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 United States Army

United States Army
United States Army
Reserves

Years of service 1924–1964[1]

Rank Major general

Battles/wars

World War II

Normandy Campaign

Awards Legion of Merit
Legion of Merit
(2) Bronze Star with valor Purple Heart World War II
World War II
Victory Medal European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal Order of the Crown Croix de Guerre

James Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
(December 5, 1902 – June 26, 2003) was an American politician who served for 48 years as a United States Senator from South Carolina. He ran for president in 1948 as the States Rights Democratic Party candidate, receiving 2.4% of the popular vote and 39 electoral votes. Thurmond represented South Carolina
South Carolina
in the United States Senate from 1954 until 2003, at first as a Democrat and, after 1964, as a Republican. A magnet for controversy during his nearly half-century Senate career, Thurmond switched parties because of his disaffection with the support for civil rights of the national Democratic party, and his support for the conservatism of the Republican presidential candidate Senator Barry Goldwater. In the months before switching, he had "been critical of the Democratic Administration for ... enactment of the Civil Rights Law",[2] while Goldwater "boasted of his opposition to the Civil Rights Act, and made it part of his platform."[3] Thurmond left office as the only member of either chamber of Congress to reach the age of 100 while still in office, and as the oldest-serving and longest-serving senator in U.S. history (although he was later surpassed in the latter by Robert Byrd
Robert Byrd
and Daniel Inouye).[4] Thurmond holds the record as the longest-serving member of Congress to serve exclusively in the Senate. He is also the longest-serving Republican member of Congress in U.S. history. At 14 years, he was also the longest-serving Dean of the United States Senate
United States Senate
in U.S. history. In opposition to the Civil Rights Act of 1957, he conducted the longest filibuster ever by a lone senator, at 24 hours and 18 minutes in length, nonstop. In the 1960s, he opposed the civil rights legislation of 1964 and 1965 to end segregation and enforce the constitutional rights of African-American citizens, including basic suffrage. He insisted he was not a racist, but was opposed to excessive federal authority, which he attributed to Communist agitators.[5] Starting in the 1970s, he moderated his position on race, but continued to defend his early segregationist campaigns on the basis of states' rights in the context of Southern society at the time.[6] He never fully renounced his earlier positions.[7][8] Six months after Thurmond died at the age of 100 in 2003, his mixed-race, then 78-year-old daughter Essie Mae Washington-Williams (1925–2013) revealed he was her father. Her mother Carrie Butler (1909–1948) had been either 15 or 16 years old and working as his family's maid in early 1925 when the 22-year-old Thurmond initiated a sexual relationship with her. Butler died in 1948. Although Thurmond never publicly acknowledged Essie Mae Washington, he paid for her education at a historically black college and passed other money to her for some time. She said she kept silent out of respect for her father[9] and denied the two had agreed she would not reveal her connection to Thurmond.[10] His children by his marriage eventually acknowledged her.[9] Her name has since been added as one of his children to his memorial at the state capitol.

Contents

1 Early life and education 2 Early career

2.1 World War II 2.2 Governor of South Carolina 2.3 Run for President 2.4 Early runs for Senate

3 Senate career

3.1 1950s 3.2 1960s 3.3 1970s 3.4 Post-1970 views regarding race 3.5 1980s 3.6 Later career

4 Personal life

4.1 Marriages and children 4.2 First daughter

5 Death 6 Electoral history 7 Legacy 8 See also 9 Footnotes 10 References 11 Further reading

11.1 Primary sources

12 External links

12.1 Articles 12.2 Obituaries

Early life and education[edit] James Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
was born on December 5, 1902, in Edgefield, South Carolina, the son of Eleanor Gertrude (née Strom; 1870–1958) and John William Thurmond (1862–1934), a lawyer. His ancestry included English and German.[11] He attended Clemson Agricultural College of South Carolina
South Carolina
(now Clemson University), where he was a member of the Pi Kappa Alpha
Pi Kappa Alpha
fraternity. Thurmond graduated in 1923 with a degree in horticulture. After Thurmond's death in 2003, an attorney for his family confirmed that in 1925, when he was 22, Thurmond fathered a mixed-race daughter, Essie Mae Washington, with his family's housekeeper, Carrie Butler, then 16 years old. Thurmond paid for his daughter's college education and provided other support.[12] Essie Mae Washington was raised by her maternal aunt and uncle, and was not told about Thurmond as her father until she was in high school, when she met him for the first time. Early career[edit] After college, Thurmond worked as a farmer, teacher and athletic coach until 1929, when at age 27 he was appointed as Edgefield County's superintendent of education, serving until 1933. Thurmond studied law with his father as a legal apprentice and was admitted to the South Carolina bar in 1930. He was appointed as the Edgefield Town and County attorney, serving from 1930 to 1938. In 1933 Thurmond was elected to the South Carolina Senate and represented Edgefield until he was elected to the Eleventh Circuit judgeship. World War II[edit]

Thurmond operating captured vehicle during the Normandy invasion

In 1942, at 39, after the U.S. formally entered World War II, Judge Thurmond resigned from the bench to serve in the U.S. Army, rising to lieutenant colonel. In the Battle of Normandy (June 6 – August 25, 1944), he landed in a glider attached to the 82nd Airborne Division. For his military service, he received 18 decorations, medals and awards, including the Legion of Merit
Legion of Merit
with Oak Leaf Cluster, Bronze Star with Valor device, Purple Heart, World War II
World War II
Victory Medal, European-African-Middle Eastern Campaign Medal, Belgium's Order of the Crown and France's Croix de Guerre. During 1954–55 he was president of the Reserve Officers Association. He retired from the U.S. Army Reserve
U.S. Army Reserve
with the rank of major general. Governor of South Carolina[edit]

Statue of Thurmond outside the South Carolina
South Carolina
State Capitol

Thurmond's political career began under Jim Crow
Jim Crow
laws that effectively disenfranchised almost all blacks from voting, at a time when they constituted the majority of the state's population. Running as a Democrat in the one-party state, Thurmond was elected Governor of South Carolina
South Carolina
in 1946, largely on the promise of making state government more transparent and accountable by weakening the power of a group of politicians from Barnwell, which Thurmond dubbed the Barnwell Ring, led by House Speaker Solomon Blatt.

Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
as Governor-elect

Many voters considered Thurmond a progressive for much of his term, in large part due to his influence in gaining the arrest of the perpetrators of the lynching of Willie Earle. Though none of the men were found guilty by the all-white jury and the defense called no witnesses,[13] Thurmond was congratulated by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) for his efforts to bring the murderers to justice.[14] Run for President[edit] Main article: United States presidential election, 1948 In 1948, President Harry S. Truman
Harry S. Truman
ordered the end of racial discrimination in the U.S. Army, proposed the creation of a permanent Fair Employment Practices Commission, supported the elimination of state poll taxes (which effectively discriminated against poor blacks and whites in voting), and supported drafting federal anti-lynching laws. In response, Thurmond became a candidate for president on the third party ticket of the States’ Rights Democratic Party (also known as the Dixiecrats). It split from the national Democrats over the threat of federal intervention in state affairs regarding segregation and Jim Crow. Thurmond's supporters took control of the Democratic Party in the Deep South, and Truman was not included on the presidential ballot in Alabama because that state’s Supreme Court ruled void any requirement for party electors to vote for the national nominee.[15] Thurmond carried four states and received 39 electoral votes, but Truman was reelected. During his 1948 campaign, Thurmond said the following in a speech, being met with loud cheers by the assembled supporters:  listen (help·info)

I wanna tell you, ladies and gentlemen, that there’s not enough troops in the army to force the Southern people to break down segregation and admit the Nigra race into our theaters, into our swimming pools, into our homes, and into our churches.[a][6]

Early runs for Senate[edit] According to the state constitution, Thurmond was barred from seeking a succeeding second term as governor in 1950, so he mounted a Democratic primary challenge against first-term U.S. Senator Olin Johnston. In the one-party state of the time, the Democratic primary was the only competitive contest. Both candidates denounced President Truman during the campaign. Johnston defeated Thurmond 186,180 votes to 158,904 votes (54% to 46%). It was the only statewide election which Thurmond lost. In 1952, Thurmond endorsed Republican Dwight Eisenhower for the Presidency, rather than the Democratic nominee Adlai Stevenson. State Democratic Party leaders blocked Thurmond from receiving the nomination to the Senate in 1954, and he ran as a write-in candidate. Senate career[edit] 1950s[edit] The incumbent U.S. Senator, Burnet R. Maybank, was unopposed for re-election in 1954, but he died in September of that year, two months before Election Day. Democratic leaders hurriedly appointed state Senator Edgar A. Brown, a member of the Barnwell Ring, as the party's nominee to replace Maybank. The Brown campaign was managed by future Governor John C. West. In a state where the Democratic nomination was tantamount to election, many criticized the party's failure to elect a candidate by a primary vote. Thurmond announced he would mount a write-in campaign. At the recommendation of Governor James Byrnes, Thurmond campaigned on the pledge that if he won, he would resign in 1956 to force a primary election which could be contested. At the time, South Carolina
South Carolina
was a one-party state. For all intents and purposes, the Democratic primary was the real contest for most state races from the local level all the way to the U.S. Senate. The Republican Party, which attracted the support of most of the state's black voters, had a voice in choosing the Republican presidential nominee, but was all but powerless at the state level. Thurmond won the 1954 election overwhelmingly, becoming the first person to be elected to the U.S. Senate as a write-in candidate against ballot-listed opponents. As promised, in 1956 Thurmond resigned to run in the party primary, which he won. Afterward, he was repeatedly elected to the US Senate by state voters until his retirement 46 years later. Thurmond supported racial segregation throughout much of his career. He wrote the first version of the Southern Manifesto, announcing southern disagreement with the 1954 US Supreme Court
US Supreme Court
decision in Brown v. Board of Education, which ruled that public school segregation was unconstitutional.[16] Along with James Eastland, Allen Ellender, and John Stennis, Thurmond was part of the group of Southern Senators that meant continually in the office of Georgia Senator Richard Russell, Jr. in early 1956 and shared a commonality of being dispirited with Brown v. Board of Education.[17] In an unsuccessful attempt to derail passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1957, Thurmond made the longest filibuster ever conducted by a single senator, speaking for a total of 24 hours and 18 minutes.[18] Cots were brought in from a nearby hotel for the legislators to sleep on while Thurmond discussed increasingly irrelevant and obscure topics, including his grandmother's biscuit recipe. Other Southern senators, who had agreed as part of a compromise not to filibuster this bill, were upset with Thurmond because they thought his defiance made them look incompetent to their constituents.[19] 1960s[edit]

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Strom Thurmond, 1961

On August 31, 1961, Thurmond formally requested the Senate Armed Services Committee to vote on whether to vote for "a conspiracy to muzzle military anti-Communist drives." The appearance prompted the cancellation of another public appearance in Fort Jackson, as Thurmond favored marking his proposal with his presence, and his request for a $75,000 committee study was slated for consideration by the committee.[20] In November, Thurmond went on a five-day tour of California. At a news conference on November 28, Thurmond stated that President Kennedy had lost support in the South due to the formation of the National Relations Boards, what he called Kennedy's softness on communism, and an increase in military men being muzzled for speaking out against communism.[21] Thurmond held resentment toward NBC for its lack of coverage of his military muzzling claims.[22] On December 2, Thurmond delivered an address to the Arkansas American Legion conference in Little Rock, Arkansas, stating during which that he had been told that the State Department was preparing "a paper for the turning over of our nuclear weapons to the United Nations."[23] In September 1962, Thurmond called for an invasion of Cuba,[24] publicly stating his belief that other countries in the Western Hemisphere would want to join the United States in intervention.[25] He also opposed legislation that "would give the president unprecedented authority to lower or wipe out tariff wall [and] would provide for the first time broad government relief to industries and workers", the only Democrat to do so.[26] A week after the Report to the American People on Civil Rights
Report to the American People on Civil Rights
speech, President Kennedy sent Congress his civil rights bill on June 19, earning Thurmond's opposition.[27] Thurmond engaged in a debate with Secretary of State Dean Rusk
Dean Rusk
on President Kennedy's civil rights bill on July 10, 1963.[28] Later that month, Thurmond accused radio and television networks of being in support of the views espoused by the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, resulting in a dispute with Rhode Island
Rhode Island
Senator John Pastore.[29] In the weeks leading up to the March on Washington, Thurmond delivered a Senate floor speech,[30] during which accusing the march's organizer Bayard Rustin of "being a communist, a draft dodger and a homosexual." Rustin biographer John D'Emilio stated that Thurmond's remarks unintentionally gave Rustin further credit in the Civil Rights Movement: "Because no one could appear to be on the side of Strom Thurmond, he created, unwittingly, an opportunity for Rustin's sexuality to stop being an issue."[31] Rustin denied Thurmond's charges on August 15.[32] After the nomination of Paul Nitze
Paul Nitze
for United States Secretary of the Navy, Thurmond participated in the November 7, 1963 hearing for Nitze, Thurmond being noted for asking Nitze "rapid fire questions on his views about military action" and his questions focusing on Nitze's participation as a moderator in the 1958 National Council of Churches conference.[33] Along with Arizona Senator Barry Goldwater, Thurmond delayed the Nitze nomination.[34] In spite of Thurmond voting against him,[35] Nitze was later approved for the position by the Senate Armed Services Committee on November 21,[36] and sworn in later that month. The day after the Nitze vote, President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas, Texas.[37][38] Thurmond expressed the view that a conspiracy would be found by investigators to have been responsible for JFK's death.[39] Vice President Lyndon Johnson ascended to the presidency, beginning a campaign for passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights Act of 1964
and the Voting Rights Act of 1965
Voting Rights Act of 1965
which angered white segregationists. These laws ended segregation and committed the federal government to enforce voting rights of citizens by the supervision of elections in states in which the pattern of voting showed blacks had been disenfranchised. Many conservatives strongly opposed these laws, including Senator Robert Byrd
Robert Byrd
(D-W.Va.), who filibustered the Civil Rights Act for 14 hours and 13 minutes on June 9 and 10, 1964. During the signing ceremony for the Civil Rights Act, President Johnson announced the nomination of LeRoy Collins
LeRoy Collins
as the first Director of the Community Relations Service.[40] Following the announcement, Thurmond reminded Collins of his past support for segregation and inferred that he was a traitor to the South, Thurmond having particular disdain for an address by Collins the previous winter in which he charged southern leaders with being harsh and intemperate.[41] Thurmond also suggested that Collins had sought to fault southern leaders for President Kennedy's assassination.[41] Thurmond was the only senator to vote against Collins' nomination being sent to the Senate, and later one of eight senators to vote against his nomination in the chamber.[42] Months later, on September 16, 1964, Thurmond confirmed he was leaving the Democratic Party to work on the presidential campaign of Barry Goldwater, charging it with having "abandoned the people" and repudiated the U.S. Constitution as well as providing leadership for the eventual takeover of the US by socialistic dictatorship. He called on other Southern politicians to join him in bettering the Republican Party.[43] Thurmond joined Goldwater in campaigning through Louisiana
Louisiana
later that month, telling reporters that he believed Goldwater could carry South Carolina
South Carolina
in the general election along with other southern states.[44] Goldwater won South Carolina
South Carolina
by a large margin in 1964.[45][46] Thurmond stated that his opposition to the Voting Rights Act was due to not favoring its authorization of the federal government to determine the processes behind how statewide elections are conducted and insisted he was not opposed to black voter turnout.[47] In 1966, former governor Ernest "Fritz" Hollings won South Carolina's other Senate seat in a special election. He and Thurmond served together for just over 36 years, making them the longest-serving Senate duo in American history. Thurmond and Hollings had a very good relationship, despite their often stark philosophical differences. Their long tenure meant their seniority in the Senate gave South Carolina clout in national politics well beyond its modest population. In July 1967, after the 1967 USS Forrestal fire, Thurmond wrote of his conviction that the outbreak had been precipitated by communists.[48] In September, Thurmond warned against enacting any of the three proposed Panama Canal
Panama Canal
treaties, which he said could lead to Communist control of the airway if enacted.[49] Thurmond was an early supporter of a second presidential campaign by Nixon, his backing coming from the latter's position on the Vietnam War.[50] Thurmond met with Nixon during the Republican primary and promised he would not give in to the "depredations of the Reagan forces."[51] At the 1968 Republican National Convention
1968 Republican National Convention
in Miami Beach, Florida, Thurmond, along with Mississippi
Mississippi
state chairman Clarke Reed, former U.S. Representative
U.S. Representative
and gubernatorial nominee Howard Callaway of Georgia, and Charlton Lyons
Charlton Lyons
of Louisiana
Louisiana
held the Deep South states solidly for Richard M. Nixon
Richard M. Nixon
despite the sudden last-minute entry of Governor Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
of California
California
into the race. Governor Nelson Rockefeller
Nelson Rockefeller
of New York was also in the race but having little effect. In the fall 1968 general election, Nixon won South Carolina
South Carolina
with 38 percent of the popular vote and gained South Carolina's electoral votes. With the then-segregationist Democrat George Wallace
George Wallace
on the ballot, the South Carolina
South Carolina
Democratic voters split almost evenly between the Democratic Party nominee, Hubert Humphrey, who received 29.6 percent of the total vote, and Wallace, who received 32.3 percent. Other Deep South states swung to Wallace and posted weak totals for Nixon. Thurmond had quieted conservative fears over rumors that Nixon planned to ask either liberal Republicans Charles Percy or Mark Hatfield
Mark Hatfield
to be his running mate. He informed Nixon that both men were unacceptable to the South for the vice-presidency. Nixon ultimately asked Governor Spiro Agnew
Spiro Agnew
from Maryland—an acceptable choice to Thurmond—to join the ticket. In June 1968, Chief Justice Earl Warren
Earl Warren
decided to retire, a move that resulted in President Johnson nominating Abe Fortas to succeed him.[52] During the third day of hearing, Thurmond questioned Fortas over Mallory v. United States (1957), a case noted by Fortas biographer Laura Kalman as taking place before Fortas' tenure but for which he was still held responsible for by Thurmond nonetheless.[53] Thurmond asked Fortas if the Supreme Court decision in the Mallory v. United States case was an encouragement of individuals to commit more serous crimes such as rape and if he believed in "that kind of justice", an inquiry that shocked the usually stoic Fortas.[53] Thurmond displayed sex magazines, which he called "obscene, foul, putrid, filthy and repulsive", to validate his charges that Supreme Court's rulings overturning obscenity convictions had led to a large wave of hardcore pornography material. Thurmond stated that Fortas had backed overturning 23 of the 26 lower court obscenity decisions.[54] Thurmond also arranged for the screening of explicit films that Fortas had purportedly legalized to be played before reporters and his own Senate colleagues.[55] In September, Vice President Hubert Humphrey spoke of a deal made between Thurmond and Nixon over Thurmond's opposition to the Fortas nomination.[56] Both Nixon[57] and Thurmond denied Humphrey's claims, Thurmond saying that he had never discussed the nomination with Nixon while conceding the latter had unsuccessfully tried to sway him from opposing Fortas.[58] In an April 25, 1969 Senate floor speech, Thurmond stated that The New York Times "had a conflict of interest in its attacks on Otto F. Otepka's appointment to the Subversive Activities Control Board."[59] On May 29, Thurmond called for Associate Justice William O. Douglas
William O. Douglas
to resign over what he considered political activities.[60] Douglas remained in office for another six years.[61] In the latter part of the year, President Nixon nominated Clement Haynsworth for Associate Justice.[62][63] This came after the White House consulted with Thurmond throughout all of July, as Thurmond had become impressed with Haynsworth following their close collaboration. Thurmond wrote to Haynsworth that he had worked harder on his nomination than any other that had occurred since his Senate career began.[64] The Haynsworth nomination was rejected in the Senate.[65] Years later, at a March 1977 hearing, Thurmond told Haynsworth, "It's a pity you are not on the Supreme Court today. Several senators who voted against you have told me they would vote for you if they had it to do again."[66] Around the time of the Haynsworth nomination, Time ran a story accusing Thurmond of receiving "an extraordinarily high payment for land". Thurmond responded to the claim on September 15, saying the tale was a liberal smear intended to damage his political influence,[67] later calling the magazine "anti-South".[68] At a news conference on September 19, Thurmond named Executive Director of the South Carolina
South Carolina
Democratic Party Donald L. Fowler
Donald L. Fowler
as the individual who had spread the story, a charge that Fowler denied.[69] Thurmond decried the Supreme Court opinion in Alexander v. Holmes County Board of Education (1969), which ordered the immediate desegregation of schools in the American South.[70] This had followed continued Southern resistance for more than a decade to desegregation following the 1954 U.S. Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education
Brown v. Board of Education
that segregation of public schools was unconstitutional. Thurmond praised President Nixon and his "Southern Strategy" of delaying desegregation, saying Nixon "stood with the South in this case".[70] 1970s[edit]

Thurmond (far right) campaigning for Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
in Columbia, South Carolina in 1980

Thanks to his close relationship with the Nixon administration, Thurmond was able to deliver a great deal of federal money, appointments and projects to his state. With a like-minded president in the White House, Thurmond became a very effective power broker in Washington. His staffers said his goal was to be South Carolina's "indispensable man" in Washington, D.C. In the 1970 gubernatorial election, Thurmond's preferred candidate, conservative U.S. Representative
U.S. Representative
Albert W. Watson, was defeated by the more moderate opponent, Democrat John C. West, who had opposed Thurmond's initial write-in election to the Senate and the then outgoing lieutenant governor. Watson had defected to the Republicans in 1965, the year after Thurmond's own bolt, and had been politically close to the senator. Watson lost mainly after several Republican officials in South Carolina
South Carolina
shied away from him because of his continuing opposition to civil rights legislation. Watson's loss caused Thurmond slowly to moderate his own image in regard to changing race relations. In 1970, Thurmond urged Nixon to nominate another South Carolina Republican convert, Joseph O. Rogers, Jr., to a federal judgeship; he had been the party's unsuccessful 1966 gubernatorial nominee against the Democrat Robert Evander McNair. At the time Rogers was the U.S. Attorney in South Carolina. When his judicial nomination dragged on, Rogers resigned as U.S. attorney and withdrew from consideration. He blamed the Nixon administration, which he and Thurmond had helped to bring to power, for failure to advance his nomination in the Senate because of opposition to the appointment from the NAACP.[71] On February 22, 1970, Thurmond delivered an address at Drew University defending Julius Hoffman,[72] a judge that had drawn controversy for his role in the Chicago Seven
Chicago Seven
trial.[73][74] Protestors threw marshmallows at Thurmond in response to the speech, Thurmond telling the hecklers that they were cowards for not hearing what he had to say.[75] In a July 17, 1970 Senate floor speech, Thurmond criticized the Nixon administration following the disclosure of Assistant Attorney General Jerris Leonard that 100 lawyers were intended to be sent for the monitoring of school districts at the start of a court ordered school desegregation plan.[76][77] White House counselor Robert H. Finch
Robert H. Finch
stated the Senator was reacting to false information and that the administration was "not sending any large augmentation of people into the South."[78] On February 4, 1972, Thurmond sent a secret memo to William Timmons (in his capacity as an aide to Richard Nixon) and United States Attorney General John N. Mitchell, with an attached file from the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, urging that British musician John Lennon (then living in New York City) be deported from the United States as an undesirable alien, due to Lennon's political views and activism. The document claimed Lennon's influence on young people could affect Nixon's chances of re-election, and suggested that terminating Lennon's visa might be "a strategy counter-measure".[79] Thurmond's memo and attachment, received by the White House on February 7, 1972, initiated the Nixon administration's persecution of John Lennon that threatened the former Beatle
Beatle
with deportation for nearly five years from 1972 to 1976. The documents were discovered in the FBI
FBI
files after a Freedom of Information Act search by Professor Jon Wiener, and published in Weiner's book Gimme Some Truth: The John Lennon FBI
FBI
Files (2000).[79] They are discussed in the documentary film, The U.S. vs. John Lennon
The U.S. vs. John Lennon
(2006). During this period, the NSA reportedly had been eavesdropping on Thurmond's conversations, using the British part of the ECHELON project.[80]

President Reagan with Thurmond in the Oval Office in 1987

In March 1973, Thurmond was one of nine Republican senators to vote with the Democratic majority in favor of a measure demanding President Nixon to release the 120 million the Agriculture Department had not used toward water and rural area sewer systems.[81] In 1974,[82] Thurmond and Democrat John L. McClellan wrote a resolution to continue American sovereignty by the Panama Canal
Panama Canal
and zone. Thurmond stated that the rhetoric delivered by Secretary of State Henry Kissinger
Henry Kissinger
suggested that the "Canal Zone is already Panamanian territory and the only question involved is the transfer of jurisdiction."[83] In January 1975, Thurmond was one of four senators to vote against the creation of a special committee to investigation the Central Intelligence Agency, Federal Bureau of Investigation, and other government agencies intended to either gather intelligence or enforce the law.[84] In the 1976 Republican primary, President Ford faced a challenge from former California
California
Governor Ronald Reagan, who selected Richard Schweiker as his running mate.[85] Though Thurmond backed Reagan's candidacy, he, along with North Carolina
North Carolina
Senator Jesse Helms, led efforts to oust Schweiker from the ticket.[86] During the subsequent general election, Thurmond appeared in a campaign commercial for incumbent U.S. President Gerald Ford
Gerald Ford
in his race against Thurmond's fellow Southerner, former Georgia Governor Jimmy Carter. In the commercial, Thurmond said Ford (who was born in Nebraska
Nebraska
and spent most of his life in Michigan) "sound[ed] more like a Southerner than Jimmy Carter".[87] After President-elect Carter nominated Theodore C. Sorensen
Theodore C. Sorensen
as his choice to become Director of the Central Intelligence Agency, Thurmond expressed reservations[88] and fellow Senator Jake Garn
Jake Garn
said he believed Thurmond would not vote for the nomination.[89] Sorensen withdrew from consideration days later, before a vote could be had.[90][91] In January 1977, Thurmond stated that he was opposed to the popular vote electing the president because it was "not true federalism." He advocated that senators not act with haste on the issue.[92] In April 1977, Thurmond supported legislation forming a stringent code of ethics in the Senate with the intention of assisting with the restoration of public confidence in Congress.[93] In August 1977, Thurmond announced he would cosponsor legislation providing free prescription drugs to senior citizens with Massachusetts Senator Ted Kennedy. The bill would cover 24 million Americans over the age of 65 and was meant to augment the Medicare program with prescription drugs being paid for and given to individuals not hospitalized.[94] The period of late 1977 marked the beginning of an organized effort by conservatives to display opposition to the ratification of the Panama Canal treaty by the Senate, which included a scheduled televised appearance by Thurmond.[95] Thurmond advocated for forging a new relationship with Panama and against the US giving up sovereignty in the canal zone, in addition to casting doubts on Panama's ability to govern alone: "There is no way that a Panarnaniain government could be objective about the administration of an enterprise so large in comparison to the rest of the national enterprise, public and private."[96] In late August 1977, the New York Times wrote "President Carter can be grateful that the opposition to his compromise Panama treaty is now being led by Senator Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
of South Carolina and Senator Jesse Helms
Jesse Helms
of North Carolina."[97] Speaking on the Panama Canal neutrality treaty, Thurmond said it was "the big giveaway of the century."[98][99] The treaty was ratified by the Senate on March 16, 1978.[100] A short time after Mississippian Thad Cochran
Thad Cochran
entered the Senate in late 1978, Thurmond gave him advice on how to vote against bills intended to aid African-Americans but not lose their voting support: "Your black friends will be with you, if you be sure to help them with their projects."[101] Thurmond supported the presidential candidacy of John Connally,[102] announcing his endorsement on December 27, 1979.[103] Thurmond stated that the Iran hostage crisis
Iran hostage crisis
would have never happened were Connally the sitting president as Iranians were familiar with his strength. The Washington Post noted Thurmond seeming "to cast himself for a role of regional leadership in the Connally campaign similar to the one he played in 1968" for the Nixon campaign.[104] Connally subsequently was defeated in the South Carolina
South Carolina
primary by Reagan, thanking the Thurmond and his wife for doing more to support his campaign in the state than anyone else.[105] After the presidential election, Thurmond and Helms sponsored a Senate amendment to a Department of Justice appropriations bill denying the department the power to participate in busing, due to objections over federal involvement, but, although passed by Congress, was vetoed by a lame duck Carter.[106][107] In December 1980, Thurmond met with President-elect Reagan and recommended former South Carolina
South Carolina
governor James B. Edwards
James B. Edwards
for United States Secretary of Energy in the incoming administration.[108] Reagan later named Edwards Energy Secretary, and the latter served in that position for over a year.[109][110] Post-1970 views regarding race[edit]

Thurmond and Vice President George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
at a 1986 campaign rally for Governor Carroll A. Campbell Jr.

In 1970, blacks still constituted some 30 percent of South Carolina's population; in 1900, they had constituted 58.4 percent of the state's population.[111] Thousands of blacks left the state during the first half of the 20th century in the Great Migration to escape the Jim Crow laws and seek opportunities in the industrial cities of the North and Midwest. After the Voting Rights Act of 1965
Voting Rights Act of 1965
was implemented, African Americans were legally protected in exercising their constitutional rights as United States citizens to register to vote in South Carolina without harassment or discrimination. State politicians could no longer ignore this voting bloc, who were allied with increasing numbers of white residents who supported civil rights. Thurmond appointed Thomas Moss, an African American, to his Senate staff in 1971. It has been described as the first such appointment by a member of the South Carolinian congressional delegation (it was incorrectly reported by many sources as the first senatorial appointment of an African American, but Mississippi
Mississippi
Senator Pat Harrison had hired clerk-librarian Jesse Nichols in 1937). In 1983, he supported legislation to make the birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr. a federal holiday.[6] In South Carolina, the honor was diluted; until 2000 the state offered employees the option to celebrate this holiday or substitute one of three Confederate holidays instead. Despite this, Thurmond never explicitly renounced his earlier views on racial segregation.[7][8][112][113] 1980s[edit]

Margaret Thatcher
Margaret Thatcher
and Thurmond at a state dinner in 1981

Thurmond became President pro tempore of the US Senate in 1981, and held the largely ceremonial post for three terms, alternating with his longtime rival Robert Byrd, depending on the party composition of the Senate. During this period, he maintained a close relationship with the Reagan administration. After the March 1981 assassination attempt on President Reagan,[114][115] which ushered in bipartisan support for "legislation that would ban the importing of unassembled gun parts involved in the manufacture of cheap pistols often used by criminals", Thurmond stated his support for legislation imposing a ban on the gun components on a seven-point anti-crime program.[116] He indicated his backing would only be in favor of passing measures to restrict criminals accessing guns, telling reporters, "I still think criminals are going to get guns. But if you take guns away from people who need them to protect their homes, that is unreasonable."[117] Thurmond's announcement indicating his support for gun control legislation in the wake of the assassination attempt was seen as possibly indicating a change in the debate of regulations relating to firearms in the US.[118] He announced plans to hold hearings on the seven-point proposal intended to address the questions surrounding the Reagan assassination attempt.[119] Thurmond was part of the U.S. delegation to the funeral of Egyptian President Anwar Sadat, Thurmond being accompanied by Sadat's pen pal Sam Brown.[120] In early 1981, Thurmond stated his support for a balanced budget amendment as he believed Reagan's successor would unbalance the budget in spite of what Reagan did while in office. He added that there was not a timetable for getting it passed and that Congress was ahead of the newly-formed Reagan administration.[121] Thurmond attended the July 12, 1982 Rose Garden speech by President Reagan on the balanced budget amendment. President Reagan stated the administration was "asking Majority Leader Baker, Senators Thurmond, Hatch, DeConcini, and Helms, as leaders of the 61 cosponsors, to help us secure its passage as rapidly as possible."[122] On August 4, 1982, the Senate approved adopting a constitutional amendment requiring a balanced budget in the following years.[123] Following the vote, Thurmond said, "This is a great day for America. We feel this is a step that will turn this country around, once it is ratified by the states."[124] On January 26, 1983, a constitutional amendment mandating a balanced budget was introduced to the Senate, Thurmond and Utah Senator Orrin Hatch serving as its main cosponsors. Thurmond's remarks included calling for a haste to its enactment: "Congress has shown it is unable to control federal spending and, in doing so, has conceded it must be forced to do so. That is why this amendment is so urgently needed."[125] In October 1985, Thurmond supported a plan to require a balanced budget by 1991.[126] In January 1982, Thurmond and Vice President George H. W. Bush
George H. W. Bush
were met with protestors while Thurmond was being inducted into the South Carolina Hall of Fame, the protestors holding signs charging Thurmond with racism and attacking the Voting Rights Act.[127] On March 11, 1982, Thurmond voted in favor of a measure sponsored by Senator Orrin Hatch that sought to reverse Roe v. Wade
Roe v. Wade
and allow Congress and individual states to adopt laws banning abortions. Its passing was the first time a congressional committee supported an anti-abortion amendment.[128][129] In 1983, Thurmond supported legislation for the MX missile, voting for its development being funded by 625 million in May,[130] and against the Gary Hart
Gary Hart
amendment that if enacted would have removed production for the missile from the military authorization bill of 1984 two months later.[131] In September 1983, President Reagan attended a fundraising dinner for Thurmond's re-election campaign in the Cantey Building at the South Carolina State Fairgrounds in Columbia, South Carolina.[132][133] Thurmond announced he was running for a sixth full term on March 20, 1984.[134] Thurmond faced his first primary challenge in 20 years, against retired agent of the Central Intelligence Agency
Central Intelligence Agency
Robert Cunningham, and won the Republican nomination on June 12, 1984.[135][136] Thurmond defeated Melvin Purvis in the general election, the latter receiving half of the votes cast for Thurmond.[137] In January 1984, President Reagan announced the nomination of Edwin Meese for U.S. Attorney
U.S. Attorney
General to replace the resigning William French Smith.[138] On March 13, 1984, Thurmond spokesman Mark Goodin announced Meese had agreed for a second round of questioning from the Senate Judiciary Committee
Senate Judiciary Committee
and that Thurmond "just feels it would be productive all the way around" to have another appearance by the nominee.[139] At a news conference that month, Thurmond stated a lack of evident wrongdoing and his confidence in Meese stemming from Reagan having selected him: "Up to now, there's been nothing I've come across that would damage Mr. Meese. If President Reagan nominated the man, then he must be qualified."[140] Meese was later confirmed by the Senate in February 1985.[141] Thurmond attended the September 7, 1985 dedication of the Richard B. Russell Dam, praising the dam with having met "the ever increasing needs of the Southeast."[142] In June 1986, Thurmond sent a letter to Attorney General Edwin Meese requesting "an inquiry into the activities of former Commerce Department official Walter Lenahan, and expressed concern about an alleged leak of U.S. trade information to textile-exporting nations."[143] In August 1986, after President Reagan nominated Associate Justice William Rehnquist
William Rehnquist
for Chief Justice of the United States,[144][145] Thurmond said the questions poised toward Rehnquist during his confirmation hearings were disgraceful as well as part of an attempt to smear him.[146] As a member of the Senate Judiciary Committee, Thurmond voted in favor of recommending Rehnquist's confirmation.[147] Thurmond defended Rehnquist against charges of discrimination, saying the nomination would never have been approved by the Senate Judiciary Committee
Senate Judiciary Committee
if its members felt any credibility to the claims.[148] In July 1987, President Reagan nominated Robert Bork
Robert Bork
as Associate Justice on the Supreme Court.[149] The Los Angeles Times
Los Angeles Times
noted Thurmond as "one of Bork's key supporters on the Judiciary Committee."[150] In October, after the Senate rejected Bork's nomination,[151] Thurmond stated during a news conference that President Reagan's next nominee should be a person not "as controversial" and concurrently praised Bork as "a great judge who would have adorned the Supreme Court with honor." Thurmond also expressed his view that the next Supreme Court nominee should be someone from the South.[152] Later career[edit] Thurmond served as the ranking member of the Senate Judiciary Committee during the hearings on the nomination of Clarence Thomas
Clarence Thomas
to the US Supreme Court
US Supreme Court
in 1991 and worked closely with Joe Biden, then the chairman. He joined the minority of Republicans who voted for the Brady Bill for gun control in 1993. Thurmond stumped for President Bush during the 1992 South Carolina Republican primary.[153] In early 1992, Thurmond stated his intent to become the top Republican on the Senate Armed Services Committee, replacing John Warner. He traced his ambitions for the post to an interest in maintaining a strong defense as well as welfare for "the men and women who serve our nation so well."[154] On December 5, 1996, Thurmond became the oldest serving member of the U.S. Senate, and on May 25, 1997, the longest-serving member (41 years and 10 months), casting his 15,000th vote in September 1998.[155] In the following month, when astronaut and fellow Senator John Glenn
John Glenn
was to embark on the Discovery at age 77, Thurmond, who was his senior by 19 years, reportedly sent him a message saying; "I want to go too."[156] Toward the end of Thurmond's Senate career, critics suggested his mental abilities had declined. His supporters argued that, while he lacked physical stamina due to his age, mentally he remained aware and attentive, and maintained a very active work schedule, showing up for every floor vote. He stepped down as Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee at the beginning of 1999, as he had pledged to do in late 1997.[157] Declining to seek re-election in 2002, he was succeeded by then-Congressman and fellow Republican Lindsey Graham, who still remains the senior South Carolina
South Carolina
Senator.

External video

Strom Thurmond's 100th birthday party, held at the Dirksen Senate office building, December 5, 2002, C-SPAN

Tour of Thurmond's Senate office prior to his retirement, December 19, 2002, C-SPAN

Thurmond left the Senate in January 2003 as the United States' longest-serving senator (a record later surpassed by Senator Byrd). In his November farewell speech in the Senate, Thurmond told his colleagues "I love all of you, especially your wives," the latter being a reference to his flirtatious nature with younger women. At his 100th birthday and retirement celebration in December, Thurmond said, "I don't know how to thank you. You're wonderful people, I appreciate you, appreciate what you've done for me, and may God allow you to live a long time."[158] Thurmond's 100th birthday was celebrated on December 5, 2002. Some remarks made by Mississippi
Mississippi
Senator Trent Lott
Trent Lott
during the event were considered racially insensitive: "When Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
ran for president, [Mississippi] voted for him. We're proud of it. And if the rest of the country had followed our lead, we wouldn't have had all these problems over the years, either." Fifteen days later, on December 20, Lott announced his resignation as the Senate Republican leader effective on January 3, the beginning of the next congressional session.[159] Personal life[edit]

President George W. Bush
George W. Bush
with Thurmond on his 100th birthday

Marriages and children[edit] Thurmond was 44 when he married his first wife, Jean Crouch (1926–1960),[160] in the South Carolina
South Carolina
Governor's mansion[161] on November 7, 1947.[162] In April 1947, when Crouch was a senior at Winthrop College, Thurmond was a judge in a beauty contest in which she was selected as Miss South Carolina. In June, upon her graduation, Thurmond hired her as his personal secretary. On September 13, 1947, Thurmond proposed marriage by calling Crouch to his office to take a dictated letter. The letter was to her, and contained his proposal of marriage.[163] Thirteen years later in 1960, Crouch died of a brain tumor at age 33; they had no children. Thurmond married his second wife, Nancy Janice Moore (born 1946), on December 22, 1968. He was 66 years old and she was 22. She had won Miss South Carolina
South Carolina
in 1965. Two years later, he hired her to work in his Senate office. They separated in 1991, but never divorced. At age 68 in 1971, Thurmond fathered the first of four children with Nancy, who was then 25. The names of the children are Nancy Moore Thurmond (1971–1993), a beauty pageant contestant who was killed by a drunk driver; James Strom Thurmond, Jr. (born 1972), who became U.S. Attorney for the District of South Carolina
South Carolina
and is the current South Carolina 2nd Judicial Circuit Solicitor;[164][165] Juliana Gertrude (Thurmond) Whitmer (born 1974), who works for the American Red Cross in Washington, DC;[166] and Paul Reynolds Thurmond (born 1976), who was elected as South Carolina
South Carolina
State Senator representing District 41. First daughter[edit]

External video

Essie Mae Williams news conference, December 17, 2003, C-SPAN

After Words interview with Williams on her book Dear Senator: A Memoir by the Daughter of Strom Thurmond, February 6, 2005, C-SPAN

Presentation by Williams at the Palm Springs Book Festival, April 16, 2005, C-SPAN

Six months after Thurmond's death, Essie Mae Washington-Williams publicly revealed she was his daughter. She was African American, was married and had a family; she was a retired Los Angeles Unified School District elementary school teacher with a master's degree. She was born on October 12, 1925, to Carrie "Tunch" Butler (1909–1948), who had worked for Thurmond's parents and was 16 years old when Thurmond, then 22, impregnated her. Though Thurmond never publicly acknowledged Washington-Williams while he was alive, he helped pay her way through a historically black college in South Carolina
South Carolina
and continued to give her financial support well into her adult life.[10] Washington-Williams said she did not reveal she was Thurmond's daughter during his lifetime because it "wasn't to the advantage of either one of us".[10] She kept silent out of respect for her father[9] and denied the two had agreed she would not reveal her connection to him.[10] After Washington-Williams came forward, the Thurmond family publicly acknowledged her parentage. Her name has been added to those of his other children on a monument to Thurmond installed at the statehouse grounds.[167] Many close friends, staff members, and South Carolina residents had long suspected that Washington-Williams was Thurmond's daughter,[168] as they had noted his interest in her. The young woman had been granted a degree of access to Thurmond more typical of a family member than to a member of the public.[169] Washington-Williams later said she intended to join the Daughters of the American Revolution and the United Daughters of the Confederacy, as she was eligible through her Thurmond ancestry. Thurmond was a member of the Sons of Confederate Veterans, a similar group for men.[170] She encouraged other African Americans to learn their ancestry and join the lineage associations, to promote a wider sense of American history, including its long history of interracial families. Washington-Williams died on February 4, 2013, in Columbia, South Carolina, at age 87.[171] Death[edit] Thurmond died in his sleep on June 26, 2003, at 9:45 p.m. of heart failure at a hospital in Edgefield, South Carolina, at age 100. After lying in state in the rotunda of the State House in Columbia, his body was carried on a caisson to the First Baptist Church for services, where then-Senator Joe Biden
Joe Biden
delivered a eulogy, and later to the family burial plot in Willowbrook Cemetery in Edgefield, where he was interred.[172][173] Electoral history[edit] Main article: Electoral history of Strom Thurmond Legacy[edit]

Bust of Thurmond by Frederick E. Hart, held by the U.S. Senate

The Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
Foundation, Inc., provides financial aid support to deserving South Carolina
South Carolina
residents who demonstrate financial need. The Foundation was established in 1974 by Thurmond with honoraria received from speeches, donations from friends and family, and from other acts of generosity. It serves as a permanent testimony to his memory and to his concern for the education of able students who have demonstrated financial need. A reservoir on the Georgia– South Carolina
South Carolina
border is named after him: Lake Strom Thurmond. The University of South Carolina
South Carolina
is home to the Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
Fitness Center, one of the largest fitness complexes on a college campus. The new complex has largely replaced the Blatt Fitness center, named for Solomon Blatt, a political rival of Thurmond.

Thurmond receives the Presidential Medal
Medal
of Freedom from George H.W. Bush, 1993

Charleston Southern University
Charleston Southern University
has a Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
Building, which houses the school's business offices, bookstore, and post office. Thurmond Building at Winthrop University
Winthrop University
is named for him. He served on Winthrop's Board of Trustees from 1936 to 1938 and again from 1947 to 1951 when he was governor of South Carolina. A statue of Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
is located on the southern grounds of the South Carolina
South Carolina
State Capitol as a memorial to his service to the state. Strom Thurmond High School is located in his hometown of Edgefield, South Carolina. Al Sharpton
Al Sharpton
was reported on February 24, 2007, to be a descendant of slaves owned by the Thurmond family. Sharpton has not asked for a DNA test.[174][175][176] The U.S. Air Force has a C-17 Globemaster
C-17 Globemaster
named The Spirit of Strom Thurmond. In 1989 he was presented with the Presidential Citizens Medal
Medal
by President Ronald Reagan.[177] Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
Blvd located in Fort Jackson, SC
Fort Jackson, SC
is named in his honor. In 1993 he was presented with the Presidential Medal
Medal
of Freedom by President George H. W. Bush.[178][179] The Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
Institute is located on the campus of Clemson University. Appears in the 2008 award-winning documentary on Lee Atwater, Boogie Man: The Lee Atwater
Lee Atwater
Story.

See also[edit]

Biography portal Politics portal South Carolina
South Carolina
portal

List of federal political sex scandals in the United States

Footnotes[edit]

^ Standard accounts of the speech render "Nigra" as "Negro" or "nigger".

References[edit]

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Robert Byrd
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Dixiecrat
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Caro, Robert
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LeRoy Collins
to be Director of the Community Relations Service. Governor Collins will bring the experience of a long career of distinguished public service to the task of helping communities solve problems of human relations through reason and commonsense.  ^ a b Cohodas, Nadine (1995). Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
& the Politics of Southern Change. Mercer University Press. p. 353. ISBN 978-0865544468.  ^ Cohodas, p. 355. ^ "THURMOND BREAK IS MADE OFFICIAL". New York Times. September 17, 1964.  ^ "Thurmond Joins Goldwater Drive". New York Times. September 18, 1964.  ^ Sabato, Larry J. (October 27, 2014). "How Goldwater Changed Campaigns Forever". Politico.  ^ "The American Presidency Project - Election of 1964". Retrieved May 27, 2017.  ^ Cohodas, p. 13. ^ "Thurmond Charges Red-Inspired". Panama City News-Herald. July 31, 1967.  ^ "Thurmond Warns of Peril To Panama Canal
Panama Canal
in Pacts". New York Times. September 3, 1967.  ^ Black, p. 474. ^ Black, Conrad (2007). Richard M. Nixon: A Life in Full. PublicAffairs. p. 526. ISBN 978-1586485191.  ^ Michaelson, Jay (February 15, 2016). "GOP Cynicism on the Supreme Court Reaches a New Low". The Daily Beast.  ^ a b Kalman, Laura (1992). Abe Fortas: A Biography. Yale University Press. pp. 340–341. ISBN 978-0300052589.  ^ "Senate Committee Asks Fortas to Testify Again: Thurmond Brandishes Nude Magazines, Assails Justice for Rulings on Obscenity". Los Angeles Times. July 24, 1968.  ^ "The Republicans' Filibuster Lie". Los Angeles Times. May 3, 2005.  ^ "HUMPHREY SCORES 'THE SAME NIXON'; Sees a Deal With Thurmond on Fortas -- Also Chides Opponent on Atom Pact Humphrey Criticizes 'The Same Nixon'". New York Times. September 14, 1968.  ^ "Nixon Rejects Charge". New York Times. September 14, 1968.  ^ "Thurmond Promotes Nixon's Cause Deep in Wallace Country". New York Times. September 14, 1968.  ^ "THURMOND SCORES TIMES ON OTEPKA; Charges Newspaper Has a Conflict of Interest". New York Times. April 25, 1969.  ^ "THURMOND URGES DOUGLAS TO QUIT; In Newsletter, He Denounces 'Political Activity'". New York Times. May 30, 1969.  ^ "Members of the Supreme Court of the United States". Supreme Court of the United States. Retrieved April 21, 2010.  ^ "Nixon Submits Nomination Of Haynsworth to Senate". New York Times.  ^ "Haynsworth Gains Votes Of 2 More". New York Times. November 18, 1969.  ^ Kalk, Bruce H. (2001). The Origins of the Southern Strategy. Lexington Books. p. 94. ISBN 978-0739102428.  ^ Nixon, Richard (December 4, 1969). "472 - Remarks on the Decision of Judge Clement F. Haynsworth, Jr., To Continue as Chief Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the 4th Circuit".  ^ "Senate Views on Haynsworth Changed". Washington Post. March 15, 1977.  ^ "THURMOND SCORES AN ARTICLE IN LIFE; Terms Contention on Land Deal a 'Liberal Smear'". New York Times. September 16, 1969.  ^ "THURMOND REBUTS THE LIFE ARTICLE; Says Magazine Is Trying to 'Destroy' Him Politically". September 20, 1969.  ^ "Thurmond Says Fowler Aided Magazine Team; Latter Denies It". Aiken Standard. September 22, 1969.  ^ a b Woodward, Bob; Scott Armstrong (September 1979). The Brethren, Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-24110-9. Page 56. ^ "Joseph O. Rogers, Jr., Papers" (PDF). library.sc.edu. Retrieved May 3, 2014.  ^ "A Rain of Marshmallows Pelts Thurmond at Drew U". New York Times. February 23, 1970.  ^ "HOFFMAN, JUDGE FOR TRIAL OF CHICAGO 7, INCHES UNGENTLY TOWARD RETIREMENT". New York Times. June 24, 1982.  ^ "JUDGE JULIUS J. HOFFMAN, 87, DIES; PRESIDENT AT TRIAL OF THE CHICAGO 7". New York Times. July 2, 1983.  ^ "Thurmond pelted by protestors". Arizona Republic. February 23, 1970.  ^ "Thurmond Blasts Nixon on Integration". Daily Journal Newspaper. July 18, 1970.  ^ "Southerner Cautions President". Nevada State Journal. July 18, 1970.  ^ "FINCH SEES DECLINE IN CAMPUS TURMOIL". New York Times. July 20, 1970.  ^ a b Wiener, Jon (2000). Gimme Some Truth: The John Lennon FBI
FBI
Files. University of California. ISBN 978-0-520-22246-5.  ^ Total Surveillance, page 176 ^ "Senate Sends White House a Bill for Rural Water and Sewer Aid That Nixon Opposes". New York Times. March 23, 1973.  ^ Hudson, Richard (May 16, 1976). "STORM OVER THE CANAL". New York Times.  ^ "32 Senators Back Resolution Opposing Panama Canal
Panama Canal
Pact". New York Times. March 30, 1974.  ^ "C.I.A.‐F.B.I. INQUIRY VOTED BY SENATE". New York Times. January 28, 1975.  ^ McFadden, Robert D. (August 4, 2015). "Richard S. Schweiker, Former Senator and Reagan Confidant, Dies at 89". New York Times.  ^ Shirley, Craig (2005). Reagan's Revolution: The Untold Story of the Campaign That Started It All. Thomas Nelson Inc. p. 302. ISBN 978-0785260493.  ^ "The Living Room Candidate - Commercials - 1976 - Strom Thurmond".  ^ "CARTER STANDS FIRM, SUPPORTS SORENSEN AS DIRECTOR OF C.I.A." New York Times. January 17, 1977.  ^ "Sorensen Nomination In Trouble". Washington Post. January 16, 1977.  ^ "Sorensen Withdraws As Nominee for CIA". Washington Post. January 18, 1977.  ^ "Ted Sorensen, JFK's speechwriter and confidant, dies at 82". The Guardian. November 1, 2010.  ^ "Move Is Begun in Senate to Replace Electoral College With Direct Vote". New York Times. January 28, 1977.  ^ "SENATE, 86‐9, ADOPTS A STRICT ETHICS CODE TO BUILD CONFIDENCE". New York Times. April 2, 1977.  ^ "Drugs For Senior Citizens Bill Pushed". The Gaffney Ledger. August 3, 1977.  ^ "Conservatives Map Drive Against the Canal Treaty". New York Times. August 16, 1977.  ^ "Keep Sovereignty, Maintains Thurmond". Florence Morning News. August 9, 1977.  ^ Reston, James (August 24, 1977). "Carter, Panama And China". New York Times.  ^ "SENATE, 68‐32, APPROVES FIRST OF 2 PANAMA PACTS; CARTER HAILS 'COURAGE'". New York Times. March 17, 1978.  ^ Johnson, Haynes (March 17, 1978). "Senate Votes 1st Canal Treaty, 68-32". Washington Post.  ^ "Senate Votes 1st Canal Treaty, 68-32". Washington Post. March 17, 1978.  ^ Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
& the Politics of Southern Change. Mercer University Press. 1995. pp. 16–17. ISBN 978-0865544468.  ^ "S.C. Ex-Gov. Edwards, Thurmond Back Connally". Washington Post. December 27, 1979.  ^ "Thurmond and Ex‐Gov. Edwards Turn to Connally". New York Times. December 28, 1979.  ^ "Connally Criticizes President For 'Inaction Policy' on Iran". Washington Post. December 28, 1979.  ^ "Reagan Crushes Connally, Bush in S.C." Washington Post. March 9, 1980.  ^ Ayres, B. Drummond Jr. (December 21, 1980). "Civil Rights Groups Fear a Slowdown In Busing for Desegregation of Schools". The New York Times. p. 28.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ Wicker, Tom (November 16, 1980). "Why Not The Best?". The New York Times. p. E21.  access-date= requires url= (help) ^ "Sen. Strom Thurmond, R-S.C., said Tuesday that former South..." UPI. December 16, 1980.  ^ James B. Edwards, a Long-Shot as Governor of South Carolina, Dies at 87 ^ Click, Carolyn (December 26, 2014). "Former Gov. James Edwards dies". The State. Retrieved December 26, 2014.  ^ Gibson, Campbell; Jung, Kay (September 2002). "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States" Archived 2014-12-24 at the Wayback Machine.. U.S. Bureau of the Census – Population Division. ^ "Strom Thurmond's Evolution". The Ledger. Lakeland, FL. November 23, 1977. p. 6A. Retrieved November 29, 2011.  ^ "Jesse R. Nichols" (PDF). Retrieved April 22, 2010.  ^ "Remembering the Assassination Attempt on Ronald Reagan". CNN. March 30, 2001. Retrieved December 19, 2007.  ^ Hunt, Terence (March 31, 1981). "Reagan is shot". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Washington DC. Associated Press. p. 1. Retrieved April 23, 2011.  ^ "A BAN ON GUN PARTS IS URGED IN CONGRESS". New York Times. April 1, 1981.  ^ "Administration unlikely to drop opposition to handgun". Stevens Point Journal. April 1, 1981.  Missing or empty url= (help) ^ "KENNEDY SET TO COMPROMISE TO OBTAIN GUN CONTROL BILL". New York Times. April 2, 1981.  ^ " Senate Judiciary Committee
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chairman Strom Thurmond, R-S.C., said Tuesday..." UPI. April 1, 1981.  ^ "President Reagan invited three former presidents to the White..." UPI. October 8, 1981.  ^ Rogers, Ed. "Thurmond presses for balanced-budget amendment". UPI.  ^ "Remarks to Reporters on the Proposed Constitutional Amendment for a Balanced Federal Budget". Ronald Reagan
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Presidential Library and Museum. July 12, 1982.  ^ "News Summary; WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 4, 1982". New York Times.  ^ Mackay, Robert (August 4, 1962). "Senate approves balanced budget amendment". UPI.  ^ "A constitutional amendment to require a balanced budget was..." UPI. January 26, 1983.  ^ "HOW SENATE VOTED ON BUDGET PLAN". New York Times. October 10, 1985.  ^ "Vice President George Bush and Sen. Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
were..." UPI. January 7, 1982.  ^ "ABORTION CURBS ENDORSED, 10-7, BY SENATE PANEL". New York Times. March 11, 1982.  ^ "HOWARD BAKER TRYING TO TAME AN UNRULY SENATE". New York Times. March 28, 1982.  ^ "ROLL CALL IN SENATE ON MONEY FOR M". New York Times. May 26, 1983.  ^ "ROLL-CALL IN SENATE ON PRODUCING MX". New York Times. July 27, 1984.  ^ "Remarks at a Fundraising Dinner for Senator Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
in Columbia, South Carolina". American Presidency Project. September 20, 1983.  ^ "President Reagan praised Sen. Strom Thurmond, R-S.C., Tuesday as..." UPI. September 20, 1983.  ^ "CAMPAIGN NOTES; Thurmond Will Seek6th Full Term in Senate". New York Times. March 20, 1984.  ^ "THURMOND GAINS BID FOR 6TH TERM". New York Times. June 13, 1984.  ^ " Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
wins nomination as five states hold primaries". UPI. June 13, 1984.  ^ "Melvin Purvis Iii, Minister, Candidate". Sun Sentinel. October 21, 1986.  ^ "Nomination of Edwin Meese
Edwin Meese
III To Be Attorney General of the United States". Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Presidential Library and Museum. January 23, 1984.  ^ Rosewicz, Barbara (March 13, 1984). "White House counselor Edwin Meese, under pressure from Democrats,..." UPI.  ^ "Though Meese 'in trouble,' Reagan stands by him". UPI. March 20, 1984.  ^ "SENATE APPROVES MEESE TO BECOME ATTORNEY GENERAL". New York Times. February 24, 1985.  ^ "Former President Jimmy Carter
Jimmy Carter
snubbed dedication ceremonies Saturday for..." UPI. September 7, 1985.  ^ Bannon, Timothy (June 4, 1986). "Thurmond requests probe of former trade official". UPI.  ^ "BURGER RETIRING, REHNQUIST NAMED CHIEF; SCALIA, APPEALS JUDGE, CHOSEN FOR COURT". New York Times. June 18, 1986.  ^ "PRESIDENT ASSERTS HE WILL WITHHOLD REHNQUIST MEMOS". New York Times. August 1, 1986.  ^ "Sen. Strom Thurmond, R-S.C., said Tuesday the questioning of..." UPI. August 5, 1986.  ^ "SENATE UNIT BACKS REHNQUIST, 13 TO 5". The New York Times. August 15, 1986.  ^ "REHNQUIST OPPONENTS WARN THAT CONFIRMATION WOULD BE DIVISIVE". The New York Times. September 13, 1986.  ^ "Nomination of Robert H. Bork To Be an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States". Ronald Reagan
Ronald Reagan
Presidential Library and Museum. July 1, 1987.  ^ "Packwood Opposes Bork, 1st Gop Senator to Defect : Willing to Join Senate Filibuster". Los Angeles Times. September 21, 1987.  ^ "Senate's Roll-Call On the Bork Vote". The New York Times. Associated Press. October 24, 1987.  ^ "BORK'S NOMINATION IS REJECTED, 58-42; REAGAN 'SADDENED'". New York Times. October 24, 1987.  ^ " South Carolina
South Carolina
momentum propels Bush, Clinton". UPI. March 7, 1992.  ^ " South Carolina
South Carolina
delegation seeks military influence". UPI. May 3, 1992.  ^ "Senate Honors Thurmond, 95, for Casting His 15,000th Vote". Los Angeles Times. September 3, 1998.  ^ National Geographic, June 1999 edition, p.80 ^ "Sen. Thurmond to Quit Armed Services Post". Los Angeles Times. December 5, 1997.  ^ "Thurmond marks 100th birthday". CNN. December 5, 2002.  ^ Bartlett, Bruce (2008). Wrong on Race: The Democratic Party's Buried Past. St. Martin's Press. p. 182. ISBN 978-0230600621.  ^ Jack Bass; Marilyn W. Thompson (2003). Ol' Strom: An Unauthorized Biography of Strom Thurmond. Univ of South Carolina
South Carolina
Press. p. 187. ISBN 978-1-57003-514-2. Retrieved 20 January 2012.  ^ Nadine Cohodas (1994). Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
and the politics of southern change. Mercer University Press. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-86554-446-8. Retrieved January 20, 2012.  ^ Robert J. Duke Short (2006). The centennial senator: true stories of Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
from the people who knew him best. University of South Carolina Press. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-9778870-0-2. Retrieved 20 January 2012.  ^ "Governor wins secretary's hand". Life. Time Inc. (Nov 17, 1947): 44–46. 1947. Retrieved January 20, 2012.  ^ "National Association of Former United States Attorneys".  ^ "Strom Thurmond, Jr. begins new career as solicitor" WRDW-TV, January 22, 2009, retrieved November 17, 2013 ^ See A Archived 2012-03-13 at the Wayback Machine.. Juliana was the mother of Strom Thurmond's first grandchild B. Archived 2008-09-29 at the Wayback Machine. See also C and D ^ "Daughter of late Sen. Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
to join Confederacy group", Jet, July 19, 2004, retrieved March 26, 2009 ^ Janofsky, Michael (December 16, 2003). "Thurmond Kin Acknowledge Black Daughter". The New York Times.  ^ "Essie Mae Washington-Williams" Archived 2011-07-11 at the Wayback Machine. ^ Dewan, Shaila K.; Hart, Ariel (July 2, 2004). "Thurmond's Biracial Daughter Seeks to Join Confederacy Group". The New York Times. Evidently she is eligible: Senator Thurmond, once a fierce segregationist, was a member of the Sons of Confederate Veterans, a similar group for men.  ^ Santaella, Tony (February 4, 2013). "Strom Thurmond's Daughter, Essie Mae Washington Williams, Dies". WLTX-TV. Archived from the original on February 17, 2013. Retrieved February 5, 2013.  ^ "THURMOND, James Strom - Biographical Information".  ^ [1] ^ Interview with Al Sharpton, David Shankbone, Wikinews, December 3, 2007. ^ Fenner, Austin (February 25, 2007). "Slavery links families". Daily News. New York. Archived from the original on February 27, 2007.  ^ Santos, Fernanda (February 26, 2007). "Sharpton Learns His Forebears Were Thurmonds' Slaves". The New York Times. Retrieved November 26, 2007.  ^ Reagan, Ronald (January 18, 1989). "Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Citizens Medal". Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Museum.  ^ Reed, John Shelton (June 1, 1993). " Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
and the Politics of Southern Change". Reason. Retrieved October 31, 2009.  ^ "Bush presents Thurmond with Medal
Medal
of Freedom". UPI. January 12, 1993. 

Further reading[edit]

External video

Booknotes interview with Nadine Cohodas on Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
and the Politics of Southern Change, April 4, 1993, C-SPAN

Presentation by Jack Bass
Jack Bass
and Marilyn W. Thompson on Ol' Strom: An Unauthorized Biography of Strom Thurmond, January 12, 1999, C-SPAN

Crespino. Joseph. Strom Thurmond's America (Hill & Wang; 2012) 404 pages; $30). A biography focused on role as pioneer sunbelt conservative. The Dixiecrat
Dixiecrat
Revolt and the End of the Solid South, 1932–1968 by Kari Frederickson: University of North Carolina
North Carolina
Press (March 26, 2001). ISBN 0-8078-4910-3. Ol' Strom: An Unauthorized Biography of Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
by Jack Bass, Marilyn Walser Thompson: University of South Carolina
South Carolina
Press (January 1, 2003). ISBN 1-57003-514-8. Strom: The Complicated Personal and Political Life of Strom Thurmond by Jack Bass
Jack Bass
and Marilyn Walser Thompson: Public Affairs 2005. ISBN 1-58648-297-1. Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
and the Politics of Southern Change by Nadine Cohodas: Mercer University Press (December 1, 1994). ISBN 0-86554-446-8. Pietrusza, David 1948: Harry Truman's Improbable Victory and the Year that Changed America, Union Square Press, 2011.

Primary sources[edit]

"The Faith We Have Not Kept", by Strom Thurmond: Viewpoint Books, 1968. Dear Senator: A Memoir by the Daughter of Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
by Essie Mae Washington-Williams, William Stadiem: Regan Books (February 1, 2005). ISBN 0-06-076095-8.

External links[edit]

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Strom Thurmond.

Appearances on C-SPAN Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
Institute at Clemson University U.S. Senate historical page on Strom Thurmond SCIway Biography of Strom Thurmond National Governors Association biography of Strom Thurmond Oral History Interview with Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
from Oral Histories of the American South Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
Foundation, Inc. Remarks at the Presentation Ceremony for the Presidential Citizens Medal – January 18, 1989 Complete transcript and audio and video of Sen. Joe Biden's Eulogy
Eulogy
for Strom Thurmond

Articles[edit]

Strom Thurmond's family confirms paternity claim, By David Mattingly, CNN.com, December 15, 2003

Biography at the Biographical Directory of the United States Congress The Scarred Stone: The Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
Monument by Joseph Crespino, Emory University, April 29, 2010

Obituaries[edit]

Tribute to Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
from The State — June 26, 2003 Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
dead at 100 at the Wayback Machine
Wayback Machine
(archived June 29, 2003), CNN, June 26, 2003 Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
Dead at 100, By James Di Liberto Jr., Fox News, June 26, 2003 "Strom Thurmond". Find a Grave. Retrieved August 4, 2008. 

Political offices

Preceded by Ransome Judson Williams Governor of South Carolina January 21, 1947 – January 16, 1951 Succeeded by James F. Byrnes

Preceded by Ted Kennedy Chairman of the Senate Judiciary Committee 1981 – 1987 Succeeded by Joe Biden

Preceded by Warren Magnuson President pro tempore of the United States Senate January 3, 1981 – January 3, 1987 Succeeded by John C. Stennis

Preceded by Sam Nunn Chairman of the Senate Armed Services Committee 1995 – 1999 Succeeded by John Warner

Preceded by Robert Byrd President pro tempore of the United States Senate January 3, 1995 – January 3, 2001 Succeeded by Robert Byrd

President pro tempore of the United States Senate January 20, 2001 – June 6, 2001

U.S. Senate

Preceded by Charles E. Daniel U.S. Senator (Class 2) from South Carolina December 24, 1954 – April 4, 1956 Served alongside: Olin Johnston Succeeded by Thomas A. Wofford

Preceded by Thomas A. Wofford U.S. Senator (Class 2) from South Carolina November 7, 1956 – January 3, 2003 Served alongside: Olin Johnston, Donald S. Russell, Ernest Hollings Succeeded by Lindsey Graham

Party political offices

Preceded by None Dixiecrat
Dixiecrat
nominee for President of the United States 1948 Succeeded by None

Honorary titles

Preceded by Milton R. Young Most Senior Republican United States Senator 1981 – 2003 Succeeded by Ted Stevens

Preceded by John C. Stennis Dean of the United States Senate January 3, 1989 – January 3, 2003 Succeeded by Robert Byrd

New title President pro tempore emeritus of the United States Senate June 6, 2001 – January 3, 2003

Preceded by Jennings Randolph Oldest living U.S. Senator May 8, 1998 – June 26, 2003 Succeeded by Hiram Fong

Preceded by Jimmie Davis Oldest living U.S. governor November 5, 2000 – June 26, 2003 Succeeded by Luis A. Ferré

Preceded by Charles Poletti Earliest serving US governor still living August 8, 2002 – June 26, 2003 Succeeded by Sid McMath

v t e

Governors of South Carolina

J. Rutledge Lowndes J. Rutledge Mathews Guerard Moultrie T. Pinckney C. Pinckney Moultrie Vanderhorst C. Pinckney E. Rutledge Drayton J. Richardson P. Hamilton C. Pinckney Drayton Middleton Alston D. Williams A. Pickens Geddes Bennett Wilson Manning I Taylor Miller J. Hamilton Hayne McDuffie Butler Noble Henagan Richardson II Hammond Aiken Johnson Seabrook Means J. Manning Adams Allston Gist F. Pickens Bonham Magrath Perry Orr Scott Moses Chamberlain Hampton Simpson Jeter Hagood Thompson Sheppard Richardson III Tillman Evans Ellerbe McSweeney Heyward Ansel Blease Smith Manning III Cooper Harvey McLeod Richards Blackwood Johnston Maybank Harley Jefferies Johnston R. Williams Thurmond Byrnes Timmerman Hollings Russell McNair West Edwards Riley Campbell Beasley Hodges Sanford Haley McMaster

v t e

United States Senators from South Carolina

Class 2

P. Butler Hunter Pinckney Sumter Taylor W. Smith R. Hayne Calhoun Huger Calhoun Elmore Barnwell Rhett De Saussure Evans A. Hayne Chesnut Robertson M. Butler Tillman Benet Pollock Dial Blease Byrnes Lumpkin Peace Maybank Daniel Thurmond Wofford Thurmond Graham

Class 3

Izard Read Colhoun P. Butler Gaillard Harper W. Smith Miller Preston McDuffie A. Butler Hammond Sawyer Patterson Hampton Irby Earle McLaurin Latimer Gary E. Smith Hall Johnston Russell Hollings DeMint Scott

v t e

Presidents pro tempore of the United States Senate

Langdon Lee Langdon Izard H Tazewell Livermore Bingham Bradford Read Sedgwick Laurance Ross Livermore Tracy Howard Hillhouse Baldwin Bradley Brown Franklin Anderson Smith Bradley Milledge Gregg Gaillard Pope Crawford Varnum Gaillard Barbour Gaillard Macon Smith L Tazewell White Poindexter Tyler W R King Southard Mangum Sevier Atchison W R King Atchison Cass Bright Stuart Bright Mason Rusk Fitzpatrick Bright Fitzpatrick Foot Clark Foster Wade Anthony Carpenter Anthony Ferry Thurman Bayard Davis Edmunds Sherman Ingalls Manderson Harris Ransom Harris Frye Bacon/Curtis/Gallinger/Brandegee/Lodge Clarke Saulsbury Cummins Moses Pittman W H King Harrison Glass McKellar Vandenberg McKellar Bridges George Hayden Russell Ellender Eastland Magnuson Young Magnuson Thurmond Stennis Byrd Thurmond Byrd Thurmond Byrd Stevens Byrd Inouye Leahy Hatch

v t e

Deans of the United States Senate

Gunn/Langdon Foster Brown Hillhouse Anderson Gaillard Ruggles King Benton Mangum Pearce Bayard/Foot Foot Wade Sumner Chandler Anthony Edmunds Morrill Allison Hale Frye Cullom Gallinger Lodge Warren Simmons Smoot Borah Smith McKellar George Hayden Russell Ellender Aiken Eastland/McClellan Eastland Magnuson Stennis Thurmond Byrd Inouye Leahy

v t e

Third Party United States Senators

Populist

William V. Allen
William V. Allen
(NE) Marion Butler
Marion Butler
(NC) William A. Harris (KS) Henry Heitfeld
Henry Heitfeld
(ID) James H. Kyle (SD) William A. Peffer
William A. Peffer
(KS)

Silver or Silver Republican

Frank J. Cannon
Frank J. Cannon
(UT) Fred Dubois (ID) John P. Jones
John P. Jones
(NV) Lee Mantle
Lee Mantle
(MT) Richard F. Pettigrew
Richard F. Pettigrew
(SD) William M. Stewart
William M. Stewart
(NV) Henry M. Teller
Henry M. Teller
(CO)

Other

Dean Barkley (Reform–MN) Elmer Austin Benson
Elmer Austin Benson
(Farmer–Labor—MN) James L. Buckley (Conservative–NY) Magnus Johnson
Magnus Johnson
(Farmer–Labor—MN) Robert M. La Follette Jr.
Robert M. La Follette Jr.
(Progressive–WI) Ernest Lundeen (Farmer–Labor—MN) William Mahone
William Mahone
(Readjuster–VA) Miles Poindexter (Progressive–WA) Harrison H. Riddleberger
Harrison H. Riddleberger
(Readjuster–VA) Henrik Shipstead (Farmer–Labor—MN)

Independents

Harry F. Byrd Jr. (VA) David Davis (IL) Jim Jeffords
Jim Jeffords
(VT) Angus King
Angus King
(ME) Joe Lieberman
Joe Lieberman
(CT) Wayne Morse
Wayne Morse
(OR) George W. Norris
George W. Norris
(NE) Bernie Sanders
Bernie Sanders
(VT) Bob Smith (NH) Strom Thurmond
Strom Thurmond
(SC)

Portal:Politics Third party (United States) Third party officeholders in the United States Notable third party performances in United States elections

v t e

Chairmen of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Committee on the Judiciary

Chase Crittenden Burrill Smith Van Buren Berrien Rowan Marcy Wilkins Clayton Grundy Wall Berrien Ashley Butler Bayard Trumbull Wright Edmunds Thurman Edmunds Hoar Pugh Hoar Platt Clark Culberson Nelson Brandegee Cummins Norris Ashurst Van Nuys McCarran Wiley McCarran Langer Kilgore Eastland Kennedy Thurmond Biden Hatch Leahy Hatch Leahy Hatch Specter Leahy Grassley

v t e

Chairmen of the United States Senate
United States Senate
Committee on Armed Services

Military Affairs Committee (1816–1947)

J. Williams Troup J. Williams Jackson Harrison Benton Preston Crittenden Benton Cass Benton Davis Shields Weller Davis Johnson Wilson Logan Spencer Randolph Logan Sewell Hawley Walthall Hawley Proctor Warren du Pont Johnston Chamberlain Wadsworth Reed Sheppard Reynolds Thomas

Naval Affairs Committee (1816–1947)

Tait Sanford Pleasants Lloyd Hayne Dallas Southard Rives R. Williams Mangum Bayard Fairfield Yulee Gwin Mallory J. Hale Grimes Cragin Sargent McPherson Cameron McPherson Cameron E. Hale Perkins Tillman Swanson Page F. Hale Trammell Walsh

Armed Services Committee (1947–present)

Gurney Tydings Russell Saltonstall Russell Stennis Tower Goldwater Nunn Thurmond Warner Levin Warner Levin Warner Levin McCain

v t e

(1944 ←) United States presidential election, 1948
United States presidential election, 1948
(→ 1952)

Democratic Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Harry Truman

VP nominee

Alben W. Barkley

Candidates

Harley M. Kilgore Richard Russell Jr. Henry A. Wallace

Republican Party

Convention Primaries

Nominee

Thomas Dewey

VP nominee

Earl Warren

Candidates

Riley A. Bender Herbert E. Hitchcock Douglas MacArthur Joseph William Martin Jr. Edward Martin Leverett Saltonstall Harold Stassen Arthur H. Vandenberg Robert Taft

State's Rights Democratic Party

Nominee

Strom Thurmond

VP nominee

Fielding L. Wright

Other third party and independent candidates

Prohibition Party

Nominee

Claude A. Watson

VP nominee

Dale H. Learn

Progressive Party

Nominee

Henry A. Wallace

VP nominee

Glen H. Taylor

Socialist Party

Nominee

Norman Thomas

VP nominee

Tucker P. Smith

Socialist Workers Party

Nominee

Farrell Dobbs

VP nominee

Grace Carlson

Independents and other candidates

Gerald L. K. Smith

Other 1948 elections: House Senate

v t e

South Carolina's delegation(s) to the 84th–107th United States Congresses (ordered by seniority)

84th Senate: O. Johnston • S. Thurmond • T. Wofford House: J. Richards • J. McMillan • M. Rivers • J. Riley • B. Dorn • R. Ashmore

85th Senate: O. Johnston • S. Thurmond House: J. McMillan • M. Rivers • J. Riley • B. Dorn • R. Ashmore • R. Hemphill

86th Senate: O. Johnston • S. Thurmond House: J. McMillan • M. Rivers • J. Riley • B. Dorn • R. Ashmore • R. Hemphill

87th Senate: O. Johnston • S. Thurmond House: J. McMillan • M. Rivers • J. Riley • B. Dorn • R. Ashmore • R. Hemphill • C. Riley

88th Senate: O. Johnston • S. Thurmond House: J. McMillan • M. Rivers • B. Dorn • R. Ashmore • R. Hemphill • A. Watson • T. Gettys

89th Senate: O. Johnston • S. Thurmond • D. Russell House: J. McMillan • M. Rivers • B. Dorn • R. Ashmore • A. Watson • T. Gettys

90th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: J. McMillan • M. Rivers • B. Dorn • R. Ashmore • A. Watson • T. Gettys

91st Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: J. McMillan • M. Rivers • B. Dorn • A. Watson • T. Gettys • J. Mann

92nd Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: J. McMillan • B. Dorn • T. Gettys • J. Mann • F. Spence • M. Davis

93rd Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: B. Dorn • T. Gettys • J. Mann • F. Spence • M. Davis • E. Young

94th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: J. Mann • F. Spence • M. Davis • B. Derrick • K. Holland • J. Jenrette

95th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: J. Mann • F. Spence • M. Davis • B. Derrick • K. Holland • J. Jenrette

96th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • M. Davis • B. Derrick • K. Holland • J. Jenrette • C. Campbell

97th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • B. Derrick • K. Holland • C. Campbell • T. Hartnett • J. Napier

98th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • B. Derrick • C. Campbell • T. Hartnett • J. Spratt • R. Tallon

99th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • B. Derrick • C. Campbell • T. Hartnett • J. Spratt • R. Tallon

100th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • B. Derrick • J. Spratt • R. Tallon • L. Patterson • A. Ravenel

101st Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • B. Derrick • J. Spratt • R. Tallon • L. Patterson • A. Ravenel

102nd Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • B. Derrick • J. Spratt • R. Tallon • L. Patterson • A. Ravenel

103rd Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • B. Derrick • J. Spratt • A. Ravenel • J. Clyburn • B. Inglis

104th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • J. Spratt • J. Clyburn • B. Inglis • L. Graham • M. Sanford

105th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • J. Spratt • J. Clyburn • B. Inglis • L. Graham • M. Sanford

106th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • J. Spratt • J. Clyburn • L. Graham • M. Sanford • J. DeMint

107th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: F. Spence • J. Spratt • J. Clyburn • L. Graham • J. DeMint • H. Brown

107th Senate: S. Thurmond • E. Hollings House: J. Spratt • J. Clyburn • L. Graham • J. DeMint • H. Brown • J. Wilson

Authority control

WorldCat Identities VIAF: 5734142 LCCN: n50011902 ISNI: 0000 0000 5536 4910 GND: 119122057 SUDOC: 102294089 BNF: cb156206588 (data) NKC: vse2005315886 US Congress: T000

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