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Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
(originally in Latin
Latin
written Systema Naturæ with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
(1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy. Although the system, now known as binomial nomenclature, was partially developed by the Bauhin brothers, Gaspard and Johann, 200 years earlier,[2] Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was first to use it consistently throughout his book. The first edition was published in 1735. The full title of the 10th edition (1758), which was the most important one, was Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis or translated: "System of nature through the three kingdoms of nature, according to classes, orders, genera and species, with characters, differences, synonyms, places". The tenth edition of this book (1758) is considered the starting point of zoological nomenclature.[3] In 1766–1768 Linnaeus
Linnaeus
published the much enhanced 12th edition, the last under his authorship. Another again enhanced work in the same style and entitled "Systema Naturae" was published by Johann Friedrich Gmelin
Johann Friedrich Gmelin
between 1788 and 1793. Since at least the early 1900s zoologists commonly recognized this as the last edition belonging to this series.[4][5] It was also officially regarded by the ICZN in Opinion 296 (26 Oct 1954) as the 13th edition of Systema Naturae.[6]

Contents

1 Overview 2 Taxonomy

2.1 The Animal
Animal
Kingdom 2.2 The Plant Kingdom 2.3 The Mineral
Mineral
Kingdoms

3 Editions 4 See also 5 References 6 Bibliography 7 External links

Overview[edit] Linnaeus
Linnaeus
(later known as "Carl von Linné", after his ennoblement in 1761)[7] published the first edition of Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
in the year 1735, during his stay in the Netherlands. As was customary for the scientific literature of its day, the book was published in Latin. In it, he outlined his ideas for the hierarchical classification of the natural world, dividing it into the animal kingdom (regnum animale), the plant kingdom (regnum vegetabile), and the "mineral kingdom" (regnum lapideum). Linnaeus's Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
lists only about 10,000 species of organisms, of which about 6,000 are plants and 4,236 are animals.[8] According to the historian of botany William T. Stearn, "Even in 1753 he believed that the number of species of plants in the whole world would hardly reach 10,000; in his whole career he named about 7,700 species of flowering plants."[9] Linnaeus
Linnaeus
developed his classification of the plant kingdom in an attempt to describe and understand the natural world as a reflection of the logic of God's creation.[10] His sexual system, where species with the same number of stamens were treated in the same group, was convenient but in his view artificial.[10] Linnaeus
Linnaeus
believed in God's creation, and that there were no deeper relationships to be expressed. He is frequently quoted to have said: " God
God
created, Linnaeus organized" (Latin: Deus creavit, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
disposuit).[11] The classification of animals was more natural. For instance, humans were for the first time placed together with other primates, as Anthropomorpha. As a result of the popularity of the work, and the number of new specimens sent to him from around the world, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
kept publishing new and ever-expanding editions of his work.[12] It grew from eleven very large pages in the first edition (1735) to 2,400 pages in the 12th edition (1766–1768).[13] Also, as the work progressed, he made changes: in the first edition, whales were classified as fishes, following the work of Linnaeus' friend and "father of ichthyology" Peter Artedi; in the 10th edition, published in 1758, whales were moved into the mammal class. In this same edition, he introduced two-part names (see binomen) for animal species, something that he had done for plant species (see binary name) in the 1753 publication of Species
Species
Plantarum. The system eventually developed into modern Linnaean taxonomy, a hierarchically organized biological classification. After Linnaeus' health declined in the early 1770s, publication of editions of Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
went in two directions. Another Swedish scientist, Johan Andreas Murray issued the Regnum Vegetabile section separately in 1774 as the Systema Vegetabilium, rather confusingly labelled the 13th edition.[14] Meanwhile, a 13th edition of the entire Systema appeared in parts between 1788 and 1793. It was as the Systema Vegetabilium that Linnaeus' work became widely known in England following translation from the Latin
Latin
by the Lichfield Botanical Society, as A System of Vegetables (1783–1785).[15] Taxonomy[edit] In his Imperium Naturæ, Linnaeus
Linnaeus
established three kingdoms, namely Regnum Animale, Regnum Vegetabile and Regnum Lapideum. This approach, the Animal, Vegetable and Mineral
Mineral
Kingdoms, survives until today in the popular mind, notably in the form of parlour games: "Is it animal, vegetable or mineral?". The classification was based on five levels: kingdom, class, order, genus, and species. While species and genus was seen as God-given (or "natural"), the three higher levels were seen by Linnaeus
Linnaeus
as constructs. The concept behind the set ranks being applied to all groups was to make a system that was easy to remember and navigate, a task which most say he succeeded in.

The 1735 classification of animals

Linnaeus's work had a huge impact on science; it was indispensable as a foundation for biological nomenclature, now regulated by the Nomenclature Codes. Two of his works, the first edition of the Species Plantarum (1753) for plants and the 10th edition of the Systema Naturæ (1758), are accepted among the starting points of nomenclature. Most of his names for species and genera were published at very early dates, thus take priority over those of other, later works. In zoology there is one exception, which is a monograph on Swedish spiders, Svenska Spindlar,[16] published by Carl Clerck in 1757, so the names established there take priority over the Linnean names.[17] However, his impact on science was not because of the value of his taxonomy. His talent for attracting skillful young students and sending them abroad to collect made his work far more influential than that of his contemporaries.[18] At the close of the 18th century, his system had effectively become the standard system for biological classification. The Animal
Animal
Kingdom[edit] Only in the Animal
Animal
Kingdom is the higher taxonomy of Linnaeus
Linnaeus
still more or less recognizable and some of these names are still in use, but usually not quite for the same groups as used by Linnaeus. He divided the Animal
Animal
Kingdom into six classes; in the tenth edition (1758), these were:

Mammalia comprised the mammals. In the first edition, whales and the West Indian manatee
West Indian manatee
were classified among the fishes. Aves comprised the birds. Linnaeus
Linnaeus
was the first to remove bats from the birds and classify them under mammals. Amphibia comprised amphibians, reptiles, and assorted fishes that are not of Osteichthyes. Pisces comprised the bony fishes. These included the spiny-finned fishes (Perciformes) as a separate order. Insecta comprised all arthropods. Crustaceans, arachnids and myriapods were included as the order "Aptera". Vermes comprised the remaining invertebrates, roughly divided into "worms", molluscs, and hard-shelled organisms like echinoderms.

The Plant Kingdom[edit] The orders and classes of plants, according to his Systema Sexuale, were never intended to represent natural groups (as opposed to his ordines naturales in his Philosophia Botanica) but only for use in identification. They were used in that sense well into the 19th century.

Key to the Sexual System from the 10th (1758) edition of Systema Naturæ

The Linnaean classes for plants, in the Sexual System, were:

Classis 1. Monandria Classis 2. Diandria Classis 3. Triandria Classis 4. Tetrandria Classis 5. Pentandria Classis 6. Hexandria Classis 7. Heptandria Classis 8. Octandria Classis 9. Enneandria Classis 10. Decandria Classis 11. Dodecandria Classis 12. Icosandria Classis 13. Polyandra Classis 14. Didynamia Classis 15. Tetradynamia Classis 16. Monadelphia Classis 17. Diadelphia Classis 18. Polyadelphia Classis 19. Syngenesia Classis 20. Gynandria Classis 21. Monoecia Classis 22. Dioecia Classis 23. Polygamia Classis 24. Cryptogamia

The Mineral
Mineral
Kingdoms[edit] Linnaeus's taxonomy of minerals has long since fallen out of use. In the 10th edition, 1758, of the Systema Naturæ, the Linnaean classes were:

Classis 1. Petræ (rocks) Classis 2. Mineræ (minerals and ores) Classis 3. Fossilia (fossils and aggregates)[19]

Editions[edit] The Gmelin thirteenth (decima tertia) edition of 1788–1793, is likely to be confused with another thirteenth edition prepared by Johan Andreas Murray in 1774, and then subsequently in further editions, all under a revised name of Systema Vegetabilium.[14]

Edition Location Year Complete bibliographical citation Links to online versions

1 Leiden 1735 Linnæus, C. 1735. Systema naturæ, sive regna tria naturæ systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera, & species. – pp. [1–12]. Lugduni Batavorum. (Haak) Missouri Botanical Garden

2 Stockholm 1740 Linnæus, C. 1740. Systema naturæ in quo naturæ regna tria, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, systematice proponuntur. Editio secunda, auctior. – pp. [1–2], 1–80. Stockholmiæ. (Kiesewetter) Google Books

3 Halle 1740 Lange, J. J. 1740. Caroli Linnaei systema natvrae, sive Regna tria natvrae systematice proposita per classes, ordines, genera et species. Caroli Linnaei Natur-Systema, oder die in ordentlichem Zusammenhange vorgetragene drey Reiche der Natur nach ihren Classen, Ordnungen, Geschlechtern und Arten, in die deutsche Sprache übersetzet und mit einer Vorrede herausgegeben von Johann Joachim Langen. – pp. [1–8], 1–70, [1]. Halle. (Gebauer) Bayerische Staatsbibliothek

4 Paris 1744 Linnæus, C. 1744. Systema naturæ in quo proponuntur naturæ regna tria secundum classes, ordines, genera & species. Editio quarta ab auctore emendata & aucta. Accesserunt nomina Gallica. – pp. i–xxvi, [1], 1–108. Parisiis. (David.) Google Books CSIC Madrid

5 Halle 1747 Agnethler, M. G. 1747. Caroli Linnæi systema natvræ in qvo natvræ regna tria, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species, systematice proponvntvr. Recvsvm et societatis, qvæ impensas contvlit, vsvi accommodatvm. Editio altera avctior et emendatior. – pp. 1–88. Halæ Magdebvrgicæ. Bayerische Staatsbibliothek

6 Stockholm 1748 Linnæus, C. 1748. Systema naturæ sistens regna tria naturæ, in classes et ordines, genera et species redacta tabulisque æneis illustrata. Editio sexta, emendata et aucta. – pp. [1–3], 1–224, [1–18], Tab. I–VIII. Stockholmiæ. (Kiesewetter) SUB Göttingen

7 Leipzig 1748 Linnæus, C. 1748. Systema naturæ sistens regna tria naturæ, in classes et ordines, genera et species redacta tabulisque æneis illustrata. Secundum sextam Stockholmiensem emendatam & auctam editionem. – pp. [A], [1–5], 1–224, [1–22], Tab. I–VIII. Lipsiae. (Kiesewetter) Bayerische Staatsbibliothek

8 Stockholm 1753 Haartman, J. J. 1753. Caroli Linnæi Indelning i Ö̈rt-Riket, efter Systema Naturae, på Swenska öfwersatt af Johan J. Haartman. – pp. [1–12], 1–136, [1–8]. Stockholm. (Salvius) Umeå UB

9 Leiden 1756 Linnæus, C. 1756. Systema naturæ sistens regna tria naturæ in classes et ordines, genera et species redacta, tabulisque æneis illustrata. Accedunt vocabula gallica. Editio multo auctior & emendatior. – pp. [1–7], 1–227, [1–19], Tab. I–VIII. Lugduni Batavorum. (Haak) New York Botanical Garden Bayerische Staatsbibliothek

10, Vol. 1 Stockholm 1758 Linnæus, C. 1758. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. – pp. [1–4], 1–824. Holmiæ. (Salvius) Bayerische Staatsbibliothek SUB Göttingen Missouri Botanical Garden

10, Vol. 2 Stockholm 1759 Linnæus, C. 1759. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus II. Editio decima, reformata. – pp. [1–4], 825–1384. Holmiæ. (Salvius) Missouri Botanical Garden

11, Vol. 1 Halle 1760 Linnaeus, C. 1760. Systema natvrae per regna tria natvrae, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species, cvm characteribvs, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomvs I. Praefactvs est Ioannes Ioachimvs Langivs. Ad editionem decimam reformatam Holmiensem. – pp. [1–8], 1–824. Halae Magdebvrgicae. (Curt). (Linnæus 1758: p. 5 recorded probably this edition as from Leipzig 1762, "nil additum" = nothing added) New York Botanical Garden (pp. [1–8], 1–338) New York Botanical Garden (pp. 339–824)

12, Vol. 1, part 1 Stockholm 1766 Linné, C. a 1766. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio duodecima, reformata. – pp. 1–532. Holmiæ. (Salvius) SUB Göttingen Bayerische Staatsbibliothek

12, Vol. 1, part 2 Stockholm 1767 Linné, C. a 1767. Systema naturæ, Tom. I. Pars II. Editio duodecima reformata. – pp. 533–1327, [1–37]. Holmiæ. (Salvius) SUB Göttingen Bayerische Staatsbibliothek

12, Vol. 2 Stockholm 1767 Linné, C. a 1767. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus & differentiis. Tomus II. – pp. 1–735, [1–16], 1–142, [1–2]. Holmiæ. (Salvius)

12, Vol. 3 Stockholm 1768 Linné, C. a 1768. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus & differentiis. Tomus III. – pp. 1–236, [1–20], Tab. I–III. Holmiæ. (Salvius) SUB Göttingen

12a ("13"), Vol. 1, part. 1 Vienna 1767 Linné, C. a 1767. Systema naturæ per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima tertia, ad editionem duodecimam reformatam Holmiensem. – pp. 1–532. Vindobonae. (Trattnern) NCSU Libraries Missouri Botanical Garden Google Books

12a ("13"), Vol. 1, part 2 Vienna 1767 Linné, C. a [1767]. Systema naturæ. Tom. I. Pars II. – pp. [1–2], 1–1327, [1–37]. Vindobonae. (Trattnern) NCSU Libraries Missouri Botanical Garden Google Books

12a ("13"), Vol. 2 Vienna 1770 Linné, C. a 1770. Systema natvrae per regna tria natvrae, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species cvm characteribvs, et differentiis. Tomvs II. Editio decima tertia, ad editionem duodecimam reformatam Holmiensem. – 1–736, [1–6]. Vindobonae. (Trattnern) NCSU Libraries Missouri Botanical Garden New York Botanical Garden Google Books

12a ("13"), Vol. 3 Vienna 1770 Linnaeus, C. 1770. Systema natvrae per regna tria natvrae, secvndvm classes, ordines, genera, species cvm characteribvs, et differentiis. Tomvs III. – 1–236, [1–19]. Vindobonae. (Trattnern) NCSU Libraries Missouri Botanical Garden Google Books

12b, Vol. 1 Göttingen 1772 Beckmann, J. 1772. Caroli a Linné systema naturae ex editione duodecima in epitomen redactum et praelectionibus academicis accommodatum a Iohanne Beckmanno. Tomus I. Regnum Animale. – pp. [1–5], 1–240, [1–10]. Gottingae. (Vandenhoeck) NCSU Libraries

12b, Vol. 2 Göttingen 1772 Beckmann, J. 1772. Caroli a Linné systema naturae ex editione duodecima in epitomen redactum et praelectionibus academicis accommodatum a Iohanne Beckmanno. Tomus II. Regnum Vegetabile. – pp. 1–356, [1–32]. Gottingae. (Vandenhoeck) NCSU Libraries

13, Vol. 1, part 1 Leipzig 1788 Gmelin, J. F. 1788. Caroli a Linné systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. – pp. [1–12], 1–500. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden NCSU Libraries

13, Vol. 1, part 2 Leipzig [1789] Gmelin, J. F. [1789]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars II. – pp. 501–1032. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden NCSU Libraries

13, Vol. 1, part 3 Leipzig [1789] Gmelin, J. F. [1789]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars III. – pp. 1033–1516. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden NCSU Libraries

13, Vol. 1, part 4 Leipzig [1790] Gmelin, J. F. [1790]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars IV. – pp. 1517–2224. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden NCSU Libraries

13, Vol. 1, part 5 Leipzig [1790] Gmelin, J. F. [1790]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars V. – pp. 2225–3020. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden NCSU Libraries

13, Vol. 1, part 6 Leipzig [1791] Gmelin, J. F. [1791]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars VI. – pp. 3021–3910. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden NCSU Libraries

13, Vol. 1, part 7 Leipzig [1792] Gmelin, J. F. [1792]. Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. I. Pars VII. – pp. [1], 3911–4120. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden

13, Vol. 2, part 1 Leipzig 1791 Gmelin, J. F. 1791. Caroli a Linné systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus et differentiis. Tomus II. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. – pp. [1], I–XL, 1–884. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden NCSU Libraries Bayerische Staatsbibliothek

13, Vol. 2, part 2 Leipzig [1791]? Caroli a Linné, systema naturae. Tom. II. Pars II. – pp. [1], 885–1661, [1]. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden Bayerische Staatsbibliothek

13, Vol. 3 Leipzig 1793 Gmelin, J. F. 1793. Caroli a Linné (...) systema naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus et differentiis. Tomus III. Editio decima tertia, aucta, reformata. – pp. 1–476. Lipsiae. (Beer) Missouri Botanical Garden NCSU Libraries Bayerische Staatsbibliothek

The dates of publication for Gmelin's edition were the following:[20]

Part 1: pp. [1–12], 1–500 (25 July 1788) Part 2: pp. 501–1032 (20 April 1789) Part 3: pp. 1033–1516 (20 November 1789) Part 4: pp. 1517–2224 (21 May 1790) Part 5: pp. 2225–3020 (6 December 1790) Part 6: pp. 3021–3910 (14 May 1791) Part 7: pp. 3911–4120 (2 July 1792)

See also[edit]

Supplementum Plantarum Animalia Paradoxa 10th edition of Systema Naturae 12th edition of Systema Naturae

References[edit]

^ Linnaeus, Carl (1758). Systema naturae per regna tria naturae :secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis (in Latin) (10th ed.). Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius.  ^ Windelspecht (2002), p. 28. ^ Gordh, Gordon; Beardsley, John W. (1999). "Taxonomy and biological control". In Bellows, T. S.; Fisher, T. W. Handbook of Biological Control: Principles and Applications of Biological Control. Academic Press. pp. 45–55. ISBN 978-0-12-257305-7.  ^ "Sherborn, C. D. 1902." Index Animalium.  ^ "Neave, S. A. 1939–1940, updated". Nomenclator Zoologicus.  ^ Opinions and Declarations rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 8: 167–178, also p. 318 in ICZN 1987. Archived 2010-06-25 at the Wayback Machine. Official lists and indexes of names and works in zoology. – pp. 1–366. London. (The International Commission of Zoological Nomenclature). ^ Stearn, W. T. (1957). "An introduction to the Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
and cognate botanical works of Linnaeus". Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
(1957 Ray Society facsimile ed.). p. 14.  ^ Stearn, William T. (1959). "The background of Linnaeus's contributions to the nomenclature and methods of systematic biology" (PDF). Systematic Zoology. 8 (1): 4–22. JSTOR 2411603.  ^ Stearn, William T. (1959). "The background of Linnaeus's contributions to the nomenclature and methods of systematic biology" (PDF). Systematic Zoology. 8 (1): 8. JSTOR 2411603.  ^ a b Quammen, David (June 2007). "A Passion for Order". National Geographic Magazine. Retrieved 27 April 2013.  ^ Warne, K. (May 2007). "Organization Man". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 7 February 2018.  ^ Everts, Sarah (2016). "Information Overload". Distillations. 2 (2): 26–33. Retrieved 20 March 2018.  ^ Schiebinger, Londa (1993). "Why mammals are called mammals: gender politics in eighteenth-century natural history" (PDF). The American Historical Review. 98 (2): 382–411. JSTOR 2166840. PMID 11623150. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-02.  ^ a b Linné 1774. ^ Linné 1785. ^ Clerck, C. (1757). Svenska Spindlar
Svenska Spindlar
/ Aranei Svecici. Stockholm: Laurentius Salvius. pp. [1–8], 1–154, pl. 1–6.  ^ ICZN Code Art. 3.1 ^ Sörlin, Sverker; Fagerstedt, Otto (2004). Linné och hans apostlar [ Linnaeus
Linnaeus
and his apostles] (in Swedish). Örebro, Sweden: Natur & Kultur/Fakta. ISBN 978-91-27-35590-3.  ^ " Linnaeus
Linnaeus
as a mineralogist". Linné on line. Uppsala University. 2008.  ^ Hopkinson, John (1907). "Dates of Publication of the Separate Parts of Gmelin's Edition (13th) of the 'Systema Naturae' of Linnæus". Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 77 (4): 1035–1037. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1907.tb06965.x. 

Bibliography[edit]

Linné, Carl von (1774). Murray, Johann Andreas, ed. Systema vegetabilium (13th edition of Systema Naturae) (2 vols.). Gottingen: Typis et impensis Jo. Christ. Dieterich. Retrieved 24 February 2015. 

Linné, Carl von (1785) [1774]. Systema vegetabilium (13th edition of Systema Naturae) [A System of Vegetables 2 vols.]. Lichfield: Lichfield Botanical Society. Retrieved 24 February 2015. 

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Systema Naturae.

Linné online

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Carl Linnaeus

Published works

Linnaeus
Linnaeus
bibliography The Study of Instinct
The Study of Instinct
(book) Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
(1735) Fundamenta Botanica
Fundamenta Botanica
(1736) Bibliotheca Botanica
Bibliotheca Botanica
(1736) Musa Cliffortiania (1736) Critica Botanica
Critica Botanica
(1737) Flora Lapponica
Flora Lapponica
(1737) Genera Plantarum
Genera Plantarum
(1737)

General

Taxonomy (biology) Linnaean taxonomy
Linnaean taxonomy
(Linnaean classification) Botanical nomenclature Zoological nomenclature Binomial nomenclature Taxa named by Linnaeus‎ Natural history History of biology History of botany Historical race concepts

Related people

Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
the Younger Elisabeth Christina von Linné Apostles of Linnaeus Students of Linnaeus Pre-Linnaean botanists Gaspard Bauhin Johann Bauhin Peter Artedi Herman Boerhaave

Recognitions

Commemoration of Carl Linnaeus Expedition Linné Linnaea Linnaean Garden Linnaeite Linnaemya Linnaemyini 7412 Linnaeus Linnaeus
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Arboretum The Linnaeus
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Wikiquote

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Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
by Carl Linnaeus

10th edition

Mammalia Aves Amphibia Pisces Insecta

Coleoptera Hemiptera Lepidoptera Neuroptera Hymenoptera Diptera Aptera

Vermes

See also

12th edition Animalia Paradoxa

v t e

History of botany

Fields and disciplines

Agriculture Biogeography Bryology Cladistics Comparative anatomy Cytology Economic botany Ethnobotany Floristics Forestry Genetic engineering Horticulture Lichenology Molecular phylogenetics Mycology Natural history Numerical taxonomy Paleobotany Palynology Phycology Phytochemistry Phytogeography Plant anatomy Plant ecology Plant genetics Plant morphology Plant pathology Plant physiology Pteridology

Institutions

Jardin des Plantes Natural History Museum, London Orto botanico di Padova Orto botanico di Pisa Rothamsted Research Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew

Publications

Historia Plantarum and Causes of Plants of Theophrastus
Theophrastus
c. 300 BC De Plantis of Nicolaus of Damascus c. 1st-century BC De Materia Medica
De Materia Medica
of Dioscorides c. 60 AD Naturalis Historia 77–79 AD De Vegetabilibus of Albertus Magnus c. 1256 Herbarum Vivae Icones 1530 Libellus De Re Herbaria Novus 1538 Kreütterbuch
Kreütterbuch
of Hieronymus Bock
Hieronymus Bock
1539 De plantis libri XVI
De plantis libri XVI
of Caesalpino 1583 Stirpium Historiae 1583 Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes
Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes
1597 Prodromus Theatrici Botanici 1620 Pinax theatri botanici 1623 Anatome Plantarum 1675 Anatomy of Plants
Anatomy of Plants
1682 Historia Plantarum of John Ray
John Ray
1686–1704 De Sexu Plantarum Epistola 1694 Éléments de botanique 1694 Vegetable Staticks 1727 Systema Naturae
Systema Naturae
1735 Genera Plantarum
Genera Plantarum
1737 Philosophia Botanica
Philosophia Botanica
1751 Species Plantarum
Species Plantarum
1753 Systema Naturae, 10th ed. 1758–9 Familles des Plantes 1763–4 Experiments Upon Vegetables 1779 Die Metamorphose der Pflantzen 1790 Traité d'Anatomie et de Physiologie Végétale 1802 Recherches Chimiques sur la Végétation 1804 Beyträge zur Anatomie der Pflanzen 1812 Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis
Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis
1824–73

Nepenthaceae

Die Vegetabilische Zelle 1851 Vergleichende Untersuchungen 1851 On the Origin of Species
Species
1859 Experiments on Plant Hybridization
Experiments on Plant Hybridization
1865 Die Vegetation der Erde 1872 Plantesamfund 1895 Pflanzengeographie auf Physiologischer Grundlage 1898 Variation and Evolution in Plants
Variation and Evolution in Plants
1950 Ontogeny and Phylogeny 1977 An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants 1981

Theories and concepts

Alternation of generations Cell theory Center of diversity Phylogenetic nomenclature Spontaneous generation Taxonomy Ultrastructure

Influential figures

Theophrastus
Theophrastus
c. 371–287 BC Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
23–79 AD Pedanius Dioscorides
Pedanius Dioscorides
c. 40–90 AD Otto Brunfels
Otto Brunfels
1464–1534 Hieronymus Bock
Hieronymus Bock
1498–1554 Valerius Cordus
Valerius Cordus
1515–1544 William Turner 1515–1568 Rembert Dodoens
Rembert Dodoens
1517–1585 Andrea Cesalpino
Andrea Cesalpino
1519–1603 Gaspard Bauhin
Gaspard Bauhin
1560–1624 Joachim Jungius
Joachim Jungius
1587–1657 John Ray
John Ray
1623–1705 Nehemiah Grew
Nehemiah Grew
1628–1711 Marcello Malpighi
Marcello Malpighi
1628–1694 Joseph Pitton de Tournefort
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort
1656–1708 Rudolf Jakob Camerarius
Rudolf Jakob Camerarius
1665–1721 Stephen Hales
Stephen Hales
1677–1761 Bernard de Jussieu
Bernard de Jussieu
1699–1777 Carolus Linnaeus
Linnaeus
1707–1778 Michel Adanson
Michel Adanson
1727–1806 Jan Ingenhousz
Jan Ingenhousz
1730–1799 Joseph Banks
Joseph Banks
1743–1820 Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
1749–1832 Carl Ludwig Willdenow
Carl Ludwig Willdenow
1765–1812 Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure
Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure
1767–1845 Alexander von Humboldt
Alexander von Humboldt
1769–1859 Aimé Bonpland
Aimé Bonpland
1773–1858 Thomas Nuttall
Thomas Nuttall
1786–1859 Joakim Frederik Schouw
Joakim Frederik Schouw
1789–1852 Matthias Jakob Schleiden
Matthias Jakob Schleiden
1804–1881 Alexander Braun
Alexander Braun
1805–1877 George Engelmann
George Engelmann
1809–1884 Asa Gray
Asa Gray
1810–1888 August Grisebach
August Grisebach
1814–1879 Joseph Hooker 1817–1911 Gregor Mendel
Gregor Mendel
1822–1884 Nathanael Pringsheim
Nathanael Pringsheim
1823–1894 Wilhelm Hofmeister 1824–1877 Julius von Sachs
Julius von Sachs
1832–1897 Eugenius Warming
Eugenius Warming
1841–1924 William Gilson Farlow
William Gilson Farlow
1844–1919 Andreas Franz Wilhelm Schimper
Andreas Franz Wilhelm Schimper
1856–1901 Nikolai Vavilov
Nikolai Vavilov
1887–1943 Barbara McClintock
Barbara McClintock
1902–1992 G. Ledyard Stebbins
G. Ledyard Stebbins
1906–2000 Eugene Odum
Eugene Odum
1913–2002 Arthur Cronquist 1919–1992

Related

Botanical garden Herbal Plant taxonomy History of plant systematics Systems of plant taxonomy Herbalism History of agricultural science History of agriculture History of biochemistry History of biology History of biotechnology History of ecology History of evolutionary thought History of genetics History of geology History of medicine History of molecular biology History of molecular evolution History of paleontology History of phycology History of science Natural philosophy Philosophy of biology Timeline of biology and organic chemistry

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Natural history

Pioneering naturalists

Classical antiquity

Aristotle
Aristotle
(History of Animals) Theophrastus
Theophrastus
(Historia Plantarum) Aelian (De Natura Animalium) Pliny the Elder
Pliny the Elder
(Natural History) Dioscorides (De Materia Medica)

Renaissance

Gaspard Bauhin
Gaspard Bauhin
(Pinax theatri botanici) Otto Brunfels Hieronymus Bock Andrea Cesalpino Valerius Cordus Leonhart Fuchs Conrad Gessner
Conrad Gessner
(Historia animalium) Frederik Ruysch William Turner (Avium Praecipuarum, New Herball) John Gerard
John Gerard
(Herball, or Generall Historie of Plantes)

Enlightenment

Robert Hooke
Robert Hooke
(Micrographia) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek William Derham Hans Sloane Jan Swammerdam Carl Linnaeus
Carl Linnaeus
(Systema Naturae) Georg Steller Joseph Banks Johan Christian Fabricius James Hutton John Ray
John Ray
(Historia Plantarum) Comte de Buffon (Histoire Naturelle) Bernard Germain de Lacépède Gilbert White
Gilbert White
(The Natural History of Selborne) Thomas Bewick
Thomas Bewick
(A History of British Birds) Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
(Philosophie Zoologique)

19th century

George Montagu (Ornithological Dictionary) Georges Cuvier
Georges Cuvier
(Le Règne Animal) William Smith Charles Darwin
Charles Darwin
(On the Origin of Species) Alfred Russel Wallace
Alfred Russel Wallace
(The Malay Archipelago) Henry Walter Bates
Henry Walter Bates
(The Naturalist on the River Amazons) Alexander von Humboldt John James Audubon
John James Audubon
(The Birds of America) William Buckland Charles Lyell Mary Anning Jean-Henri Fabre Louis Agassiz Philip Henry Gosse Asa Gray William Jackson Hooker Joseph Dalton Hooker William Jardine (The Naturalist's Library) Ernst Haeckel
Ernst Haeckel
(Kunstformen der Natur) Richard Lydekker
Richard Lydekker
(The Royal Natural History)

20th century

Abbott Thayer (Concealing-Coloration in the Animal
Animal
Kingdom) Hugh B. Cott
Hugh B. Cott
(Adaptive Coloration in Animals) Niko Tinbergen
Niko Tinbergen
(The Study of Instinct) Konrad Lorenz
Konrad Lorenz
(On Aggression) Karl von Frisch
Karl von Frisch
(The Dancing Bees) Ronald Lockley
Ronald Lockley
(Shearwaters)

Topics

Natural history
Natural history
museums (List) Parson-naturalists (List) Natural History Societies List of natural history dealers

v t e

History of biology

Fields, disciplines

Agricultural science Anatomy Biochemistry Biotechnology Botany Ecology Evolutionary thought Genetics Geology Immunology Medicine Model organisms Molecular biology Molecular evolution Paleontology Phycology Plant systematics RNA biology Zoology (since 1859) Zoology (through 1859)

Institutions

Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Laboratory of Molecular Biology Marine Biological Laboratory Max Planck Society Pasteur Institute Rockefeller University Rothamsted Experimental Station Stazione Zoologica Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute

Theories, concepts

Germ theory of disease Central dogma of molecular biology Darwinism Great chain of being Hierarchy of life Lamarckism One gene–one enzyme hypothesis Protocell RNA world hypothesis Sequence hypothesis Spontaneous generation

History

Classical antiquity

Aristotle

Aristotle's biology On Generation and Corruption History of Animals

Theophrastus

Historia Plantarum

Dioscorides

De Materia Medica

Galen

Renaissance, Early Modern

Conrad Gessner

Historia animalium

Andreas Vesalius

De humani corporis fabrica

William Harvey

De Motu Cordis

Frederik Ruysch Jan Swammerdam Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Robert Hooke

Micrographia

Francesco Redi

Evolution

19th century

Linnaeus

Systema Naturae

Buffon

Histoire Naturelle

Lamarck

Philosophie Zoologique

Humboldt Charles Lyell

Principles of Geology

Charles Darwin

On the Origin of Species The Descent of Man

Gregor Mendel Alfred Russel Wallace Martinus Beijerinck Henry Walter Bates

Modern synthesis

William Bateson Theodosius Dobzhansky

Genetics
Genetics
and the Origin of Species

R. A. Fisher E. B. Ford J. B. S. Haldane Ernst Mayr Thomas Hunt Morgan George Gaylord Simpson Hugo de Vries Sewall Wright

Recent

Stephen Jay Gould W. D. Hamilton Lynn Margulis Aleksandr Oparin George C. Williams Carl Woese

Microbiology

Ferdinand Cohn Alexander Fleming Felix d'Herelle Robert Koch Louis Pasteur Lazzaro Spallanzani Sergei Winogradsky

Develop. biol., Evo-devo

Karl Ernst von Baer Gavin de Beer Sean B. Carroll Scott F. Gilbert Walter Gehring Ernst Haeckel François Jacob Edward B. Lewis Jacques Monod Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard Eric Wieschaus E. B. Wilson

Genetics, Molecular biology

Experiments

Griffith's (1928) Luria–Delbrück (1943) Avery–MacLeod–McCarty (1944) Miller–Urey (1952) Hershey–Chase (1952) Meselson–Stahl (1958) Crick, Brenner et al. (1961) Nirenberg–Matthaei (1961) Nirenberg–Leder (1964)

People

Barbara McClintock George Beadle Seymour Benzer Rosalind Franklin

Photo 51

James D. Watson
James D. Watson
and Francis Crick

"Molecular structure of Nucleic Acids"

Linus Pauling

"Sickle Cell Anemia, a Molecular Disease"

Fred Sanger Max Perutz John Kendrew Sydney Brenner Joshua Lederberg Walter Gilbert Kary Mullis Emmanuelle Charpentier Jennifer Doudna

Ecology

Rachel Carson Frederic Clements Charles Elton Henry Gleason Arthur Tansley Eugenius Warming

Ethology

Niko Tinbergen Karl von Frisch Konrad Lorenz Frans de Waal Jane Goodall Ivan Pavlov

Related

History of science Philosophy of biology

Teleology

Ethnobotany Eugenics History of the creation-evolution controversy Human
Human
Genome Project Humboldtian science Natural history Natural philosophy Natural theology Relationship between religion and science Timeline of biology and organic chemistry

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Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 312443157 LCCN: no98081

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