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Sultan
Sultan
(/ˈsʌltən/; Arabic: سلطان‎ sulṭān, pronounced [sʊlˈtˤɑːn, solˈtˤɑːn]) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic
Arabic
abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", derived from the verbal noun سلطة sulṭah, meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who claimed almost full sovereignty in practical terms (i.e., the lack of dependence on any higher ruler), albeit without claiming the overall caliphate, or to refer to a powerful governor of a province within the caliphate. The adjective form of the word is "sultanic",[1] and the dynasty and lands ruled by a sultan are referred to as a sultanate (سلطنة salṭanah). The term is distinct from king (ملك malik), despite both referring to a sovereign ruler. The use of "sultan" is restricted to Muslim countries, where the title carries religious significance,[2][3] contrasting the more secular king, which is used in both Muslim and non-Muslim countries. A feminine form of sultan, used by Westerners, is Sultana or Sultanah and this title has been used legally for some (not all) Muslim women monarchs and sultan's mothers and chief consorts. However, Turkish and Ottoman Turkish also uses sultan for imperial lady, as Turkish grammar—which is influenced by Persian grammar—uses the same words for both women and men. However, this styling misconstrues the roles of wives of sultans. In a similar usage, the wife of a German field marshal might be styled Frau Feldmarschall (similarly, in French, constructions of the type madame la maréchale are quite common). The female leaders in Muslim history
Muslim history
are correctly known as "sultanas". However, the wife of the sultan in the Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
is styled as the "panguian" while the sultan's chief wife in many sultanates of Indonesia
Indonesia
and Malaysia
Malaysia
are known as "permaisuri", "Tunku Ampuan", " Raja
Raja
Perempuan", or "Tengku Ampuan". The queen consort in Brunei especially is known as Raja
Raja
Isteri with the title of Pengiran Anak suffixed, should the queen consort also be a royal princess. In recent years, "sultan" has been gradually replaced by "king" by contemporary hereditary rulers who wish to emphasize their secular authority under the rule of law.

Contents

1 Compound ruler titles 2 Former sultans and sultanates

2.1 Anatolia and Central Asia 2.2 Caucasus 2.3 Levant and Arabian peninsula 2.4 North Africa 2.5 Horn of Africa 2.6 Southeast Africa and Indian Ocean

2.6.1 Maliki 2.6.2 Swahili Coast 2.6.3 Sultani

2.7 West and Central Africa 2.8 Southern Asia 2.9 Southeast and East Asia

3 Contemporary sovereign sultanates 4 Princely and aristocratic titles 5 Military rank 6 See also 7 References

Compound ruler titles[edit]

Ottoman Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed IV
Mehmed IV
attended by a eunuch and two pages.

These are generally secondary titles, either lofty 'poetry' or with a message, e.g.:

Mani Sultan
Sultan
= Manney Sultan
Sultan
(meaning the "Pearl of Rulers" or "Honoured Monarch") - a subsidiary title, part of the full style of the Maharaja
Maharaja
of Travancore Sultan of Sultans - the sultanic equivalent of the style King
King
of Kings Certain secondary titles have a devout Islamic connotation; e.g., Sultan ul-Mujahidin
Sultan ul-Mujahidin
as champion of jihad (to strive and to struggle in the name of Allah). Sultanic Highness - a rare, hybrid western-Islamic honorific style exclusively used by the son, daughter-in-law and daughters of Sultan Hussein Kamel of Egypt
Hussein Kamel of Egypt
(a British protectorate since 1914), who bore it with their primary titles of Prince
Prince
(Amir; Turkish: Prens) or Princess, after 11 October 1917. They enjoyed these titles for life, even after the Royal Rescript regulating the styles and titles of the Royal House following Egypt's independence in 1922, when the sons and daughters of the newly styled king (malik Misr, considered a promotion) were granted the title Sahib(at) us-Sumuw al-Malaki, or Royal Highness.

Former sultans and sultanates[edit] Anatolia and Central Asia[edit]

Ghaznavid Sultanate; its ruler, Mahmūd-i Zābulī, was the first Muslim sovereign to be known as sultan. Sultans of Great Seljuk Seljuk Sultanate of Rum Sultans (becoming padishahs) of the Ottoman Empire, the Osmanli

Caucasus[edit]

Elisu Sultanate
Elisu Sultanate
and a few others. A Sultan
Sultan
ranked below a Khan.

Levant and Arabian peninsula[edit]

H.M. Sultan
Sultan
Qaboos bin Said al Said, the current Sultan
Sultan
of Oman
Oman
from the Al Said
Al Said
dynasty.

in Syria:

Ayyubid Sultans Mamluk Sultans

in present-day Yemen, various small sultanates of the former British Aden Protectorate and South Arabia:

Audhali, Fadhli, Haushabi, Kathiri, Lahej, Lower Aulaqi, Lower Yafa, Mahra, Qu'aiti, Subeihi, Upper Aulaqi, Upper Yafa
Upper Yafa
and the Wahidi sultanates

in present-day Saudi Arabia :

Sultans of Nejd Sultans of the Hejaz

Oman
Oman
Sultan
Sultan
of Oman
Oman
(authentically referred to as Hami), on the southern coast of the Arabian peninsula, still an independent sultanate, since 1744 (assumed the formal title of Sultan
Sultan
in 1861)

North Africa[edit]

Sultan
Sultan
Abd al-Hafid of Morocco.

in Algeria: sultanate of Tuggurt in Egypt:

Ayyubid Sultans Mamluk Sultans

in Morocco, until Mohammed V changed the style to Malik
Malik
(king) on 14 August 1957, maintaining the subsidiary style Amir
Amir
al-Mu´minin (Commander of the Faithful) in Sudan:

Darfur Dar al-Masalit Dar Qimr Funj Sultanate
Funj Sultanate
of Sinnar
Sinnar
(Sennar) Kordofan

in Chad:

Bag(u)irmi (main native title: Mbang) Wada'i (main native title: Kolak), successor state to Birgu Dar Sila
Dar Sila
(actually a wandering group of tribes)

Horn of Africa[edit] Main articles: Somali aristocratic and court titles
Somali aristocratic and court titles
and Ethiopian aristocratic and court titles

Sultan
Sultan
of Adal and his forces (right) battling the Abyssinian King
King
and his men (Le Livre des Merveilles, 15th century).

Ajuran Sultanate, in southern Somalia
Somalia
and eastern Ethiopia Adal Sultanate, in northwestern Somalia, southern Djibouti, and the Somali, Oromia, Harari, and Afar regions of Ethiopia Majeerteen Sultanate
Majeerteen Sultanate
(Migiurtinia), in northern Somalia Isaaq Sultanate, in northern Somalia Sultanate of the Geledi, in southern Somalia Sultanate of Aussa, in northeastern Ethiopia Sultanate of Harar, in eastern Ethiopia Sultanate of Hobyo, in central Somalia Sultanate of Ifat, in northern Somalia
Somalia
and eastern Ethiopia Sultanate of Mogadishu, in south-central Somalia Sultanate of Showa, in central Ethiopia Warsangali Sultanate, in northern Somalia Bimaal Sultanate, in south eastern Somalia
Somalia
centred in Merka

Southeast Africa and Indian Ocean[edit]

Angoche Sultanate, on the Mozambiquan coast (also several neighbouring sheikdoms) various sultans on the Comoros; however on the Comoros, the normally used styles were alternative native titles, including Mfalme, Phany
Phany
or Jambé and the 'hegemonic' title Sultani tibe the Maore (or Mawuti) sultanate on Mayotte
Mayotte
(separated from the Comoros)

Maliki[edit] Apparently derived from the Arabic
Arabic
malik, this was the alternative native style of the sultans of the Kilwa Sultanate
Kilwa Sultanate
in Tanganyika (presently the continental part of Tanzania). Swahili Coast[edit]

Sultanate of Zanzibar: two incumbents (from the Omani dynasty) since the de facto separation from Oman
Oman
in 1806, the last assumed the title Sultan
Sultan
in 1861 at the formal separation under British auspices; since 1964 union with Tanganyika
Tanganyika
(part of Tanzania)

Mfalume is the (Ki)Swahili title of various native Muslim rulers, generally rendered in Arabic
Arabic
and in western languages as Sultan:

in Kenya:

Pate on part of Pate island
Pate island
(capital also named Pate), in the Lamu Archipelago Wituland, came under German, then British protectorate

in Tanganyika
Tanganyika
(presently part of Tanzania): of Hadimu, on the island of that name; also styled Jembe

Sultani[edit] This was the native ruler's title in the Tanzanian state of Uhehe a female sultan West and Central Africa[edit]

In Cameroon:

Bamoun (Bamun, 17th century, founded uniting 17 chieftaincies) 1918 becomes a sultanate, but in 1923 re-divided into the 17 original chieftaincies. Bibemi, founded in 1770 - initially styled lamido Mandara Sultanate, since 1715 (replacing Wandala
Wandala
kingdom); 1902 Part of Cameroon Rey Bouba
Rey Bouba
Sultanate founded 1804

in the Central African Republic:

Bangassou
Bangassou
created c.1878; 14 June 1890 under Congo Free State protectorate, 1894 under French protectorate; 1917 Sultanate suppressed by the French. Dar al-Kuti - French protectorate since December 12, 1897 Rafai
Rafai
c.1875 Sultanate, 8 April 1892 under Congo Free State protectorate, March 31, 1909 under French protectorate; 1939 Sultanate suppressed Zemio
Zemio
c.1872 established; December 11, 1894 under Congo Free State protectorate, April 12, 1909 under French protectorate; 1923 Sultanate suppressed

in Niger: Arabic
Arabic
alternative title of the following autochthonous rulers:

the Amenokal of the Aïr
Aïr
confederation of Tuareg the Sarkin Damagaram since the 1731 founding of the Sultanate of Damagaram (Zinder)

in Nigeria
Nigeria
most monarchies previously had native titles, but when most in the north converted to Islam, Muslim titles were adopted, such as emir and sometimes sultan.

in Borno (alongside the native title Mai) since 1817 in Sokoto, the suzerain (also styled Amir
Amir
al-Mu´minin and Sarkin Musulmi) of all Fulbe jihad states and premier traditional Muslim leader in the Sahel
Sahel
(according to some once a caliph)

Southern Asia[edit]

Bahmani Sultanate the Deccan sultanates: Berar, Bidar, Bijapur, Golconda and Ahmednagar Delhi Sultanate: several dynasties, the last (Mughal) became imperial Padshah-i Hind Bengal Sultanate Sultanate of Gujarat Sultanate of Jaunpur Sultanate of Kandesh Sultanate of Malwa Sultanate of Mysore, Tipu Sultan Sultanate of Laccadive and Cannanore, Arakkal Kingdom Sultanate of Kashmir Sultanate of Maldives

Southeast and East Asia[edit]

Hamengkubuwono X, the incumbent Sultan
Sultan
of Yogyakarta

Pakubuwono XII, last undisputed Susuhunan
Susuhunan
of Surakarta

Sultan
Sultan
Saifuddin of Tidore

In Indonesia
Indonesia
(formerly in the Dutch East Indies):

On Kalimantan

Sultanate of Banjar Sultanate of Berau Sultanate of Bulungan Sultanate of Gunung Tabur Sultanate of Kubu Sultanate of Kutai Kartanegara Sultanate of Mempawah Sultanate of Paser Sultanate of Pontianak Sultanate of Sambaliung Sultanate of Sambas

On Sulawesi

Sultanate of Buton Sultanate of Bone Sultanate of Gowa Sultanate of Luwu Sultanate of Soppeng Sultanate of Wajo

On Java

Sultanate of Banten Sultanate of Cirebon
Sultanate of Cirebon
- the rulers in three of the four palaces (kraton), from which divided Cirebon
Cirebon
was ruled: Kraton Kasepuhan, Kraton Kanoman and Kraton Kacirebonan (only in Kraton Kaprabonan was the ruler's title Panembahan) Sultanate of Demak Sultanate of Pajang Sumedang Larang Kingdom Sultanate of Mataram
Sultanate of Mataram
(was divided into two kingdoms: the Sultanate of Yogyakarta and Sunanan Surakarta)

Sultanate of Yogyakarta
Sultanate of Yogyakarta
(The Divine Sultanate of which its ruler Sri Sultan
Sultan
Hamengkubowono is considered a divine being, a half God)[citation needed] Sunanate of Surakarta (susuhunan, a high-ranked monarch, equivalent to emperor)

Sultanate of Jayakarta (also known as Sunda Kelapa; modern-day Jakarta)

On Madura island: Pamekasan In the Maluku Islands

Sultanate of Iha (Saparua) Sultanate of Honimoa/ Siri Sori (Saparua) Sultanate of Huamual (West Seram) Sultanate of Tanah Hitu (Ambon) Sultanate of Ternate Sultanate of Tidore Sultanate of Bacan Sultanate of Jilolo Sultanate of Loloda, later occupied by Ternate

In the Nusa Tenggara

Sultanate of Bima
Bima
on Sumbawa island

In the Riau archipelago: sultanate of Lingga-Riau
Lingga-Riau
by secession in 1818 under the expelled sultan of Johore
Johore
(on Malaya) Sultan
Sultan
Abdul Rahman Muadzam Syah ibni al-Marhum Sultan
Sultan
Mahmud In Sumatra

Sultanate of Aceh (full style Sultan
Sultan
Berdaulat Zillullah fil-Alam), which had many vassal states Sultanate of Asahan Awak Sungai, established 17th century at the split in four of Minangkabau, in 1816 extinguished by Netherlands East Indies colonial government Sultanate of Deli
Sultanate of Deli
since 1814, earlier Aceh's vassal as Aru Sultanate of Indragiri Sultanate of Langkat
Sultanate of Langkat
since 1817 (previous style Raja) Sultanate of Palembang
Palembang
(Darussalam), also holding the higher title of Susuhunan Sultanate of Pagaruyung Sultanate of Pelalawan Sultanate of Perlak Sultanate of Riau-Lingga Sultanate of Samudera Pasai Sultanate of Serdang Sultanate of Siak Sri Inderapura

In Malaysia:

In Peninsular Malaysia, where all nine of the country's present sultanates are located:

Sultanate of Malacca Sultanate of Johor Sultanate of Kedah Sultanate of Kelantan Sultanate of Pahang Sultanate of Perak Sultanate of Selangor Sultanate of Terengganu

Furthermore, the ruler of Luak Jelebu, one of the constitutive states of the Negeri Sembilan
Negeri Sembilan
confederation, had the style Sultan
Sultan
in addition to his principal title Undang Luak Jelebu.

In Brunei:

Sultan
Sultan
of Brunei, Brunei
Brunei
(on Borneo island)

In China:

Dali, Yunnan, capital of the short-lived Panthay Rebellion

Furthermore, the Qa´id Jami al-Muslimin (Leader of the Community of Muslims) of Pingnan Guo
Pingnan Guo
("Pacified South State", a major Islamic rebellious polity in western Yunnan province) is usually referred to in foreign sources as Sultan.

In the Philippines:

Sultanate of Buayan Sultanate of Maguindanao Sultanate of Sulu
Sultanate of Sulu
(Sulu, Basilan, Palawan and Tawi-Tawi islands and part of eastern Sabah on North Borneo) Sultanate of Ranaw ( Sultan
Sultan
ko Pat a Pangampong a Ranao)

In Thailand:

Sultanate of Patani Sultanate of Singgora

Contemporary sovereign sultanates[edit]

Brunei Indonesia
Indonesia
Yogyakarta Sultanate
Yogyakarta Sultanate
( Sultan
Sultan
of Yogyakarta Special Region is also governor of that province) Malaysia

Sultan
Sultan
is the title of seven (Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Pahang, Perak, Selangor
Selangor
and Terengganu) of the nine rulers of the Malay states. The federal head of state the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, is elected (de facto rotated) for five years by and among the hereditary state rulers, but is usually styled "king" in foreign countries; political power, however, lies with the prime minister. See also: Malay titles

Oman, an Arabian nation, formerly sultanate of Muscat and Oman

In some parts of the Middle East and North Africa, there still exist regional sultans or people who are descendants of sultans and who are styled as such. In Malaysia, the sultan of Pahang
Pahang
sells knighthood known as Dato' which is normally bestowed upon, anyone with money can be a 'Dato'. Princely and aristocratic titles[edit]

The Valide Sultan
Valide Sultan
(Sultana mother) of the Ottoman Empire

By the beginning of the 16th century, the title sultan was carried by both men and women of the Ottoman dynasty and was replacing other titles by which prominent members of the imperial family had been known (notably khatun for women and bey for men). This usage underlines the Ottoman conception of sovereign power as family prerogative. Western tradition knows the Ottoman ruler as "sultan", but Ottomans themselves used "padişah" (emperor) or "hünkar" to refer to their ruler. The emperor's formal title consisted of "sultan" together with "khan" (for example, Sultan
Sultan
Suleiman Khan). In formal address, the sultan's children were also entitled "sultan", with imperial princes (Şehzade) carrying the title before their given name, with imperial princesses carrying it after. Example, Şehzade Sultan
Sultan
Mehmed and Mihrimah Sultan, son and daughter of Suleiman the Magnificent. Like imperial princesses, living mother and main consort of reigning sultan also carried the title after their given names, for example, Ayşe Hafsa Sultan, Suleiman's mother and first valide sultan, and Hürrem Sultan, Suleiman's chief consort and first haseki sultan. The evolving usage of this title reflected power shifts among imperial women, especially between Sultanate of Women, as the position of main consort eroded over the course of 17th century, the main consort lost the title "sultan", which replaced by "kadin", a title related to the earlier "khatun". Henceforth, the mother of the reigning sultan was the only person of non imperial blood to carry the title "sultan".[4] In Kazakh Khanate
Kazakh Khanate
a Sultan
Sultan
was a lord from the ruling dynasty (a direct descendants of Genghis Khan) elected by clans, i.e. a kind of princes[citation needed]. The best of sultans was elected as khan by people at Kurultai[citation needed]. See ru:Казахские султаны Military rank[edit] In a number of post-caliphal states under Mongol
Mongol
or Turkic rule, there was a feudal type of military hierarchy. These administrations were often decimal (mainly in larger empires), using originally princely titles such as khan, malik, amir as mere rank denominations. In the Persian empire, the rank of sultan was roughly equivalent to that of a modern-day captain in the West; socially in the fifth-rank class, styled 'Ali Jah. See also[edit]

Other ruling titles

Khan (title), Ilkhan
Ilkhan
and Khakhan Emir
Emir
(Amir) Atabeg Bey Baig Mirza Caliph Datu Maharajah Malik Mir (title) Padishah Pasha Raja Shah
Shah
and Shahanshah Vizier Zoltán

References[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sultans.

^ Sultanic - Define sultan at dictionary.com ^ James Edward Montgomery (2004). ʻAbbasid Studies: Occasional Papers of the School of ʻAbbasid Studies, Cambridge, 6-10 July 2002. Peeters Publishers. p. 83. ISBN 978-90-429-1433-9.  ^ Riad Aziz Kassis (1999). The Book of Proverbs and Arabic
Arabic
Proverbial Works. BRILL. p. 65. ISBN 90-04-11305-3.  ^ Peirce, Leslie P. (1993). The Imperial Harem: Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507673-7. 

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