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This article contains Arabic text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols.

Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
(/ˈsuːni, ˈsʊni/) is the largest denomination of Islam. Its name comes from the word Sunnah, referring to the exemplary behaviour of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.[1] The differences between Sunni
Sunni
and Shia
Shia
Muslims arose from a disagreement over the choice of Muhammad's successor and subsequently acquired broader political significance, as well as theological and juridical dimensions.[2] According to Sunni
Sunni
traditions, Muhammad
Muhammad
did not clearly designate a successor and the Muslim
Muslim
community acted according to his sunnah in electing his father-in-law Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
as the first caliph.[3][2] This contrasts with the Shi'a view, which holds that Muhammad
Muhammad
announced at the event of Ghadir Khumm his son-in-law and cousin Ali
Ali
ibn Abi Talib as his successor.[4][5][6][7][8] Unlike the first three caliphs, Ali was from the same clan as Muhammad, Banu Hashim, and Shia
Shia
Muslims consider him legitimate, inter alia, by favour of his blood ties to Muhammad, too.[9][10] Political tensions between Sunnis and Shias continued with varying intensity throughout Islamic history and they have been exacerbated in recent times by ethnic conflicts and the rise of Wahhabism.[2] As of 2009[update], Sunni
Sunni
Muslims constituted 87–90% of the world's Muslim
Muslim
population.[11] Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
is the world's largest religious denomination, followed by Catholicism.[12] Its adherents are referred to in Arabic as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah ("the people of the sunnah and the community") or ahl as-sunnah for short.[13][14] In English, its doctrines and practices are sometimes called Sunnism,[15] while adherents are known as Sunni
Sunni
Muslims, Sunnis, Sunnites and Ahlus Sunnah. Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
is sometimes referred to as "orthodox Islam".[16][17][18] However, other scholars of Islam, such as John Burton believe that there's no such thing as "orthodox Islam".[19] The Quran, together with hadith (especially those collected in Kutub al-Sittah) and binding juristic consensus form the basis of all traditional jurisprudence within Sunni
Sunni
Islam. Sharia
Sharia
rulings are derived from these basic sources, in conjunction with analogical reasoning, consideration of public welfare and juristic discretion, using the principles of jurisprudence developed by the traditional legal schools. In matters of creed, the Sunni
Sunni
tradition upholds the six pillars of iman (faith) and comprises the Ash'ari
Ash'ari
and Maturidi
Maturidi
schools of rationalistic theology as well as the textualist school known as traditionalist theology.

Contents

1 Terminology 2 History

2.1 The post Rashidun
Rashidun
period till the fall of the Ottoman empire

2.1.1 Transition of caliphate into dynastic monarchy of Banu Umayya 2.1.2 Caliphate
Caliphate
and the dynastic monarchy of Banu Abbas 2.1.3 Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
in the contemporary era

3 Adherents 4 Organizational structure 5 Jurisprudence

5.1 Schools of law 5.2 Differences in the schools

6 Pillars of iman 7 Theological traditions

7.1 Ash'ari 7.2 Maturidi 7.3 Traditionalist

8 Sunni
Sunni
mysticism 9 Sunni
Sunni
view of hadith

9.1 Kutub al-Sittah

10 See also 11 References 12 Further reading 13 External links

Terminology[edit]

Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque
Mosque
in Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

Sunnī (Classical Arabic: سُنِّي /ˈsunniː/), also commonly referred to as Sunnīism, is a term derived from sunnah (سُنَّة /ˈsunna/, plural سُنَن sunan /ˈsunan/) meaning "habit", "usual practice",[20] "custom", "tradition". The Muslim
Muslim
use of this term refers to the sayings and living habits of the prophet Muhammad. In Arabic, this branch of Islam
Islam
is referred to as ahl as-sunnah wa l-jamāʻah (Arabic: أهل السنة والجماعة‎), "the people of the sunnah and the community", which is commonly shortened to ahl as-sunnah (Arabic أهل السنة).[13][14] History[edit] One common mistake is to assume that Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
represents a normative Islam
Islam
that emerged during the period after Muhammad's death, and that Sufism
Sufism
and Shi'ism
Shi'ism
developed out of Sunni
Sunni
Islam.[21] This perception is partly due to the reliance on highly ideological sources that have been accepted as reliable historical works, and also because the vast majority of the population is Sunni. Both Sunnism and Shiaism are the end products of several centuries of competition between ideologies. Both sects used each other to further cement their own identities and doctrines.[22] The first four caliphs are known among Sunnis as the Rashidun
Rashidun
or "Rightly-Guided Ones". Sunni
Sunni
recognition includes the aforementioned Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
as the first, Umar
Umar
as the second, Uthman
Uthman
as the third, and Ali
Ali
as the fourth.[23] The post Rashidun
Rashidun
period till the fall of the Ottoman empire[edit] Sunnis recognised different rulers as the caliph, though they did not include anyone in the list of the rightly guided ones or Rashidun after the murder of Ali, until the caliphate was constitutionally abolished in Turkey
Turkey
on 3 March 1924. Transition of caliphate into dynastic monarchy of Banu Umayya[edit] The seeds of metamorphosis of caliphate into kingship were sown, as the second caliph Umar
Umar
had feared, as early as the regime of the third caliph Uthman, who appointed many of his kinsmen from his clan Banu Umayya, including Marwan and Walid bin Uqba on important government positions, becoming the main cause of turmoil resulting in his murder and the ensuing infighting during Ali's time and rebellion by Muawiya, another of Uthman's kinsman. This ultimately resulted in the establishment of firm dynastic rule of Banu Umayya after Husain, the younger son of Ali
Ali
from Fatima, was killed at the battle of karbala. The rise to power of Banu Umayya, the Meccan tribe of elites who had vehemently opposed Muhammad
Muhammad
under the leadership of Abu Sufyan, Muawiya's father, right up to the conquest of Mecca
Mecca
by Muhammad, as his successors with the accession of Uthman
Uthman
to caliphate, replaced the egalitarian society formed as a result of Muhammad's revolution to a society stratified between haves and have-nots as a result of nepotism, and in the words of El-Hibri through "the use of religious charity revenues (zakat) to subsidise family interests, which Uthman justified as "al-sila" (pious filial support)."[24][25][26] Ali, during his rather brief regime after Uthman
Uthman
maintained austere life style and tried hard to bring back the egalitarian system and supremacy of law over the ruler idealised in Muhammad's message, but faced continued opposition, and wars one after another by Aisha-Talhah-Zubair, by Muawiya and finally by the Kharjites. After he was murdered his followers immediately elected Hasan ibn Ali
Ali
his elder son from Fatima to succeed him. Hasan, however, shortly afterwards signed a treaty with Muawiaya relinquishing power in favour of the latter, with a condition inter alia, that one of the two who will outlive the other will be the caliph, and that this caliph will not appoint a successor but will leave the matter of selection of the caliph to the public. Subsequently, Hasan was poisoned to death and Muawiya enjoyed unchallenged power. Not honouring his treaty with Hasan he however nominated his son Yazid to succeed him. Upon Muawiya's death, Yazid asked Husain the younger brother of Hasan, Ali's son and Muhammad's grandson, to give his allegiance to Yazid, which he plainly refused. His caravan was cordoned by Yazid's army at Karbala and he was killed with all his male companions – total 72 people, in a day long battle after which Yazid established himself as a sovereign, though strong public uprising erupted after his death against his dynasty to avenge the massacre of Karbala, but Banu Umayya were able to quickly suppress them all and ruled the Muslim
Muslim
world, till they were finally overthrown by Banu Abbas.[27][28][29][30] Caliphate
Caliphate
and the dynastic monarchy of Banu Abbas[edit] The rule of and "caliphate" of Banu Umayya came to an end at the hands of Banu Abbas
Banu Abbas
a branch of Banu Hashim, the tribe of Muhammad, only to usher another dynastic monarchy styled as caliphate from 750 CE. This period is seen formative in Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
as the founders of the four schools viz, Abu Hanifa, Malik bin Anas, Shafi'i
Shafi'i
and Ahmad bin Hambal all practised during this time, so also did Jafar al Sadiq
Jafar al Sadiq
who elaborated the doctrine of imamate, the basis for the Shi'a religious thought. There was no clearly accepted formula for determining succession in the Abbasid caliphate. Two or three sons or other relatives of the dying caliph emerged as candidates to the throne, each supported by his own party of supporters. A trial of strength ensued and the most powerful party won and expected favours of the caliph they supported once he ascended the throne. The caliphate of this dynasty ended with the death of the Caliph
Caliph
al-Ma’mun in 833 CE, when the period of Turkish domination began.[31] Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
in the contemporary era[edit] The fall of the Ottoman, the biggest Sunni
Sunni
empire in the world for six centuries, the mightiest power in the Mediterranean
Mediterranean
world and one of the important participants in World War I
World War I
which joined the war on the side of the Central Powers, bringing caliphate to an end was an epochal event. This resulted in Sunni
Sunni
protests in far off places including the Khilafat Movement
Khilafat Movement
in India, which was later on upon gaining independence from Britain divided into Sunni
Sunni
dominated Pakistan
Pakistan
and secular India. Pakistan, the most populous Sunni
Sunni
state at its birth, however later got partitioned into Pakistan
Pakistan
and Bangladesh. The demise of Ottoman caliphate also resulted in the emergence of Saudi Arabia, a dynastic absolute monarchy with the support of the British and Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn Abd al-Wahhab, the founder of Wahhabism.[32][33][34][35] This was followed by a considerable rise in Wahhabism, Salafism
Salafism
and Jihadism
Jihadism
under the influence of the preaching of Ibn Taymiyyah
Ibn Taymiyyah
a follower of Ahmad bin Hanbal.The expediencies of cold war resulted in encouragement of Afghan refugees in Pakistan
Pakistan
to be radicalised, trained and armed to fight the communist regime backed by USSR
USSR
forces in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
giving birth to Taliban. The Taliban wrestled power from the communists in Afghanistan
Afghanistan
and formed a government under the leadership of Mohammed Omar, who was addressed as the Emir
Emir
of the faithful, an honorific way of addressing the caliph. The Taliban
Taliban
regime was recognised by Pakistan
Pakistan
and Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia
till after 9/11
9/11
perpetrated by Osama bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
a Saudi national by birth harboured by the Taliban
Taliban
took place, resulting in a war on terror launched against the Taliban.[36][37][38] The sequence of events of the 20th century has led to resentment in some quarters of the Sunni
Sunni
community due to the loss of pre-eminence in several previously Sunni-dominated regions such as the Levant, Mesopotamia, the Balkans, the Caucasus
Caucasus
and the Indian sub continent.[39] The latest attempt by a section of Salafis to re establish a Sunni
Sunni
caliphate can be seen in the appearance of ISIS whose leader Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
al Baghdadi is known among his followers as caliph and Amir-al-maumineen "The Commander of the Faithful".[40] Jihadism
Jihadism
is however being strongly opposed from within the Muslim community, Ummah as it is called in Arabic in all quarters of the world.[41][42] Adherents[edit]

Countries with more than 5% Muslim
Muslim
population.[43]   Sunni   Shia   Ibadi

Sunnis believe that the companions of Muhammad
Muhammad
were the best of Muslims. This belief is based upon prophetic traditions such as one narrated by Abdullah, son of Masud, in which Muhammad
Muhammad
said: "The best of the people are my generation, then those who come after them, then those who come after them." Support for this view is also found in the Quran, according to Sunnis.[44] Sunnis also believe that the companions were true believers since it was the companions who were given the task of compiling the Quran. Furthermore, narrations that were narrated by the companions (ahadith) are considered by Sunnis to be a second source of knowledge of the Muslim
Muslim
faith. A study conducted by the Pew Research Center
Pew Research Center
in 2010 and released January 2011[45] found that there are 1.62 billion Muslims around the world, and it is estimated over 85–90% are Sunni.[46] Organizational structure[edit] Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
does not have a formal hierarchy. Leaders are informal, and gain influence through study to become a scholar of Islamic law, called sharia. According to the Islamic Center of Columbia, South Carolina, anyone with the intelligence and the will can become an Islamic scholar. During Midday Mosque
Mosque
services on Fridays, the congregation will choose a well-educated person to lead the service, known as a Khateeb (one who speaks).[47] Jurisprudence[edit] Schools of law[edit] There are many intellectual traditions within the field of Islamic law, often referred to as legal schools. These varied traditions reflect differing viewpoints on some laws and obligations within Islamic law. While one school may see a certain act as a religious obligation, another may see the same act as optional. These schools aren't regarded as sects; rather, they represent differing viewpoints on issues that are not considered the core of Islamic belief. Historians have differed regarding the exact delineation of the schools based on the underlying principles they follow. Many traditional scholars saw Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
in two groups: Ahl al-Ra'i, or "people of reason," due to their emphasis on scholarly judgment and discourse; and Ahl al-Hadith, or "people of traditions," due to their emphasis on restricting juristic thought to only what is found in scripture.[48] Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun
defined the Sunni
Sunni
schools as three: the Hanafi
Hanafi
school representing reason, the Ẓāhirīte school representing tradition, and a broader, middle school encompassing the Shafi'ite, Malikite and Hanbalite
Hanbalite
schools.[49][50] During the Middle Ages, the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt delineated the acceptable Sunni
Sunni
schools as only Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i
Shafi'i
and Hanbali, excluding the Ẓāhirī
Ẓāhirī
school.[51] The Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
later reaffirmed the official status of four schools as a reaction to the Shiite character of their ideological and political archrival, the Persian Safavids,[52] though former Prime Minister of Sudan Al-Sadiq al-Mahdi, as well as the Amman Message
Amman Message
issued by King Abdullah II of Jordan, recognize the Ẓāhirī
Ẓāhirī
and keep the number of Sunni
Sunni
schools at five.[53][54] Differences in the schools[edit]

The Great Mosque of Kairouan
Great Mosque of Kairouan
(also known as the Mosque
Mosque
of Uqba) was, in particular during the 9th, 10th and 11th centuries, an important center of Islamic learning with an emphasis on the Maliki Madh'hab.[55] It is located in the city of Kairouan
Kairouan
in Tunisia

Interpreting Islamic law by deriving specific rulings – such as how to pray – is commonly known as Islamic jurisprudence. The schools of law all have their own particular tradition of interpreting this jurisprudence. As these schools represent clearly spelled out methodologies for interpreting Islamic law, there has been little change in the methodology with regard to each school. While conflict between the schools was often violent in the past,[52] today the schools recognize one another as viable legal methods rather than sources of error or heresy in contrast to one another. Each school has its evidences, and differences of opinion are generally respected.[citation needed] Conflict between the schools was often violent in the past.[52] Pillars of iman[edit] Main articles: Iman (concept)
Iman (concept)
and Islamic theology All the branches of Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
testify to six principal articles of faith known as the six pillars of iman (Arabic for "faith"),[56] which are believed to be essential. These are [57]

Belief in the Oneness of God Belief in the Angels of God Belief in the Divine Revelations (Books) Belief in the Prophets of God Belief in Resurrection after Death and the Day of Judgment and Belief in Preordainment (Qadar)

These six articles are what all present-day Sunnis agree on, from those who adhere to traditional Sunnism to those who adhere to latter-day movements. Additionally, classical Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
also outlined numerous other cardinal doctrines from the eighth-century onwards in the form of organized creeds such as the Creed
Creed
of Tahawi, in order to codify what constituted " Sunni
Sunni
orthodoxy."[citation needed] While none of these creeds gained the importance attributed to the Nicene Creed
Creed
in Christianity, primarily because ecumenical councils never happened in Islam, the beliefs outlined in these creeds became the "orthodox" doctrine by ijma, or binding consensus.[citation needed] But while most of the tenets outlined in the classical creeds are accepted by all Sunnis, some of these doctrines have been rejected by the aforementioned movements as lacking strictly scriptural precedent. Traditionally, these other important Sunni
Sunni
articles of faith have included the following (those that are controversial today because of their rejection by such groups shall be denoted by an asterisk):[citation needed]

Belief in the six principal articles of faith being essential for salvation for Muslims[58] Belief in God
God
having created creation with His wisdom[59] Belief in Muhammad
Muhammad
having been the Seal of the Prophets
Seal of the Prophets
or the last prophet sent to mankind[60] Belief in the Quran
Quran
being the eternal, uncreated Word of God[61] Belief in the beatific vision being a reality in the afterlife, even if it will not be all-encompassing and the "manner" of it remains unknown[62] Belief in the Night Journey of Muhammad
Muhammad
having happened in a bodily form, while he was "awake"[63] Belief in the intercession of Muhammad
Muhammad
being a reality on the Last Day[64] Belief in God's covenant with Adam
Adam
and his offspring having been "true"[65] Belief in Abraham
Abraham
having been God's "intimate friend"[66] Belief in Moses
Moses
having conversed directly with God
God
without a mediator[66] Belief in the idea that wrong works in themselves does not make a Muslim
Muslim
an "unbeliever" and that it is forbidden to declare takfir on those who know that what they are doing is wrong[67] Belief in it being wrong to "make a distinction" between the various prophets of God[68] Belief in believing in that which "all the prophets" brought from God[68] Belief in avoiding "deviations, divisions, and differences" in the fold of Islam[69] Belief in venerating all the Companions of Muhammad[70] Belief in the existence of saints, and in venerating them and accepting the traditional narratives of their lives and miracles[71] (*) Belief that saints, while exalted in their own right, occupy an infinitely lesser rank than the prophets and that "one of the prophets is greater than all the saints put together"[71] (*) Belief in the Signs of the Apocalypse[72] Belief that Jesus
Jesus
is the Promised Messiah
Messiah
of God
God
and that all Muslims await his Second Coming[72]

Theological traditions[edit]

Part of a series on Islam Aqidah

Five Pillars of Islam

Shahada Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj

Sunni Six articles of belief

God Prophets Holy books Angels The Last Judgement Predestination

Sunni
Sunni
theological traditions

Ilm al-Kalam

Ash'ari1 Maturidi

Sunni
Sunni
Murji'ah Traditionalist2

Shi'a Twelver3

Principles

Tawhid Adalah Prophecy Imamah Qiyamah

Practices

Salah Sawm Zakat Hajj Khums Jihad Commanding what is just Forbidding what is evil Tawalla Tabarra

Seven pillars of Ismailism4

Walayah Tawhid Salah Zakat Sawm Hajj Jihad

Other Shia
Shia
concepts of Aqidah

Imamate Batin Sixth Pillar of Islam

Other schools of theology

Khawarij5 Ibadi6 Murji'ah

Qadariyah Muʿtazila7 Sufism8

Including: 1Jahmi; 2Karramiyya; 3 Alawites
Alawites
& Qizilbash 4Sevener-Qarmatians, Assassins
Assassins
& Druzes 5Ajardi, Azariqa, Bayhasiyya, Najdat
Najdat
& Sūfrī 6Nūkkārī; 7 Bahshamiyya
Bahshamiyya
& Ikhshîdiyya 8Alevism, Bektashi Order
Bektashi Order
& Qalandariyya Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Part of a series on

Islam

Beliefs

Oneness of God

Prophets Revealed books

Angels Predestination

Day of Resurrection

Practices

Profession of faith Prayer

Fasting Alms-giving Pilgrimage

Texts and laws

Quran Tafsir Sunnah
Sunnah
(Hadith, Sirah) Sharia
Sharia
(law) Fiqh
Fiqh
(jurisprudence)

Kalam
Kalam
(dialectic)

History

Timeline Muhammad

Ahl al-Bayt Sahabah Rashidun

Imamate Caliphate Spread of Islam

Culture and society

Calendar Festivals Academics Art Moral teachings Children Denominations Feminism Women Madrasa Mosque Philosophy Poetry Politics Proselytizing Animals LGBT Science Demographics Economics Finance Social welfare

Related topics

Criticism of Islam Islam
Islam
and other religions

Islamism Islamophobia

Glossary

Islam
Islam
portal

v t e

Some Islamic scholars faced questions that they felt were not explicitly answered in the Quran
Quran
and the Sunnah, especially questions with regard to philosophical conundra such as the nature of God, the existence of human free will, or the eternal existence of the Quran. Various schools of theology and philosophy developed to answer these questions, each claiming to be true to the Quran
Quran
and the Muslim tradition (sunnah). Among Sunni
Sunni
Muslims, various schools of thought in theology began to be born out of the sciences of kalam in opposition to the textualists who stood by affirming texts without delving into philosophical speculation as they saw it as an innovation in Islam. The following were the three dominant schools of theology that grew. All three of these are accepted by Muslims around the globe, and are considered within "Islamic orthodoxy". The key beliefs of classical Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
are all agreed upon (being the six pillars of Iman) and codified in the treatise on Aqeedah
Aqeedah
by Imam Ahmad ibn Muhammad al-Tahawi in his Aqeedat Tahawiyyah. Ash'ari[edit] Main article: Ash'ari Founded by Abu al-Hasan al- Ash'ari
Ash'ari
(873–935). This theological school of Aqeedah
Aqeedah
was embraced by many Muslim
Muslim
scholars and developed in parts of the Islamic world throughout history; al- Ghazali wrote on the creed discussing it and agreeing upon some of its principles.[73]

Ash'ari
Ash'ari
theology stresses divine revelation over human reason. Contrary to the Mu'tazilites, they say that ethics cannot be derived from human reason, but that God's commands, as revealed in the Quran and the Sunnah
Sunnah
(the practices of Muhammad
Muhammad
and his companions as recorded in the traditions, or hadith), are the sole source of all morality and ethics. Regarding the nature of God
God
and the divine attributes, the Ash'ari rejected the Mu'tazili
Mu'tazili
position that all Quranic references to God
God
as having real attributes were metaphorical. The Ash'aris insisted that these attributes were as they "best befit His Majesty". The Arabic language is a wide language in which one word can have 15 different meanings, so the Ash'aris endeavor to find the meaning that best befits God
God
and is not contradicted by the Quran. Therefore, when God states in the Quran, "He who does not resemble any of His creation," this clearly means that God
God
cannot be attributed with body parts because He created body parts. Ash'aris tend to stress divine omnipotence over human free will and they believe that the Quran
Quran
is eternal and uncreated. Maturidi[edit] Main article: Maturidi Founded by Abu Mansur al- Maturidi
Maturidi
(died 944). Maturidiyyah was a minority tradition until it was accepted by the Turkish tribes of Central Asia
Central Asia
(previously they had been Ash'ari
Ash'ari
and followers of the Shafi'i
Shafi'i
school,[citation needed] it was only later on migration into Anatolia
Anatolia
that they became Hanafi
Hanafi
and followers of the Maturidi creed.[citation needed]) One of the tribes, the Seljuk Turks, migrated to Turkey, where later the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
was established.[74] Their preferred school of law achieved a new prominence throughout their whole empire although it continued to be followed almost exclusively by followers of the Hanafi
Hanafi
school while followers of the Shafi
Shafi
and Maliki
Maliki
schools within the empire followed the Ash'ari
Ash'ari
and Athari schools of thought. Thus, wherever can be found Hanafi
Hanafi
followers, there can be found the Maturidi
Maturidi
creed.[discuss][citation needed] Traditionalist[edit] Main article: Traditionalist Theology
Theology
(Islam) Traditionalist theology is a movement of Islamic scholars who reject rationalistic Islamic theology
Islamic theology
(kalam) in favor of strict textualism in interpreting the Quran
Quran
and sunnah.[75] The name derives from "tradition" in its technical sense as translation of the Arabic word hadith. It is also sometimes referred to by several other names. Adherents of traditionalist theology believe that the zahir (literal, apparent) meaning of the Qur'an and the hadith have sole authority in matters of belief and law; and that the use of rational disputation is forbidden even if it verifies the truth.[76] They engage in a literal reading of the Qur'an, as opposed to one engaged in ta'wil (metaphorical interpretation). They do not attempt to conceptualize the meanings of the Qur'an rationally, and believe that their realities should be consigned to God
God
alone (tafwid).[77] In essence, the text of the Qur'an and Hadith
Hadith
is accepted without asking "how" or "Bi-la kaifa". Traditionalist theology emerged among scholars of hadith who eventually coalesced into a movement called ahl al-hadith under the leadership of Ahmad ibn Hanbal.[78] In matters of faith, they were pitted against Mu'tazilites
Mu'tazilites
and other theological currents, condemning many points of their doctrine as well as the rationalistic methods they used in defending them.[78] In the tenth century al- Ash'ari
Ash'ari
and al- Maturidi
Maturidi
found a middle ground between Mu'tazilite rationalism and Hanbalite
Hanbalite
literalism, using the rationalistic methods championed by Mu'tazilites
Mu'tazilites
to defend most tenets of the traditionalist doctrine.[79][80] Although the mainly Hanbali
Hanbali
scholars who rejected this synthesis were in the minority, their emotive, narrative-based approach to faith remained influential among the urban masses in some areas, particularly in Abbasid Baghdad.[81] While Ash'arism
Ash'arism
and Maturidism
Maturidism
are often called the Sunni
Sunni
"orthodoxy", traditionalist theology has thrived alongside it, laying rival claims to be the orthodox Sunni
Sunni
faith.[82] In the modern era it has had a disproportionate impact on Islamic theology, having been appropriated by Wahhabi
Wahhabi
and other traditionalist Salafi
Salafi
currents and spread well beyond the confines of the Hanbali
Hanbali
school of law.[83] Sunni
Sunni
mysticism[edit] There has also been a rich tradition of mysticism within Sunni
Sunni
Islam, which has most prominently manifested itself in the principal orders of Sunni
Sunni
Sufism. Historically, Sufism
Sufism
became "an incredibly important part of Islam" and "one of the most widespread and omnipresent aspects of Muslim
Muslim
life" in Islamic civilization from the early medieval period onwards,[84][85] when it began to permeate nearly all major aspects of Sunni
Sunni
Islamic life in regions stretching from India
India
and Iraq
Iraq
to Senegal.[86] Sufism
Sufism
continued to remain a crucial part of daily Islamic life until the twentieth century, when its historical influence upon Islamic civilization began to be combated by the rise of Salafism
Salafism
and Wahhabism.[86][87] Islamic scholar Timothy Winter has remarked: "[In] classical, mainstream, medieval Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
... [the idea of] 'orthodox Islam' would not ... [have been possible] without Sufism,"[84] and that the classical belief in Sufism
Sufism
being an essential component of Islam
Islam
has only weakened in some quarters of the Islamic world "a generation or two ago" with the rise of Salafism.[84] In the modern world, the classical interpretation of Sunni
Sunni
orthodoxy, which sees in Sufism
Sufism
an essential dimension of Islam
Islam
alongside the disciplines of jurisprudence and theology, is represented by institutions such as Al-Azhar University
Al-Azhar University
and Zaytuna College, with Al-Azhar's current Grand Imam Ahmed el-Tayeb defining "Sunni orthodoxy" as being a follower "of any of the four schools of [legal] thought (Hanafi, Shafi’i, Maliki
Maliki
or Hanbali) and ... [also] of the Sufism
Sufism
of Imam Junayd of Baghdad
Baghdad
in doctrines, manners and [spiritual] purification."[88] In the eleventh-century, Sufism, which had previously been a less "codified" trend in Islamic piety, began to be "ordered and crystallized"[89] into orders which have continued until the present day.[89] All these orders were founded by a major Sunni
Sunni
Islamic saint, and some of the largest and most widespread included the Qadiriyya (after Abdul-Qadir Gilani
Abdul-Qadir Gilani
[d. 1166]), the Rifa'iyya (after Ahmed al- Rifa'i
Rifa'i
[d. 1182]), the Chishtiyya (after Moinuddin Chishti
Moinuddin Chishti
[d. 1236]), the Shadiliyya
Shadiliyya
(after Abul Hasan ash-Shadhili
Abul Hasan ash-Shadhili
[d. 1258]), and the Naqshbandiyya (after Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari
Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari
[d. 1389]).[89] Contrary to popular perception in the West,[90] however, neither the founders of these orders nor their followers ever considered themselves to be anything other than orthodox Sunni
Sunni
Muslims,[90] and in fact all of these orders were attached to one of the four orthodox legal schools of Sunni
Sunni
Islam.[84][88] Thus, the Qadiriyya
Qadiriyya
order was Hanbali, with its founder, Abdul-Qadir Gilani, being a renowned Hanbali
Hanbali
jurist; the Chishtiyya was Hanafi; the Shadiliyya
Shadiliyya
order was Maliki; and the Naqshbandiyya order was Hanafi.[91] Thus, "many of the most eminent defenders of Islamic orthodoxy, such as Abdul-Qadir Gilani, Ghazali, and the Sultan Ṣalāḥ ad-Dīn (Saladin) were connected with Sufism."[92] The contemporary Salafi
Salafi
and Wahhabi
Wahhabi
strands of Sunnis, however, do not accept the traditional stance on mystical practices.[93] Sunni
Sunni
view of hadith[edit]

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The Quran
Quran
as it exists today in book form was compiled by Muhammad's companions (Sahabah) within a handful of months of his death, and is accepted by all sects of Islam. However, there were many matters of belief and daily life that were not directly prescribed in the Quran, but were actions that were observed by Muhammad
Muhammad
and the early Muslim community. Later generations sought out oral traditions regarding the early history of Islam, and the practices of Muhammad
Muhammad
and his first followers, and wrote them down so that they might be preserved. These recorded oral traditions are called hadith. Muslim
Muslim
scholars have through the ages sifted through the hadith and evaluated the chain of narrations of each tradition, scrutinizing the trustworthiness of the narrators and judging the strength of each hadith accordingly. Kutub al-Sittah[edit] Kutub al-Sittah
Kutub al-Sittah
are six books containing collections of hadiths. Sunni Muslims accept the hadith collections of Bukhari and Muslim
Muslim
as the most authentic (sahih, or correct), and while accepting all hadiths verified as authentic, grant a slightly lesser status to the collections of other recorders. There are, however, four other collections of hadith that are also held in particular reverence by Sunni
Sunni
Muslims, making a total of six:

Sahih al-Bukhari
Sahih al-Bukhari
of Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Bukhari Sahih
Sahih
Muslim
Muslim
of Muslim
Muslim
ibn al-Hajjaj Sunan al-Sughra
Sunan al-Sughra
of Al-Nasa'i Sunan Abu Dawud
Sunan Abu Dawud
of Abu Dawood Jami' at-Tirmidhi
Jami' at-Tirmidhi
of Al-Tirmidhi Sunan Ibn Majah
Sunan Ibn Majah
of Ibn Majah

There are also other collections of hadith which also contain many authentic hadith and are frequently used by scholars and specialists. Examples of these collections include:

Musannaf of Abd al-Razzaq of ‘Abd ar-Razzaq as-San‘ani Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal Mustadrak of Al Haakim Muwatta of Imam Malik Sahih
Sahih
Ibn Hibbaan Sahih
Sahih
Ibn Khuzaymah of Ibn Khuzaymah Sunan al-Darimi
Sunan al-Darimi
of Al-Darimi

See also[edit]

Islamic schools and branches Suni (other)

References[edit]

^ John L. Esposito, ed. (2014). " Sunni
Sunni
Islam". The Oxford
Oxford
Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford
Oxford
University Press.  ^ a b c Tayeb El-Hibri, Maysam J. al Faruqi (2004). " Sunni
Sunni
Islam". In Philip Mattar. The Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa (Second ed.). MacMillan Reference USA.  ^ " Caliphate
Caliphate
and Monarchistic (Urdu) Khilafat o Malookiat of Modoodi". Urdu Movies – via Google Books.  ^ Jafri, Syed Husain Mohammad (27 August 1976). The Origins and Early Development of Shi'a Islam
Islam
(Millennium (Series)) (The Millennium (Series).). Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford
Oxford
University Press (First Published By Longman Group Ltd and Librairie du Liban 1979). pp. 19–21. ASIN 0195793870. ISBN 9780195793871. The Shi'a unequivocally take the word in the meaning of leader, master, and patron, and therefore the explicitly nominated successor of the Prophet. The Sunnis, on the other hand, interpret the word mawla in the meaning of a friend, or the nearest kin and confidant. CS1 maint: ASIN uses ISBN (link) ^ "CHAPTER IV IMAMHOOD". Imam Ali
Ali
(a.s.) Foundation. Imam Ali
Ali
(a.s.) Foundation, an affiliate website of the Grand Ayatullah al-Sayyid Ali al-Hussani al-Sistani. Retrieved 24 December 2017. Appointing the heir was done when the Prophet [P] returned from the (Departure Pilgrimage); he [p] gathered all the pilgrims in a place called (Ghadeer khum) addressing them with a lengthy speech through which he asked:(Do not I own thy souls more that thou do, they said: aye). Then he [p] took Imam Ali
Ali
[p] by the shoulder, holding him in front of the people and said:(He whom I am his guardian, Ali
Ali
be his guardian).Thus he [p] certified Imam Ali's [p] heavenly guardianship; so everybody who was present then paid tribute to him, including the second Caliph ( i. e Omar Ben Al-Khattab), who congratulated Ali
Ali
[p] saying: (Blassed be thee O! Ali, thou became my guardian and the guardian of every Mo'men.)  ^ "Beliefs: Did the Prophet (s) Appoint a Successor". Al-Islam.org. Retrieved 25 December 2017. The Shi’ah believe that the proclamation mentioned by the Qur’anic verse was fulfilled by the Prophet (s) when he appointed Imam ‘ Ali
Ali
bin Abi Talib (a) as his successor on the day of Ghadir Khumm.  ^ Mawlana Hazar Imam. "Imam Ali
Ali
declared the Successor of Prophet Muhammad
Muhammad
in Sunni
Sunni
Hadith
Hadith
Literature". Ismaili Gnosis. Ismaili Gnosis. Retrieved 25 December 2017. As you know, the Shi’a divided from the Sunni
Sunni
after the death of Prophet Muhammad. Hazrat Ali, the cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet, was in Shia
Shia
belief, named by the Prophet to be the Legitimate Authority for the interpretation of the faith. For Shi’a today all over the world, he is regarded as the first imam.  ^ Harney, John (January 3, 2016). "How Do Sunni
Sunni
and Shia
Shia
Islam Differ?". New York Times. Retrieved January 4, 2016. Shiites believe that he chose Ali, his cousin and son-in-law  ^ Triana, María (2017-03-31). Managing Diversity in Organizations: A Global Perspective. Taylor & Francis. p. 159. ISBN 9781317423683.  ^ Ja'fari, Sayyid Husayn Muhammad
Muhammad
(22 September 2014). "The Origins and Early Development of Shia
Shia
Islam
Islam
p.14-24". OUP Pakistan
Pakistan
– via Google Books.  ^ "Mapping the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population". Retrieved 10 December 2014.  ^ Connie R. Green, Sandra Brenneman Oldendorf, Religious Diversity and Children's Literature: Strategies and Resources, Information Age Publishing, 2011, p. 156. Quote: "Catholicism is the second largest religious body after Sunni
Sunni
Muslims" ^ a b Michael E. Marmura (2009). "Sunnī Islam. Historical Overview". In John L. Esposito. The Oxford
Oxford
Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford
Oxford
University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195305135.001.0001/acref-9780195305135-e-0764 (inactive 2018-03-23). (Subscription required (help)). Sunnī Muslims have thus referred to themselves as ahl al-sunnah wa al-jamāʿah (people of the sunnah and the community).  ^ a b Lucas, Scott C. (2011). "Sunnism, Sunni". Encyclopedia of Christianity
Christianity
Online. Brill. doi:10.1163/2211-2685_eco_SI.100. (Subscription required (help)). The terms “Sunnism” and “Sunni” are anglicizations of Arab. ahl al-sunnah (the people of the Sunna [lit. “custom, way”]) or ahl al-sunnah wa-l-jamāʿa (the people of the Sunna and community).  ^ "Sunnism". -Ologies & -Isms. The Gale Group. Retrieved Oct 5, 2016.  ^ John Richard Thackrah (5 Sep 2013). Dictionary of Terrorism (2, revised ed.). Routledge. p. 252. ISBN 978-1-135-16595-6.  ^ Nasir, Jamal J., ed. (2009). The Status of Women Under Islamic Law and Modern Islamic Legislation (revised ed.). BRILL. p. 11. ISBN 9789004172739.  ^ George W. Braswell (2000). What You Need to Know about Islam
Islam
& Muslims (illustrated ed.). B&H Publishing Group. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-8054-1829-3.  ^ An Introduction to the Hadith. John Burton. Published by Edinburgh University Press. 1996. p. 201. Cite: "Sunni: Of or pertaining sunna, especially the Sunna of the Prophet. Used in conscious opposition to Shi'a, Shi'í. There being no ecclesia or centralized magisterium, the translation 'orthodox' is inappropriate. To the Muslim
Muslim
'unorthodox' implies heretical, mubtadi, from bid'a, the contrary of sunna, and so 'innovation'." ^ Sunnah
Sunnah
Archived 2010-12-05 at the Wayback Machine., Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement ^ Hughes, Aaron (2013). Muslim
Muslim
Identities: An Introduction to Islam. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-231-53192-4. It is a mistake to assume, as is frequently done, that Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
emerged as normative from the chaotic period following Muhammad's death and that the other two movements simply developed out of it. This assumption is based in... the taking of later and often highly ideological sources as accurate historical portrayals – and in part on the fact that the overwhelming majority of Muslims throughout the world follows now what emerged as Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
in the early period.  ^ Hughes, Aaron (2013). Muslim
Muslim
Identities: An Introduction to Islam. p. 116. ISBN 978-0-231-53192-4. Each of these sectarian movements... used the other to define itself more clearly and in the process to articulate its doctrinal contents and rituals.  ^ Tore Kjeilen. "Lexic Orient.com". Lexic Orient.com. Retrieved 2011-06-05.  ^ El-Hibri, Tayeb (October 22, 2010). Parable and Politics in Early Islamic History:The Rashidun
Rashidun
Caliphs. New York Chichester West Sussex: A Columbia University Press. p. 526 (kindle). ISBN 978-0-231-52165-9.  ^ Maududi, Abul A'la (July 2000). Khilafat o Malookiat [ Caliphate
Caliphate
and Monarchistic] (in Urdu). Lahore, Pakistan: Adara Tarjuman-ul-Quran (Private) Ltd, Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Pakistan. pp. 105–153.  ^ Hazleton, Lesley (4 September 2009). After the Prophet:The Epic Story of Shia- Sunni
Sunni
Split in Islam. New York, London, Toranto, Sydney, Auckland: Anchor (Doubleday). p. 193 (kindle). ISBN 978-0385523936.  ^ Irving, Washington (1859). Lives of the Successors of Mahomet. Sunnyside: W. Clowes. pp. 163–218. ISBN 978-1273126963.  ^ Nadvi, Syed Abul Hasan Ali. Al-Murtaza [The Murtaza] (in Urdu). Karachi Pakistan: Majlis-e-Nashriyat-e-Islam. pp. 218–382.  ^ Maududi, Abul A'la (July 2000). Khilafat o Malookiat [ Caliphate
Caliphate
and Monarchistic] (in Urdu). Lahore, Pakistan: Adara Tarjuman-ul-Quran (Private) Ltd, Urdu Bazar, Lahore, Pakistan. p. 90.  ^ Jafri, Syed Husain Mohammad (27 August 1976). The Origins and Early Development of Shi'a Islam
Islam
(Millennium (Series)) (The Millennium (Series).). Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford
Oxford
University Press (First Published By Longman Group Ltd and Librairie du Liban 1979). pp. 108–109. ASIN 0195793870. ISBN 9780195793871. CS1 maint: ASIN uses ISBN (link) ^ Kennedy, Hugh (2016). The Early Abbasid Caliphate: A Political History (Routledge Revivals) 1st Edition. Oxon: Routledge. pp. 15–16. ASIN 1138953210. ISBN 978-1138953215. CS1 maint: ASIN uses ISBN (link) ^ Gail Minault, The Khilafat Movement: Religious Symbolism and Political Mobilization in India
India
(1982). ^ Rogan, Eugene (26 February 2015). The Fall of the Ottomans. UK: Penguin UK. ISBN 9780141968704.  ^ Ian Harris; Stuart Mews; Paul Morris; John Shepherd (1992). Contemporary Religions: A World Guide. p. 369. ISBN 978-0-582-08695-1.  ^ Bowen, Wayne H. (2007). The History of Saudi Arabia. ISBN 978-0-313-34012-3.  ^ Hitti, Philip K. History of The Arabs (Tenth Edition). Macmillan Education Ltd. pp. 689–741. ISBN 0333098714. ASIN 0333993497.  ^ Kepel, Gilles (2003). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. ISBN 978-1-84511-257-8.  ^ Wiktorowicz, Quintan (2005). "A Genealogy of Radical Islam" (PDF). Studies in Conflict & Terrorism. 28: 83. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2017-02-14 – via Taylor & Francis Inc.  ^ Minahan, James (2002). Encyclopedia of the Stateless Nations. p. 547.  ^ "Profile: Abu Bakr
Abu Bakr
al-Baghdadi". BBC. 15 May 2015.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Adam, Smith (2 October 2017). "Thousands of Muslims protest against isis and terrorism in London". Metro News. London. Retrieved 5 January 2018.  ^ Da Silva, Chantel (16 Jun 2017). "Cologne rally: As many as 10,000 Muslims to protest Islamic extremism". Independent. Cologne. Retrieved 5 January 2018.  ^ Source for distribution is the CIA World Factbook, Shiite/Sunnite distribution collected from other sources. Shiites may be underrepresented in some countries where they do not appear in official statistics. ^ Quran, 9:100 ^ "Region: Middle East-North Africa". The Future of the Global Muslim Population – Executive Summary. Pew Research Center. Retrieved 3 April 2013.  ^ See:

Eastern Europe Russia and Central Asia
Central Asia
"some 80% of the worlds Muslims are Sunni" "Religions". The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). Retrieved 8 December 2011. Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
accounts for over 75% of the world's Muslim
Muslim
population  Sue Hellett;U.S. should focus on sanctions against Iran "Sunnis make up over 75 percent of the world's Muslim
Muslim
population" Iran, Israel and the United States "Sunni, accounts for over 75% of the Islamic population" A dictionary of modern politics "probably 80% of the worlds Muslims are Sunni" "Mapping the Global Muslim
Muslim
Population: A Report on the Size and Distribution of the World's Muslim
Muslim
Population". Pew Research Center. October 7, 2009. Retrieved 2010-08-24. Of the total Muslim
Muslim
population, 10–13% are Shia
Shia
Muslims and 87–90% are Sunni
Sunni
Muslims.  "Quick guide: Sunnis and Shias". BBC News. 2011-12-06. Retrieved December 18, 2011. The great majority of Muslims are Sunnis – estimates suggest the figure is somewhere between 85% and 90%.  "Tension between Sunnis, Shiites emerging in USA". USA Today. 2007-09-24. Retrieved December 18, 2011. Among the world's estimated 1.4 billion Muslims, about 85% are Sunni
Sunni
and about 15% are Shiite.  Sunni
Sunni
Islam: Oxford
Oxford
Bibliographies Online Research Guide " Sunni
Sunni
Islam is the dominant division of the global Muslim
Muslim
community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority (85 to 90 percent) of that community."

^ Masjid al-Muslimiin. "Organizational Structure Of Islam," The Islamic Center of Columbia (South Carolina). Accessed 07 December 2013. ^ Murtada Mutahhari, The Role of Ijtihad in Legislation, Al-Tawhid volume IV, No.2, Publisher: Islamic Thought Foundation ^ Meinhaj Hussain, A New Medina, The Legal System, Grande Strategy, January 5th, 2012 ^ Ignác Goldziher, The Zahiris, pg. 5. Trns. Wolfgang Behn, intro. Camilla Adang.Volume three of Brill Classics in Islam. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2008. ISBN 9789004162419 ^ "Law, Islamic". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 13 March 2012.  ^ a b c Chibli Mallat, Introduction to Middle Eastern Law, pg. 116. Oxford: Oxford
Oxford
University Press, 2007. ISBN 978-0-19-923049-5 ^ Hassan Ahmed Ibrahim, "An Overview of al-Sadiq al-Madhi's Islamic Discourse." Taken from The Blackwell Companion to Contemporary Islamic Thought, pg. 172. Ed. Ibrahim Abu-Rabi'. Hoboken: Wiley-Blackwell, 2008. ISBN 978-1-4051-7848-8 ^ "AmmanMessage.com – The Official Site".  ^ Wilfrid Scawen Blunt and Riad Nourallah, The future of Islam, Routledge, 2002, page 199 ^ " Sunni
Sunni
Islam
Islam
Afterlife and Salvation".  ^ "Dr Al-Ifta Al-Missriyyah".  ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya LXVI ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya XVIII ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya XXIX ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya XXXIII ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya XXXV ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya XXXIX ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya XLI ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya XLII ^ a b Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya LII ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya LVII ^ a b Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya LXVII ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya LXXIII ^ Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya XCIII ^ a b Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya XCVIII-IX ^ a b Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Al-ʿAqīdah aṭ-Ṭaḥāwiyya C ^ J. B. Schlubach. "Fethullah Gülen and Al-Ghazzali on Tolerance". Retrieved 2010-01-07.  ^ "Maturidiyyah". Philtar. Archived from the original on 2006-02-23. Retrieved 2006-04-01.  ^ Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). Theology
Theology
and Creed
Creed
in Sunni
Sunni
Islam: The Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 36. ISBN 9781137473578. The Atharis can thus be described as a school or movement led by a contingent of scholars (ulama), typically Hanbalite
Hanbalite
or even Shafi'ite, which retained influence, or at the very least a shared sentiment and conception of piety, well beyond the limited range of Hanbalite
Hanbalite
communities. This body of scholars continued to reject theology in favor of strict textualism well after Ash'arism
Ash'arism
had infiltrated the Sunni
Sunni
schools of law. It is for these reasons that we must delineate the existence of a distinctly traditionalist, anti-theological movement, which defies strict identtification with any particular madhhab, and therefore cannot be described as Hanbalite.  ^ Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). Theology
Theology
and Creed
Creed
in Sunni
Sunni
Islam: The Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 36. ISBN 9781137473578.  ^ Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). Theology
Theology
and Creed
Creed
in Sunni
Sunni
Islam: The Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 36–37. ISBN 9781137473578.  ^ a b Lapidus, Ira M. (2014). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press (Kindle edition). p. 130. ISBN 978-0-521-51430-9.  ^ Lapidus, Ira M. (2014). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press (Kindle edition). pp. 123–124. ISBN 978-0-521-51430-9.  ^ Blankinship, Khalid (2008). Tim Winter, ed. The early creed. The Cambridge Companion to Classical Islamic Theology. Cambridge University Press (Kindle edition). p. 53.  ^ Halverson, Jeffry R. (2010). Theology
Theology
and Creed
Creed
in Sunni
Sunni
Islam: The Muslim
Muslim
Brotherhood, Ash'arism, and Political Sunnism. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 35. ISBN 9781137473578.  ^ Brown, Jonathan A.C. (2009). Hadith: Muhammad's Legacy in the Medieval and Modern World. Oneworld Publications (Kindle edition). p. 180. The Ash‘ari school of theology is often called the Sunni
Sunni
'orthodoxy.' But the original ahl al-hadith, early Sunni
Sunni
creed from which Ash‘arism evolved has continued to thrive alongside it as a rival Sunni
Sunni
'orthodoxy' as well.  ^ Hoover, Jon (2014). "Ḥanbalī Theology". In Sabine Schmidtke. The Oxford
Oxford
Handbook of Islamic Theology. Oxford: Oxford
Oxford
University Press. p. 625. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199696703.001.0001/oxfordhb-9780199696703-e-014 (inactive 2018-03-23). (Subscription required (help)).  ^ a b c d "Is orthodox Islam
Islam
possible without Sufism? – Shaykh Abdal Hakim Murad (Dr. Timothy Winter)". youtube.com. 13 May 2015.  ^ "Dr. Jonathan AC Brown – What is Sufism?". youtube.com. 27 December 2015.  ^ a b "Dr. Jonathan AC Brown – What is Sufism?". youtube.com. 13 May 2015.  ^ Jonathan A.C. Brown, Misquoting Muhammad
Muhammad
(London: Oneworld Publications, 2015), p. 254 ^ a b "Profile of Sheikh Ahmad Muhammad
Muhammad
Al-Tayyeb onThe Muslim
Muslim
500". The Muslim
Muslim
500: The World's Most Influential Muslims.  ^ a b c Seyyed Hossein Nasr, The Essential Seyyed Hossein Nasr, ed. William C. Chittick (Bloomington: World Wisdom, 2007), p. 76 ^ a b Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.16 ^ Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W.C., Jong, F. de., Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Edited by: P. Bearman, Th. Bianquis, C.E. Bosworth, E. van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs; q.v. "Hanafi," "Hanbali," and "Maliki," and under "mysticism in..." for each. ^ Titus Burckhardt, Introduction to Sufi Doctrine (Bloomington: World Wisdom, 2008, p. 4, note 2 ^ Jeffrey Halverson, Theology
Theology
and Creed
Creed
in Sunni
Sunni
Islam, 2010, p. 48

Further reading[edit]

Branon Wheeler, Applying the Canon in Islam: The Authorization and Maintenance of Interpretive Reasoning in Ḥanafī Scholarship, SUNY Press, 1996. Patler, Nicholas (2017). From Mecca
Mecca
to Selma: Malcolm X, Islam, and the Journey Into the American Civil Rights Movement. http://theislamicmonthly.com/mecca-to-selma/: The Islamic Monthly. 

External links[edit]

Wikisource
Wikisource
has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Sunnites.

Islam.org.uk International Quran Books relating to belief of ahl as-Sunnat Ahl as-sunnat belief Translation and Detailed Commentary on Quran SunniPath – Study Islam
Islam
Online

v t e

Islamic theology

Fields Theologians Books

Fields

Aqidah ‘aql Astronomy Cosmology Eschatology Ethics Kalam Fiqh Logic in philosophy Peace in philosophy Philosophy Physics Philosophy
Philosophy
of education

Theologians

Abd al-Jabbar ibn Ahmad Abd al-Qadir al-Jilani Abdul Hosein Amini Abdulhakim Arvasi Abū Ḥanīfa Abu l-A‘la Mawdudi Abu Yusuf Ahmad ibn Hanbal Ahmad Sirhindi Ahmad Yasavi Ahmed Raza Khan Barelvi Akhtar Raza Khan al-Ash‘ari al-Ballūṭī al-Baydawi al-Dhahabi al-Ghazali al-Hilli al-Jahiz al-Jubba'i al-Kindi al-Masudi al-Maturidi al-Mufid Al-Qasim al-Qushayri al-Razi Al-Shafi‘i al-Shahrastani al-Shirazi al-Tirmidhi Allameh Majlesi Amr ibn Ubayd Dawud al-Zahiri Fazlur Rahman Malik Hasan of Basra Hacı Bayram-ı Veli Haji Bektash Veli Hüseyin Hilmi Işık ibn ‘Arabī ibn al-Jawzi ibn ‘Aqil ibn Hazm ibn Qudamah Ibn Taymiyyah Ja’far al-Sadiq Jalal al-Din Muhammad
Muhammad
Rumi Malik ibn Anas Mahmud Hudayi Morteza Motahhari Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Baqir Muhammad
Muhammad
al-Nafs al-Zakiyya Muhammad
Muhammad
Baqir al-Sadr Muhammed Hamdi Yazır Muhammad
Muhammad
Hamidullah Muhammad
Muhammad
ibn al-Hanafiyyah Muhammad
Muhammad
Tahir-ul-Qadri Muhammad
Muhammad
Taqi Usmani Nasir Khusraw Sadr al-Din al-Qunawi Said Nursî Shaykh Tusi Sheikh Bedreddin Wasil ibn Ata Zayd ibn Ali Zayn al-Abidin

Key books

Crucial Sunni
Sunni
books

al-Irshad al- Aqidah
Aqidah
al-Tahawiyyah

Buyruks Kitab al Majmu Masnavi Nahj al-Balagha Epistles of Wisdom Risale-i Nur

Schools

Sunni

Ash'ari Maturidi Traditionalism

Shia

Kaysanites

Mukhtar

Abu Muslim Sunpadh Ishaq al-Turk

Muhammerah

Khurramites

Babak Mazyar Ismail I / Pir Sultan Abdal
Pir Sultan Abdal
– Qizilbash / Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia
Shia
Islam

al-Muqanna

Zaidiyyah

Jarudi Batriyya Alid dynasties of northern Iran

Hasan al-Utrush

List of extinct Shia
Shia
sects

Dukayniyya Khalafiyya Khashabiyya

Imami Isma'ilism

Batiniyyah

Sevener Qarmatians Hamza / al-Muqtana Baha'uddin / ad-Darazi – Druzes

Musta'li

Hafizi Taiyabi

Nizari

Assassins Nizaris

Nasir Khusraw
Nasir Khusraw
Badakhshan
Badakhshan
Alevism

Imami Twelver

Theology
Theology
of Twelvers

Ja'fari

Akhbari Shaykhi Usuli

Alevism

Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
Qutb ad-Dīn Haydar
– Qalandariyya Baba Ishak
Baba Ishak
– Babai Revolt Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
Galip Hassan Kuscuoglu
– Rifa'i-Galibi Order

Ghulat

al-Khaṣībī / ibn Nusayr – Alawites Fazlallah Astarabadi (Naimi) / Imadaddin Nasimi
Imadaddin Nasimi
– Hurufism / Bektashism and folk religion

Independent

Ibadi

ibn Ibāḍ Jābir ibn Zayd

Jabriyyah

Ibn Safwan

Murji'ah Karramiyya Qadariyah

Ma'bad al-Juhani Muʿtazila Bahshamiyya

Khawarij

Azariqa Najdat Sufri

Abu Qurra

Nakkariyyah

Abu Yazid

Haruriyyah

v t e

Islam
Islam
topics

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God
in Islam Tawhid Muhammad

In Islam

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medieval

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Hygiene

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Marriage Sex

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Other aspects

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baligh kalam

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Other areas

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Other religions

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Related topics

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and miracles Symbolism

Islam
Islam
portal Category

v t e

Sunni
Sunni
hadith literature

Kutub al-Sittah

Sahih
Sahih
al-Bukhari Sahih
Sahih
Muslim Sunan an-Nasa'i al-Sughra Sunan Abu Dawood Sunan al-Tirmidhi Sunan ibn Majah

Primary collections

Sahifah Hammam ibn Munabbih Musannaf
Musannaf
ibn Jurayj Al-Muwatta The Musannaf
Musannaf
of Abd al-Razzaq Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal Sunan al-Darimi Sahih
Sahih
Ibn Khuzaymah Sahih
Sahih
Ibn Hibbaan Al-Mustadrak alaa al-Sahihain Mawdu'at al-Kubra Tahdhib al-Athar

Secondary collections

Riyadh as-Saaliheen Masabih al-Sunnah Mishkat al-Masabih Majma al-Zawa'id Bulugh al-Maram Kanz al-Ummal

Types

Sahih Musnad Collections of fabricated hadith Musannaf Al-Zawa'id

Commentaries

Fath al-Bari
Fath al-Bari
(explanation of Sahih
Sahih
al-Bukhari)

Hadith
Hadith
terminology and study

Muqaddimah ibn al- Salah
Salah
fi 'Ulum al-Hadith The Interpretation of Conflicting Narrations

Biographical evaluation

al-Tarikh al-Kabir Al-Kamal fi Asma' al-Rijal

v t e

Religion

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and religious denominations

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Nondenominational

Islam

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Shia

Twelver Isma'ilism Zaidiyyah

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Others

Bábism

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Dharmic

Hinduism

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Buddhism

Mahayana

Chan

Zen Thiền Seon

Pure Land Nichiren Madhyamaka Tiantai

Theravada Vajrayana

Tibetan Shingon Newar Bon

Navayana

Others

Dravidian Jainism

Digambara Śvētāmbara

Sikhism Gurung shamanism Bon
Bon
Lamaism Kirant Mundhum

Persian

Manichaeism Yazdânism

Yazidism Ishikism Ali-Illahism Yarsanism

Zoroastrianism

European

Armenian Baltic

Dievturība Druwi Romuva

Caucasian Celtic

Druidry

Germanic Hellenism Italo-Roman Romanian Slavic

Uralic

Finnish Hungarian Uralic

Mari Mordvin Udmurt

Central and Northern Asian

Burkhanism Chuvash Manchu Mongolian Siberian Tengrism

East Asian

Benzhuism Bimoism Bon Cheondoism Confucianism Dongbaism Faism Hmongism Jeungsanism Luoism Meishanism Mileism Muism Neo-Confucianism Ryukyuan religion Shenism Shigongism Shinto Taoism Tenrikyo Wuism Yiguandao

Southeast Asian

Burmese Satsana Phi Malaysian Indonesian

Marapu Kaharingan Kebatinan

Philippine Vietnamese

Caodaism Đạo Mẫu Hoahaoism

African

Traditional

Akan Akamba Baluba Bantu Berber Bushongo Cushitic Dinka Efik Fon and Ewe Guanche Igbo Isoko Lotuko Lozi Lugbara Maasai Mbuti San Serer Tumbuka Waaq Yoruba Zulu

Diasporic

Candomblé Kumina Obeah Quimbanda Palo Santería Umbanda Vodou Voodoo Winti

Other groups

Bathouism Bongthingism Donyi-Polo Kiratism Sanamahism Sarnaism Aboriginal Australian Native American Mesoamerican Hawaiian Polynesian

Recent

Discordianism Eckankar Jediism New Age New Thought Pastafarianism Raëlism Satanism Scientology Thelema Unitarian Universalism Wicca

Historical religions

Prehistoric

Paleolithic

Near East

Arabian Egyptian Mesopotamian Semitic

Canaanite Yahwism

Indo-European

Asia

Proto-Indo-Iranian Armenian Ossetian Vedic Zoroastrianism

Mithraism Zurvanism

Gnosticism

Manichaeism

Europe

Celtic Germanic

Anglo-Saxon Continental Norse

Greek

Gnosticism Neoplatonism

Manichaeism Balkan Roman Slavic

Topics

Aspects

Apostasy / Disaffiliation Behaviour Beliefs Clergy Conversion Deities Entheogens Ethnic religion Denomination Faith Fire Folk religion God Meditation Monasticism

monk nun

Mysticism Mythology Nature Ordination Orthodoxy Orthopraxy Prayer Prophesy Religious experience Ritual

liturgy sacrifice

Spirituality Supernatural Symbols Truth Water Worship

Theism

Animism Deism Dualism Henotheism Monotheism Nontheism Panentheism Pantheism Polytheism Transtheism

Religious studies

Anthropology Cognitive science Comparative Development Evolutionary origin Evolutionary psychology History Philosophy Neurotheology Psychology Sociology Theology Theories Women

Religion
Religion
and society

Agriculture Business Clergy

monasticism ordination

Conversion

evangelism missionary proselytism

Education Fanaticism Freedom

pluralism syncretism toleration universalism

Fundamentalism Growth Happiness Homosexuality Minorities National church National religiosity levels Religiocentrism Political science Populations Schism Science State Theocracy Vegetarianism Video games Violence

persecution terrorism war

Wealth

Secularism
Secularism
and irreligion

Antireligion Deism Agnosticism Atheism Criticism LaVeyan Satanism Deconstruction Humanistic Judaism Irreligion by country Objectivism Secular humanism Secular theology Secularization Separation of church and state Unaffiliated

Overviews and lists

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Category Portal

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