted again in July 2012.[46] In 2015, Russia
Russia
sent more troops to Tajikistan.[47] In May 2015, Tajikistan's national security suffered a serious setback when Colonel Gulmurod Khalimov, commander of the special-purpose police unit (OMON) of the Interior Ministry, defected to the Islamic State.[48] Politics[edit] Main article: Politics of Tajikistan See also: Elections in Tajikistan, Foreign relations of Tajikistan, Military of Tajikistan, and Human rights in Tajikistan

The Palace of Nations in Dushanbe

Almost immediately after independence, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
was plunged into a civil war that saw various factions, allegedly[according to whom?] backed by Russia
Russia
and Iran,[citation needed] fighting one another. All but 25,000 of the more than 400,000 ethnic Russians, who were mostly employed in industry, fled to Russia. By 1997, the war had cooled down, and a central government began to take form, with peaceful elections in 1999.

President of Tajikistan
President of Tajikistan
Emomali Rahmon, has ruled the country since 1994.

"Longtime observers of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
often characterize the country as profoundly averse to risk and skeptical of promises of reform, a political passivity they trace to the country’s ruinous civil war," Ilan Greenberg wrote in a news article in The New York Times
The New York Times
just before the country's November 2006 presidential election.[49] Tajikistan
Tajikistan
is officially a republic, and holds elections for the presidency and parliament, operating under a presidential system. It is, however, a dominant-party system, where the People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
routinely has a vast majority in Parliament. Emomalii Rahmon
Emomalii Rahmon
has held the office of President of Tajikistan continually since November 1994. The Prime Minister is Kokhir Rasulzoda, the First Deputy Prime Minister is Matlubkhon Davlatov and the two Deputy Prime Ministers are Murodali Alimardon and Ruqiya Qurbanova. The parliamentary elections of 2005 aroused many accusations from opposition parties and international observers that President Emomalii Rahmon corruptly manipulates the election process and unemployment. The most recent elections, in February 2010, saw the ruling PDPT lose four seats in Parliament, yet still maintain a comfortable majority. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
election observers said the 2010 polling "failed to meet many key OSCE commitments" and that "these elections failed on many basic democratic standards."[50][51] The government insisted that only minor violations had occurred, which would not affect the will of the Tajik people.[50][51] The presidential election held on 6 November 2006 was boycotted by "mainline" opposition parties, including the 23,000-member Islamic Renaissance Party. Four remaining opponents "all but endorsed the incumbent", Rahmon.[49] Tajikistan
Tajikistan
gave Iran
Iran
its support in Iran's membership bid to join the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, after a meeting between the Tajik President and the Iranian foreign minister.[52] Freedom of the press is ostensibly officially guaranteed by the government, but independent press outlets remain restricted, as does a substantial amount of web content. According to the Institute for War & Peace Reporting, access is blocked to local and foreign websites including avesta.tj, Tjknews.com, ferghana.ru, centrasia.ru and journalists are often obstructed from reporting on controversial events. In practice, no public criticism of the regime is tolerated and all direct protest is severely suppressed and does not receive coverage in the local media.[53] Geography[edit] Main article: Geography of Tajikistan

Satellite photograph of Tajikistan

Tajikistan
Tajikistan
map of Köppen climate classification

Tajikistan
Tajikistan
is landlocked, and is the smallest nation in Central Asia by area. It lies mostly between latitudes 36° and 41° N, and longitudes 67° and 75° E. It is covered by mountains of the Pamir range, and more than fifty percent of the country is over 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) above sea level. The only major areas of lower land are in the north (part of the Fergana Valley), and in the southern Kofarnihon and Vakhsh river valleys, which form the Amu Darya. Dushanbe
Dushanbe
is located on the southern slopes above the Kofarnihon valley.

Mountain Height Location

Ismoil Somoni
Somoni
Peak (highest) 7,495 m 24,590 ft     North-western edge of Gorno-Badakhshan
Gorno-Badakhshan
(GBAO), south of the Kyrgyz border

Ibn Sina Peak
Ibn Sina Peak
(Lenin Peak) 7,134 m 23,537 ft     Northern border in the Trans-Alay Range, north-east of Ismoil Somoni
Somoni
Peak

Peak Korzhenevskaya 7,105 m 23,310 ft     North of Ismoil Somoni
Somoni
Peak, on the south bank of Muksu River

Independence Peak
Independence Peak
(Revolution Peak) 6,974 m 22,881 ft     Central Gorno-Badakhshan, south-east of Ismoil Somoni
Somoni
Peak

Academy of Sciences Range 6,785 m 22,260 ft     North-western Gorno-Badakhshan, stretches in the north-south direction

Karl Marx Peak 6,726 m 22,067 ft     GBAO, near the border to Afghanistan
Afghanistan
in the northern ridge of the Karakoram Range

Garmo Peak 6,595 m 21,637 ft     Northwestern Gorno-Badakhshan.

Mayakovskiy Peak 6,096 m 20,000 ft     Extreme south-west of GBAO, near the border to Afghanistan.

Concord Peak 5,469 m 17,943 ft     Southern border in the northern ridge of the Karakoram Range

Kyzylart Pass 4,280 m 14,042 ft     Northern border in the Trans-Alay Range

The Amu Darya
Amu Darya
and Panj rivers mark the border with Afghanistan, and the glaciers in Tajikistan's mountains are the major source of runoff for the Aral Sea. There are over 900 rivers in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
longer than 10 kilometres. Administrative divisions[edit] Main articles: Provinces of Tajikistan
Provinces of Tajikistan
and Districts of Tajikistan

Mountains of Tajikistan

Tajikistan
Tajikistan
consists of 4 administrative divisions. These are the provinces (viloyat) of Sughd
Sughd
and Khatlon, the autonomous province of Gorno-Badakhshan
Gorno-Badakhshan
(abbreviated as GBAO), and the Region of Republican Subordination (RRP – Raiony Respublikanskogo Podchineniya in transliteration from Russian or NTJ – Ноҳияҳои тобеи ҷумҳурӣ in Tajik; formerly known as Karotegin Province). Each region is divided into several districts, (Tajik: Ноҳия, nohiya or raion), which in turn are subdivided into jamoats (village-level self-governing units) and then villages (qyshloqs). As of 2006[update], there were 58 districts and 367 jamoats in Tajikistan.[54]

Division ISO 3166-2 Map No Capital Area (km²)[54] Pop (2010) Census

Sughd TJ-SU 1 Khujand 25,400 2,233,500

Region of Republican Subordination TJ-RR 2 Dushanbe 28,600 1,722,900

Khatlon TJ-KT 3 Qurghonteppa  24,800 2,677,300

Gorno-Badakhshan TJ-BG 4 Khorugh 64,200 206,000

Dushanbe

Dushanbe 124.6 778,500

Lakes[edit]

Karakul lake

About 2% of the country's area is covered by lakes, the best known of which are the following:

Kayrakum (Qairoqqum) Reservoir (Sughd) Iskanderkul
Iskanderkul
(Fann Mountains) Kulikalon (Kul-i Kalon) (Fann Mountains) Nurek Reservoir (Khatlon) Karakul (Template:Lang-Kg; eastern Pamir) Sarez (Pamir) Shadau Lake
Shadau Lake
(Pamir) Zorkul
Zorkul
(Pamir)

Economy[edit] Main article: Economy of Tajikistan See also: Agriculture in Tajikistan

A Tajik dry fruit seller

Nearly 47% of Tajikistan's GDP
GDP
comes from immigrant remittances (mostly from Tajiks
Tajiks
working in Russian Federation).[55][56] The current economic situation remains fragile, largely owing to corruption, uneven economic reforms, and economic mismanagement. With foreign revenue precariously dependent upon remittances from migrant workers overseas and exports of aluminium and cotton, the economy is highly vulnerable to external shocks. In FY 2000, international assistance remained an essential source of support for rehabilitation programs that reintegrated former civil war combatants into the civilian economy, which helped keep the peace. International assistance also was necessary to address the second year of severe drought that resulted in a continued shortfall of food production. On 21 August 2001, the Red Cross
Red Cross
announced that a famine was striking Tajikistan, and called for international aid for Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and Uzbekistan; however, access to food remains a problem today. In January 2012, 680,152 of the people living in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
were living with food insecurity. Out of those, 676,852 were at risk of Phase 3 (Acute Food and Livelihoods Crisis) food insecurity and 3,300 were at risk of Phase 4 (Humanitarian Emergency). Those with the highest risk of food insecurity were living in the remote Murghob District
Murghob District
of GBAO.[57]

The TadAZ
TadAZ
aluminium smelting plant, in Tursunzoda, is the largest aluminium manufacturing plant in Central Asia, and Tajikistan's chief industrial asset.

Tajikistan's economy grew substantially after the war. The GDP
GDP
of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
expanded at an average rate of 9.6% over the period of 2000–2007 according to the World Bank
World Bank
data. This improved Tajikistan's position among other Central Asian countries (namely Turkmenia and Uzbekistan), which seem to have degraded economically ever since.[58] The primary sources of income in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
are aluminium production, cotton growing and remittances from migrant workers.[59] Cotton
Cotton
accounts for 60% of agricultural output, supporting 75% of the rural population, and using 45% of irrigated arable land.[60] The aluminium industry is represented by the state-owned Tajik Aluminum Company
Tajik Aluminum Company
– the biggest aluminium plant in Central Asia
Central Asia
and one of the biggest in the world.[61] Tajikistan's rivers, such as the Vakhsh and the Panj, have great hydropower potential, and the government has focused on attracting investment for projects for internal use and electricity exports. Tajikistan
Tajikistan
is home to the Nurek Dam, the highest dam in the world.[62] Lately, Russia's RAO UES energy giant has been working on the Sangtuda-1 hydroelectric power station (670 MW capacity) commenced operations on 18 January 2008.[63][64] Other projects at the development stage include Sangtuda-2 by Iran, Zerafshan by the Chinese company SinoHydro, and the Rogun power plant that, at a projected height of 335 metres (1,099 ft), would supersede the Nurek Dam
Nurek Dam
as highest in the world if it is brought to completion.[65][66] A planned project, CASA-1000, will transmit 1000 MW of surplus electricity from Tajikistan
Tajikistan
to Pakistan
Pakistan
with power transit through Afghanistan. The total length of transmission line is 750 km while the project is planned to be on Public-Private Partnership basis with the support of WB, IFC, ADB and IDB. The project cost is estimated to be around US$865 million.[67] Other energy resources include sizeable coal deposits and smaller reserves of natural gas and petroleum.

Graphical depiction of Tajikistan's product exports in 28 colour-coded categories

In 2014 Tajikistan
Tajikistan
was the world's most remittance-dependent economy with remittances accounting for 49% of GDP
GDP
and expected to fall by 40% in 2015 due to the economic crisis in the Russian Federation.[68] Tajik migrant workers abroad, mainly in the Russian Federation, have become by far the main source of income for millions of Tajikistan's people[69] and with the 2014–2015 downturn in the Russian economy the World Bank
World Bank
has predicted large numbers of young Tajik men will return home and face few economic prospects.[68] According to some estimates about 20% of the population lives on less than US$1.25 per day.[70] Migration from Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and the consequent remittances have been unprecedented in their magnitude and economic impact. In 2010, remittances from Tajik labour migrants totalled an estimated $2.1 billion US dollars, an increase from 2009. Tajikistan has achieved transition from a planned to a market economy without substantial and protracted recourse to aid (of which it by now receives only negligible amounts), and by purely market-based means, simply by exporting its main commodity of comparative advantage — cheap labour.[71] The World Bank
World Bank
Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Policy Note 2006 concludes that remittances have played an important role as one of the drivers of Tajikistan's robust economic growth during the past several years, have increased incomes, and as a result helped significantly reduce poverty.[72] Drug trafficking is the major illegal source of income in Tajikistan[73] as it is an important transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; some opium poppy is also raised locally for the domestic market.[74] However, with the increasing assistance from international organisations, such as UNODC, and co-operation with the US, Russian, EU and Afghan authorities a level of progress on the fight against illegal drug-trafficking is being achieved.[75] Tajikistan
Tajikistan
holds third place in the world for heroin and raw opium confiscations (1216.3 kg of heroin and 267.8 kg of raw opium in the first half of 2006).[2][76] Drug money corrupts the country's government; according to some experts the well-known personalities that fought on both sides of the civil war and have held the positions in the government after the armistice was signed are now involved in the drug trade.[74] UNODC
UNODC
is working with Tajikistan
Tajikistan
to strengthen border crossings, provide training, and set up joint interdiction teams. It also helped to establish Tajikistani Drug Control Agency.[77] Tajikistan
Tajikistan
is an active member of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO). Transportation[edit] Main article: Transport in Tajikistan

Dushanbe
Dushanbe
railway station

In 2013 Tajikistan, like many of the other Central Asian countries, was experiencing major development in its transportation sector. As a landlocked country Tajikistan
Tajikistan
has no ports and the majority of transportation is via roads, air, and rail. In recent years Tajikistan has pursued agreements with Iran
Iran
and Pakistan
Pakistan
to gain port access in those countries via Afghanistan. In 2009, an agreement was made between Tajikistan, Pakistan, and Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to improve and build a 1,300 km (810 mi) highway and rail system connecting the three countries to Pakistan's ports. The proposed route would go through the Gorno-Badakhshan
Gorno-Badakhshan
Autonomous Province in the eastern part of the country.[78] And in 2012, the presidents of Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and Iran
Iran
signed an agreement to construct roads and railways as well as oil, gas, and water pipelines to connect the three countries.[79] Rail[edit] Main article: Rail transport in Tajikistan The railroad system totals only 680 kilometres (420 mi) of track,[2] all of it 1,520 mm (4 ft 11 27⁄32 in) broad gauge. The principal segments are in the southern region and connect the capital with the industrial areas of the Hisor
Hisor
and Vakhsh valleys and with Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
and Russia.[80] Most international freight traffic is carried by train.[81] The recently constructed Qurghonteppa– Kulob
Kulob
railway connected the Kulob
Kulob
District with the central area of the country.[81] Air[edit]

The old terminal building at Dushanbe
Dushanbe
International Airport

In 2009 Tajikistan
Tajikistan
had 26 airports, 18 of which had paved runways, of which two had runways longer than 3,000 meters.[2] The country's main airport is Dushanbe
Dushanbe
International Airport which as of April 2015, had regularly scheduled flights to major cities in Russia, Central Asia, as well as Delhi, Dubai, Frankfurt, Istanbul, Kabul, Tehran, and Ürümqi amongst others. There are also international flights, mainly to Russia, from Khujand
Khujand
Airport in the northern part of the country as well as limited international services from Kulob
Kulob
Airport, and Qurghonteppa
Qurghonteppa
International Airport. Khorog Airport
Khorog Airport
is a domestic airport and also the only airport in the sparsely populated eastern half of the country. Tajikistan
Tajikistan
has two major airlines ( Somon Air
Somon Air
and Tajik Air) and is also serviced by over a dozen foreign airlines. Roads[edit] The total length of roads in the country is 27,800 kilometres. Automobiles account for more than 90% of the total volume of passenger transportation and more than 80% of domestic freight transportation.[81] In 2004 the Tajik–Afghan Friendship Bridge
Tajik–Afghan Friendship Bridge
between Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and Tajikistan
Tajikistan
was built, improving the country's access to South Asia. The bridge was built by the United States.[82] As of 2014[update] many highway and tunnel construction projects are underway or have recently been completed. Major projects include rehabilitation of the Dushanbe
Dushanbe
– Chanak (Uzbek border), Dushanbe
Dushanbe
– Kulma (Chinese border), and Kurgan-Tube – Nizhny Pyanj (Afghan border) highways, and construction of tunnels under the mountain passes of Anzob, Shakhristan, Shar-Shar[83] and Chormazak.[84] These were supported by international donor countries.[81][85] Demographics[edit] Main article: Demographics of Tajikistan

Tajikistan: trends in its Human Development Index
Human Development Index
indicator 1970–2010

Tajikistan
Tajikistan
has a population of 8,734,951 (2016 est.)[3] of which 70% are under the age of 30 and 35% are between the ages of 14 and 30.[56] Tajiks
Tajiks
who speak Tajik (a dialect of Persian) are the main ethnic group, although there are sizeable minorities of Uzbeks
Uzbeks
and Russians, whose numbers are declining due to emigration.[86] The Pamiris of Badakhshan, a small population of Yaghnobi people, and a sizeable minority of Ismailis
Ismailis
are all considered to belong to the larger group of Tajiks. All citizens of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
are called Tajikistanis.[2]

Group of Tajik children

In 1989, ethnic Russians
Russians
in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
made up 7.6% of the population, but they are now less than 0.5%, after the civil war spurred Russian emigration.[87] The ethnic German population of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
has also declined due to emigration: having topped at 38,853 in 1979, it has almost vanished since the collapse of the Soviet Union.[88] Languages[edit] The official and vernacular language of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
is Tajik although Russian is routinely used in business and communication. The Constitution mentions Russian as the "language for inter-ethnic communication", but an amendment passed in 2009 was thought to remove all Russian's official roles,[89] but it was later clarified that the status was later re-instated and Russian has returned to its status, being a language permissible for law-making, although all official communications should formally first take place in Tajik.[90][91] Russian is regularly used unregulated between different ethnic groups in the country and thereby fulfilling its stated constitutional role. Education[edit] Despite its poverty, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
has a high rate of literacy due to the old Soviet system of free education, with an estimated 99.5% of the population having the ability to read and write.[2] Employment[edit] In 2009 nearly one million Tajiks
Tajiks
worked abroad (mainly in Russia).[92] More than 70% of the female population lives in traditional villages.[93]

 

v t e

Largest cities or towns in Tajikistan http://www.geonames.org/TJ/largest-cities-in-tajikistan.html

Rank Name Province Pop.

Dushanbe

Khujand 1 Dushanbe Dushanbe 679,400

Kulob

Qurghonteppa

2 Khujand Sughd 155,900

3 Kulob Khatlon 93,900

4 Qurghonteppa Khatlon 71,000

5 Istaravshan Sughd 60,200

6 Vahdat Districts of Republican Subordination 49,100

7 Konibodom Sughd 47,100

8 Tursunzoda Districts of Republican Subordination 44,200

9 Isfara Sughd 40,600

10 Panjakent Sughd 35,900

Culture[edit] Main article: Culture of Tajikistan See also: Music of Tajikistan, Tajik literature, Public holidays in Tajikistan, and Tajik cuisine

Tajik young women during Navrūz (Persian New Year). They are holding sprouting plants which symbolize rebirth.

The Tajik language
Tajik language
is the mother tongue of around 80% of the citizens of Tajikistan. The main urban centres in today's Tajikistan
Tajikistan
include Dushanbe
Dushanbe
(the capital), Khujand, Kulob, Panjakent, Qurghonteppa, Khorugh
Khorugh
and Istaravshan. There are also Uzbek, Kyrgyz and Russian minorities. The Pamiri people
Pamiri people
of Gorno-Badakhshan
Gorno-Badakhshan
Autonomous Province in the southeast, bordering Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and China, though considered part of the Tajik ethnicity, nevertheless are distinct linguistically and culturally from most Tajiks. In contrast to the mostly Sunni Muslim residents of the rest of Tajikistan, the Pamiris overwhelmingly follow the Ismaili
Ismaili
branch of Shia
Shia
Islam, and speak a number of Eastern Iranian languages, including Shughni, Rushani, Khufi and Wakhi. Isolated in the highest parts of the Pamir Mountains, they have preserved many ancient cultural traditions and folk arts that have been largely lost elsewhere in the country.

Yaghnobi boy

The Yaghnobi people
Yaghnobi people
live in mountainous areas of northern Tajikistan. The estimated number of Yaghnobis is now about 25,000. Forced migrations in the 20th century decimated their numbers. They speak the Yaghnobi language, which is the only direct modern descendant of the ancient Sogdian language. Tajikistan
Tajikistan
artisans created the Dushanbe
Dushanbe
Tea House, which was presented in 1988 as a gift to the sister city of Boulder, Colorado.[94] Religion[edit] Main article: Religion in Tajikistan See also: Islam
Islam
in Tajikistan

Religion in Tajikistan, 2010[95][96]

Religion

Percent

Islam

96.7%

Christianity

1.6%

Unaffiliated

1.5%

Other religions

0.2%

A mosque in Isfara, Tajikistan

Sunni Islam
Islam
of the Hanafi
Hanafi
school has been officially recognised by the government since 2009.[97] Tajikistan
Tajikistan
considers itself a secular state with a Constitution providing for freedom of religion. The Government has declared two Islamic holidays, Eid ul-Fitr
Eid ul-Fitr
and Eid al-Adha, as state holidays. According to a US State Department
US State Department
release and Pew research group, the population of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
is 98% Muslim. Approximately 87%–95% of them are Sunni and roughly 3% are Shia
Shia
and roughly 7% are non-denominational Muslims.[98][99] The remaining 2% of the population are followers of Russian Orthodoxy, Protestantism, Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
and Buddhism. A great majority of Muslims fast during Ramadan, although only about one third in the countryside and 10% in the cities observe daily prayer and dietary restrictions. Bukharan Jews
Bukharan Jews
had lived in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
since the 2nd century BC, but today almost none are left. In the 1940s, the Jewish community of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
numbered nearly 30,000 people. Most were Persian-speaking Bukharan Jews
Bukharan Jews
who had lived in the region for millennia along with Ashkenazi Jews from Eastern Europe who resettled there in the Soviet era. The Jewish population is now estimated at less than 500, about half of whom live in Dushanbe.[100] Relationships between religious groups are generally amicable, although there is some concern among mainstream Muslim
Muslim
leaders[who?] that minority religious groups undermine national unity. There is a concern for religious institutions becoming active in the political sphere. The Islamic Renaissance Party (IRP), a major combatant in the 1992–1997 Civil War and then-proponent of the creation of an Islamic state in Tajikistan, constitutes no more than 30% of the government by statute. Membership in Hizb ut-Tahrir, a militant Islamic party which today aims for an overthrow of secular governments and the unification of Tajiks
Tajiks
under one Islamic state, is illegal and members are subject to arrest and imprisonment.[101] Numbers of large mosques appropriate for Friday prayers are limited and some[who?] feel this is discriminatory. By law, religious communities must register by the State Committee on Religious Affairs (SCRA) and with local authorities. Registration with the SCRA requires a charter, a list of 10 or more members, and evidence of local government approval prayer site location. Religious groups who do not have a physical structure are not allowed to gather publicly for prayer. Failure to register can result in large fines and closure of place of worship. There are reports that registration on the local level is sometimes difficult to obtain.[102] People under the age of 18 are also barred from public religious practice.[103] As of January, 2016, as part of an "anti-radicalisation campaign", police in the Khatlon
Khatlon
region reportedly shaved the beards of 13,000 men and shut down 160 shops selling the hijab. Shaving beards and discouraging women from wearing hijab is part of a government campaign targeting trends that are deemed "alien and inconsistent with Tajik culture", and "to preserve secular traditions".[104] Health[edit] Main article: Health in Tajikistan

A hospital in Dushanbe

Despite repeated efforts by the Tajik government to improve and expand health care, the system remains extremely underdeveloped and poor, with severe shortages of medical supplies. The state's Ministry of Labor and Social Welfare reported that 104,272 disabled people are registered in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
(2000). This group of people suffers most from poverty in Tajikistan. The government of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and the World Bank considered activities to support this part of the population described in the World Bank's Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper.[105] Public expenditure on health was at 1% of the GDP
GDP
in 2004.[106] Life expectancy
Life expectancy
at birth was estimated to be 66.38 years in 2012.[107] The infant mortality rate was approximately 37 deaths per 1,000 children in 2012.[108] In 2011, there were 170 physicians per 100,000 people.[109] In 2010 the country experienced an outbreak of polio that caused more than 457 cases of polio in both children and adults, and resulted in 29 deaths before being brought under control.[110] Education[edit]

Tajik National University
Tajik National University
in Dushanbe

Public education in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
consists of 11 years of primary and secondary education but the government has plans to implement a 12-year system in 2016.[111] There is a relatively large number of tertiary education institutions including Khujand
Khujand
State University which has 76 departments in 15 faculties,[111] Tajikistan
Tajikistan
State University of Law, Business, & Politics, Khorugh
Khorugh
State University, Agricultural University of Tajikistan, Tajik National University, and several other institutions. Most, but not all, universities were established during the Soviet Era. As of 2008[update] tertiary education enrolment was 17%, significantly below the sub-regional average of 37%.[112] Many Tajiks
Tajiks
left the education system due to low demand in the labour market for people with extensive educational training or professional skills.[112] Public spending on education was relatively constant between 2005–2012 and fluctuated from 3.5% to 4.1% of GDP[113] significantly below the OECD
OECD
average of 6%.[112] The United Nations
United Nations
reported that the level of spending was "severely inadequate to meet the requirements of the country’s high-needs education system."[112] According to a UNICEF-supported survey, about 25 percent of girls in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
fail to complete compulsory primary education because of poverty and gender bias,[114] although literacy is generally high in Tajikistan.[106] Estimates of out of school children range from 4.6% to 19.4% with the vast majority being girls.[112] In September 2017, the University of Central Asia
Central Asia
will launch its second campus in Khorog, Tajikistan, offering majors in Earth & Environmental Sciences and Economics.[115] Sport[edit] The national sport of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
is gushtigiri, a form of traditional wrestling.[116] Another popular sport is buzkashi, a game played on horseback, like polo. One plays it on one's own and in teams. The aim of the game is to grab a 50 kg dead goat, ride clear of the other players, get back to the starting point and drop it in a designated circle. It is also practised in Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and Turkmenistan. It is often played at Nowruz
Nowruz
celebrations.[117]

Tajikistan
Tajikistan
is a popular destination amongst mountaineers. 1982 expedition to Tartu Ülikool 350.

Tajikistan's mountains provide many opportunities for outdoor sports, such as hill climbing, mountain biking, rock climbing, skiing, snowboarding, hiking, and mountain climbing. The facilities are limited, however. Mountain climbing and hiking tours to the Fann and Pamir Mountains, including the 7,000 m peaks in the region, are seasonally organised by local and international alpine agencies. Football is a popular sport in Tajikistan. The Tajikistan
Tajikistan
national football team competes in FIFA
FIFA
and AFC competitions. The top clubs in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
compete in the Tajik League. The Tajikistan Cricket Federation was formed in 2012 as the governing body for the sport of cricket in Tajikistan. It was granted affiliate membership of the Asian Cricket
Cricket
Council in the same year. Rugby union in Tajikistan is a minor but growing sport. Four Tajikistani athletes have won Olympic medals for their country since independence. They are: wrestler Yusup Abdusalomov (silver in Beijing 2008), judoka Rasul Boqiev (bronze in Beijing 2008), boxer Mavzuna Chorieva (bronze in London 2012) and hammer thrower Dilshod Nazarov (gold in Rio de Janeiro 2016). Khorugh, capital of Gorno-Badakhshan
Gorno-Badakhshan
Autonomous Region, is the location of highest altitude where bandy has been played.[118] Tajikistan
Tajikistan
has also one ski resort, called Safed Dara
Safed Dara
(formerly Takob), near the town of Varzob.[119] Notable individuals[edit]

Yusup Abdusalomov, Olympic medalist, wrestler Abdumalik Bahori, poet, writer Nargis Bandishoeva, singer Mavzuna Chorieva, Olympic medalist, boxer Daler Nazarov, musician Sherali Dostiev, boxer Mamadsho Ilolov, scientist Abduhamid Juraev, mathematician Makhmadjon Khabibulloev, football coach Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi, mathematician, astronomer, geographer Otakhon Latifi, journalist, politician Yuri Lobanov, Olympic medalist, sprint canoer Shabnam Surayyo, singer Farruh Negmat-Zadeh, artist

See also[edit]

Geography portal Tajikistan
Tajikistan
portal Asia
Asia
portal Central Asia
Central Asia
portal

Tajikistan
Tajikistan
– book Index of Tajikistan-related articles Outline of Tajikistan 2006 Tajikistan
Tajikistan
earthquake Central Asian Union Ittihodi Scouthoi Tojikiston Kingdom of Balhara List of cities in Tajikistan Mount Imeon Telecommunications in Tajikistan Yaghnob Valley Gorno-Badakhshan
Gorno-Badakhshan
Autonomous Province

References[edit]  This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html.  This article incorporates public domain material from the Library of Congress
Library of Congress
Country Studies website http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/.

^ Национальный состав, владение языками и гражданство населения Республики Таджикистан Том III. stat.tj ^ a b c d e f CIA World Factbook. Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Archived 31 March 2001 at the Wayback Machine. ^ a b "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". ESA.UN.org (custom data acquired via website). United Nations
United Nations
Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.  ^ a b c d " Tajikistan
Tajikistan
profile at". International Monetary Fund website. Archived from the original on 29 March 2018.  ^ "2016 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations
United Nations
Development Programme. 2016. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 March 2017. Retrieved 21 March 2017.  ^ "Proto-urban Site of Sarazm". UNESCO.org. UNESCO. Archived from the original on 4 August 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2014.  ^ "What's the Story Behind All the 'Stans?". About.com. Archived from the original on 30 March 2013. Retrieved 10 August 2014.  ^ "-Stan". Online Etymology Dictionary. Archived from the original on 1 January 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.  ^ a b c A Country Study: Tajikistan, Ethnic Background. Library of Congress Call Number DK851. K34 (1997) ^ Anti-Armenian Riots Erupt in Soviet Republic of Tadzhikistan Archived 30 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. Articles.latimes.com (2 November 1989). Retrieved on 2017-01-20. ^ Centre, UNESCO World Heritage. "Proto-urban Site of Sarazm
Sarazm
– UNESCO World Heritage Centre". unesco.org. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.  ^ See: The Deeds of Harsha: Being a Cultural Study of Bāṇa's Harshacharita, 1969, p 199, Dr Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala; Proceedings and Transactions of the All- India
India
Oriental Conference, 1930, p 118, Dr J. C. Vidyalankara; Prācīna Kamboja, jana aura janapada =: Ancient Kamboja, people and country, 1981, Dr Jiyālāla Kāmboja, Dr Satyavrat Śāstrī – Kamboja (Pakistan). ^ C. Michael Hogan, ''Silk Road, North China'', The Megalithic Portal, ed. Andy Burnham Archived 2 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. Megalithic.co.uk. Retrieved on 20 January 2017. ^ Shiji, trans. Burton Watson ^ Frances Wood
Frances Wood
(2002) The Silk Road: Two Thousand Years in the Heart of Asia. University of California Press. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-520-23786-5. ^ a b Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Archived 21 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine.. loc.gov. ^ "Encyclopedia – Britannica Online Encyclopedia". eb.com.  ^ Grousset, Rene, (2004). The Empire of the Steppes. Rutgers University Press. ISBN 0-8135-1304-9. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) ^ Svatopluk Soucek (2000). "Chapter 5 – The Qarakhanids". A history of Inner Asia. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-65704-0.  ^ ilak-khanids Archived 9 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine.: Iranica. accessed May 2014. ^ Pipes, Richard (1955). "Muslims of Soviet Central Asia: Trends and Prospects (Part I)". Middle East Journal. 9 (2): 149–150. JSTOR 4322692.  ^ "A Country Study: Tajikistan, Impact of the Civil War". U.S. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016.  ^ a b " Tajikistan
Tajikistan
– Collectivization". countrystudies.us. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012.  ^ a b " Tajikistan
Tajikistan
– The Purges". countrystudies.us. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012.  ^ Tajikistan
Tajikistan
– Ethnic Groups Archived 7 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine., U.S. Library of Congress ^ a b c " Tajikistan
Tajikistan
– The Postwar Period". countrystudies.us. Archived from the original on 14 October 2012.  ^ Kamoludin Abdullaev and Shahram Akbarzaheh (2010) Historical Dictionary of Tajikistan, 2nd ed. p. 383. ISBN 0810860619. ^ Vadim Erlikman (2004). Poteri narodonaseleniia v XX veke. Moscow. pp. 23–35. ISBN 5-93165-107-1 ^ C. Peter Chen. " Tajikistan
Tajikistan
in World War II". WW2DB. Archived from the original on 26 July 2014.  ^ Boris Rumer (1989) Soviet Central Asia: A Tragic Experiment, Unwin Hyman, London. p. 126. ISBN 0044451466. ^ Statistical Yearbook of the USSR 1990, Goskomstat, Moscow, 1991, p. 115 (in Russian). ^ Statistical Yearbook of the USSR 1990, Goskomstat, Moscow, 1991, p. 210 (in Russian). ^ a b "Tajikistan: rising from the ashes of civil war". United Nations. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.  ^ "Human Rights Watch World Report 1994: Tajikistan". Human Rights Watch. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2014.  ^ "Telling the truth for more than 30 years – Tajikistan
Tajikistan
After the Elections: Post-Soviet Dictatorship". Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. June 1995. Retrieved 13 September 2013.  ^ Jim Nichol. "Central Asia's Security: Issues and Implications for U.S. Interests" (PDF). Federation of American Scientists. p. 8. Archived (PDF) from the original on 20 May 2012. Retrieved 10 August 2014.  ^ "REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION". Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.  ^ "OSCE and CIS Observers Disagree on Presidential Election in Tajikistan". New Eurasia. Archived from the original on 22 July 2015. Retrieved 10 August 2014.  ^ "OSCE urges Tajikistan
Tajikistan
to stop attacks on free media". Reuters. 18 October 2010. Archived from the original on 28 June 2017.  ^ Kucera, Joshua (7 September 2010). "Tajikistan's Ayni airbase opens – but who is using it?". The Bug Pit – The military and security in Eurasia. The Open Society Institute. Archived from the original on 5 September 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ "Tajikistan: Dushanbe
Dushanbe
Dangling Ayni Air Base
Ayni Air Base
Before Russia". EurasiaNet.org. 19 October 2010. Archived from the original on 5 September 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.  ^ "Ratification of Russian military base deal provides Tajikistan
Tajikistan
with important security guarantees". Jane's. Archived from the original on 3 August 2014. Retrieved 10 August 2014.  ^ " Tajikistan
Tajikistan
says restive east is under control". BBC
BBC
News. 18 October 2010. Archived from the original on 15 November 2013.  ^ " Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Says Kills Three Suspected Islamist Militants". Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty. 18 October 2010. Archived from the original on 6 November 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ "Tajikistan: The government withdraws troops from the Rasht valley". Ferghana Information agency, Moscow. 3 November 2010. Archived from the original on 15 April 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2013.  ^ Khayrullo Fayz (24 July 2012). " Tajikistan
Tajikistan
clashes: 'Many dead' in Gorno-Badakhshan". BBC
BBC
Uzbek. Archived from the original on 18 December 2012. Retrieved 13 September 2013.  ^ "Why Russia
Russia
Will Send More Troops to Central Asia". Stratfor. Archived from the original on 27 September 2015.  ^ "Commander of elite Tajik police force defects to Islamic State". Reuters. 28 May 2015. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015.  ^ a b Greenberg, Ilan, "Media Muzzled and Opponents Jailed, Tajikistan Readies for Vote", The New York Times, 4 November 2006 (article dateline 3 November 2006), page A7, New York edition ^ a b "Change you can't believe in". The Economist. 4 March 2010. Archived from the original on 30 December 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2010.  ^ a b " Tajikistan
Tajikistan
elections criticised by poll watchdog". BBC. 1 March 2010. Archived from the original on 4 March 2010. Retrieved 5 March 2010.  ^ "Press TV – Iran
Iran
makes move to join SCO". Presstv.ir. 24 March 2008. Archived from the original on 15 June 2008. Retrieved 2 October 2009.  ^ "Tajik Government's Fury Over Conflict Reporting". Iwpr.net. 22 October 2010. Archived from the original on 26 September 2014. Retrieved 14 January 2011.  ^ a b Population of the Republic of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
as of 1 January 2008, State Statistical Committee, Dushanbe, 2008 (in Russian) ^ " Remittance
Remittance
man Archived 18 November 2017 at the Wayback Machine.". The Economist. 7 September 2013. ^ a b Tajikistan: Building a Democracy (video) Archived 11 April 2016 at the Wayback Machine., United Nations, March 2014 ^ "Integrated Food Security Phase Classification" (PDF). usaid.gov. USAID. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 9 August 2014.  ^ "BBC's Guide to Central Asia". BBC
BBC
News. 20 June 2005. Archived from the original on 1 December 2006. Retrieved 1 November 2006.  ^ "Background Note: Tajikistan". US Department of State, Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs. December 2007. Archived from the original on 6 March 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008.  ^ "Tajikistan: Over 392.5 thousand tons of cotton picked in Tajikistan". BS-AGRO. 12 December 2013. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013.  ^ Алюминий по-таджикски [ Aluminium
Aluminium
in Tajiki]. Expert Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan
(in Russian). 23 (25). 6 December 2004. Archived from the original on 10 November 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2008.  ^ "Highest Dams (World and U.S.)". ICOLD World Register of Dams. 1998. Archived from the original on 5 April 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008.  ^ Первая очередь Сангтудинской ГЭС в Таджикистане будет запущена 18 января [First stage of the Sangtuda HPS launched on 18 January] (in Russian). Vesti. 25 December 2007. Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2016.  ^ "Sangtuda-1 HPS launched on January 18, 2008". Today Energy. 5 January 2008. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2008.  ^ " Iran
Iran
participates in power plant project in Tajikistan". IRNA. 24 April 2007. Archived from the original on 28 April 2013. Retrieved 8 March 2008.  ^ "Chinese To Build Tajik Hydroelectric Plant". Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty. 18 January 2007. Archived from the original on 15 March 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008.  ^ " Pakistan
Pakistan
can end power crisis thru CASA-1000". The Gazette of Central Asia. Satrapia. 13 August 2011. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 8 June 2012.  ^ a b "Tajikistan: Remittances
Remittances
to Plunge 40% – World Bank". EurasiaNet.org. Archived from the original on 29 May 2015.  ^ Dilip Ratha; Sanket Mohapatra; K. M. Vijayalakshmi; Zhimei Xu (29 November 2007). " Remittance
Remittance
Trends 2007. Migration and Development Brief 3" (PDF). World Bank. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008.  ^ "UNDP: Human development indices – Table 3: Human and income poverty (Population living below national poverty line (2000–2007))" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 19 December 2008. Retrieved 2 October 2009.  ^ Alexei Kireyev (January 2006). "The Macroeconomics of Remittances: The Case of Tajikistan. IMF Working Paper WP/06/2" (PDF). IMF. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008.  ^ " Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Policy Note. Poverty Reduction and Enhancing the Development Impact of Remittances. Report No. 35771-TJ" (PDF). World Bank. June 2006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 8 March 2008.  ^ MEET THE STANS – episodes 3&4: Uzbekistan
Uzbekistan
and Tajikistan Archived 3 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine., BBC, 2011 ^ a b Silk Road
Silk Road
Studies, Country Factsheets, Eurasian Narcotics: Tajikistan
Tajikistan
2004 ^ Roger McDermott (10 January 2006). " Dushanbe
Dushanbe
looks towards Afghanistan
Afghanistan
to combat drug trafficking". Eurasia Daily Monitor. Archived from the original on 2 June 2008. Retrieved 8 March 2008.  ^ Overview of the drug and crime situation in Central Asia. Factsand Figures, Coordination and Analysis Unit of the UNODC
UNODC
Regional Office for Central Asia ^ Fighting Drugs, Crime and Terrorism in the CIS Dushanbe, 4 October 2007[dead link] ^ "President Zardari chairs PPP consultative meeting". Associated Press of Pakistan. 10 August 2009. Archived from the original on 2 January 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2009.  ^ "Iran, Afghanistan, Tajikistan
Tajikistan
sign agreement on road, railway construction". Tehran Times. Archived from the original on 6 April 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2014.  ^ Migrant Express Part 1: Good-bye Dushanbe. YouTube. 1 September 2009. Archived from the original on 16 October 2015.  ^ a b c d Administrator. " Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Mission – Infrastructure". tajikistanmission.ch. Archived from the original on 31 May 2014.  ^ "US Army Corps of Engineer, Afghanistan- Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Bridge". US Army Corps of Engineer. Archived from the original on 3 April 2015. Retrieved 8 March 2008.  ^ Shar-Shar auto tunnel links Tajikistan
Tajikistan
to China
China
Archived 31 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine., The 2.3 km (1 mi) Shar-Shar car tunnel linking Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and China
China
opened to traffic on 30 Aug.., Siyavush Mekhtan, 3 September 2009 ^ Payrav Chorshanbiyev (12 February 2014) Chormaghzak Tunnel renamed Khatlon
Khatlon
Tunnel and Shar-Shar Tunnel renamed Ozodi Tunnel Archived 31 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine.. news.tj ^ Trade, tunnels, transit and training in mountainous Tajikistan Archived 19 August 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. fco.gov.uk (7 May 2013) ^ Russians
Russians
left behind in Central Asia
Central Asia
Archived 11 September 2013 at the Wayback Machine., Robert Greenall, BBC
BBC
News, 23 November 2005. ^ Tajikistan
Tajikistan
– Ethnic Groups Archived 7 December 2010 at the Wayback Machine.. Source: U.S. Library of Congress. ^ Russian-Germans in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Archived 20 August 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. Pohl, J. Otto. "Russian-Germans in Tajikistan", Neweurasia, 29 March 2007. ^ " Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Drops Russian As Official Language". RFE/RL - Rferl.org. 7 October 2009. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 13 September 2013.  ^ "The status of the Russian language
Russian language
in Tajikistan
Tajikistan
remains unchanged – Rahmon". RIA – RIA.ru. 22 October 2009. Archived from the original on 2 October 2016. Retrieved 30 September 2016.  ^ "В Таджикистане русскому языку вернули прежний статус". Lenta.ru. Archived from the original on 5 September 2013. Retrieved 13 September 2013.  ^ Deployment of Tajik workers gets green light Archived 10 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine.. Arab
Arab
News. 21 May 2007. ^ Azimova, Aigul; Abazbekova, Nazgul (27 July 2011). "Millennium Development Goals: Saving women's Lives". D+C. D+C. p. 289. Archived from the original on 17 February 2014. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ The Dushanbe-Boulder tea house. boulder-dushanbe.org ^ Religious Composition by Country, 2010–2050 Pew Research Center Archived 2 August 2017 at the Wayback Machine.. Pewforum.org (2 April 2015). Retrieved on 2017-01-20. ^ Tajikistan
Tajikistan
– Pew-Templeton Global Religious Futures Project Archived 9 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine.. Globalreligiousfutures.org. Retrieved on 20 January 2017. ^ Avaz Yuldashev (5 March 2009). «Ханафия» объявлена официальным религиозным течением Таджикистана ["Hanafi" declared the official religious movement in Tajikistan] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 25 August 2010.  ^ Pew Forum on Religious & Public life, Chapter 1: Religious Affiliation Archived 26 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine. retrieved 29 October 2013. ^ "Background Note: Tajikistan". State.gov. Archived from the original on 1 October 2009. Retrieved 2 October 2009.  ^ "Home Stand". Tablet Magazine. Archived from the original on 11 December 2015.  ^ "Hizb ut Tahrir". BBC
BBC
News. BBC. 27 August 2003. Archived from the original on 13 September 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ TAJIKISTAN: Religious freedom survey, November 2003 Archived 13 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine. - Forum 18 News Service, 20 November 2003 ^ U. S. Department of State International Religious Freedom Report for 2013, Executive Summary Archived 12 April 2014 at the Wayback Machine. retrieved 2 August 2014. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 24 January 2016. Retrieved 27 January 2016.  ^ " Tajikistan
Tajikistan
– Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) and joint assessment". World Bank. 31 October 2002. Archived from the original on 26 May 2009. Retrieved 1 November 2006.  ^ a b "Human Development Report 2009 – Tajikistan". Hdrstats.undp.org. Archived from the original on 23 March 2010. Retrieved 20 June 2010.  ^ "Country Comparison: Life Expectancy at Birth". The World Factbook. CIA. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ "Country Comparison: Infant Mortality Rate". The World Factbook. CIA. Archived from the original on 12 October 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ "WHO/Europe – Data and statistics". who.int. Archived from the original on 25 September 2014.  ^ "2010 polio outbreak in Tajikistan: A reminder of the continued need for vigilance as the Region marks 10 years of polio-free status". World Health Organization. 10 July 2012. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2016.  ^ a b " Tajikistan
Tajikistan
Education System". classbase.com. Archived from the original on 2 April 2014.  ^ a b c d e Education in Tajikistan Archived 6 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine.. unicef.org ^ Tajikistan, Public spending on education, total (% of GDP) Archived 14 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine. World Bank ^ " Tajikistan
Tajikistan
hosts education forum". News note. UNICEF. 9 June 2005. Archived from the original on 4 November 2013. Retrieved 12 September 2013.  ^ http://www.ucentralasia.org Archived 29 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Ibbotson, Sophie; Lovell-Hoare, Max (2013). Tajikistan. Bradt Travel Guides. p. 22. ISBN 978-1-84162-455-6. Archived from the original on 29 March 2018.  ^ Abdullaev, Kamoludin; Akbarzaheh, Shahram. Historical Dictionary of Tajikistan. Scarecrow Press. Archived from the original on 1 January 2016. Retrieved 8 November 2015.  ^ "Google Translate". google.co.uk.  ^ "Safed Dara". Trip Advisor. Archived from the original on 11 August 2017. 

Further reading[edit]

Historical Dictionary of Tajikistan
Tajikistan
by Kamoludin Abdullaev and Shahram Akbarzadeh Land Beyond the River: The Untold Story of Central Asia
Central Asia
by Monica Whitlock Tajikistan: Disintegration or Reconciliation by Shirin Akiner Tajikistan: The Trials of Independence by Shirin Akiner, Mohammad-Reza Djalili and Frederic Grare Tajikistan
Tajikistan
and the High Pamirs by Robert Middleton, Huw Thomas and Markus Hauser, Odyssey Books, Hong Kong
Hong Kong
2008 (ISBN 978-9-622177-73-4)

External links[edit]

Find more aboutTajikistanat's sister projects

Definitions from Wiktionary Media from Wikimedia Commons News from Wikinews Quotations from Wikiquote Texts from Wikisource Textbooks from Wikibooks Travel guide from Wikivoyage Learning resources from Wikiversity

Tajikistan
Tajikistan
at UCB Libraries GovPubs "Tajikistan". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency.  Tajikistan
Tajikistan
at Curlie (based on DMOZ) Tajikistan
Tajikistan
profile from the BBC
BBC
News Wikimedia Atlas of Tajikistan Key Development Forecasts for Tajikistan
Tajikistan
from International Futures

v t e

Tajikistan articles

History

Early history Basmachi
Basmachi
movement Soviet era Civil War

Geography

Cities Earthquakes Environment Lakes Mountains Rivers Towns and villages Wildlife

Areas

Central Asia Pamir mountains Tian Shan
Tian Shan
mountains

Politics

Administrative divisions

regions districts jamoats

Cabinet Capital punishment Central Asian Union Constitution Elections Foreign relations Human rights

LGBT

LGBT history Law enforcement Military Political parties President Prime Minister Supreme Assembly (parliament)

Economy

Agriculture Central bank Energy Mining Postage and postal history Somoni
Somoni
(currency) Telecommunications Transport

airports

Society

Demographics

people ethnic groups

Education Health Language Public holidays Symbols

anthem coat of arms flag

Culture

Cinema Cuisine Literature Media Music Religion Sports

Outline Index

Category Portal

Geographic locale

v t e

Regions of Tajikistan

Sughd
Sughd
Region Khatlon
Khatlon
Region Districts of Republican Subordination Gorno-Badakhshan
Gorno-Badakhshan
Autonomous Region

v t e

Countries and dependencies of Asia

Sovereign states

Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei Cambodia China Cyprus Egypt Georgia India Indonesia Iran Iraq Israel Japan Jordan Kazakhstan North Korea South Korea Kuwait Kyrgyzstan Laos Lebanon Malaysia Maldives Mongolia Myanmar Nepal Oman Palestine Pakistan Philippines Qatar Russia Saudi Arabia Singapore Sri Lanka Syria Tajikistan Thailand East Timor
East Timor
(Timor-Leste) Turkey Turkmenistan United Arab
Arab
Emirates Uzbekistan Vietnam Yemen

States with limited recognition

Abkhazia Artsakh Northern Cyprus South Ossetia Taiwan

Dependencies and special administrative regions

Australia

Christmas Island Cocos (Keeling) Islands

China

Hong Kong Macau

United Kingdom

Akrotiri and Dhekelia British Indian Ocean Territory

International membership

v t e

Economic Cooperation Organization
Economic Cooperation Organization
(ECO)

Politics

ECOTA Secretariat Secretaries-General Treaty of Izmir Islamabad Declaration

Symbols

Emblem Flag

Summits

Tehran 1992 Istanbul 1993 Islamabad 1995 Ashgabat 1996 Almaty 1998 Tehran 2000 Istanbul 2002 Dushanbe
Dushanbe
2004 Baku 2006 Tehran 2009 Istanbul 2010 Baku 2012 Islamabad 2017

Member

  Afghanistan   Azerbaijan   Iran   Kazakhstan   Kyrgyzstan   Pakistan   Tajikistan   Turkey   Turkmenistan   Uzbekistan

Observers

Countries

 Northern Cyprus
Cyprus
(as Turkish Cypriot State)

International organizations

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Turkic Council

v t e

Commonwealth of Independent States
Commonwealth of Independent States
(CIS)

Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia Eurasian Economic Union Union State

Membership

Members

Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Moldova Russia Tajikistan Uzbekistan

Associate members

Turkmenistan Ukraine

Former members

Georgia (1993–2009)

History

Russian Empire Soviet Union Dissolution of the Soviet Union Union of Sovereign States Belavezha Accords
Belavezha Accords
(Near abroad) Alma-Ata Protocol

Sports

Unified Team at the Olympics Unified Team at the Paralympics CIS national bandy team CIS national football team CIS national ice hockey team CIS national rugby team CIS Cup (football)

Military

Collective Security Treaty Organization Collective Rapid Reaction Force Joint CIS Air Defense System

Economics

Economic Court CISFTA Eurasian Economic Community Eurasian Patent Convention Eurasian Patent Organization EU Technical Aid

Organization

Interstate Aviation Committee Council of Ministers of Defense of the CIS

Category

v t e

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
Organisation of Islamic Cooperation
(OIC)

Members

Afghanistan Albania Algeria Azerbaijan Bahrain Bangladesh Benin Burkina Faso Brunei Cameroon Chad Comoros Djibouti Egypt Gabon Gambia Guinea Guinea-Bissau Guyana Indonesia Iran Iraq Ivory Coast Jordan Kuwait Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Lebanon Libya Maldives Malaysia Mali Mauritania Morocco Mozambique Niger Nigeria Oman Pakistan Palestine Qatar Saudi Arabia Senegal Sierra Leone Somalia Sudan Suriname Tajikistan Turkey Tunisia Togo Turkmenistan Uganda Uzbekistan United Arab
Arab
Emirates Yemen

Suspended

Syria

Observers

Countries and territories

Bosnia and Herzegovina Central African Republic Northern Cyprus1 Russia Thailand

Muslim communities

Moro National Liberation Front

International organizations

Economic Cooperation Organization African Union Arab
Arab
League Non-Aligned Movement United Nations

1 As the "Turkish Cypriot State".

v t e

Eurasian Economic Union

Member states

Armenia Belarus Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Russia

Observer members

Moldova

Prospective members

Mongolia Syria Tajikistan

v t e

Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
Shanghai Cooperation Organisation
(SCO)

Summits

Beijing 2012 Dushanbe
Dushanbe
2014 Astana 2017

Member states

China India Kazakhstan Kyrgyzstan Pakistan Russia Tajikistan Uzbekistan

Observer states

Afghanistan Belarus Iran Mongolia

Dialogue partners

Armenia Azerbaijan Cambodia Nepal Sri Lanka Turkey

Guests

ASEAN CIS Turkmenistan

See also

Eurasian Land Bridge Three Evils Working languages

Chinese Russian

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 123087939 LCCN: n91129915 ISNI: 0000 0001 2105 2676 GND: 4058877-4 HDS: 4

.