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Sustainable development
Sustainable development
is

the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend. The desired result is a state of society where living conditions and resource use continue to meet human needs without undermining the integrity and stability of the natural system. Sustainable development
Sustainable development
can be classified as development that meet the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations.

While the modern concept of sustainable development is derived mostly from the 1987 Brundtland Report, it is also rooted in earlier ideas about sustainable forest management and twentieth century environmental concerns. As the concept developed, it has shifted to focus more on economic development, social development and environmental protection for future generations. It has been suggested that "the term 'sustainability' should be viewed as humanity's target goal of human-ecosystem equilibrium (homeostasis), while 'sustainable development' refers to the holistic approach and temporal processes that lead us to the end point of sustainability".[1] The modern economies are endeavouring to reconcile ambitious economic development and obligations of preserving the natural resources and ecosystem, the two are traditionally seen as of conflicting nature. Instead of holding climate change commitments and other sustainability measures as a drag to economic development, turning and leveraging them into market opportunities will do greater good. The economic development brought by such organized principles and practices in an economy is called Managed Sustainable Development (MSD). The concept of sustainable development has been—and still is—subject to criticism. What, exactly, is to be sustained in sustainable development? It has been argued that there is no such thing as a sustainable use of a non-renewable resource, since any positive rate of exploitation will eventually lead to the exhaustion of earth's finite stock. This perspective renders the industrial revolution as a whole unsustainable. It has also been argued that the meaning of the concept has opportunistically been stretched from "conservation management" to "economic development", and that the Brundtland Report promoted nothing but a business as usual strategy for world development, with an ambiguous and insubstantial concept attached as a public relations slogan.

Contents

1 History 2 The Sustainable Development Goals
Sustainable Development Goals
(SDGs) 3 Domains

3.1 Environmental (or ecological)

3.1.1 Agriculture

3.2 Economics

3.2.1 Environmental economics 3.2.2 Energy 3.2.3 Manufacturing 3.2.4 Technology 3.2.5 Transport 3.2.6 Business 3.2.7 Income 3.2.8 Architecture

3.3 Politics 3.4 Culture

4 Themes

4.1 Progress 4.2 Measurement 4.3 Natural capital 4.4 Business-as-usual 4.5 Education

5 Insubstantial stretching of the term 6 See also 7 Sources 8 References 9 Further reading 10 External links

History[edit] Main articles: Sustainability
Sustainability
and History of sustainability

The Blue Marble
The Blue Marble
photograph, taken from Apollo 17
Apollo 17
on 7 December 1972, quickly became an icon of environmental conservation.[2]:7

Sustainability
Sustainability
can be defined as the practice of maintaining processes of productivity indefinitely—natural or human made—by replacing resources used with resources of equal or greater value without degrading or endangering natural biotic systems.[3] Sustainable development ties together concern for the carrying capacity of natural systems with the social, political, and economic challenges faced by humanity. Sustainability
Sustainability
science is the study of the concepts of sustainable development and environmental science. There is an additional focus on the present generations' responsibility to regenerate, maintain and improve planetary resources for use by future generations.[4]:3-8 Sustainable development
Sustainable development
has its roots in ideas about sustainable forest management which were developed in Europe during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.[5][2]:6-16 In response to a growing awareness of the depletion of timber resources in England, John Evelyn
John Evelyn
argued that "sowing and planting of trees had to be regarded as a national duty of every landowner, in order to stop the destructive over-exploitation of natural resources" in his 1662 essay Sylva. In 1713 Hans Carl von Carlowitz, a senior mining administrator in the service of Elector Frederick Augustus I of Saxony published Sylvicultura oeconomica, a 400-page work on forestry. Building upon the ideas of Evelyn and French minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert, von Carlowitz developed the concept of managing forests for sustained yield.[5] His work influenced others, including Alexander von Humboldt and Georg Ludwig Hartig, eventually leading to the development of a science of forestry. This in turn influenced people like Gifford Pinchot, first head of the US Forest Service, whose approach to forest management was driven by the idea of wise use of resources, and Aldo Leopold whose land ethic was influential in the development of the environmental movement in the 1960s.[5][2] Following the publication of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring
Silent Spring
in 1962, the developing environmental movement drew attention to the relationship between economic growth and development and environmental degradation. Kenneth E. Boulding
Kenneth E. Boulding
in his influential 1966 essay The Economics
Economics
of the Coming Spaceship Earth identified the need for the economic system to fit itself to the ecological system with its limited pools of resources.[2] One of the first uses of the term sustainable in the contemporary sense was by the Club of Rome
Club of Rome
in 1972 in its classic report on the Limits to Growth, written by a group of scientists led by Dennis and Donella Meadows of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Describing the desirable "state of global equilibrium", the authors wrote: "We are searching for a model output that represents a world system that is sustainable without sudden and uncontrolled collapse and capable of satisfying the basic material requirements of all of its people."[4] In 1980 the International Union for the Conservation of Nature published a world conservation strategy that included one of the first references to sustainable development as a global priority[6] and introduced the term "sustainable development".[7]:4 Two years later, the United Nations
United Nations
World Charter for Nature raised five principles of conservation by which human conduct affecting nature is to be guided and judged.[8] In 1987 the United Nations
United Nations
World Commission on Environment and Development released the report Our Common Future, commonly called the Brundtland Report. The report included what is now one of the most widely recognised definitions of sustainable development.[9][10]

Sustainable development
Sustainable development
is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. It contains within it two key concepts: · The concept of 'needs', in particular, the essential needs of the world's poor, to which overriding priority should be given; and · The idea of limitations imposed by the state of technology and social organization on the environment's ability to meet present and future needs. ”

— World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future (1987)

Since the Brundtland Report, the concept of sustainable development has developed beyond the initial intergenerational framework to focus more on the goal of "socially inclusive and environmentally sustainable economic growth".[7]:5 In 1992, the UN Conference on Environment and Development published the Earth Charter, which outlines the building of a just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st century. The action plan Agenda 21
Agenda 21
for sustainable development identified information, integration, and participation as key building blocks to help countries achieve development that recognises these interdependent pillars. It emphasises that in sustainable development everyone is a user and provider of information. It stresses the need to change from old sector-centered ways of doing business to new approaches that involve cross-sectoral co-ordination and the integration of environmental and social concerns into all development processes. Furthermore, Agenda 21
Agenda 21
emphasises that broad public participation in decision making is a fundamental prerequisite for achieving sustainable development.[11] Under the principles of the United Nations
United Nations
Charter the Millennium Declaration identified principles and treaties on sustainable development, including economic development, social development and environmental protection. Broadly defined, sustainable development is a systems approach to growth and development and to manage natural, produced, and social capital for the welfare of their own and future generations. The term sustainable development as used by the United Nations incorporates both issues associated with land development and broader issues of human development such as education, public health, and standard of living.[citation needed] A 2013 study concluded that sustainability reporting should be reframed through the lens of four interconnected domains: ecology, economics, politics and culture.[12] The Sustainable Development Goals
Sustainable Development Goals
(SDGs)[edit] In September 2015, the United Nations
United Nations
General Assembly formally adopted the "universal, integrated and transformative" 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, a set of 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). The goals are to be implemented and achieved in every country from the year 2016 to 2030. Domains[edit] See also: Planetary boundaries
Planetary boundaries
and Triple bottom line

Scheme of sustainable development: at the confluence of three constituent parts. (2006)

Sustainable development, or sustainability, has been described in terms of three spheres, dimensions, domains or pillars, i.e. the environment, the economy and society. The three-sphere framework was initially proposed by the economist René Passet in 1979.[13] It has also been worded as "economic, environmental and social" or "ecology, economy and equity".[14] This has been expanded by some authors to include a fourth pillar of culture, institutions or governance,[14] or alternatively reconfigured as four domains of the social - ecology, economics, politics and culture[15], thus bringing economics back inside the social, and treating ecology as the intersection of the social and the natural.[16] Environmental (or ecological)[edit] See also: Ecological engineering

Relationship between ecological footprint and Human Development Index (HDI)

The ecological stability of human settlements is part of the relationship between humans and their natural, social and built environments.[17] Also termed human ecology, this broadens the focus of sustainable development to include the domain of human health. Fundamental human needs such as the availability and quality of air, water, food and shelter are also the ecological foundations for sustainable development;[18] addressing public health risk through investments in ecosystem services can be a powerful and transformative force for sustainable development which, in this sense, extends to all species.[19] Environmental sustainability concerns the natural environment and how it endures and remains diverse and productive. Since natural resources are derived from the environment, the state of air, water, and the climate are of particular concern. The IPCC Fifth Assessment Report outlines current knowledge about scientific, technical and socio-economic information concerning climate change, and lists options for adaptation and mitigation.[20] Environmental sustainability requires society to design activities to meet human needs while preserving the life support systems of the planet. This, for example, entails using water sustainably, utilizing renewable energy, and sustainable material supplies (e.g. harvesting wood from forests at a rate that maintains the biomass and biodiversity).[citation needed] An unsustainable situation occurs when natural capital (the sum total of nature's resources) is used up faster than it can be replenished. Sustainability
Sustainability
requires that human activity only uses nature's resources at a rate at which they can be replenished naturally. Inherently the concept of sustainable development is intertwined with the concept of carrying capacity. Theoretically, the long-term result of environmental degradation is the inability to sustain human life. Such degradation on a global scale should imply an increase in human death rate until population falls to what the degraded environment can support.[citation needed] If the degradation continues beyond a certain tipping point or critical threshold it would lead to eventual extinction for humanity.[citation needed]

Consumption of non-renewable resources State of environment Sustainability

More than nature's ability to replenish Environmental degradation Not sustainable

Equal to nature's ability to replenish Environmental equilibrium Steady state economy

Less than nature's ability to replenish Environmental renewal Environmentally sustainable

Integral elements for a sustainable development are research and innovation activities. A telling example is the European environmental research and innovation policy, which aims at defining and implementing a transformative agenda to greening the economy and the society as a whole so to achieve a truly sustainable development. Research and innovation in Europe is financially supported by the programme Horizon 2020, which is also open to participation worldwide.[21] A promising direction towards sustainable development is to design systems that are flexible and reversible.[22][23] Pollution
Pollution
of the public resources is really not a different action, it just is a reverse tragedy of the commons, in that instead of taking something out, something is put into the commons. When the costs of polluting the commons are not calculated into the cost of the items consumed, then it becomes only natural to pollute, as the cost of pollution is external to the cost of the goods produced and the cost of cleaning the waste before it is discharged exceeds the cost of releasing the waste directly into the commons. So, the only way to solve this problem is by protecting the ecology of the commons by making it, through taxes or fines, more costly to release the waste directly into the commons than would be the cost of cleaning the waste before discharge.[24] So, one can try to appeal to the ethics of the situation by doing the right thing as an individual, but in the absence of any direct consequences, the individual will tend to do what is best for the person and not what is best for the common good of the public. Once again, this issue needs to be addressed. Because, left unaddressed, the development of the commonly owned property will become impossible to achieve in a sustainable way. So, this topic is central to the understanding of creating a sustainable situation from the management of the public resources that are used for personal use. Agriculture[edit] See also: Sustainable agriculture Sustainable agriculture
Sustainable agriculture
consists of environment friendly methods of farming that allow the production of crops or livestock without damage to human or natural systems. It involves preventing adverse effects to soil, water, biodiversity, surrounding or downstream resources—as well as to those working or living on the farm or in neighboring areas. The concept of sustainable agriculture extends intergenerationally, passing on a conserved or improved natural resource, biotic, and economic base rather than one which has been depleted or polluted.[25] Elements of sustainable agriculture include permaculture, agroforestry, mixed farming, multiple cropping, and crop rotation.[26] It involves agricultural methods that do not undermine the environment, smart farming technologies that enhance a quality environment for humans to thrive and reclaiming and transforming deserts into farmlands(Herman Daly, 2017).[citation needed] Numerous sustainability standards and certification systems exist, including organic certification, Rainforest Alliance, Fair Trade, UTZ Certified, Bird Friendly, and the Common Code for the Coffee Community (4C).[27][28] Economics[edit]

A sewage treatment plant that uses solar energy, located at Santuari de Lluc monastery, Majorca.

See also: Ecological economics It has been suggested that because of rural poverty and overexploitation, environmental resources should be treated as important economic assets, called natural capital.[29] Economic development has traditionally required a growth in the gross domestic product. This model of unlimited personal and GDP growth may be over.[30] Sustainable development
Sustainable development
may involve improvements in the quality of life for many but may necessitate a decrease in resource consumption.[31] According to ecological economist Malte Faber, ecological economics is defined by its focus on nature, justice, and time. Issues of intergenerational equity, irreversibility of environmental change, uncertainty of long-term outcomes, and sustainable development guide ecological economic analysis and valuation.[32] As early as the 1970s, the concept of sustainability was used to describe an economy "in equilibrium with basic ecological support systems".[33] Scientists in many fields have highlighted The Limits to Growth,[34][35] and economists have presented alternatives, for example a 'steady-state economy';[36] to address concerns over the impacts of expanding human development on the planet. In 1987 the economist Edward Barbier published the study The Concept of Sustainable Economic Development, where he recognised that goals of environmental conservation and economic development are not conflicting and can be reinforcing each other.[37] A World Bank
World Bank
study from 1999 concluded that based on the theory of genuine savings, policymakers have many possible interventions to increase sustainability, in macroeconomics or purely environmental.[38] A study from 2001 noted that efficient policies for renewable energy and pollution are compatible with increasing human welfare, eventually reaching a golden-rule steady state.[39] The study, Interpreting Sustainability
Sustainability
in Economic Terms, found three pillars of sustainable development, interlinkage, intergenerational equity, and dynamic efficiency.[40] But Gilbert Rist points out that the World Bank
World Bank
has twisted the notion of sustainable development to prove that economic development need not be deterred in the interest of preserving the ecosystem. He writes: "From this angle, 'sustainable development' looks like a cover-up operation. ... The thing that is meant to be sustained is really 'development', not the tolerance capacity of the ecosystem or of human societies."[41] The World Bank, a leading producer of environmental knowledge, continues to advocate the win-win prospects for economic growth and ecological stability even as its economists express their doubts.[42] Herman Daly, an economist for the Bank from 1988 to 1994, writes:

When authors of WDR '92 [the highly influential 1992 World Development Report that featured the environment] were drafting the report, they called me asking for examples of "win-win" strategies in my work. What could I say? None exists in that pure form; there are trade-offs, not "win-wins." But they want to see a world of "win-wins" based on articles of faith, not fact. I wanted to contribute because WDRs are important in the Bank, [because] task managers read [them] to find philosophical justification for their latest round of projects. But they did not want to hear about how things really are, or what I find in my work..."[43]

A meta review in 2002 looked at environmental and economic valuations and found a lack of "sustainability policies".[44] A study in 2004 asked if we consume too much.[45] A study concluded in 2007 that knowledge, manufactured and human capital (health and education) has not compensated for the degradation of natural capital in many parts of the world.[46] It has been suggested that intergenerational equity can be incorporated into a sustainable development and decision making, as has become common in economic valuations of climate economics.[47] A meta review in 2009 identified conditions for a strong case to act on climate change, and called for more work to fully account of the relevant economics and how it affects human welfare.[48] According to free-market environmentalist John Baden "the improvement of environment quality depends on the market economy and the existence of legitimate and protected property rights". They enable the effective practice of personal responsibility and the development of mechanisms to protect the environment. The State can in this context "create conditions which encourage the people to save the environment".[49] Misum, Mistra Center for Sustainable Markets, based at Stockholm School of Economics, aims to provide policy research and advice to Swedish and international actors on Sustainable Markets. Misum is a cross-disciplinary and multi-stakeholder knowledge center dedicated to sustainability and sustainable markets and contains three research platforms: Sustainability
Sustainability
in Financial Markets (Mistra Financial Systems), Sustainability
Sustainability
in Production and Consumption and Sustainable Socio-Economic Development.[50] Environmental economics[edit] Main article: Environmental economics The total environment includes not just the biosphere of earth, air, and water, but also human interactions with these things, with nature, and what humans have created as their surroundings.[51] As countries around the world continue to advance economically, they put a strain on the ability of the natural environment to absorb the high level of pollutants that are created as a part of this economic growth. Therefore, solutions need to be found so that the economies of the world can continue to grow, but not at the expense of the public good. In the world of economics the amount of environmental quality must be considered as limited in supply and therefore is treated as a scarce resource. This is a resource to be protected. One common way to analyze possible outcomes of policy decisions on the scarce resource is to do a cost-benefit analysis. This type of analysis contrasts different options of resource allocation and, based on an evaluation of the expected courses of action and the consequences of these actions, the optimal way to do so in the light of different policy goals can be elicited.[52] Benefit-cost analysis basically can look at several ways of solving a problem and then assigning the best route for a solution, based on the set of consequences that would result from the further development of the individual courses of action, and then choosing the course of action that results in the least amount of damage to the expected outcome for the environmental quality that remains after that development or process takes place. Further complicating this analysis are the interrelationships of the various parts of the environment that might be impacted by the chosen course of action. Sometimes it is almost impossible to predict the various outcomes of a course of action, due to the unexpected consequences and the amount of unknowns that are not accounted for in the benefit-cost analysis.[citation needed] Energy[edit] Main articles: Smart grid
Smart grid
and Sustainable energy Sustainable energy
Sustainable energy
is clean and can be used over a long period of time. Unlike fossil fuels and biofuels that provide the bulk of the worlds energy, renewable energy sources like hydroelectric, solar and wind energy produce far less pollution.[53][54] Solar energy
Solar energy
is commonly used on public parking meters, street lights and the roof of buildings.[55] Wind
Wind
power has expanded quickly, its share of worldwide electricity usage at the end of 2014 was 3.1%.[56] Most of California's fossil fuel infrastructures are sited in or near low-income communities, and have traditionally suffered the most from California's fossil fuel energy system. These communities are historically left out during the decision-making process, and often end up with dirty power plants and other dirty energy projects that poison the air and harm the area. These toxicants are major contributors to health problems in the communities. As renewable energy becomes more common, fossil fuel infrastructures are replaced by renewables, providing better social equity to these communities.[57] Overall, and in the long run, sustainable development in the field of energy is also deemed to contribute to economic sustainability and national security of communities, thus being increasingly encouraged through investment policies.[58] Manufacturing[edit] Main article: Green manufacturing and Distributed manufacturing Technology[edit] See also: Appropriate technology, Environmental engineering, and Environmental technology One of the core concepts in sustainable development is that technology can be used to assist people meet their developmental needs. Technology to meet these sustainable development needs is often referred to as appropriate technology, which is an ideological movement (and its manifestations) originally articulated as intermediate technology by the economist E. F. Schumacher in his influential work, Small is Beautiful. and now covers a wide range of technologies.[59] Both Schumacher and many modern-day proponents of appropriate technology also emphasise the technology as people-centered.[60] Today appropriate technology is often developed using open source principles, which have led to open-source appropriate technology (OSAT) and thus many of the plans of the technology can be freely found on the Internet.[61] OSAT has been proposed as a new model of enabling innovation for sustainable development.[62][63] Transport[edit] See also: Sustainable transport Transportation is a large contributor to greenhouse gas emissions. It is said that one-third of all gasses produced are due to transportation.[64] Motorized transport also releases exhaust fumes that contain particulate matter which is hazardous to human health and a contributor to climate change.[65] Sustainable transport
Sustainable transport
has many social and economic benefits that can accelerate local sustainable development. According to a series of reports by the Low Emission Development Strategies Global Partnership (LEDS GP), sustainable transport can help create jobs,[66] improve commuter safety through investment in bicycle lanes and pedestrian pathways,[67] make access to employment and social opportunities more affordable and efficient. It also offers a practical opportunity to save people's time and household income as well as government budgets,[68] making investment in sustainable transport a 'win-win' opportunity. Some Western countries are making transportation more sustainable in both long-term and short-term implementations.[69] An example is the modification in available transportation in Freiburg, Germany. The city has implemented extensive methods of public transportation, cycling, and walking, along with large areas where cars are not allowed.[64] Since many Western countries are highly automobile-oriented, the main transit that people use is personal vehicles. About 80% of their travel involves cars.[64] Therefore, California, is one of the highest greenhouse gases emitters in the United States. The federal government has to come up with some plans to reduce the total number of vehicle trips in order to lower greenhouse gases emission. Such as:

Improve public transit through the provision of larger coverage area in order to provide more mobility and accessibility, new technology to provide a more reliable and responsive public transportation network.[70] Encourage walking and biking through the provision of wider pedestrian pathway, bike share stations in downtowns, locate parking lots far from the shopping center, limit on street parking, slower traffic lane in downtown area. Increase the cost of car ownership and gas taxes through increased parking fees and tolls, encouraging people to drive more fuel efficient vehicles. This can produce a social equity problem, since lower income people usually drive older vehicles with lower fuel efficiency. Government can use the extra revenue collected from taxes and tolls to improve public transportation and benefit poor communities.[71]

Other states and nations have built efforts to translate knowledge in behavioral economics into evidence-based sustainable transportation policies.[citation needed] Business[edit] See also: Corporate sustainability The most broadly accepted criterion for corporate sustainability constitutes a firm's efficient use of natural capital. This eco-efficiency is usually calculated as the economic value added by a firm in relation to its aggregated ecological impact.[72] This idea has been popularised by the World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WBCSD) under the following definition: " Eco-efficiency
Eco-efficiency
is achieved by the delivery of competitively priced goods and services that satisfy human needs and bring quality of life, while progressively reducing ecological impacts and resource intensity throughout the life-cycle to a level at least in line with the earth's carrying capacity" (DeSimone and Popoff, 1997: 47).[73] Similar to the eco-efficiency concept but so far less explored is the second criterion for corporate sustainability. Socio-efficiency[74] describes the relation between a firm's value added and its social impact. Whereas, it can be assumed that most corporate impacts on the environment are negative (apart from rare exceptions such as the planting of trees) this is not true for social impacts. These can be either positive (e.g. corporate giving, creation of employment) or negative (e.g. work accidents, mobbing of employees, human rights abuses). Depending on the type of impact socio-efficiency thus either tries to minimise negative social impacts (i.e. accidents per value added) or maximise positive social impacts (i.e. donations per value added) in relation to the value added.[citation needed] Both eco-efficiency and socio-efficiency are concerned primarily with increasing economic sustainability. In this process they instrumentalise both natural and social capital aiming to benefit from win-win situations. However, as Dyllick and Hockerts[74] point out the business case alone will not be sufficient to realise sustainable development. They point towards eco-effectiveness, socio-effectiveness, sufficiency, and eco-equity as four criteria that need to be met if sustainable development is to be reached.[citation needed] CASI Global, New York "CSR & Sustainability
Sustainability
together lead to sustainable development. CSR as in corporate social responsibility is not what you do with your profits, but is the way you make profits. This means CSR is a part of every department of the company value chain and not a part of HR / independent department. Sustainability
Sustainability
as in effects towards Human resources, Environment and Ecology has to be measured within each department of the company." http://casiglobal.us/ Income[edit] At the present time, sustainable development, along with the solidarity called for in Catholic social teaching, can reduce poverty. While over many thousands of years the 'stronger' (economically or physically) overcame the weaker, nowadays for various reasons—Catholic social teaching, social solidarity, sustainable development—the stronger helps the weaker. This aid may take various forms. 'The Stronger' offers real help rather than striving for the elimination or annihilation of the other. Sustainable development reduces poverty through financial (among other things, a balanced budget), environmental (living conditions), and social (including equality of income) means.[75] Architecture[edit] See also: Sustainable architecture In sustainable architecture the recent movements of New Urbanism
New Urbanism
and New Classical architecture
New Classical architecture
promote a sustainable approach towards construction, that appreciates and develops smart growth, architectural tradition and classical design.[76][77] This in contrast to modernist and International Style architecture, as well as opposing to solitary housing estates and suburban sprawl, with long commuting distances and large ecological footprints.[78] Both trends started in the 1980s. (It should be noted that sustainable architecture is predominantly relevant to the economics domain while architectural landscaping pertains more to the ecological domain.)[citation needed] Politics[edit] See also: Environmental politics, Environmental governance, and Sustainability
Sustainability
metrics and indices A study concluded that social indicators and, therefore, sustainable development indicators, are scientific constructs whose principal objective is to inform public policy-making.[79] The International Institute for Sustainable Development has similarly developed a political policy framework, linked to a sustainability index for establishing measurable entities and metrics. The framework consists of six core areas, international trade and investment, economic policy, climate change and energy, measurement and assessment, natural resource management, and the role of communication technologies in sustainable development. The United Nations
United Nations
Global Compact Cities Programme has defined sustainable political development in a way that broadens the usual definition beyond states and governance. The political is defined as the domain of practices and meanings associated with basic issues of social power as they pertain to the organisation, authorisation, legitimation and regulation of a social life held in common. This definition is in accord with the view that political change is important for responding to economic, ecological and cultural challenges. It also means that the politics of economic change can be addressed. They have listed seven subdomains of the domain of politics:[80]

Organization and governance Law and justice Communication and critique Representation and negotiation Security and accord Dialogue and reconciliation Ethics and accountability

This accords with the Brundtland Commission emphasis on development that is guided by human rights principles (see above). Culture[edit]

Framing of sustainable development progress according to the Circles of Sustainability, used by the United Nations.

Working with a different emphasis, some researchers and institutions have pointed out that a fourth dimension should be added to the dimensions of sustainable development, since the triple-bottom-line dimensions of economic, environmental and social do not seem to be enough to reflect the complexity of contemporary society. In this context, the Agenda 21
Agenda 21
for culture and the United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) Executive Bureau lead the preparation of the policy statement "Culture: Fourth Pillar of Sustainable Development", passed on 17 November 2010, in the framework of the World Summit of Local and Regional Leaders – 3rd World Congress of UCLG, held in Mexico City. This document inaugurates a new perspective and points to the relation between culture and sustainable development through a dual approach: developing a solid cultural policy and advocating a cultural dimension in all public policies. The Circles of Sustainability approach distinguishes the four domains of economic, ecological, political and cultural sustainability.[81][82][83] Other organizations have also supported the idea of a fourth domain of sustainable development. The Network of Excellence "Sustainable Development in a Diverse World",[84] sponsored by the European Union, integrates multidisciplinary capacities and interprets cultural diversity as a key element of a new strategy for sustainable development. The Fourth Pillar of Sustainable Development Theory has been referenced by executive director of IMI Institute at UNESCO
UNESCO
Vito Di Bari[85] in his manifesto of art and architectural movement Neo-Futurism, whose name was inspired by the 1987 United Nations’ report Our Common Future. The Circles of Sustainability
Sustainability
approach used by Metropolis defines the (fourth) cultural domain as practices, discourses, and material expressions, which, over time, express continuities and discontinuities of social meaning.[80] Themes[edit]

This section possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. (April 2014) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)

Progress[edit] See also: Sustainable development
Sustainable development
goals The United Nations
United Nations
Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD; also known as Rio 2012) was the third international conference on sustainable development, which aimed at reconciling the economic and environmental goals of the global community. An outcome of this conference was the development of the Sustainable Development Goals that aim to promote sustainable progress and eliminate inequalities around the world. However, few nations met the World Wide Fund for Nature's definition of sustainable development criteria established in 2006.[86] Although some nations are more developed than others, all nations are constantly developing because each nation struggles with perpetuating disparities, inequalities and unequal access to fundamental rights and freedoms.[87] Measurement[edit] Main articles: Ecological footprint
Ecological footprint
and Sustainability
Sustainability
measurement

Deforestation
Deforestation
and increased road-building in the Amazon Rainforest
Amazon Rainforest
are a concern because of increased human encroachment upon wilderness areas, increased resource extraction and further threats to biodiversity.

In 2007 a report for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency stated: "While much discussion and effort has gone into sustainability indicators, none of the resulting systems clearly tells us whether our society is sustainable. At best, they can tell us that we are heading in the wrong direction, or that our current activities are not sustainable. More often, they simply draw our attention to the existence of problems, doing little to tell us the origin of those problems and nothing to tell us how to solve them."[88] Nevertheless, a majority of authors assume that a set of well defined and harmonised indicators is the only way to make sustainability tangible. Those indicators are expected to be identified and adjusted through empirical observations (trial and error).[89] The most common critiques are related to issues like data quality, comparability, objective function and the necessary resources.[90] However a more general criticism is coming from the project management community: How can a sustainable development be achieved at global level if we cannot monitor it in any single project?[91][92] The Cuban-born researcher and entrepreneur Sonia Bueno suggests an alternative approach that is based upon the integral, long-term cost-benefit relationship as a measure and monitoring tool for the sustainability of every project, activity or enterprise.[93][94] Furthermore, this concept aims to be a practical guideline towards sustainable development following the principle of conservation and increment of value rather than restricting the consumption of resources.[citation needed] Reasonable qualifications of sustainability are seen U.S. Green Building Council's (USGBC) Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED). This design incorporates some ecological, economic, and social elements. The goals presented by LEED design goals are sustainable sites, water efficiency, energy and atmospheric emission reduction, material and resources efficiency, and indoor environmental quality. Although amount of structures for sustainability development is many, these qualification has become a standard for sustainable building.[citation needed] Recent research efforts created also the SDEWES Index to benchmark the performance of cities across aspects that are related to energy, water and environment systems. The SDEWES Index consists of 7 dimensions, 35 indicators, and close to 20 sub-indicators. It is currently applied to 58 cities.[95] Natural capital[edit]

Deforestation
Deforestation
of native rain forest in Rio de Janeiro City for extraction of clay for civil engineering (2009 picture).

The sustainable development debate is based on the assumption that societies need to manage three types of capital (economic, social, and natural), which may be non-substitutable and whose consumption might be irreversible.[96] Leading ecological economist and steady-state theorist Herman Daly,[36] for example, points to the fact that natural capital can not necessarily be substituted by economic capital. While it is possible that we can find ways to replace some natural resources, it is much more unlikely that they will ever be able to replace eco-system services, such as the protection provided by the ozone layer, or the climate stabilizing function of the Amazonian forest. In fact natural capital, social capital and economic capital are often complementarities. A further obstacle to substitutability lies also in the multi-functionality of many natural resources. Forests, for example, not only provide the raw material for paper (which can be substituted quite easily), but they also maintain biodiversity, regulate water flow, and absorb CO2.[citation needed] Another problem of natural and social capital deterioration lies in their partial irreversibility. The loss of biodiversity, for example, is often definitive. The same can be true for cultural diversity. For example, with globalisation advancing quickly the number of indigenous languages is dropping at alarming rates. Moreover, the depletion of natural and social capital may have non-linear consequences. Consumption of natural and social capital may have no observable impact until a certain threshold is reached. A lake can, for example, absorb nutrients for a long time while actually increasing its productivity. However, once a certain level of algae is reached lack of oxygen causes the lake's ecosystem to break down suddenly.[citation needed] Business-as-usual[edit]

Before flue-gas desulfurization was installed, the air-polluting emissions from this power plant in New Mexico
New Mexico
contained excessive amounts of sulfur dioxide.

If the degradation of natural and social capital has such important consequence the question arises why action is not taken more systematically to alleviate it. Cohen and Winn[97] point to four types of market failure as possible explanations: First, while the benefits of natural or social capital depletion can usually be privatised, the costs are often externalised (i.e. they are borne not by the party responsible but by society in general). Second, natural capital is often undervalued by society since we are not fully aware of the real cost of the depletion of natural capital. Information asymmetry is a third reason—often the link between cause and effect is obscured, making it difficult for actors to make informed choices. Cohen and Winn close with the realization that contrary to economic theory many firms are not perfect optimisers. They postulate that firms often do not optimise resource allocation because they are caught in a "business as usual" mentality.[citation needed] Education[edit] Main page: Education for sustainable development Education must be revisited in light of a renewed vision of sustainable human and social development that is both equitable and viable. This vision of sustainability must take into consideration the social, environmental and economic dimensions of human development and the various ways in which these relate to education: ‘An empowering education is one that builds the human resources we need to be productive, to continue to learn, to solve problems, to be creative, and to live together and with nature in peace and harmony. When nations ensure that such an education is accessible to all throughout their lives, a quiet revolution is set in motion: education becomes the engine of sustainable development and the key to a better world.’[98][99] Higher education in sustainability across education streams including engineering, finance, supply chain and operations is gaining weight-age. Multiple institutes including Wharton, Columbia, CASI Global New York offer certifications in Sustainability. Corporate's prefer employees certified in sustainability. Reference https://www.wharton.upenn.edu/ http://www.columbia.edu/ http://casiglobal.us/ Insubstantial stretching of the term[edit] It has been argued that since the 1960s, the concept of sustainable development has changed from "conservation management" to "economic development", whereby the original meaning of the concept has been stretched somewhat.[100]:48–54 In the 1960s, the international community realised that many African countries needed national plans to safeguard wildlife habitats, and that rural areas had to confront the limits imposed by soil, climate and water availability. This was a strategy of conservation management. In the 1970s, however, the focus shifted to the broader issues of the provisioning of basic human needs, community participation as well as appropriate technology use throughout the developing countries (and not just in Africa). This was a strategy of economic development, and the strategy was carried even further by the Brundtland Commission's report on Our Common Future
Our Common Future
when the issues went from regional to international in scope and application.[100]:48–54 In effect, the conservationists were crowded out and superseded by the developers. But shifting the focus of sustainable development from conservation to development has had the imperceptible effect of stretching the original forest management term of sustainable yield from the use of renewable resources only (like forestry), to now also accounting for the use of non-renewable resources (like minerals).[101]:13 This stretching of the term has been questioned. Thus, environmental economist Kerry Turner has argued that literally, there can be no such thing as overall "sustainable development" in an industrialised world economy that remains heavily dependent on the extraction of earth's finite stock of exhaustible mineral resources: "It makes no sense to talk about the sustainable use of a non-renewable resource (even with substantial recycling effort and use rates). Any positive rate of exploitation will eventually lead to exhaustion of the finite stock."[101]:13 In effect, it has been argued that the industrial revolution as a whole is unsustainable.[102]:20f[36]:22f[103]:61–67[104] One critic has argued that the Brundtland Commission promoted nothing but a business as usual strategy for world development, with the ambiguous and insubstantial concept of "sustainable development" attached as a public relations slogan:[105]:94–99 The report on Our Common Future was largely the result of a political bargaining process involving many special interest groups, all put together to create a common appeal of political acceptability across borders. After World War II, the notion of "development" had been established in the West to imply the projection of the American model of society onto the rest of the world. In the 1970s and 1980s, this notion was broadened somewhat to also imply human rights, basic human needs and finally, ecological issues. The emphasis of the report was on helping poor nations out of poverty and meeting the basic needs of their growing populations—as usual. This issue demanded more economic growth, also in the rich countries, who would then import more goods from the poor countries to help them out—as usual. When the discussion switched to global ecological limits to growth, the obvious dilemma was left aside by calling for economic growth with improved resource efficiency, or what was termed "a change in the quality of growth". However, most countries in the West had experienced such improved resource efficiency since the early-20th century already and as usual; only, this improvement had been more than offset by continuing industrial expansion, to the effect that world resource consumption was now higher than ever before—and these two historical trends were completely ignored in the report. Taken together, the policy of perpetual economic growth for the entire planet remained virtually intact. Since the publication of the report, the ambiguous and insubstantial slogan of "sustainable development" has marched on worldwide.[105]:94–99 See also[edit]

Agroecology Applied sustainability Circles of Sustainability Circular economy Computational sustainability Conservation biology Conservation development Cradle-to-cradle Development Studies Ecological economics Ecological modernization Ecologically sustainable development Environmental issue Environmental justice Environmental racism Farmer Research Committee Gender and development Green development Managed Sustainable Development Micro-sustainability Outline of sustainability Purple economy Regenerative design Social sustainability Sustainable coffee Sustainable fishery Sustainable forest management Sustainable land management Sustainable living Sustainable yield Sustainopreneurship Weak and strong sustainability Zero-carbon city

Sources[edit]

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References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

Ahmed, Faiz (2008). An Examination of the Development Path Taken by Small Island Developing States (PDF).  (pp. 17–26) Atkinson, G., S. Dietz, and E. Neumayer (2009). Handbook of Sustainable Development. Edward Elgar Publishing, ISBN 1848444729. Bakari, Mohamed El-Kamel. "Globalization and Sustainable Development: False Twins?." New Global Studies 7.3: 23-56. ISSN (Online) 1940-0004, ISSN (Print) 2194-6566, DOI: 10.1515/ngs-2013-021, November 2013. Bertelsmann Stiftung, ed. (2013). Winning Strategies for a Sustainable Future. Reinhard Mohn Prize 2013. Verlag Bertelsmann Stiftung, Gütersloh. ISBN 978-3-86793-491-6.  Beyerlin, Ulrich. Sustainable Development, Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law Borowy, Iris. Defining Sustainable Development for Our Common Future. A history of the World Commission on Environment and Development (Brundtland Commission), Milton Park: Routledge, 2014. Cook, Sarah & Esuna Dugarova (2014). "Rethinking Social Development for a Post-2015 World". Development. 57 (1): 30–35. doi:10.1057/dev.2014.25.  Danilov-Danil’yan, Victor I., Losev, K.S., Reyf, Igor E. Sustainable Development and the Limitation of Growth: Future Prospects for World Civilization. Transl. Vladimir Tumanov. Ed. Donald Rapp. New York: Springer Praxis Books, 2009. [1] at Google Books Edwards, A.R., and B. McKibben (2010). Thriving Beyond Sustainability: Pathways to a Resilient Society. New Society
Society
Publishers, ISBN 0865716412. Farah, Paolo Davide; Rossi, Piercarlo (2015). "Energy: Policy, Legal and Social-Economic Issues Under the Dimensions of Sustainability
Sustainability
and Security". World Scientific Reference on Globalisation in Eurasia and the Pacific Rim. SSRN 2695701 .  Huesemann, M.H., and J.A. Huesemann (2011). Technofix: Why Technology Won’t Save Us or the Environment, Chapter 6, " Sustainability
Sustainability
or Collapse?", and Chapter 13, "The Design of Environmentally Sustainable and Socially Appropriate Technologies", New Society
Society
Publishers, ISBN 0865717044. James, Paul; Nadarajah, Yaso; Haive, Karen; Stead, Victoria (2012). Sustainable Communities, Sustainable Development: Other Paths for Papua New Guinea. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.  James, Paul; with Magee, Liam; Scerri, Andy; Steger, Manfred B. (2015). Urban Sustainability
Sustainability
in Theory and Practice: Circles of Sustainability. London: Routledge.  Jarzombek, Mark, "Sustainability — Architecture: between Fuzzy Systems and Wicked Problems," Blueprints 21/1 (Winter 2003), pp. 6–9. Li, Rita Yi Man. [2], Building Our Sustainable Cities" Illinois, Published by Common Ground Publishing. Raudsepp-Hearne, C; Peterson, GD; Tengö, M; Bennett, EM; Holland, T; Benessaiah, K; MacDonald, GM; Pfeifer, L (2010). "Untangling the Environmentalist's Paradox: Why is Human Well-Being Increasing as Ecosystem Services Degrade?". BioScience. 60 (8): 576–589. doi:10.1525/bio.2010.60.8.4.  Rogers, P., K.F. Jalal, and J.A. Boyd (2007). An Introduction to Sustainable Development. Routledge, ISBN 1844075214. Sianipar, C. P. M., Dowaki, K., Yudoko, G., & Adhiutama, A. (2013). Seven Pillars of Survivability: Appropriate Technology with a Human Face. European Journal of Sustainable Development, 2(4), 1-18. ISSN 2239-5938. Tausch, Arno (2012). Globalization, the Human Condition, and Sustainable Development in the Twenty-first Century: Cross-national Perspectives and European Implications. With Almas Heshmati and a Foreword by Ulrich Brand (1st ed.). Anthem Press, London. ISBN 9780857284105.  Van der Straaten, J., and J.C van den Bergh (1994). Towards Sustainable Development: Concepts, Methods, and Policy. Island Press, ISBN 1559633492. Wallace, Bill (2005). Becoming part of the solution : the engineer's guide to sustainable development. Washington, DC: American Council of Engineering Companies. ISBN 0-910090-37-8. 

External links[edit]

Arghand, a collective that makes beauty products from sustainably harvested crops in Afghanistan. Carpenters Without Borders, a non-profit that teaches reforestation and furniture building skills in developing countries. Global Sustainable Development, an undergraduate degree program offered by the University of Warwick. "Circles of Sustainability
Sustainability
– Practical tools for creating sustainable cities and communities". Circles of Sustainability
Sustainability
– Practical tools for creating sustainable cities and communities. 2013-12-16. Retrieved 2017-06-08.  Greenwood Global, a non-profit that teaches furniture building skills and sustainable forestry practices in developing countries. INHERIT Project, a Horizon 2020 Project to identify ways of living, moving and consuming that protect the environment and promote health and health equity. Principles of Sustainability, an open course offered by the University of Idaho and Washington State University. [3], CASI Global, New York is generally referred to as the global certification body. and has a presence across 58 countries (September 2016) Sustainable Real Estate Research Center, Hong Kong Shue Yan University ORGANIZATION FOR THE REHABILITATION OF THE ENVIRONMENT, encourages cultivation of bamboo and trees to rehabilitate deforestation. Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform, United Nations
United Nations
platform on sustainable development. "Sustainable Development Law & Policy". American University Washington College of Law. 2015-11-11. Retrieved 2017-06-08.  The Sustainable Development Group Community to share thoughts, comments, projects, ideas, or question on sustainable development. UK Sustainable Development Commission "Sustainable Development Solutions Network". Sustainable Development Solutions Network. 2017-04-20. Retrieved 2017-06-08.  Vrinda Project Channel with videos on MDGs connected to the Wikibook  Development Cooperation Handbook World Bank
World Bank
website on sustainable development.

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Sustainability

Principles

Anthropocene Earth system governance Ecological modernization Environmental governance Environmentalism Global catastrophic risk Human impact on the environment Planetary boundaries Social sustainability Stewardship Sustainable development

Consumption

Anthropization Anti-consumerism Earth Overshoot Day Ecological footprint Ethical Over-consumption Simple living Sustainability
Sustainability
advertising Sustainability
Sustainability
brand Sustainability
Sustainability
marketing myopia Sustainable Systemic change resistance Tragedy of the commons

Population

Birth control Family planning Control Overpopulation Zero growth

Technology

Appropriate Environmental Sustainable

Biodiversity

Biosecurity Biosphere Conservation biology Deep ecology Endangered species Holocene extinction Invasive species

Energy

Carbon footprint Climate change
Climate change
mitigation Conservation Descent Efficiency Emissions trading Fossil-fuel phase-out Peak oil Renewable Energy poverty

Food

Forest gardening Local Permaculture Security Sustainable agriculture Sustainable fishery Urban horticulture

Water

Conservation Crisis Efficiency Footprint Reclaimed

Accountability

Sustainability
Sustainability
accounting Sustainability
Sustainability
measurement Sustainability
Sustainability
metrics and indices Sustainability
Sustainability
reporting Standards and certification Sustainable yield

Applications

Advertising Architecture Art Business City College programs Community Design Ecovillage Education for Sustainable Development Fashion Gardening Geopark Green marketing Industries Landscape architecture Living Low-impact development Sustainable market Organizations Packaging Practices Procurement Tourism Transport Urban drainage systems Urban infrastructure Urbanism

Management

Environmental Fisheries Forest Materials Natural resource Planetary Waste

Agreements

UN Conference on the Human Environment (Stockholm 1972) Brundtlandt Commission Report (1983) Our Common Future
Our Common Future
(1987) Earth Summit
Earth Summit
(1992) Rio Declaration on Environment and Development Agenda 21
Agenda 21
(1992) Convention on Biological Diversity
Convention on Biological Diversity
(1992) ICPD Programme of Action (1994) Earth Charter Lisbon Principles UN Millennium Declaration (2000) Earth Summit
Earth Summit
2002 (Rio+10, Johannesburg) United Nations
United Nations
Conference on Sustainable Development (Rio+20, 2012) Sustainable Development Goals

Category Lists Outline Portal Science Studies Degrees

Other related articles

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Urban planning

General

Land use Planning Planning
Planning
and zoning commission Growth management Development economics Social sciences Public policy World Urbanism
Urbanism
Day

Major branches

Urban

Land-use planning Comprehensive planning (US) Spatial planning
Spatial planning
(Eur) Planned cities Planned community
Planned community
/ Model village Redevelopment Urban design Urbanism

Rural

Conservation development Preservation development Rural housing Village design statement (UK)

Regional

Regional Planning
Planning
Association of America

Environmental

Environmental design Environmental impact assessment Environmental planning Recreation resource planning Sustainable development

Transportation planning

Transportation forecasting Trip distribution Rational planning model Transit-oriented development Professional transportation planner Urban freight distribution

Economic Development

Community economic development

Concepts/ theories

Movements

Athens Charter Car-free movement City Beautiful movement Dark-sky movement Garden city movement Indigenous planning New Urbanism Settlement movement Smart growth Structuralism Transition towns

Theories

Collaborative planning Context theory Ekistics Intelligent urbanism Livable streets Market urbanism Radical planning Urban acupuncture Urban renewal

Concepts

Affordable housing Cityscape Cluster development Creative city Company town Complete Communities Eminent domain
Eminent domain
(US) Gentrification
Gentrification
/ Brusselization Infill Healthy cities / Healthy community design LEED-ND Mixed-use development Model cities New town Placemaking Planned community Planning
Planning
gain Planning
Planning
Permission (U.K.) Suburbia Temporary use Third place Tract housing Urban decay Urban sprawl Urbanization Verticalization / High-rise
High-rise
urbanism Zoning

People

Theorists/ practitioners

Thomas Adams Donald Appleyard Edmund Bacon Guy Benveniste Colin Buchanan Daniel Burnham Peter Calthorpe Konstantinos Doxiadis Andrés Duany Patrick Geddes Ebenezer Howard Kevin A. Lynch Ian McHarg Clarence Perry James Rouse Clarence Stein Raymond Unwin List of urban theorists List of urban planners

Critics

Elizabeth Farrelly Jane Jacobs James Howard Kunstler Lewis Mumford Randal O'Toole

Related disciplines

Architecture Civil engineering Urban ecology Geography Land development Landscape architecture Marine spatial planning Public health Real estate development

Category Index of urban planning articles List of planned cities List of planning journals Commons

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Environmental technology

Appropriate technology Clean technology Environmental design Environmental impact assessment Sustainable development Sustainable technology

Pollution

Air pollution
Air pollution
(control dispersion modeling) Industrial ecology Solid waste treatment Waste
Waste
management Water (agricultural wastewater treatment industrial wastewater treatment sewage treatment waste-water treatment technologies water purification)

Renewable energy

Alternative energy Efficient energy use Energy development Energy recovery Fuel (alternative fuel biofuel carbon negative fuel hydrogen technologies) List of energy storage projects Renewable energy
Renewable energy
(commercialization) Sustainable energy Transportation (electric vehicle hybrid vehicle)

Conservation

Birth control Building (green natural sustainable architecture New Urbanism New Classical) Conservation biology Conservation ethic Ecoforestry Environmental preservation Environmental remediation Green computing Permaculture Recycling

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Global human population

Major topics

Biocapacity Optimum population Overpopulation

Malthusian catastrophe

Population Population
Population
ethics Population
Population
momentum Sustainable development Women's reproductive rights Zero population growth

Biological and related topics

Family planning

Pledge two or fewer

Human population planning

One-child policy Two-child policy

Population
Population
biology Population
Population
decline Population
Population
density

Physiological density

Population
Population
dynamics Population
Population
growth Population
Population
model Population
Population
pyramid Projections of population growth

Human impact on the environment

Deforestation Desalination Desertification Environmental impact

of agriculture of aviation of biodiesel of concrete of electricity generation of the energy industry of fishing of irrigation of mining of off-roading of oil shale industry of palm oil of paper of the petroleum industry of reservoirs of shipping of war

Industrialisation Land degradation Land reclamation Overconsumption Pollution Quarrying Urbanization

Loss of green belts Urban sprawl

Waste Water scarcity

Overdrafting

Population ecology

Carrying capacity Deep ecology Earth's energy budget Food security Habitat destruction I = P × A  × T Malthusian growth model Overshoot (population) World energy consumption World energy resources World3 model

Literature

A Modest Proposal Observations Concerning the Increase of Mankind, Peopling of Countries, etc. An Essay on the Principle of Population "How Much Land Does a Man Need?" Operating Manual for Spaceship Earth Population
Population
Control: Real Costs, Illusory Benefits The Limits to Growth The Population
Population
Bomb The Skeptical Environmentalist The Ultimate Resource

Publications

Population
Population
and Environment Population
Population
and Development Review

Lists

Population
Population
and housing censuses by country Metropolitan areas by population Population
Population
milestone babies

Events and organizations

7 Billion Actions International Conference on Population
Population
and Development Population
Population
Action International Population
Population
Connection Population
Population
Matters Population
Population
Research Institute United Nations
United Nations
Population
Population
Fund Voluntary Human Extinction
Extinction
Movement World Population
Population
Day World Population
Population
Foundation

Related topics

Classic Maya collapse Fertility and intelligence Green Revolution Holocene extinction Migration

Commons Human overpopulation Human activities with impact on the environment Human migration

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Environmental social science

Fields

Ecological anthropology Ecological economics Environmental anthropology Environmental economics Environmental communication Environmental history Environmental politics Environmental psychology Environmental sociology Human ecology Human geography Political ecology Regional science

Related

Agroecology Anthrozoology Behavioral geography Community studies Demography Design

ecological environmental

Ecological humanities Economics

energy thermo

Environmental

education ethics law science studies

Ethnobiology

botany ecology zoology

Forestry Industrial ecology Integrated geography Permaculture Rural sociology Science, technology and society

science studies

Sustainability

science studies

Systems ecology Urban

ecology geography metabolism studies

Applied

Architecture

landscape sustainable

Ecopsychology Engineering

ecological environmental

Green criminology Health

environmental epidemiology occupational public

Management

environmental fisheries forest natural resource waste

Planning

environmental land use regional spatial urban

Policy

energy environmental

Environment portal Category Concepts Degrees Journals Research institutes Scholars

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Human impact on the environment

General

Anthropocene Environmental issues

List of issues

Human impact Impact assessment Planetary boundaries

Causes

Agriculture

fishing irrigation meat production palm oil

Energy industry

biofuels biodiesel coal electricity generation nuclear power oil shale petroleum reservoirs wind power

Genetic pollution Industrialization Land use Manufacturing

cleaning agents concrete plastics nanotechnology paint paper pesticides pharmaceuticals and personal care

Mining Overdrafting Overexploitation Overpopulation Particulates Pollution Quarrying Reservoirs Tourism Transport

aviation roads shipping

Urbanization

urban sprawl

war

Effects

Biodiversity
Biodiversity
threats

Biodiversity
Biodiversity
loss

Climate change

Global warming Runaway climate change

Coral reefs Deforestation Defaunation Desertification Ecocide Erosion Environmental degradation Freshwater cycle Habitat destruction Holocene extinction Nitrogen cycle Land degradation Land surface effects on climate Loss of green belts Phosphorus cycle Ocean acidification Ozone depletion Resource depletion Water degradation Water scarcity

Mitigation

Birth control Cleaner production Climate change
Climate change
mitigation Climate engineering Ecological engineering Environmental engineering Environmental mitigation Industrial ecology Mitigation banking Organic farming Reforestation

urban

Restoration ecology Sustainable consumption Waste
Waste
minimization

  Commons   Category by country assessment mitigation

Authority control

NDL: 01022568

Sustainable development
Sustainable development
portal Environment portal Ecology portal Earth sciences portal Renewable energy
Renewable energy
po

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