Surrey (/ˈsʌri/ SURR-ee) is a county in South East England, and
one of the home counties. It borders
Kent to the east,
Sussex to the
Hampshire to the west,
Berkshire to the north-west and Greater
London to the north-east. The county town is popularly considered to
Surrey County Council
Surrey County Council sits outside its
jurisdiction in Kingston upon Thames, part of
Greater London since
1965. With a population of 1.1 million,
Surrey is the
third-most-populous county in the South East.
Surrey is divided into eleven districts: Elmbridge,
Epsom and Ewell,
Guildford, Mole Valley,
Reigate and Banstead, Runnymede, Spelthorne,
Surrey Heath, Tandridge, Waverley, and Woking. Services such as roads,
mineral extraction licensing, education, strategic waste and recycling
infrastructure, birth, marriage, and death registration, and social
and children's services are administered by
Surrey County Council. The
London boroughs of Lambeth, Southwark, Wandsworth, and small parts of
Lewisham and Bromley were in
Surrey until 1889; as were those of
Croydon, Kingston upon Thames, Merton, Sutton and the part of Richmond
Thames on the right bank of the
River Thames until 1965, when
they too were absorbed into Greater London, and the county extended
north of the
Thames by the addition of Spelthorne, as a result of the
dissolution of Middlesex. Since the 1965 reform the bordering boroughs
of the capital have been those taken from it in 1965 (except for
Merton) plus Bromley, Hillingdon and Hounslow.
The form of
Surrey which remains since 1965 is a wealthy county, due
to aesthetic, conservation and logistical factors. It has protected
green spaces (such as the North Downs,
Greensand Ridge and related
Surrey Hills AONB
Surrey Hills AONB and royal landscapes adjoin it — Windsor Great
Bushy Park near to its interior reach of the River Thames).
It has four racecourses in horse racing, the most of any Home County
and as at 2013 contained 141 golf courses including international
competition venue Wentworth.
Surrey has proximity to
London and to
Gatwick airports, along with access to major arterial
road routes including the M25, M3 and M23 and frequent rail services
into Central London. It has the highest GDP per capita of any English
county and some of the highest property values outside Inner London.
3.1 The ancient British and Roman periods
3.2 The formation of Surrey
3.3 The West Saxon and English shire
3.3.1 Identified ealdormen of Surrey
3.4 Later Medieval Surrey
3.5 Early Modern Surrey
3.6 Modern history
4 Historic architecture and monuments
6 Arts and sciences
7 Popular music
Surrey Football Clubs
9 Local government
11.3 Long-distance national services
12.1 Higher education
13 Emergency services
14 Places of interest
Surrey in film and books
16 See also
20 External links
Main article: Geology of Surrey
Surrey is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the North Downs,
running east-west. The ridge is pierced by Surrey's principal
tributary rivers, the Wey and the Mole, which join its internal
section of the Thames, which formed the northern border of the county
before the 1965 redrawing of the county. To the north of the Downs
the land is mostly flat, forming part of the basin of the Thames.
The geology of this area is dominated by
London Clay in the east,
Bagshot Sands in the west and alluvial deposits along the rivers. To
the south of the Downs in the western part of the county are the
Surrey Hills, while further east is the plain of the Low
Weald, rising in the extreme south-east to the edge of the hills of
the High Weald. The Downs and the area to the south form part of a
concentric pattern of geological deposits which also extends across
Kent and most of Sussex, predominantly composed of Wealden
Lower Greensand and the chalk of the Downs.
Surrey is in the Metropolitan Green Belt. It contains valued
reserves of mature woodland (reflected in the official logo of Surrey
County Council, a pair of interlocking oak leaves). Among its many
notable beauty spots are Box Hill, Leith Hill,
Newlands Corner and Puttenham & Crooksbury Commons.
the most wooded county in England, with 22.4% coverage compared to a
national average of 11.8% and as such is one of the few counties
not to recommend new woodlands in the subordinate planning
authorities' plans. Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of natural
woodland in the UK, one of the oldest in Europe.
Surrey also contains
England's principal concentration of lowland heath, on sandy soils in
the west of the county.
Leith Hill Tower
Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access
lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways
North Downs Way, a scenic long-distance path.
Surrey provides many rural and semi-rural leisure
activities, with a large horse population in modern terms.
The highest elevation in
Leith Hill near Dorking. It is
294 m (965 ft) above sea level and is the second highest
point in southeastern
Walbury Hill in West Berkshire
which is 297 m (974 ft) .
List of places in Surrey
List of places in Surrey and List of settlements in Surrey
Surrey has a population of approximately 1.1 million people.
Its largest town is Guildford, with a population of 66,773; Woking
comes a close second with 62,796. They are followed by
39,994 people and
Camberley with 30,155. Towns of between 25,000 and
30,000 inhabitants are Ashford, Epsom, Farnham,
Guildford is the historic county town, although the
county administration was moved to Newington in 1791 and to Kingston
Thames in 1893. The county council's headquarters have been
outside the county's boundaries since 1 April 1965, when Kingston and
other areas were included within
Greater London by the London
Government Act 1963. The council abandoned plans in the latter part
of the 2000s decade to move its headquarters to Woking. Due to its
London there are many commuter towns and villages in
Surrey, the population density is medium to high on residentially
developed land and the area is one of the richest parts of the UK.
Much of the north of the county is an urban area contiguous to Greater
London. In the west, there is a conurbation straddling the
Surrey border, including in
Camberley and Farnham.
The ancient British and Roman periods
The Roman Stane or Stone Street runs through Surrey
Before Roman times the area today known as
Surrey was probably largely
occupied by the
Atrebates tribe, centred at Calleva Atrebatum
(Silchester), in the modern county of Hampshire, but eastern parts of
it may have been held by the Cantiaci, based largely in Kent. The
Atrebates are known to have controlled the southern bank of the Thames
from Roman texts describing the tribal relations between them and the
Catuvellauni on the north bank. In about AD 42 King
Cunobelinus (in Welsh legend Cynfelin ap Tegfan) of the Catuvellauni
died and war broke out between his sons and King
Verica of the
Atrebates were defeated, their capital captured and
their lands made subject to Togodumnus, king of the Catuvellauni,
Verica fled to
Gaul and appealed
for Roman aid. The
Atrebates were allied with Rome during their
invasion of Britain in AD 43.
During the Roman era, the only important settlement within the
historic area of
Surrey was the
London suburb of
Southwark (now part
of Greater London), but there were small towns at Staines, Ewell,
Croydon and Kingston upon Thames. Remains of Roman rural
temples have been excavated on
Farley Heath and near Wanborough and
Titsey, and possible temple sites at Chiddingfold,
Godstone. The area was traversed by Stane Street and other Roman
The formation of Surrey
During the 5th and 6th centuries
Surrey was conquered and settled by
Saxons. The names of possible tribes inhabiting the area have been
conjectured on the basis of place names. These include the
Godhelmingas (around Godalming) and Woccingas (between
Wokingham in Berkshire). It has also been speculated that the entries
for the Nox gaga and Oht gaga peoples in the
Tribal Hidage may refer
to two groups living in the vicinity of Surrey. Together their lands
were assessed at a total of 7,000 hides, equal to the assessment for
Sussex or Essex.
Surrey may have formed part of a larger Middle Saxon
kingdom or confederacy, also including areas north of the Thames. The
Surrey is derived from Suthrige, meaning "southern region", and
this may originate in its status as the southern portion of the Middle
If it ever existed, the Middle Saxon kingdom had disappeared by the
7th century, and
Surrey became a frontier area disputed between the
kingdoms of Kent, Essex, Sussex,
Wessex and Mercia, until its
permanent absorption by
Wessex in 825. Despite this fluctuating
situation it retained its identity as an enduring territorial unit.
During the 7th century
Surrey became Christian and initially formed
part of the East Saxon diocese of London, indicating that it was under
East Saxon rule at that time, but was later transferred to the West
Saxon diocese of Winchester. Its most important religious institution
Anglo-Saxon period and beyond was
founded in 666. At this point
Surrey was evidently under Kentish
domination, as the abbey was founded under the patronage of King
Ecgberht of Kent. However, a few years later at least part of it
was subject to Mercia, since in 673-5 further lands were given to
Chertsey Abbey by Frithuwald, a local sub-king (subregulus) ruling
under the sovereignty of Wulfhere of Mercia. A decade later Surrey
passed into the hands of King
Caedwalla of Wessex, who also conquered
Kent and Sussex, and founded a monastery at
Farnham in 686. The
region remained under the control of Caedwalla's successor Ine in the
early 8th century. Its political history for most of the 8th
century is unclear, although West Saxon control may have broken down
around 722, but by 784–5 it had passed into the hands of King Offa
of Mercia. Mercian rule continued until 825, when following his
victory over the Mercians at the Battle of Ellandun, King Egbert of
Wessex seized control of Surrey, along with Sussex,
Essex. It was incorporated into
Wessex as a shire and
continued thereafter under the rule of the West Saxon kings, who
eventually became kings of all of England.
Identified sub-kings of Surrey
The West Saxon and English shire
A map showing the traditional boundaries of
Surrey (c.800-1899) and
its constituent hundreds
In the 9th century
England was afflicted, along with the rest of
north-western Europe, by the attacks of Scandinavian Vikings. Surrey's
inland position shielded it from coastal raiding, so that it was not
normally troubled except by the largest and most ambitious
Scandinavian armies. In 851 an exceptionally large invasion force of
Danes arrived at the mouth of the
Thames in a fleet of about 350
ships, which would have carried over 15,000 men. Having sacked
London and defeated King Beorhtwulf of
Danes crossed the
Thames into Surrey, but were slaughtered
by a West Saxon army led by King Æthelwulf in the Battle of Aclea,
bringing the invasion to an end. Two years later the men of Surrey
Kent to help their Kentish neighbours fight a raiding
force at Thanet, but suffered heavy losses including their ealdorman,
Huda. In 892
Surrey was the scene of another major battle when a
large Danish army, variously reported at 200, 250 and 350 ship-loads,
moved west from its encampment in
Kent and raided in
Berkshire. Withdrawing with their loot, the
Danes were intercepted and
Farnham by an army led by Alfred the Great's son Edward,
the future King Edward the Elder, and fled across the
Surrey remained safe from attack for over a century thereafter, due to
its location and to the growing power of the West Saxon, later
English, kingdom. Kingston was the scene for the coronations of
Æthelstan in 924 and of
Æthelred the Unready
Æthelred the Unready in 978, and, according
to later tradition, also of other 10th-century Kings of England.
The renewed Danish attacks during the disastrous reign of Æthelred
led to the devastation of
Surrey by the army of Thorkell the Tall,
which ravaged all of south-eastern
England in 1009–11. The
climax of this wave of attacks came in 1016, which saw prolonged
fighting between the forces of King
Edmund Ironside and the Danish
king Cnut, including an English victory over the
Danes somewhere in
north-eastern Surrey, but ended with the conquest of
Cnut's death in 1035 was followed by a period of political
uncertainty, as the succession was disputed between his sons. In 1036
Alfred, son of King Æthelred, returned from Normandy, where he had
been taken for safety as a child at the time of Cnut's conquest of
England. It is uncertain what his intentions were, but after landing
with a small retinue in
Sussex he was met by Godwin, Earl of Wessex,
who escorted him in apparently friendly fashion to Guildford. Having
taken lodgings there, Alfred's men were attacked as they slept and
killed, mutilated or enslaved by Godwin's followers, while the prince
himself was blinded and imprisoned, dying shortly afterwards. This
must have contributed to the antipathy between Godwin and Alfred's
brother Edward the Confessor, who came to the throne in 1042, a
hostility which helped bring about the
Norman Conquest of
Domesday Book records that the largest landowners in
Surrey at the end
of Edward's reign were
Chertsey Abbey and Harold Godwinson, Earl of
Wessex and later king, followed by the estates of King Edward himself.
Apart from the abbey, most of whose lands were within the shire,
Surrey was the not the principal focus of any major landowner's
holdings, a tendency which was to persist in later periods.[n 1] Given
the vast and widespread landed interests and the national and
international preoccupations of the monarchy and the earldom of
Wessex, the Abbot of
Chertsey was therefore probably the most
important figure in the local elite.
Anglo-Saxon period saw the emergence of the shire's internal
division into 14 hundreds, which continued until Victorian times.
These were the hundreds of Blackheath, Brixton, Copthorne, Effingham
Half-Hundred, Elmbridge, Farnham, Godalming, Godley, Kingston,
Reigate, Tandridge, Wallington,
Woking and Wotton.
Identified ealdormen of Surrey
Æðelweard (late 10th century)
Later Medieval Surrey
After the Battle of Hastings, the Norman army advanced through Kent
into Surrey, where they defeated an English force which attacked them
Southwark and then burned that suburb. Rather than try to attack
London across the river, the Normans continued west through Surrey,
Thames at Wallingford in
Berkshire and descended on London
from the north-west. As was the case across England, the native ruling
Surrey was virtually eliminated by Norman seizure of land.
Only one significant English landowner, the brother of the last
English Abbot of Chertsey, remained by the time the Domesday survey
was conducted in 1086.[n 2] At that time the largest landholding in
Surrey, as in many other parts of the country, was the expanded royal
estate, while the next largest holding belonged to Richard fitz
Gilbert, founder of the de Clare family.
Runnymede, where the
Magna Carta was sealed
In 1088, King William II granted William de Warenne the title of Earl
Surrey as a reward for Warenne's loyalty during the rebellion that
followed the death of William I. When the male line of the Warennes
became extinct in the 14th century, the earldom was inherited by the
Fitzalan Earls of Arundel. The
Fitzalan line of Earls of
out in 1415, but after other short-lived revivals in the 15th century
the title was conferred in 1483 on the Howard family, who still hold
Surrey was not a major focus of any of these families'
Guildford Castle, one of many fortresses originally established by the
Normans to help them subdue the country, was rebuilt in stone and
developed as a royal palace in the 12th century.[n 3]
was built during the 12th century as a residence for the Bishop of
Winchester, while other stone castles were constructed in the same
Bletchingley by the de Clares and at
Reigate by the
Warennes. During King John's struggle with the barons, Magna Carta
was issued in June 1215 at
Runnymede near Egham. John's efforts to
reverse this concession reignited the war, and in 1216 the barons
invited Prince Louis of
France to take the throne. Having landed in
Kent and been welcomed in London, he advanced across
Surrey to attack
John, then at Winchester, occupying
along the way.
Guildford Castle later became one of the favourite
residences of King Henry III, who considerably expanded the palace
there. During the baronial revolt against Henry, in 1264 the rebel
army of Simon de Montfort passed southwards through
Surrey on their
way to the
Battle of Lewes
Battle of Lewes in Sussex. Although the rebels were
victorious, soon after the battle royal forces captured and destroyed
Bletchingley Castle, whose owner Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Hertford
and Gloucester, was de Montfort's most powerful ally.
By the 14th century, castles were of dwindling military importance,
but remained a mark of social prestige, leading to the construction of
castles at Starborough near Lingfield by Lord Cobham, and at
Betchworth by John Fitzalan, whose father had recently inherited the
Earldom of Surrey. Though
Bletchingley remained modest
settlements, the role of their castles as local centres for the two
leading aristocratic interests in
Surrey had enabled them to gain
borough status by the early 13th century. As a result, they gained
representation in Parliament when it became established towards the
end of that century, alongside the more substantial urban settlements
Guildford and Southwark. Surrey's third sizeable town,
Kingston, despite its size, borough status and historical association
with the monarchy, did not gain parliamentary representation until
Surrey had little political or economic significance in the Middle
Ages. It was not the main power-base of any important aristocratic
family, nor the seat of a bishopric. The
London suburb of Southwark
was a major urban settlement, and the proximity of the capital boosted
the wealth and population of the surrounding area, but urban
development elsewhere was sapped by the overshadowing predominance of
London and by the lack of direct access to the sea. Surrey's
agricultural wealth was limited by the infertility of most of its
soils. Population pressure in the 12th and 13th centuries
initiated the gradual clearing of the Weald, the forest spanning the
borders of Surrey,
Sussex and Kent, which had hitherto been left
undeveloped due to the difficulty of farming on its heavy clay
Surrey's most significant source of prosperity in the later Middle
Ages was the production of woollen cloth, which emerged during that
period as England's main export industry. The county was an early
centre of English textile manufacturing, benefiting from the presence
of deposits of fuller's earth, the rare mineral composite important in
the process of finishing cloth, around
Reigate and Nutfield. The
Surrey was focused on Guildford, which gave its name to a
variety of cloth, gilforte, which was exported widely across Europe
and the Middle East and imitated by manufacturers elsewhere in
Europe. However, as the English cloth industry expanded, Surrey
was outstripped by other growing regions of production.
Ruins of the monks' dormitory at Waverley Abbey
Surrey was not the scene of serious fighting in the various
rebellions and civil wars of the period, armies from
Kent heading for
Southwark passed through what were then the extreme
north-eastern fringes of
Surrey during the
Peasants' Revolt of 1381
and Cade's Rebellion in 1450, and at various stages of the Wars of the
Roses in 1460, 1469 and 1471. The upheaval of 1381 also involved
widespread local unrest in Surrey, as was the case all across
In 1082 a
Cluniac abbey was founded at Bermondsey by Alwine, a wealthy
English citizen of London.
Waverley Abbey near Farnham, founded in
1128, was the first
Cistercian monastery in England. Over the next
quarter-century monks spread out from here to found new houses,
creating a network of twelve monasteries descended from Waverley
across southern and central England. The 12th and early 13th centuries
also saw the establishment of Augustinian priories at Merton, Newark,
Southwark and Reigate. A Dominican friary was established
Guildford by Henry III's widow Eleanor of Provence, in memory of
her grandson who had died at
Guildford in 1274. In the 15th century a
Carthusian priory was founded by King Henry V at Sheen. These would
all perish, along with the still important
Benedictine abbey of
Chertsey, in the 16th-century Dissolution of the Monasteries.
Now fallen into disuse, some English counties had nicknames for those
raised there such as a 'tyke' from Yorkshire, or a 'yellowbelly' from
Lincolnshire. In the case of Surrey, the term was a '
from Surrey's role in the later Middle Ages as the county where
chickens were fattened up for the
London meat markets.
Early Modern Surrey
Under the early Tudor kings, magnificent royal palaces were
constructed in north-eastern Surrey, conveniently close to London. At
Richmond an existing royal residence was rebuilt on a grand scale
under King Henry VII, who also founded a
Franciscan friary nearby in
1499. The still more spectacular palace of Nonsuch was later built for
Henry VIII near Ewell. The palace at
Guildford Castle had fallen
out of use long before, but a royal hunting lodge existed outside the
town. All these have since been demolished.
During the Cornish Rebellion of 1497, the rebels heading for London
Guildford and fought a skirmish with a government
detachment on Guildown outside the town, before marching on to defeat
at Blackheath in Kent. The forces of
Wyatt's Rebellion in 1554
passed through what was then north-eastern
Surrey on their way from
Kent to London, briefly occupying
Southwark and then crossing the
Thames at Kingston after failing to storm
Surrey's cloth industry declined in the 16th century and collapsed in
the 17th, harmed by falling standards and competition from more
effective producers in other parts of England. The iron industry in
the Weald, whose rich deposits had been exploited since prehistoric
times, expanded and spread from its base in
Surrey after 1550. New furnace technology stimulated further
growth in the early 17th century, but this hastened the extinction of
the business as the mines were worked out. However, this period
also saw the emergence of important new industries, centred on the
valley of the Tillingbourne, south-east of Guildford, which often
adapted watermills originally built for the now moribund cloth
industry. The production of brass goods and wire in this area was
relatively short-lived, but the manufacture of paper and gunpowder
proved more enduring. For a time in the mid-17th century the Surrey
mills were the main producers of gunpowder in England. A
glass industry also developed in the 16th century on the south-western
borders of Surrey. The Wey Navigation, opened in 1653, was one
of England's first canal systems.
George Abbot, the son of a
Guildford clothworker, served as Archbishop
Canterbury in 1611–33. In 1619 he founded Abbot's Hospital, an
almshouse in Guildford, which is still operating. He also made
unsuccessful efforts to revitalise the local cloth industry. One of
his brothers, Robert, became Bishop of Salisbury, while another,
Maurice, was a founding shareholder of the
East India Company
East India Company who
became the company's Governor and later Lord Mayor of London.
Bankside in Southwark, then part of Surrey, was the principal
entertainment district of early modern London. This was due to its
convenient location outside the jurisdiction of the government of the
City of London, since the social control exercised over this London
suburb by the local authorities of
Surrey was less effective and
Bankside was the scene of the golden age of Elizabethan
and Jacobean theatre, with the work of playwrights including William
Shakespeare, Christopher Marlowe,
Ben Jonson and John Webster
performed in its playhouses. The leading actor and impresario
Edward Alleyn founded a college in
Dulwich with an endowment including
an art collection, which was later expanded and opened to the public
in 1817, becoming Britain's first public art gallery.
Surrey almost entirely escaped the direct impact of fighting during
the main phase of the
English Civil War
English Civil War in 1642-6. The local
Parliamentarian gentry led by Sir Richard Onslow were able to secure
the county without difficulty on the outbreak of war.
was briefly occupied by the advancing Royalists in late 1642, but was
easily stormed by the Parliamentarians under Sir William Waller. A new
Royalist offensive in late 1643 saw skirmishing around
Waller's forces and Ralph Hopton's Royalists, but these brief
incursions into the western fringes of
Surrey marked the limits of
Royalist advances on the county. At the end of 1643
Sussex and Hamphire to form the South-Eastern Association,
a military federation modelled on Parliament's existing Eastern
Association. During a political crisis in summer 1647, Sir Thomas
New Model Army
New Model Army passed through
Surrey on their way to occupy
London, and subsequent billeting of troops in
considerable discontent. During the brief Second Civil War of
1648, the Earl of Holland entered
Surrey in July, hoping to ignite a
Royalist revolt. He raised his standard at Kingston and advanced
south, but found little support. After confused manoeuvres between
Dorking as Parliamentary troops closed in, his force of
500 men fled northwards and was overtaken and routed at Kingston.
Surrey had a central role in the history of the radical political
movements unleashed by the civil war. In October 1647 the first
manifesto of the movement that became known as the Levellers, The Case
of the Armie Truly Stated, was drafted at
Guildford by the elected
representatives of army regiments and civilian radicals from London.
This document combined specific grievances with wider demands for
constitutional change on the basis of popular sovereignty. It formed
the template for the more systematic and radical Agreement of the
People, drafted by the same men later that month. It also led to the
Putney Debates shortly afterwards, in which its signatories met with
Oliver Cromwell and other senior officers in the
Surrey village of
Putney, where the army had established its headquarters, to argue over
the future political constitution of England. In 1649 the Diggers, led
by Gerrard Winstanley, established their communal settlement at St.
George's Hill near
Weybridge to implement egalitarian ideals of common
ownership, but were eventually driven out by the local landowners
through violence and litigation. A smaller Digger commune was then
established near Cobham, but suffered the same fate in 1650.
Prior to the
Great Reform Act
Great Reform Act of 1832,
Surrey returned fourteen
Members of Parliament, two representing the county and two each from
the six boroughs of Bletchingley, Gatton, Guildford, Haslemere,
Reigate and Southwark. For two centuries before the Reform Act, the
dominant political network in
Surrey was that of the Onslows of
Clandon Park, a gentry family established in the county from the early
17th century, who were raised to the peerage in 1716. Members of the
family won at least one of Surrey's two county seats in all but three
of the 30 general elections between 1628 and 1768, while they took one
or both of the seats for their local borough of
Guildford in every
election from 1660 to 1830, usually representing the Whig Party after
its emergence in the late 1670s. Successive heads of the family held
the post of
Lord Lieutenant of Surrey continuously from 1716 to 1814.
Until the modern era Surrey, apart from its north-eastern corner, was
sparsely populated in comparison with most parts of south-east
England, and remained somewhat rustic despite its proximity to the
capital. Communications began to improve, and the influence of London
to increase, with the development of turnpike roads and a stagecoach
system in the 18th century. A far more profound transformation
followed with the arrival of the railways, beginning in the late
1830s. The availability of rapid transport enabled prosperous
London workers to settle all across
Surrey and travel daily to work in
the capital. This phenomenon of commuting brought explosive growth to
Surrey's population and wealth, and tied its economy and society
inextricably to London. There was rapid expansion in existing towns
like Guildford, Farnham, and most spectacularly Croydon, while new
towns such as
Woking and Redhill emerged beside the railway
lines. The huge numbers of incomers to the county and the
transformation of rural, farming communities into a "commuter belt"
contributed to a decline in the traditional local culture, including
the gradual demise of the distinctive
Surrey dialect. This may have
survived among the "
Surrey Men" into the late 19th Century, but is now
Britain's first crematorium, in the Borough of Woking.
London itself spread swiftly across north-eastern Surrey.
In 1800 it extended only to Vauxhall; a century later the city's
growth had reached as far as
Putney and Streatham. This expansion was
reflected in the creation of the County of
London in 1889, detaching
the areas subsumed by the city from Surrey. The expansion of London
continued in the 20th century, engulfing Croydon, Kingston and many
smaller settlements. This led to a further contraction of
1965 with the creation of Greater London, under the
Act 1963; however,
Staines and Sunbury-on-Thames, previously in
Middlesex, were transferred to Surrey, extending the county across the
Thames. Surrey's boundaries were altered again in 1974 when
Gatwick Airport was transferred to West Sussex.
Brookwood Cemetery was established near
Woking to serve the
population of London, connected to the capital by its own railway
service. It soon developed into the largest burial ground in the
Woking was also the site of Britain's first crematorium, which
opened in 1878, and its first mosque, founded in 1889. In 1881
Godalming became the first town in the world with a public electricity
The eastern part of
Surrey was transferred from the Diocese of
Winchester to that of Rochester in 1877. In 1905 this area was
separated to form a new Diocese of Southwark. The rest of the county,
together with part of eastern Hampshire, was separated from Winchester
in 1927 to become the Diocese of Guildford, whose cathedral was
consecrated in 1961.
Guildford Cathedral, designed by Edward Maufe.
During the later 19th century
Surrey became important in the
development of architecture in Britain and the wider world. Its
traditional building forms made a significant contribution to the
vernacular revival architecture associated with the Arts and Crafts
Movement, and would exert a lasting influence. The prominence of
Surrey peaked in the 1890s, when it was the focus for globally
important developments in domestic architecture, in particular the
early work of Edwin Lutyens, who grew up in the county and was greatly
influenced by its traditional styles and materials.
Dennis Sabre fire engine
The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw the demise of Surrey's
long-standing industries manufacturing paper and gunpowder. Most of
the county's paper mills closed in the years after 1870, and the last
survivor shut in 1928. Gunpowder production fell victim to the First
World War, which brought about a huge expansion of the British
munitions industry, followed by sharp contraction and consolidation
when the war ended, leading to the closure of the
Surrey powder mills.
New industrial developments included the establishment of the vehicle
manufacturers Dennis Brothers in
Guildford in 1895. Beginning as a
maker of bicycles and then of cars, the firm soon shifted into the
production of commercial and utility vehicles, becoming
internationally important as a manufacturer of fire engines and buses.
Though much reduced in size and despite multiple changes of ownership,
this business continues to operate in Guildford. Kingston and nearby
Ham became a centre of aircraft manufacturing, with the establishment
in 1912 of the
Sopwith Aviation Company
Sopwith Aviation Company and in 1920 of its successor
H.G. Hawker Engineering, which later became
Hawker Aviation and then
Second World War
Second World War a section of the GHQ Stop Line, a system
of pillboxes, gun emplacements, anti-tank obstacles and other
fortifications, was constructed along the North Downs. This line,
Somerset to Yorkshire, was intended as the principal
fixed defence of
London and the industrial core of
England against the
threat of invasion. German invasion plans envisaged that the main
thrust of their advance inland would cross the
North Downs at the gap
in the ridge formed by the Wey valley, thus colliding with the defence
line around Guildford.
Between the two world wars
Croydon Airport, opened in 1920, served as
the main airport for London, but it was superseded after the Second
World War by Heathrow, and closed in 1959.
Gatwick Airport, where
commercial flights began in 1933, expanded greatly in the 1950s and
1960s, but the area occupied by the airport was transferred from
Surrey to West
Sussex in 1974.
Historic architecture and monuments
The gate of Abbot's Hospital, Guildford
Few traces of the ancient British and Roman periods survive in Surrey.
There are a number of round barrows and bell barrows in various
locations, mostly dating to the Bronze Age. Remains of Iron Age
hillforts exist at Holmbury Hill, Hascombe Hill, Anstiebury (near
Capel), Dry Hill (near Lingfield), St Ann's Hill (Chertsey) and St
George's Hill (Weybridge). Most of these sites were created in the
1st century BC and many were re-occupied during the middle of the 1st
century AD. Only fragments of Stane Street and Ermine Street, the
Roman roads which crossed the county, remain.
Anglo-Saxon elements survive in a number of
Surrey churches, notably
Guildford (St Mary),
Godalming (St Peter & St Paul), Stoke
D'Abernon, Thursley, Witley, Compton and Albury (in Old Albury).
Numerous medieval churches exist in Surrey, but the county's parish
churches are typically relatively small and simple, and experienced
particularly widespread destruction and remodelling of their form in
the course of Victorian restoration. Important medieval church
interiors survive at Chaldon, Lingfield, Stoke D'Abernon, Compton and
Dunsfold. Large monastic churches fell into ruin after their
institutions were dissolved, although fragments of
Waverley Abbey and
Newark Priory survive.
Southwark Priory, no longer in
survived, though much altered, and is now
Southwark Cathedral. Farnham
Castle largely retains its medieval structure, while the keep and
fragments of the curtain walls and palace buildings survive at
Very little non-military secular architecture survives in
earlier than the 15th century. Wholly or partially surviving houses
and barns from that century include those at Bletchingley, Littleton,
East Horsley, Ewhurst, Dockenfield, Lingfield, Limpsfield, Oxted,
Haslemere and Old
Surrey Hall, though with considerable
Major examples of 16th-century architecture include the grand
mid-century country houses of
Loseley Park and Sutton Place and the
old building of the Royal Grammar School, Guildford, founded in
1509. A considerable number of smaller houses and public houses of
the 16th century are also still standing. From the 17th century the
number of surviving buildings proliferates further. Abbot's Hospital,
founded in 1619, is a grand edifice built in the Tudor style, despite
its date. More characteristic examples of major 17th-century building
include West Horsley Place, Slyfield Manor, and the Guildhall in
Besides its role in Elizabethan and Jacobean theatre, many important
writers have lived and worked in Surrey.
The Owl and the Nightingale, one of the earliest
Middle English poems,
may have been written by one Nicholas of Guildford, who is mentioned
in its text.
John Donne (1572–1631) lived and worked for a time in Pyrford.
John Evelyn (1620–1706) was born and spent much of his life in
Wotton, and is buried there.
Daniel Defoe (1659/61-1731) was educated in Dorking.
William Cobbett (1763–1835) was born and raised in Farnham, later
lived in Wyke, where he died, and is buried in Farnham; Surrey
features prominently in his Rural Rides.
Thomas Love Peacock
Thomas Love Peacock (1785–1866) lived in Lower Halliford, then part
of Middlesex, now in Surrey.
Benjamin Disraeli (1804–81) wrote
Conningsby while living in
Alfred Tennyson (1809–92) spent the latter part of his life, and
died, in Haslemere.
Charles Dickens (1812–70) wrote part of
The Pickwick Papers
The Pickwick Papers in
Dorking, and refers to the town in the novel.
Robert Browning (1812–89) was born in Camberwell, then part of
George Eliot (1819–80) wrote most of
Middlemarch while living in
Matthew Arnold (1822–88) lived in Laleham, then part of Middlesex,
now in Surrey.
George Meredith (1828–1909) lived at Box Hill.
Lewis Carroll (1832–98) spent much of his time at his sisters' home
in Guildford, where he wrote Through the Looking Glass; he died there
and is buried in the town.
George Bernard Shaw
George Bernard Shaw (1856–1950) lived in
Woking and later in
Hindhead, where he wrote Caesar and Cleopatra.
Arthur Conan Doyle
Arthur Conan Doyle (1859–1930) lived and wrote many of his books in
Hindhead and served as deputy lieutenant of Surrey; the county forms a
setting for several of the
Sherlock Holmes stories.
J. M. Barrie
J. M. Barrie (1860–1937) lived in Tilford, and based The Boy
Castaways, which later evolved into Peter Pan, in the nearby
H. G. Wells
H. G. Wells (1866–1946) wrote
The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds while living in
Woking; much of northern
Surrey is laid waste in the course of the
John Galsworthy (1867–1933) was born in Kingston and the Forsyte
Saga is partly set in the area.
E. M. Forster
E. M. Forster (1879–1970) lived and wrote in
Weybridge and Abinger
P. G. Wodehouse
P. G. Wodehouse (1881–1975) was born in
Guildford and baptised there
in St Nicolas' Church.
Aldous Huxley (1894–1963) was born and raised in
Godalming and his
ashes are interred at Compton; the end of
Brave New World
Brave New World is set in
Rosemary Sutcliff (1920–1992) was born in East Clandon.
Kazuo Ishiguro (born 1954) grew up in Guildford.
Arts and sciences
William of Ockham
William of Ockham (c.1288-c.1348), scholastic philosopher, most famous
for "Occam's Razor", came from Ockham.
Thomas Malthus (1766–1834), pioneer of demography, was born and
raised in Westcott, and later lived in Albury.
Ada Lovelace (1815–52), mathematician, lived at East Horsley.
Eadweard Muybridge (1830–1904), photographer, was born and raised in
Kingston, then part of Surrey.
Gertrude Jekyll (1843–1932), garden designer, lived for much of her
life at Munstead near Godalming, created significant gardens in Surrey
and is buried in Busbridge.
Edwin Lutyens (1869–1944), architect, grew up in Thursley; many of
his early works were built in Surrey, including collaborations with
Ralph Vaughan Williams
Ralph Vaughan Williams (1872–1958), composer, grew up at Leith Hill
and later lived in Dorking.
Laurence Olivier (1907–89), actor, was born in Dorking.
Peggy Ashcroft (1907–91), actress, was born and raised in Croydon,
then part of Surrey.
David Lean (1908–91), film director, was born in Croydon.
Alan Turing (1912–54), mathematician and pioneer of computer
science, lived for much of his early life in Guildford.
Roy Hudd (born 1936), comedian and actor, was born and raised in
Alex Kingston (born 1963), actress, was born and raised in Epsom.
Tracey Emin (born 1963), artist, was born in Croydon.
Surrey Delta" produced many of the musicians in 60s British blues
movements. The Rolling Stones developed their music at the Crawdaddy
Club in Richmond.
Jimmy Page (born 1944) spent much of his early life in Epsom.
Jeff Beck (born 1944) was born in Wallington, then part of Surrey.
Eric Clapton (born 1945) was born and grew up in Ripley.
Peter Gabriel (born 1950) was born in
Chobham and grew up in Surrey.
His band Genesis were formed at the
Charterhouse School in Godalming.
The Stranglers were formed in Guildford.
Paul Weller (born 1958) was born and grew up in Woking, which inspired
the song Town Called Malice.
The Jam were formed at Sheerwater
Secondary School in the town.
Kirsty MacColl (1959–2000) was born in Croydon, then part of Surrey.
Norman Cook, aka Fatboy Slim (born 1963) grew up in Reigate.
Hard-Fi members Richard Archer, Ross Phillips, and
Kai Stephens are
Justin Hawkins, lead singer of rock band The Darkness, was born in
Disclosure members Guy and Howard Lawrence are from Reigate.
Epsom is famous for the
Epsom Downs Racecourse which hosts the Epsom
Derby; painting by James Pollard, c. 1835
Cricket makes its first appearance in history in Surrey, in a
reference to the game being played at the Royal Grammar School,
Guildford in the 16th century (see History of English cricket to
Cricket Club, formed in 1685 and the oldest documented
club in the game's history, was within Surrey's borders until
Cricket Club, founded in 1845, represents
the historic county of Surrey, although its main ground,
The Oval in
Kennington, is now in Greater London. The club also uses Whitgift
Croydon and Woodbridge Road,
Guildford for some games.
It was one of the original participants in the
County Championship and
has won the competition 18 times, more than any other county except
Golf has been played in the county since before 1900 most notably as
international venue Wentworth; by 2013 a 142nd co-existing
course was in planning consultation; 141 were recorded by The Daily
Epsom Downs Racecourse is the venue for the most prestigious event in
British flat horse-racing, the Derby, which has been held there
annually since 1780. Lingfield, Kempton and Sandown Park Racecourses
present an unusual concentration in one county.
Weybridge was the world's first
purpose-built motorsport race circuit, opened in 1907 (partly now
Mercedes-Benz World). Currently
Woking plays host to the headquarters
Formula One team, giving
Surrey the rarity of having a
local F1 team. James Hunt, the 1976 Formula 1 World Driver's Champion
was born in Belmont, Sutton, then part of Surrey, in 1947.
England Lawn Tennis Club, venue for the Wimbledon
Championships, and the headquarters of the Lawn Tennis Association
Surrey until 1965.
Surrey's leading rugby club, Esher, currently compete in the National
League 1, the third tier of English rugby.
Surrey is one of a handful of English counties with no teams in the
top 92 football teams, the Football League. Its leading team is
Woking, currently playing in the fifth-tier National League.
Surrey is home to the ice hockey team the
Guildford Flames, who
compete in the top-tier Elite Ice Hockey League.
The basketball team
Surrey Scorchers, based in Guildford, play in the
top tier of British basketball, the British
The netball team
Surrey Storm, based in
Guildford play in the Netball
Superleague. They are the franchise for the
Greater London area and
the South East.
Rowing clubs include Molesey (with an elite development programme
hosting several leading
British Rowing crews), Walton, (one of the
UK's top clubs in the junior category), Weybridge,
Weybridge Mariners, Burway,
Guildford whose top female
quad boat won Henley Women's in 2012.
Volleyball teams include BA,
Friends Provident and Guildford
Volleyball Club (whose elite men's team has won the 1st
of the 4 National Divisions), while twelve clubs in
Surrey and three
Greater London compete in the
Surrey Football Clubs
The county has numerous football teams. In the Combined Counties
League can be found the likes of Ash United, Badshot Lea, Banstead
Camberley Town, Chessington & Hook United, Cobham,
Epsom & Ewell,
Epsom Athletic, Farleigh Rovers, Farnham
Horley Town, Knaphill,
Mole Valley SCR, Molesey,
Spelthorne Sports and Westfield; Ashford Town, Chertsey
Godalming Town and
Guildford City play higher in the Southern
League; equally Leatherhead, Merstham, Redhill, South Park, Staines
Town, Walton Casuals and Walton and Hersham are in the Isthmian;
Woking play in the National League.
Chelsea F.C. practice at the
Cobham Training Centre
Cobham Training Centre located in the
Stoke d'Abernon near the village of Cobham, Surrey. The
training ground was built in 2004 and officially opened in 2007.
• Succeeded by
Kingston upon Thames
Kingston upon Thames from 1893
Local Government Act 1888
Local Government Act 1888 reorganised county-level local
England and Wales. Accordingly, the
administrative county of
Surrey was formed in 1889 when the
Surrey County Council
Surrey County Council first met, consisting of 19 aldermen
and 57 councillors. The county council assumed the administrative
responsibilities previously exercised by the county's justices in
quarter sessions. The county had revised boundaries, with the north
east of the historic county bordering the City of
London becoming part
of a new County of London. These areas now form the
London Boroughs of
Southwark and Wandsworth, and the Penge area of the London
Borough of Bromley. At the same time, the borough of
Croydon became a
county borough, outside the jurisdiction of the county council.
For purposes other than local government the administrative county of
Surrey and county borough of
Croydon continued to form a "county of
Surrey" to which a
Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum (chief
magistrate) and a High Sheriff were appointed.
Surrey had been administered from Newington since the 1790s, and the
county council was initially based in the sessions house there. As
Newington was included in the County of London, it lay outside the
area administered by the council, and a site for a new county hall
within the administrative county was sought. By 1890 six towns were
being considered: Epsom, Guildford, Kingston, Redhill,
Wimbledon. In 1891 it was decided to build the new County Hall at
Kingston, and the building opened in 1893, but this site was also
overtaken by the growing
London conurbation, and by the 1930s most of
the north of the county had been built over, becoming outer suburbs of
London, although continuing to form part of
In 1960 the report of the Herbert Commission recommended that much of
Surrey (including Kingston and Croydon) be included in a new
"Greater London". These recommendations were enacted in highly
modified form in 1965 by the
London Government Act 1963. The areas
that now form the
London Boroughs of Croydon, Kingston, Merton, and
Sutton and that part of Richmond south of the River Thames, were
Surrey to Greater London. At the same time part of
the county of Middlesex, which had been abolished by the legislation,
was added to Surrey. This area now forms the borough of Spelthorne.
Further local government reform under the Local Government Act 1972
took place in 1974. The 1972 Act abolished administrative counties and
introduced non-metropolitan counties in their place. The boundaries of
the non-metropolitan county of
Surrey were similar to those of the
administrative county with the exception of
Gatwick Airport and some
surrounding land which was transferred to West Sussex. It was
originally proposed that the parishes of
become part of West Sussex; however this met fierce local opposition
and it was reversed by the
Horley Act 1974.
After the elections of May 2017 the County Councillors' party
affiliations are as follows:
As of 3 May 2012, the Conservative local councillors control of 10 out
of 11 councils in Surrey, with
Epsom and Ewell
Epsom and Ewell in Residents
Association control. The Conservatives hold all 11 Parliamentary
constituencies within the county borders.
Export House in Woking, one of Surrey's tallest buildings
Surrey has the highest GDP per capita in the UK and the highest cost
of living in the UK outside of the capital. The county is said to have
the highest proportion of millionaires in the UK. The average wage in
Surrey is bolstered by the high proportion of residents who work in
Surrey has more organisation and company headquarters than any other
county in the UK. Electronics manufacturers Nikon, Whirlpool, Canon,
Philips are housed here, as are distributors
Kia Motors and
Toyota UK, the medico-pharma
Sanofi-Aventis and oil giant Esso. Some of the
largest fast-moving consumer goods multinationals in the world have
their UK and/or European headquarters here, including Unilever,
Procter & Gamble, Superdrug, Nestlé, SC Johnson, Kimberly-Clark
and Colgate-Palmolive. NGOs including WWF UK & Compassion in World
Farming are also based here. Government Quangos such as SEEDA, SEERA
and GOSE are headquartered in Guildford.
Three major motorways pass through the county. These are:
London Orbital) runs through the county, including a long cutting
Reigate Hill-Walton Down scarp of the
North Downs and has 8
junctions in the county.
It connects among others to the M1, M11, M20, M26, M4 and M40. The
motorway runs close to
Heathrow Airport and the motorway
network can be used to access Gatwick, Stansted and Luton Airports and
Channel Tunnel motor vehicle service.
M3 crosses the north-west of the county. It connects
Southampton and the South West of
England (excluding Gloucestershire,
Wiltshire connected by the M4) having in
Sunbury-on-Thames, M25 interchange and Lightwater/
M23 (north-south) in effect connects
Brighton as the
dualled A23 trunk road to the north and beyond Crawley. It has
junction to a spur to
Gatwick Airport on the Surrey/
Sussex border. It
Surrey junction, the M25
Merstham interchange, close to the
Reigate M25 junction.
Other major roads include:
The A3 trunk road from
Portsmouth to London. The road now bypasses and
historically assisted in the growth of Haslemere, Godalming,
Esher and Kingston upon Thames. The
bypasses a former bottleneck at
Hindhead and the Devil's Punchbowl.
The A24 from
Littlehampton and Worthing. In Surrey, it
passes through or around Ewell, Epsom, Ashtead,
Dorking. It passes Box Hill, near Dorking. Unlike the A3, which is
almost completely dual carriageway, the A24 is apart from a large
Surrey stretch single carriageway; it bypasses Leatherhead,
Dorking and Horsham.
The A31 trunk road west from
Bere Regis via
is connected to the M3 near
Winchester and via the A331 near
Aldershot. It is dual carriageway along the Hog's Back from the A3 to
Farnham. It is one of the ancient routes from
London to Winchester,
see Pilgrims' Way.
The short A331 connects the A31 to the M3. It runs along the Surrey
Hampshire border, bypassing Aldershot,
Frimley and Farnborough.
Surrey lies within the
London commuter belt with regular
services into Central London. South Western Railway is the sole train
operator in Elmbridge, Runnymede, Spelthorne,
Waverley, and the main train operator in the Borough of Guildford,
running regular services into
London Waterloo and regional services
towards the south coast and South west. Southern is the main train
operator in Mole Valley,
Epsom and Ewell
Epsom and Ewell and
Reigate and Banstead
Reigate and Banstead and
the sole train operator in Tandridge, providing services into London
There are a number of national rail routes: in anti-clockwise order,
the Waterloo to Reading Line, South Western Main Line, Portsmouth
Direct Line, Sutton and
Mole Valley Lines (from Horsham, West Sussex
itself on the
Arun Valley Line
Arun Valley Line from Littlehampton) and the Brighton
Waterloo to Reading Line
Waterloo to Reading Line from Reading, selected stations of
Bracknell, Ascot, Sunningdale, and into
Surrey and calls at unskipped
stops of Virginia Water, Egham,
Staines and several other stations in
Greater London before terminating at Waterloo. The South Western Main
Line runs from Weymouth, Southampton, the significant technology towns
of Basingstoke and Farnborough, then normally calls at Woking, up to
Surrey stops including Walton-on-Thames, and then for fast
services Clapham Junction and Waterloo only. The
Line is significant in linking Haslemere,
South Western Main Line
South Western Main Line at Woking. The Sutton and Mole Valley
Lines link Dorking, Leatherhead, Ashtead,
Epsom and then towards
Ewell West or via
Ewell East to
London Victoria and also
have spurs to the SWML northbound and New
Guildford Line southbound.
Brighton Main Line calls at mostly unskipped stops
Redhill before reaching either
London Bridge or
Reigate is the only town terminus one stop off this main line network,
with its station west of Redhill station one stop further from London
and is on the east-west
North Downs Line.
Consequently, the towns Staines, Woking, Guildford, Walton-on-Thames,
Ewell and Reigate/Redhill, statistically the largest
examples, are established rapid-transit commuter towns for Central
London. The above routes have had a stimulative effect. The relative
Surrey at the time of the
Beeching cuts led to today's
retention of numerous other commuter routes except the Cranleigh Line,
all with direct services to London, including:
Chertsey Line linking the first two of the above national routes via
Chertsey and Addlestone
Guildford Line via Claygate and Effingham Junction from Surbiton
Hampton Court Branch Line to Hampton Court via Thamres Ditton from
Shepperton Branch Line
Shepperton Branch Line via Sunbury
Guildford Line from
Guildford via Wanborough, Ash, into
Hampshire to Aldershot, back to
Camberley and Bagshot
before crossing into
Berkshire to Ascot
Alton Line that calls at the far southwest
Surrey outcrop in Farnham
Hampshire with a change to steam at Alton for Alresford via the
seasonal and off-peak hours heritage Watercress Line. This line used
to run to Winchester.
Epsom Downs Branch from Sutton and then Belmont in
Greater London to
Epsom Downs only.
Tattenham Corner Branch Line from Purley,
London via Chipstead,
Kingswood and Tadworth
Oxted Line via East
Croydon that calls at
Oxted and Hurst Green and
into East Grinstead with a change for the
Bluebell Railway for
services to Sheffield Park, or to Uckfield, which was truncated under
the Beeching Axe, having previously run to Lewes.
Redhill to Tonbridge Line
Redhill to Tonbridge Line via
Godstone and Tonbridge connections to
The only diesel route is the east-west route in Surrey, the North
Downs Line, which runs from Reading in
Berkshire via Farnborough
Dorking Deepdene, Reigate, Redhill and into West
London Waterloo are run by South West Trains, trains to
London Victoria and
London Bridge are operated by extremely poorly
managed Southern (train operating company), and services on the North
Downs Line are operated by Great Western Railway. Southeastern
previously ran the Redhill to Tonbridge.
Redhill with a Class 166 service to Reading on the
North Downs Line.
Major stations in the county include
Guildford (8.0 million
Woking (7.4 million passengers), Epsom
(3.6 million passengers), Redhill (3.6 million
Staines (2.9 million passengers).
Long-distance national services
Guildford a daily service with
CrossCountry runs to Newcastle via
Gatwick Airport, in addition to the
Gatwick Express, the
north-south Thameslink route connects 50 stations:
London Blackfriars, Farringdon,
London St Pancras, Kentish Town, St
Luton Airport Parkway, Luton and Bedford; the Thameslink
Programme is under way to extend the line by 2018 to Peterborough,
Cambridge and east to Ashford.
Both Heathrow (in the
London Borough of Hillingdon) and
Crawley Borough, West Sussex) have a perimeter road in Surrey. A
National Express coach from
Heathrow Airport and
early-until-late buses to nearby
Surrey towns operate.
Fairoaks Airport on the edge of
Chobham and Ottershaw is 2.3 miles
(3.7 km) from
Woking town centre and operates as a private
airfield with two training schools and is home to other aviation
Redhill Aerodrome is also in Surrey.
See also: List of schools in Surrey
The UK has a comprehensive, state-funded education system, accordingly
Surrey has 37 state secondary schools, 17 Academies, 7 sixth form
colleges and 55 state primaries. The county has 41 independent
schools, including Charterhouse (one of the nine independent schools
mentioned in the Public Schools Act 1868) and the Royal Grammar
School, Guildford. More than half the state secondary schools in
Surrey have sixth forms.
Brooklands (twinned with a site in Ashford,
Surrey), Reigate, Esher, Egham,
Woking and Waverley host sixth-form
equivalent colleges each with technical specialisations and standard
sixth-form study courses.
Brooklands College offers aerospace and
automotive design, engineering and allied study courses reflecting the
aviation and motor industry leading UK research and maintenance hubs
See also: Category:Education in Surrey
University of Surrey
University of Surrey is based in
Guildford and the University for
the Creative Arts (UCA) has campuses in
Farnham and Epsom
Royal Holloway, University of
London is based in Egham
The University of Law
The University of Law has a campus in Guildford
Surrey is served by these emergency services.
Surrey Police, with 12 police stations in Surrey.
South East Coast Ambulance Service
South East Coast Ambulance Service as of 1 July 2006. Previously
Surrey Ambulance Service covered Surrey; on 1 July 2006, it merged
Sussex Ambulance Service and
Kent Ambulance Service to form the
South East Coast Ambulance Service.
Surrey has 21 ambulance stations.
Surrey Fire & Rescue Service, with 24 fire stations in Surrey.
Surrey Search & Rescue, based in
Woking Police Station.
Places of interest
Significant landscapes in
Surrey include Box Hill just north of
Devil's Punch Bowl
Devil's Punch Bowl at
Frensham Common. Leith
Hill south west of
Dorking in the
Greensand Ridge is the second
highest point in south-east England.
Witley Common and
are expansive areas of ancient heathland south of
Godalming run by the
National Trust and Ministry of Defence. The
Surrey Hills are an area
of outstanding natural beauty (AONB).
Lawns at RHS Garden, Wisley
More manicured landscapes can be seen at Claremont Landscape Garden,
Esher (dating from 1715). There is also Winkworth Arboretum
south east of
Windlesham Arboretum near Lightwater
created in the 20th century.
Wisley is home to the Royal Horticultural
Society gardens. Kew, historically part of
Surrey but now in Greater
London, features the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, as well as The
National Archives for
England & Wales.
There are 80
Surrey Wildlife Trust reserves with at least one in all
11 non-metropolitan districts.
Surrey's important country houses include the Tudor mansion of Loseley
Park, built in the 1560s and Clandon House, an 18th-century Palladian
West Clandon to the east of Guildford. Nearby Hatchlands
Park in East Clandon, was built in 1758 with
Robert Adam interiors and
a collection of keyboard instruments.
Polesden Lacey south of Great
Bookham is a regency villa with extensive grounds. On a smaller scale,
Oakhurst Cottage in Hambledon near
Godalming is a restored
16th-century worker's home.
A canal system, the
Wey and Godalming Navigations
Wey and Godalming Navigations is linked to the Wey
and Arun Canal with future full reopening expected after 2015. Dapdune
Guildford commemorates the work of the canal system and is
home to a restored Wey barge, the Reliance. Furthermore, on the River
Shalford Mill is an 18th-century water-mill.
Egham is the site of the sealing of the
Magna Carta in
Guildford Cathedral is a post-war cathedral built from bricks made
from the clay hill on which it stands.
Brooklands Museum recognises the motoring past of Surrey. The county
is also home to the theme parks
Thorpe Park and flanks to three sides
the farmland and woodland surrounding Chessington World of Adventures
in Greater London.
Surrey in film and books
Statue of a tripod from
The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds in Woking, hometown of
science fiction author H. G. Wells. The book is a seminal depiction of
a conflict between mankind and an extraterrestrial race.
Much of H. G. Wells's 1898 novel
The War of the Worlds
The War of the Worlds is set in
Surrey with many specific towns and villages identified. The Martians
first land on Horsell Common on the north side of Woking, outside the
Bleak House pub, now called Sands. The narrator flees in the direction
of London, first passing
Byfleet and then
Weybridge before travelling
east along the north bank of the Thames. Jane Austen's novel Emma is
Surrey and the famous picnic where Emma embarrasses Miss Bates
takes place on Box Hill.
The character Ford Prefect from The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
claimed to be from
Guildford in Surrey, but in actuality he was from a
small planet somewhere in the vicinity of Betelgeuse. Thomas Paine
Kydd, the hero of the Kydd series of naval adventure novels written by
Julian Stockwin, starts off as a young wig-maker from
Guildford who is
pressed into service and thus begins a life at sea. Atonement is set
in Surrey. The late Poet Laureate
Sir John Betjeman
Sir John Betjeman mentions Camberley
in his poem "A Subaltern's Lovesong", while
Carshalton forms the
literary backdrop to many of the poems by James Farrar. In J.K.
Rowling's Harry Potter series, the home of Harry's pernicious
relatives, the Dursleys, is set in the fictional town of Little
Whinging, Surrey. They lived at Number Four Privet Drive, Little
The county has also been used as a film location. Part of the movie
The Holiday was filmed in
Godalming and Shere: Kate Winslet's
character Iris lived in a cottage in Shere and Cameron Diaz's
character Amanda switched houses with her as part of a home exchange.
The final scene of Bridget Jones: The Edge of Reason uses the village
church, also in Shere, as does the movie The Wedding Date. In the 1976
film The Omen, the scenes at the cathedral were filmed at Guildford
Cathedral. The film I Want Candy follows two hopeful lads from
Leatherhead trying to break into the movies, and was partly filmed in
Brooklands College (
Surrey woodland represented
Germany in the opening scene of Gladiator, starring Russell Crowe; it
was filmed at the Bourne Woods near
Farnham in Surrey. Scenes for the
2009 BBC production of Emma by Jane Austen, starring
Romola Garai and
Michael Gambon, were filmed at St Mary the Virgin Church Send near
Guildford and at Loseley House.
List of Lord Lieutenants of Surrey
List of High Sheriffs of Surrey
Custos Rotulorum of Surrey—Keepers of the Rolls
Surrey (UK Parliament constituency)—Historical list of MPs for
Healthcare in Surrey
Surrey Police and Crime Commissioner
Domesday Book valued the
Surrey estates of
Chertsey Abbey in 1066 at
£189 a year, the abbey's only other holdings being £11 worth in
Berkshire. Harold's lands in
Surrey were valued at £175 a year, while
another £15 worth were still entered under the name of his late
father Earl Godwin. The revenues of King Edward's
totalled £117, Queen Edith's £76, the Archbishopric of Canterbury's
£66 and the Bishopric of Winchester's £55, all fractions of vast
national holdings. The earl with jurisdiction over Surrey, Harold's
brother Leofwine, held only £17 there, from a national total of
£290, whose greatest concentrations were in
Kent and Sussex, while
his mother, Godwin's widow Gytha, held £16 from a total of £590,
chiefly clustered in Devon,
Wiltshire and Sussex. The other great
Surrey estates were the thegns Ætsere, Ægelnoð and
Osward. Ætsere held £61 in Surrey, from a total of £271 including
£163 in Sussex, Ægelnoð held £40, from a total of £260 including
£71 in Kent, £58 in
Sussex and £50 in Oxfordshire, and Osward held
£26, from a total of £109 including £65 in Kent, where he was also
sheriff. Donald Henson, The English Elite in 1066: Gone but not
forgotten (Hockwold-cum-Wilton 2001), pp. 20-23, 26-27, 32-34, 39,
49-50, 64-65, 70, 73, 85, 179-181.
^ This was Oswald, whose brother Wulfwold, Abbot of
Chertsey and Bath,
died in 1084. Oswald was one of the small number of English landowners
who managed to increase their holdings in the wake of the conquest:
his estates, centred on Effingham, were valued at £18 a year in 1066,
but the acquisition of additional manors raised this to £35 by 1086.
His descendants, the de La Leigh family, relinquished the majority of
Surrey lands in the 12th century, but remained landowners in the
county until the early 14th century. One of them, William de La Leigh,
served as Sheriff of
Surrey in 1267.
^ Besides the castles built or rebuilt in stone, remains of Norman
castles of earth and timber have been identified at Abinger,
Cranleigh, Thunderfield and Walton-on-the-Hill. Brandon and Short, The
South East from AD 1000, pp. 46-47.
Surrey 2017/2018". Hidgh Sheriffs' Association. Retrieved 11 June
^ "surrey Definition of surrey in English by Oxford Dictionaries".
Oxford University Press. Retrieved 7 October 2017.
^ a b c d e Natural
England - Geodiversity Archived October 2, 2013,
at the Wayback Machine.
^ "Surrey's woodlands".
Surrey County Council. Retrieved 16 October
^ Ordnance Survey Landranger Map 187,
Dorking & Reigate
^ "2008 mid-year estimates of population".
Surrey City Council.
Archived from the original on 4 April 2010. Retrieved 15 January
^ "2001 Census: Town/villages in
Surrey with population more than
Surrey County Council. Archived from the original (PDF)
on 25 October 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2007.
^ "Medieval Guildford—"Henry III confirmed Guildford's status as the
county town of
Surrey in 1257"".
Guildford Borough Council. Archived
from the original on 1 November 2013. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
^ "Relationships / unit history of Surrey". Vision of Britain.
Archived from the original on 14 October 2007. Retrieved 16 October
Surrey County Council
Surrey County Council press release 17 January 2006[permanent dead
^ Bird, Roman Surrey, pp. 21-24, 30-31.
^ Bird, Roman Surrey, pp. 49-72.
^ Bird, Roman Surrey, pp. 151-168.
^ Bird, Roman Surrey, pp. 37-48.
^ A Dictionary of British History, ed. by John Cannon, rev. ed.
(Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009), p. 618 (s.v. Surrey)
^ Drewett, Rudling and Gardiner, The South East to AD 1000, p. 275.
^ Kirby, The Earliest English Kings, pp. 36, 83.
^ Kirby, The Earliest English Kings, pp. 96–97.
^ Kirby, The Earliest English Kings, pp. 102–103.
^ Kirby, The Earliest English Kings, p. 105.
^ Kirby, The Earliest English Kings, pp. 111–112, 139.
^ Kirby, The Earliest English Kings, pp. 152, 155–156.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, pp. 60–61
Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, pp. 64–65.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, pp. 64–67.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, pp. 84–85.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, pp. 105 (and n. 10), 122–123.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, pp. 139–141.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, pp. 150–151.
^ Vladimir Moss. "Martyr-Prince Alfred Of England". Archived from the
original on 25 February 2007. Retrieved 16 October 2007.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicles, pp. 158–160.
^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, p. 48.
Bletchingley 1386–1421". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved
15 April 2017.
Reigate 1386–1421". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 15
^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, pp. 8-10, 62-64,
^ Brandon, A History of Surrey, pp. 15-18, 37-42.
Reigate 1386–1421". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 15
Guildford 1386–1421". History of Parliament Trust. Retrieved 15
^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, pp. 197-198.
^ "The Day the Cornish Invaded Guildford". The
Surrey Advertiser. 2
June 1989. Archived from the original on 21 June 2007. Retrieved 16
^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, pp. 186-190.
^ Brandon, A History of Surrey, pp. 55-57.
^ Glenys and Alan Crocker, Damnable Inventions: Chilworth Gunpowder
and the Paper Mills of the Tillingbourne (Guildford:
History Group 2000), pp. 5-40.
^ Brandon, A History of Surrey, pp. 51-55, 60-61.
^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, p. 189.
^ Brandon, A History of Surrey, pp. 57-58.
^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, p. 190.
^ Brandon, History of Surrey, p. 76.
^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, p. 148.
^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, p. 148.
^ Brandon, A History of Surrey, pp. 84-88.
^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, pp. 247-251.
^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, pp. 290-291.
^ Brandon, A History of Surrey, pp. 118-121, 130-131.
^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, pp. 310-313.
^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, pp. 274-290.
^ Nairn, Pevsner and Cherry, The Buildings of England: Surrey, pp.
^ Brandon, A History of Surrey, pp. 104-107.
^ Brandon and Short, The South East from AD 1000, pp. 353-355.
^ Drewett, Rudling and Gardiner, The South East to AD 1000, pp.
^ Dyer, James. Penguin Guide to Prehistoric
England & Wales, pp.
^ Nairn, Pevsner and Cherry, The Buildings of England: Surrey, pp. 91,
166, 255–256, 273, 465, 484–485, 529.
^ See their highest grade I listings when searching for the places on
the English Heritage Listed Buildings map Archived 24 April 2012 at
the Wayback Machine.
^ Nairn, Pevsner and Cherry, The Buildings of England: Surrey, pp.
25–35, 140–141, 166–168, 200–201, 347–349, 380–381,
^ Nairn, Pevsner and Cherry, The Buildings of England: Surrey, pp. 30,
35–36, 115–116, 177, 194, 227, 307, 344–345, 349–350, 352,
^ Nairn, Pevsner and Cherry, The Buildings of England: Surrey, pp.
278, 353–356, 476–479.
^ Nairn, Pevsner and Cherry, The Buildings of England: Surrey, pp.
36–40, 42–47, 275–276, 278–280, 459–460, 512–513.
^ Shaw, Phil (13 July 2003). "Cricket: After 400 years, history is
made next to the A323"[permanent dead link]. The Independent (London).
Retrieved 6 February 2007. "Mitcham Green has been in continual use as
a cricket venue for 317 years".
^ "Does gorgeous
Surrey need golf course No 142?" Max Davidson, The
Daily Telegraph, 8 Jun 2013
^ See List of horse racing venues
Surrey Storm". Retrieved 20 May 2013.
^ Census of
England and Wales 1891, General Report, Table III:
Administrative counties and county boroughs
Surrey AdmC through time - Census tables with data for the
Surrey County Council". The Times. London. 27 March 1890.
^ David Robinson, History of County Hall,
Surrey County Council
^ "Election results declared".
Surrey CC. 5 May 2017.
^ "Election 2010 – South East". BBC News.
^ "Local election results 2012: English councils". The Guardian.
London. 4 May 2012.
^ "Local statistics - Office for National Statistics".
^ a b c d e Rail Regulator Station Usage Estimates
Surrey Wildlife Trust reserves
^ Sharp, Rob (4 June 2004). "Church fears return of Omen curse". The
Observer. London. Archived from the original on 21 August 2007.
Retrieved 31 August 2007.
David Bird, Roman
Surrey (Stroud: Tempus 2004).
Peter Brandon and Brian Short, The South East from AD 1000 (
New York: Longman 1990).
Peter Brandon, A History of
Surrey (Chichester: Phillimore 1998).
Peter Drewett, David Rudling and Mark Gardiner, The South East to AD
London and New York: Longman 1988).
Ian Nairn, Nikolaus Pevsner and Bridget Cherry, The Buildings of
Surrey (London: Penguin 1962, 2nd ed. 1971).
Michael Swanton (ed. and tr.), The
Anglo-Saxon Chronicles (London:
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Surrey.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Surrey.
Surrey County Council
Surrey Interactive Map
Exploring Surrey's Past
Surrey Search & Rescue (SurSAR)
Surrey History Centre
Surrey at the English Heritage Archive
Berkshire, Greater London
Ceremonial county of Surrey
Boroughs or districts
Borough of Elmbridge
Epsom and Ewell
Borough of Guildford
Mole Valley District
Reigate and Banstead
Borough of Runnymede
Borough of Spelthorne
Borough of Waverley
Borough of Woking
See also: List of civil parishes in Surrey
Population of major settlements
Grade I listed buildings
Grade II* listed buildings
1974–1996 ← Ceremonial counties of
England → current
East Riding of Yorkshire
Isle of Wight
City of London
Tyne and Wear
Kingdoms and subdivisions of
tribes and fiefs
Nox-gaga and Oht-gaga