The STOCKTON AND DARLINGTON RAILWAY (S&DR) was a railway company that
operated in north-east England from 1825 to 1863. The world's first
public railway to use steam locomotives , its first line connected
Darlington , and was
officially opened on 27 September 1825. The movement of coal to ships
rapidly became a lucrative business, and the line was soon extended to
a new port and town at
Middlesbrough . While coal waggons were hauled
by steam locomotives from the start, passengers were carried in
coaches drawn by horses until carriages hauled by steam locomotives
were introduced in 1833.
The S&DR was involved in the building of the East Coast Main Line
York and Darlington, but its main expansion was at
Middlesbrough Docks and west into
Weardale and east to
Redcar . It
suffered severe financial difficulties at the end of the 1840s and was
nearly taken over by the
York, Newcastle and Berwick Railway , before
the discovery of iron ore in Cleveland and the subsequent increase in
revenue meant it could pay its debts. At the beginning of the 1860 it
took over railways that had crossed the
Pennines to join the West
Coast Main Line at
Tebay and Clifton, near Penrith .
The company was taken over by the North Eastern Railway in 1863,
transferring 200 route miles (320 route kilometres) of line and about
160 locomotives, but continued to operate independently as the
Darlington Section until 1876. The opening of the S"> The seal of
the Stockton from that time he had considerable influence over the
railway and it became known as "the
Quaker line". The Act that
received royal assent on 19 April 1821 allowed for a railway that
could be used by anyone with suitably built vehicles on payment of a
toll, that was closed at night, and with which land owners within 5
miles (8 km) could build branches and make junctions; no mention was
made of steam locomotives. This new railway initiated the
construction of more railway lines, causing significant developments
in railway mapping and cartography, iron and steel manufacturing, as
well as in any industries requiring more efficient transportation.
Concerned about Overton's competence, Pease asked
George Stephenson ,
an experienced enginewright of the collieries of Killingworth, to meet
him in Darlington. On 12 May 1821 the shareholders appointed Thomas
Meynell as Chairman and Jonathan Backhouse as treasurer; a majority of
the managing committee, which included Thomas Richardson , Edward
Pease and his son Joseph Pease , were Quakers. The committee designed
a seal, showing waggons being pulled by a horse, and adopted the Latin
motto Periculum privatum utilitas publica ("At private risk for public
service"). By 23 July 1821 it had decided that the line would be a
railway with edge rails, rather than a plateway , and appointed
Stephenson to make a fresh survey of the line. Stephenson recommended
using malleable iron rails, even though he owned a share of the patent
for the alternative cast iron rails, and both types were used.
Stephenson was assisted by his 18-year-old son Robert during the
survey, and by the end of 1821 had reported that a usable line could
be built within the bounds of the Act, but another route would be
shorter by 3 miles (5 km) and avoid deep cuttings and tunnels.
Overton had kept himself available, but had no further involvement and
the shareholders elected Stephenson Engineer on 22 January 1822, with
a salary of £660 per year. On 23 May 1822 a ceremony in Stockton
celebrated the laying of the first track at St John's Well, the rails
4 feet 8 inches (1.42 m) apart, the same gauge used by Stephenson on
Killingworth Railway . Stephenson\'s iron bridge across the
Stephenson advocated the use of steam locomotives on the line. Pease
visited Killingworth in mid-1822 and the directors visited Hetton
colliery railway , on which Stephenson had introduced steam
locomotives. A new bill was presented, requesting Stephenson's
deviations from the original route and the use of "loco-motives or
moveable engines", and this received assent on 23 May 1823. The line
included embankments up to 48 feet (15 m) high, and Stephenson
designed an iron truss bridge to cross the
River Gaunless . The stone
bridge over the
River Skerne was designed by the Durham architect
Ignatius Bonomi .
In 1823 Stephenson and Pease opened
Robert Stephenson and Company , a
locomotive works at Forth Street, Newcastle, from which the following
year the S"> The opening procession of the Stockton and Darlington
Railway crosses the Skerne bridge
The cost of building the railway had greatly exceeded the estimates.
By September 1825 the company had borrowed £60,000 in short-term
loans and needed to start earning an income to ward of its creditors.
A railway coach, named Experiment, arrived on the evening of 26
September 1825 and was attached to Locomotion No. 1, which had been
placed on the rails for the first time at Aycliffe Lane station
following the completion of its journey by road from Newcastle earlier
that same day. Pease, Stephenson and other members of the committee
then made an experimental journey to
Darlington before taking the
locomotive and coach to
Shildon in preparation for the opening day,
with James Stephenson, George's elder brother, at the controls. On 27
September, between 7am and 8am, 12 waggons of coal were drawn up
Etherley North Bank by a rope attached to the stationary engine at the
top, and then let down the South Bank to St Helen\'s Auckland . A
waggon of flour bags was attached and horses hauled the train across
Gaunless Bridge to the bottom of Brusselton West Bank , where
thousands watched the second stationary engine draw the train up the
incline. The train was let down the East Bank to Mason's Arms Crossing
Shildon Lane End, where Locomotion No. 1, Experiment and 21 new
coal waggons fitted with seats were waiting.
The directors had allowed room for 300 passengers, but the train left
carrying between 450 and 600 people, most travelling in empty waggons
but some on top of waggons full of coal. Brakesmen were placed between
the waggons, and the train set off, led by a man on horseback with a
flag. It picked up speed on the gentle downward slope and reached 10
to 12 miles per hour (16 to 19 km/h), leaving behind men on field
hunters (horses) who had tried to keep up with the procession. The
train stopped when the waggon carrying the company surveyors and
engineers lost a wheel; the waggon was left behind and the train
continued. The train stopped again, this time for 35 minutes to repair
the locomotive and the train set off again, reaching 15 mph (24 km/h)
before it was welcomed by an estimated 10,000 people as it came to a
stop at the
Darlington branch junction. Eight and a half miles (14 km)
had been covered in two hours, and subtracting the 55 minutes
accounted by the two stops, it had travelled at an average speed of 8
mph (13 km/h). Six waggons of coal were distributed to the poor,
workers stopped for refreshments and many of the passengers from
Brusselton alighted at Darlington, to be replaced by others.
Two waggons for the Yarm Band were attached, and at 12:30pm the
locomotive started for Stockton, now hauling 31 vehicles with 550
passengers. On the 5 miles (8 km) of nearly level track east of
Darlington the train struggled to reach more than 4 mph (6.4 km/h). At
Eaglescliffe near Yarm crowds waited for the train to cross the
Stockton to Yarm turnpike. Approaching Stockton, running alongside the
turnpike as it skirted the western edge of Preston Park , it gained
speed and reached 15 mph (24 km/h) again, before a man clinging to the
outside of a waggon fell off and his foot was crushed by the following
vehicle. As work on the final section of track to Stockton's quayside
was still ongoing, the train halted at the temporary passenger
terminus at St John's Well 3 hours, 7 minutes after leaving
Darlington. The opening ceremony was considered a success and that
evening 102 people sat down to a celebratory dinner at the Town Hall.
The railway that opened in September 1825 was 25 miles (40 km) long
and ran from Phoenix Pit, Old Etherley Colliery, to Cottage Row,
Stockton; there was also a half-mile (0.8 km) branch to the depot at
Darlington, 1⁄2 mile (0.80 km) of the Hagger Leases branch, and a
3⁄4 mile (1.2 km) branch to Yarm. Most of the track used 28 pounds
per yard (14 kg/m) malleable iron rails, and 4 miles (6.4 km) of 57
1⁄2 lb/yd (28.5 kg/m) cast iron rails were used for junctions. The
line was single track with four passing loops each mile; square
sleepers supported each rail separately so that horses could walk
between them. Stone was used for the sleepers to the west of
Darlington and oak to the east; Stephenson would have preferred all of
them to have been stone, but the transport cost was too high as they
were quarried in the Auckland area. The railway opened with the
company owing money and unable to raise further loans; Pease advanced
money twice early in 1826 so the workers could be paid. By August 1827
the company had paid its debts and was able to raise more money; that
month the Black Boy branch opened and construction began on the Croft
and Hagger Leases branches. During 1827 shares rose from £120 at the
start to £160 at the end. The route of the Stockton from this
they had to pay assistants and fireman and to buy coal for the
locomotive. The 1821 Act had received opposition from the owners of
collieries on the
River Wear who supplied London and feared
competition, and it had been necessary to restrict the rate for
transporting coal destined for ships to 1⁄2d per ton per mile,
which had been assumed would make the business uneconomic. There was
interest from London for 100,000 tons a year, so the company began
investigations in September 1825. In January 1826 the first staith
opened at Stockton, designed so waggons over a ship's hold could
discharge coal from the bottom. A little over 18,500 tons of coal was
transported to ships in the year ending June 1827 and this increased
to over 52,000 tons the following year, 44 1⁄2 per cent of the
The locomotives were unreliable at first. Soon after opening,
Locomotion No. 1 broke a wheel, and it was not ready for traffic until
12 or 13 October; Hope, the second locomotive, arrived in November
1825 but needed a week to ready it for the line – the cast-iron
wheels were a source of trouble. Two more locomotives of a similar
design arrived in 1826; that August 16s 9d was spent on ale to
motivate the men maintaining the engines. By the end of 1827 the
company had also bought Chittaprat from Robert Wilson and Experiment
Timothy Hackworth , locomotive superintendent, used
the boiler from the unsuccessful Chittaprat to build the Royal George
in the works at Shildon; it started work at the end of November. John
Wesley Hackworth later published an account stating that locomotives
would have been abandoned were it not for the fact that Pease and
Thomas Richardson were partners with Stephenson in the Newcastle
works, and that when
Timothy Hackworth was commissioned to rebuild
Chittaprat it was "as a last experiment" to "make an engine in his own
way". Both Tomlinson and Rolt state this claim was unfounded and
the company had shown earlier that locomotives were superior to
horses, Tomlinson showing that coal was being moved using locomotives
at half the cost of horses. Robert Young states that the company was
unsure as to the real costs as they reported to shareholders in 1828
that the saving using locomotives was 30 per cent. Young also showed
that Pease and Richardson were both concerned about their investment
in the Newcastle works and Pease unsuccessfully tried to sell his
share to George Stephenson.
New locomotives were ordered from Stephenson's, but the first was too
heavy when it arrived in February 1828. It was rebuilt with six wheels
and hailed as a great improvement, Hackworth being told to convert the
remaining locomotives as soon as possible. In 1828 two locomotive
boilers exploded within four months, both killing the driver and both
due to the safety valves being left fixed down while the engine was
stationary. Horses were also used on the line, and they could haul up
to four waggons. The dandy cart was introduced in mid-1828: a small
cart at the end of the train, this carried the horse downhill,
allowing it to rest and the train to run at higher speed. The S">
The Union coach as shown in an advertisement
Passenger traffic started on 10 October 1825, after the required
licence was purchased, using the Experiment coach hauled by a horse.
The coach was initially timetabled to travel from Stockton to
Darlington in two hours, with a fare of 1s, and made a return journey
four days a week and a one-way journey on Tuesdays and Saturdays. In
April 1826 the operation of the coach was contracted for £200 a year;
by then the timetabled journey time had been reduced to 1 1⁄4
hours and passengers were allowed to travel on the outside for 9d. A
more comfortable coach, Express, started the same month and charged 1s
6d for travel inside. Innkeepers began running coaches, two to
Shildon from July, and the Union, which served the Yarm branch from 16
October. There were no stations: in
Darlington the coaches picked up
passengers near the north road crossing, whereas in Stockton they
picked up at different places on the quay. Between 30,000 and 40,000
passengers were carried between July 1826 and June 1827.
FOUNDING OF MIDDLESBROUGH
The export of coal had become the railway's main business, but the
staiths at Stockton had inadequate storage and the size of ships was
limited by the depth of the Tees. A branch from Stockton to Haverton,
on the north bank of the Tees, was proposed in 1826, and the engineer
Thomas Storey proposed a shorter and cheaper line to
south of the Tees in July 1827. Later approved by George Stephenson,
this plan was ratified by the shareholders on 26 October. The Tees
Navigation Company was about to improve the river and proposed that
the railway delay application to Parliament, but, despite opposition,
at a meeting in January 1828 it was decided to proceed. A more
direct northerly route from Auckland to the Tees had been considered
since 1819, and the Tees &
Weardale Railway had applied unsuccessfully
to Parliament for permission for such a line in 1823, 1824 and 1825.
This now became a 11 1⁄2-mile (18.5 km) line linking Simpasture on
the S&DR's line near today's Newton Aycliffe station with Haverton and
Stockton, via a route that was 6 miles (10 km) shorter than via the
route of the S&DR, and named the
Clarence Railway in honour of the
Duke of Clarence, later
King William IV . Meetings held in Stockton in
early 1828 supported the Tees Navigation and the Clarence Railway,
but the S&DR received permission for its branch on 23 May 1828 after
promising to complete the Hagger Leases Branch and to build a bridge
across the Tees at least 72 feet (22 m) wide and 19 feet (5.8 m) above
low water, so as not to affect shipping. Two members of the
management committee resigned, as they felt that Stockton would be
adversely affected by the line, and Meynell, the S&DR chairman,
stepped down from leadership. The
Clarence Railway was approved a few
days later, with the same gauge as the S by the middle of 1834 Port
Clarence had opened and 28 miles (45 km) of line was in use. The S">
The suspension bridge over the Tees
The Croft branch opened in October 1829. Construction of the
suspension bridge across the Tees started in July 1829, but was
suspended in October after the
Tees Navigation Company pointed out the
S&DR had no permission to cross the Old Channel of the Tees. The S">
S&DR offices in
In 1830 the company opened new offices at the corner of Northgate and
Union Street in Darlington. Between 1831 and 1832 a second track was
laid between Stockton and the foot of Brusselton Bank. Workshops were
Shildon for the maintenance and construction of locomotives.
In 1830 approximately 50 horses shared the traffic with 19
locomotives, but travelled at different speeds, so to help regulate
traffic horse-drawn trains were required to operate in groups of four
or five. This had led to horses, startled by a passing locomotive and
coming off their dandy cart, being run down by the following train. On
one occasion a driver fell asleep in the dandy cart of the preceding
train and his horse, no longer being led, came to a stop and was run
down by a locomotive. The rule book stated that locomotive-hauled
trains had precedence over horse-drawn trains, but some horse drivers
refused to give way and on one occasion a locomotive had to follow a
horse-drawn train for over 2 miles (3 km). The committee decided in
1828 to replace horses with locomotives on the main line, starting
with the coal trains, but there was resistance from some colliery
owners. After the S locomotive-hauled services began to
December 1833 and to
Middlesbrough on 7 April 1834. The company had
returned the five per cent dividend that had been promised by Edward
Pease, and this had increased to eight per cent by the time he retired
in 1832. When the treasurer Jonathan Backhouse retired in 1833 to
Quaker minister he was replaced by Joseph Pease.
THE WAY NORTH
GREAT NORTH OF ENGLAND RAILWAY
The north entrance to
Shildon Tunnel, which opened in 1842
On 13 October 1835 the
North Midland Railway (Y&NMR) was
formed to connect
York to London by a line to a junction with the
North Midland Railway . Representatives of the Y&NMR and S&DR
met two weeks later and formed the Great North of England Railway
(GNER), a line from
York to Newcastle that used the route of the 1
1⁄2-mile (2.4 km) Croft branch at Darlington. The railway was to be
built in sections, and to allow both to open at the same time
permission for the more difficult line through the hills from
Darlington to Newcastle was to be sought in 1836 and a bill for the
easier line south of
York presented the following year.
Pease specified a formation wide enough for four tracks, so freight
could be carried at 30 miles per hour (48 km/h) and passengers at 60
mph (97 km/h), and
George Stephenson had drawn up detailed plans by
November. The Act for the 34 1⁄2 miles (55.5 km) from Newcastle to
Darlington was given royal assent on 4 July 1836, but little work had
been done by the time the 43 miles (69 km) from Croft to
permission on 12 July the following year. In August a general meeting
decided to start work on the southern section, but construction was
delayed, and after several bridges collapsed the engineer Thomas
Storey was replaced by Robert Stephenson. The S&DR sold its Croft
branch to the GNER, and the railway opened for coal traffic on 4
January 1841 using S&DR locomotives. The railway opened to passengers
with its own locomotives on 30 March.
Between November 1841 and February 1842 the S&DR introduced a service
Darlington and Coxhoe, on the Clarence Railway, where an
omnibus took passengers the 3 1⁄2 miles (5.6 km) to the Durham &
Sunderland Railway at Shincliffe. Early in 1842 the nominally
Shildon Tunnel Company opened its 1,225-yard (1,120 m)
tunnel through the hills at
Shildon to the Wear basin and after laying
2 miles (3.2 km) of track to South Church station , south of Bishop
Auckland , opened in May 1842. The SD 720 US gal) of water. The line
Shildon to Stockton, assisting the trains that carried
coal to the docks at a maximum speed of 6 mph (9.7 km/h); the drivers
were fined if caught travelling faster than 8 mph (13 km/h), and one
was dismissed for completing the forty-mile return journey in 4
1⁄2 hours. On average there were about 40 coal trains a day,
hauling 28 waggons with a weight of 116 tons. There were about 5000
privately owned waggons, and at any one time about 1000 stood at
Shildon depot. The steam locomotive
Middlesbrough introduced in
The railway had modern passenger locomotives, some with four wheels
There were passenger stations at Stockton, Middlesbrough, Darlington,
Shildon and West Auckland, and trains also stopped at Middlesbrough
Junction, Yarm Junction, Fighting Cocks and Heighington. Some of the
modified road coaches were still in use, but there were also modern
railway carriages, some first class with three compartments each
seating eight passengers, and second class carriages that seated up to
40. Luggage and sometimes the guard travelled on the carriage roof;
a passenger travelling third class suffered serious injuries after
falling from the roof in 1840. Passenger trains averaged 22–25 mph
(35–40 km/h), and a speed of 42 mph (68 km/h) was recorded. Over
200,000 passengers were carried in the year to 1 October 1838, and in
1839 there were twelve trains each day between
Stockton, six trains between Stockton and Darlington, and three
Darlington and Shildon, where a carriage was fitted with
Rankine 's self-acting brake, taken over the Brussleton Inclines , and
then drawn by a horse to St Helens Auckland. The Bradshaw\'s railway
guide for March 1843, after South Church opened, shows five services a
Darlington and South Church via Shildon, with three
Shildon and St Helens. Also listed were six trains between
Hartlepool via Seaton over the
Clarence Railway and the
Hartlepool Railway that had opened in 1841.
By this time Port
Darlington had become overwhelmed by the volume of
imports and exports and work started in 1839 on
which had been laid out by
William Cubitt , capable of holding 150
ships, and built by resident civil engineer George Turnbull . The
suspension bridge across the Tees was replaced by a cast iron bridge
on masonry piers in 1841. After three years and an expenditure of
£122,000 (equivalent to £9.65m at 2011 prices), the formal opening
of the new dock took place on 12 May 1842. The S"> The N it
Darlington in 1841 having spent all of its authorised
capital and could not start work on the extension to Newcastle. At the
time Parliament was considering the route of a railway between England
and Scotland and favoured a railway via the west coast. Railway
George Hudson chaired a meeting of representatives of
north-eastern railways that wished a railway to be built via the east
coast. In the 1830s a number of railways had opened in the area
Darlington and Newcastle, and
Robert Stephenson was engaged to
select a route using these railways as much as possible. The Newcastle
Darlington Junction Railway (N&DJR) differed slightly from the
GNER route in the southern section before joining the Durham Junction
Rainton and using the
Pontop & South Shields Railway from
Washington to Brockley Whins, where a new curve onto the Brandling
Junction Railway allowed direct access to Gateshead. This required the
construction of 25 1⁄2 miles (41.0 km) of new line, 9 miles (14 km)
less than the GNER route, but trains would need to travel 7 1⁄2
miles (12.1 km) further.
This route ran parallel to S&DR lines for 5 miles (8.0 km) and Pease
argued that it should run over these as it would add only 1 1⁄2
miles (2.4 km). The bill was presented unchanged to Parliament in
1842, and was opposed by the S&DR. Despite this, the Newcastle and
Darlington Junction Railway Act received royal assent on 18 June 1842,
and a second Act the following year secured the deviations from the
GNER route in the south recommended by Stephenson. After the opening
celebration on 18 June 1844, through services ran from London to
Gateshead the following day.
The N&DJR made an offer to lease the GNER and buy it within five
years, and GNER shares increased in value by 44 per cent as the N the
N&DJR became part of the larger York, Newcastle & Berwick Railway
(YN"> The Wear Valley Railway in 1847
Bishop Auckland &
Weardale Railway (BA&WR) received permission in
July 1837 to build a 8 1⁄4-mile (13.3 km) line from South Church to
Crook . The line opened on 8 November 1843 with a station at Bishop
Stanhope and Tyne Railway , a 33 3⁄4-mile (54.3 km) line
South Shields and Stanhope had opened in 1834. Steam
locomotives worked the section east of Annfield, and in the western
section inclines were worked by stationary engines or gravity, with
horses hauling waggons over level track. The lime kilns and the line
between Stanhope and Carrhouse closed in 1840, and with the Stanhope
to Annfield section losing money, the insolvent railway company was
dissolved on 5 February 1841. The northern section became the Pontop
South Shields Railway and the southern section from Stanhope to
Carrhouse was bought by the newly formed
Derwent Iron Company at
Consett, renamed the Wear & Derwent Railway , and used to transport
limestone from quarries in the Stanhope area to its works at Consett.
Weardale Extension Railway ran from Waskerley on the Wear &
Derwent to Crook on the BA&WR and included the Sunniside Incline
worked by a stationary engine. Sponsored by the Derwent Iron Company,
the 10-mile (16 km) line was built by the S the Stanhope service was
withdrawn at the end of 1846. Travelling north from Crook the
carriages and waggons were drawn up the Sunniside Incline, a
locomotive hauled the mixed train to Waskerley Park Junction, then
they were let down Nanny Mayor's Incline and a locomotive took them
forward. When returning, regulations required that the carriages run
loose down the Sunniside Incline and they were let to run into Crook
station, controlled by the guard using the carriage brakes. Later, a
730 feet (220 m) viaduct replaced the two inclines at Hownes Gill
ravine on 1 July 1858. A deviation replacing Nanny's Mayor's Incline
and a curve that allowed trains from Crook direct access to Rowley
opened for freight on 23 May 1859 and for passenger traffic on 4 July
Redcar Railway , a short extension to Redcar,
received permission on 21 July 1845. The line branched off before the
Middlesbrough terminus, which was closed and a new through station
opened with the line on 4 June 1846. Also authorised in July 1845
was the Wear Valley Railway, a 12-mile (19 km) line from the Bishop
Weardale line to Frosterley . The line opened on 3 August
1847, and the Act also gave the S&DR permission for the Bishopley
branch, over which 500,000 tons of limestone travelled in 1868. The
line was extended in 1862 from Frosterley to Stanhope .
Just before the line opened on 22 July 1847, the Wear Valley Railway
Bishop Auckland &
Weardale Extension Railway and Wear & Derwent Railway and then the
S&DR leased the Wear Valley Railway and
Middlesbrough & Redcar
Railways for 999 years. This required a payment of £47,000 each year,
exceeding the SD traffic from the
Derwent Iron Company was reduced
during a period of financial difficulty and the Black Boy colliery
switched to sending its coal to Hartlepool. No dividend was paid in
1848 and the next few years; lease payments were made out of
reserves. The S&DR announced a bill in November 1848 to permit a
lease by and amalgamation with the YN&BR, but this was withdrawn after
the YN&BR share price crashed and its chairman Hudson resigned after
questions were raised about his share dealings. In 1850 the S the
debt was converted into shares in 1851.
CLEVELAND IRON ORE
Henry Bolckow and John Vaughan discovered a seam of iron
Eston . They opened a mine, laid a branch line to the
Redcar Railway and started hauling ironstone over the
S&DR to their blast furnaces west of Bishop Auckland. By 1851 Derwent
Iron had opened a mine in the area and began moving ironstone 54 miles
(87 km) to Consett, and the S between 1849 and 1853 the traffic more
In 1852 the
Leeds Northern Railway (LNR) built a line from
Northallerton to a junction with the Stockton to
Hartlepool line and a
section of the route ran parallel to the S&DR alongside the Yarm to
Stockton Road. The S&DR was originally on the east side of the road,
but the LNR built its line with four tracks on the other side of the
road, leasing two to the S&DR for a rental of 1s a year. On 25 January
1853 the LNR and SD&R opened a joint station at
Eaglescliffe with an
island platform between the tracks, and one side was used by S">
The railways in Cleveland in 1863, the Cleveland Railway shown in red
Middlesbrough Pease had to guarantee dividends to raise the
finance needed. The 9 1⁄2-mile (15.3 km) single-track railway was
worked by the S&DR, and opened to minerals on 11 November 1853 and
passengers on 25 February 1854. With electric telegraph installed
between stations, passenger trains were not permitted to leave a
station until confirmation had been received that the line was clear.
By 1857 a blast furnace had opened close to the Durham coalfield on
the north side of the Tees. Backed by the rival West Hartlepool
Harbour & Railway , the Durham & Cleveland Union Railway proposed a
line from the mines in
Staithes , via Guisborough and
a bridge over the
Redcar Railway to a jetty at Cargo
Fleet , from where a ferry would carry the ore across the Tees to the
blast furnaces. When the proposal was before Parliament the S&DR
suggested that their
Redcar could be extended to
Saltburn , and the Tees crossed by a swing bridge. The Cleveland
Railway received permission for a line from
Skinningrove as far as
Guisborough, and the S&DR permission for an extension to Saltburn and
a branch to a mine at Skelton. This 1858 S&DR Act also authorised the
merger of the S&DR with the railways it held on lease.
An application to Parliament for a jetty in the following year was
unsuccessful, but in 1860 the Upsall, Normanby & Ormesby Railway
received permission for a line with access to the river, the S&DR
claim of exclusive rights to the foreshore having been rejected. The
jetty was also opposed by the Tees Conservancy Commissioners and they
moored barges along the foreshore to obstruct construction. In what
became known as the Battle of the Tees, a fight broke out when a steam
tug sent by the Commissioners interrupted men moving the barges. The
barges were successfully moved, but a more serious fight developed the
following night when three of the Commissioners' steam tugs arrived.
The police then kept watch on the works until they were finished.
Henry Pease , a S&DR director and Quaker, visited his brother Joseph
in mid-1859 at his house by the sea at
Marske-by-the-Sea . Returning
late for dinner, he explained he had walked to Saltburn, then a group
of fisherman's cottages, where he had had a "sort of prophetic vision"
of a town with gardens. With other S&DR directors he planned the town,
with gardens and
Zetland Hotel by the station, and bought a house at 5
Britannia Terrace, where he stayed for a few weeks every summer. The
extension opened in 1861, a station on the through line replacing the
terminus at Redcar.
South Durham & Lancashire Union Railway and Eden
A railway to serve
Barnard Castle , from the S this route bypassed as
far as possible the Duke of Cleveland's estate, as he had opposed an
earlier railway. An application that year failed, but the Darlington
"> The SD&LUR viaduct over the Tees Valley in 1858
Cleveland iron ore is high in phosphorus and needs to be mixed with
purer ores, such as those on the west coast in
Lancashire . In the early 1850s this ore was travelling the long way
round over the
Newcastle & Carlisle Railway
Newcastle & Carlisle Railway to the Barrow-in-Furness
area, and Durham coke was returning. Both the South Durham &
Lancashire Union Railway (SD&LUR) and the
Eden Valley Railway (EVR)
companies were formed on 20 September 1856. Taking advantage of the
new railway at Barnard Castle, the SD&LUR crossed the
Kirkby Stephen to meet the
West Coast Main Line
West Coast Main Line (WCML) at
Tebay , on
the section then controlled by the
Lancaster & Carlisle Railway , and
Barnard Castle with West Auckland. The EVR was a branch
Kirkby Stephen to the WCML near Penrith via Appleby . The routes
were surveyed by
Thomas Bouch and SD valleys were crossed by viaducts,
three made from wrought iron, including the
Belah Viaduct , 1,040 feet
(320 m) long and 196 feet (60 m) high. A new station was built to
replace the terminus at Barnard Castle. A mineral train ran between
Barnard Castle and Barras on 26 March 1861, and mineral traffic worked
Tebay from 4 July 1861. There was an opening ceremony on 7
August 1861 and the SD&LUR west of
Barnard Castle opened to passengers
the following day. Two
4-4-0 locomotives with enclosed cabs had been
built for the line in 1860 by Stephenson and Co, and the S&DR worked
traffic from the start: two return services a day were provided for
passengers. The EVR opened to mineral traffic on 8 April 1862 and
passengers on 9 June 1862, to the south-facing junction at Clifton
(later Clifton & Lowther ). The S&DR had presented a bill in 1861 to
provide better connections for passengers on the WCML by extending the
line up to Penrith , and to link up with the Cockermouth, Keswick &
Penrith Railway to provide access for mineral traffic to Cumberland.
The L&CR agreed to allow the S&DR running rights over its line and
services were extended to Penrith from 1 August 1863.
PROGRESS AND AMALGAMATION
In 1854 there were five or six trains a day between
Redcar and three a day between
Darlington and Frosterly. Travelling at
average speeds of 19–24 miles per hour (31–39 km/h), passengers
were charged from 1d per mile for third class to 2.2d per mile for
first. Horses were still used on trains in the mid-1850s: a
horse-drawn coach was still independently operated between
Middlesbrough and Stockton in 1854 on Sundays, as the only S&DR
services that run on that day were the mail trains, and locomotives
replaced horses on passenger trains to West Auckland in 1856. The S
the same year a passenger service started on the Hagger Leases branch
and a mineral line opened from Crook via two inclines to Waterhouse.
The section of the SD"> The seal of the North Eastern Railway
In 1859 a company had been formed to link the Newcastle & Carlisle
Railway with the SD by 1860 this had grown into the Newcastle, Derwent
Weardale Railway, which now bypassed the SD&R and linked with the
SD&LUR, and the North British and London & North Western (LNWR)
railways were providing two thirds of the capital. The LNWR proposed
to build warehouses in
Hartlepool and buy shares in the West
Hartlepool Harbour & Railway. The North Eastern Railway (NER), formed
in 1854 by amalgamation, at the time was the largest railway company
in the country and controlled the
East Coast Main Line
East Coast Main Line from
Knottingley , south of York, through
Darlington to Berwick-upon-Tweed
. When they approached the S&DR with a proposal to merge, the
directors deciding they preferred a merger with the NER than
eventually becoming part of the LNWR, entered negotiations. Opposed
by the NER, the Newcastle, Derwent &
Weardale Railway bill was
approved by the House of Commons in 1861, but the line was eventually
rejected by the House of Lords. The SD&LUR and EVR were absorbed by
the S&DR on 30 June 1862.
With 200 route miles (320 km) of line and about 160 locomotives, the
Darlington Railway became part of the North Eastern Railway
on 13 July 1863. Due to a clause in the Act the railway was managed as
Darlington Section until 1876, when the lines became
the NER's Central Division. After the restoration of the dividend in
1851, by the end of 1854 payments had recovered to 8 per cent and then
had not dropped below 7 1⁄2 per cent.
The NER had built a branch in the late 1850s from Durham to Bishop
Auckland, but used a separate station in the town until December 1867,
when all services began to use the S after 1868 trains on this line
were extended to serve Benfieldside station (later known as Blackhill
and then Consett ). In Cleveland, a branch from Nunthrope to
Battersby opened on 1 June 1864; passengers were carried from 1 April
1868. A branch from
Barnard Castle to Middleton-in-Teesdale opened on
12 May 1868.
The locomotive works at
Darlington operated independently under Bouch
until 1875, the locomotives having been renumbered by the NER a couple
of years earlier. There was a varied range of locomotives, but the
most common type was used on the mineral trains and had a wheel
arrangement of 0-6-0; the later engines were of the Stephenson long
boilered type. Most passenger locomotives had four driven wheels in
2-4-0 ; some were
2-2-2 . Bouch had designed two bogie 4-4-0
locomotives for the line over Stainmore in 1860, and another fourteen
with this wheel arrangement had been built by 1874. S&DR services
and those on the ECML called at different stations in
1887, when S"> The former S&DR, shown in red, as part of the larger
NER network of 1904
From 1913 former S&DR lines were electrified with 1,500 Vdc overhead
lines and electric locomotives hauled coal trains between
Erimus marshalling yard , which had opened in 1908 between
Middlesbrough and Thornaby. The trains took the former S"> A diesel
locomotive stands at Thornaby station in 1961
1955 Modernisation Plan , known formally as the "Modernisation
and Re-Equipment of the British Railways", was published in December
1954. With the aim of increasing speed and reliability steam trains
were replaced with electric and diesel traction. From 1954 Diesel
Multiple Units took over passenger services in the north east except
those on the ECML, and were introduced to the line over Stainmore in
February 1958. The passenger service was withdrawn between Barnard
Castle and Penrith on 20 January 1962, and between Bishop Auckland
Barnard Castle on 12 June 1962.
Richard Beeching published his report The Reshaping of
British Railways, which recommended closing the network's least used
stations and lines. This included the remaining former S the service
Middlesbrough and Nunthrope was retained. The line between
Barnard Castle and the branch to Middleton-in-Teesdale
were closed to passengers on 30 November 1964. Trains were withdrawn
Bishop Auckland on 8 March 1965, but the passenger service
Bishop Auckland was saved because of regional development concerns.
ACCIDENTS AND INCIDENTS
* On 19 March 1828, the boiler of locomotive No. 5 exploded at
Simpasture Junction. One of the two firemen was killed, the other
severely scalded. The driver (
George Stephenson 's older brother) was
* On 1 July 1828, the boiler of
Locomotion No. 1 exploded at
Aycliffe Lane station, killing the driver.
The Exhibition of the Locomotives as shown in the Illustrated
London News in 1875
The Stockton and
Darlington was not the first railway and a train had
previously carried passengers, but its opening in 1825 was seen as
proof of the effectiveness of steam railways as a means of public
transport. A jubilee was held on 27 and 28 September 1875 to
celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the opening of the world's first
steam operated public railway: the
Darlington North Road workshops
housed a locomotive exhibition, a statue of Joseph Pease was unveiled
in Darlington, his portrait presented to the
and a banquet held. Fifty years later centenary celebrations were
held in July to allow foreign men visiting the International Railway
Congress to take part. An exhibition of rolling stock at the new
Faverdale Wagon Works in
Darlington was opened by the Duke and Duchess
King George VI
King George VI and the Queen Mother ). The following
day the royal couple watched as procession of locomotives passed
between Stockton and Oak Tree Junction, starting with a Hetton
Colliery locomotive that had been built in 1822 and finishing with a
replica train of ten chaldron waggons and "the company's coach" hauled
by Locomotive No.1 propelled by a petrol engine in a specially built
tender. A festival was held in
Belle Vue, Manchester on 27 September
1925, a Sunday to allow railwaymen to attend, where a pageant showed
how transport had changed through time, beginning with a group of
ancient Britons dragging a log with their belongings on top and ending
with Stephenson\'s Rocket ; another procession included Locomotion
No.1, propelled by its tender, and more modern locomotives. On 31
August 1975, to celebrate the 150th anniversary, a cavalcade was held
Shildon and Heighington, where a replica of Locomotion headed
a procession of locomotives, which was completed by the prototype
high-speed train . In the same year the National Railway Museum
York that combined exhibits from a Museum in York, which had
opened after the 1875 festivities, and the National Transport Museum
Tees Valley Line uses the most of the former Stockton &
Darlington Railway between
Bishop Auckland and Saltburn. From Bishop
Auckland the non-electrified line is single track to Shildon, double
track to Heighington, and single track to the junction with the East
Coast Main Line north of Darlington. This section is a Community Rail
service called the Bishop line, and is sometimes known as the Heritage
Line because of its links with the S&DR. South of Darlington, trains
take the 1887 line before joining the original 1825 route to Stockton
at the site of Oak Tree Junction. The line is 8 miles (13 km) to
Eaglescliffe South Junction, where the 1853 Leeds Northern route is
Eaglescliffe station to Stockton Cut Junction. The
non-electrified line then follows the S&DR route for 19 miles (31 km)
to Saltburn, except for later deviations at Thornaby (1908) and Redcar
(1978). The former
Middlesbrough "> Northern Rail diesel multiple
unit on the
Tees Valley Line at
As of July 2016 a two train per hour off-peak service is provided by
Northern between Saltburn and Darlington, and ten trains a day
continue to Bishop Auckland. One train per hour leaves Middlesbrough
going south to Manchester Airport via Yarm and another travels north
to Newcastle via Sunderland. There are eighteen trains a day between
Middlesbrough and Nunthorpe, and four of these continue to Whitby.
Tees Valley Unlimited, the local enterprise partnership , published in
December 2013 its ambition to improve passenger services, with the
priority of an all day two trains an hour service over the Darlington
to Saltburn and Nunthorpe to
Hartlepool routes using new trains;
additional platforms are needed at
Darlington station to allow this
service frequency. A station serving James Cook University Hospital
opened in May 2014. A Hitachi train plant opened in September 2015 at
Newton Aycliffe to build trains for the
Intercity Express Programme
Intercity Express Programme .
North Road railway station the station buildings and goods shed
Grade II* listed
Grade II* listed . The station building is now the Head of Steam
Darlington Railway Museum , which has particular reference to the
* ^ In the 19th century members of the Society of Friends travelled
to attend regular meetings and came to know Quakers elsewhere, this
leading to marriages and business partnerships. The Society of Friends
published guidance on conduct that included honesty in business
matters, and this gave Quakers the confidence to invest in the
dealings of a devout member.
* ^ "In the mean time, a bill is to be brought into Parliament to
carry a rail-way from
Bishop Auckland to
Darlington and Stockton. Mr.
Stevenson ... has been called ... to give an opinion as to the best
line. The work is estimated at 120,000l., a great part of which is
* ^ Smiles (1904 , p. 150) indicates that Stephenson visited Pease
Nicholas Wood , who had accompanied Stephenson, stated
shortly after Stephenson's death that the meeting was by appointment.
* ^ A B Before decimal currency was introduced there were 12 old
pence (d) in a shilling (s) and 20s in a pound (£). One penny in 1825
was worth the same in 2015 as approximately 31p, and 1s about £3.7.
* ^ Malleable iron rails cost £12 10s and cast iron rails £6 15s
per ton, but malleable iron rails could be less than half the weight
for the same strength.
* ^ Smiles (1904 , p. 160) states that early tramroads had rails 4
ft 8 in (1.42 m) apart, but Tomlinson (1915 , pp. 82–83) challenges
this, stating that the most common gauge of the early tramroads and
waggonways was about 4 feet (1.2 m), and some, such as the Wylam
waggonway , had the rails 5 feet (1.5 m) apart. The gauge of the S
2,700 kg). This differed from the London chaldron, which was 36
bushels or 25 1⁄2 long cwt (2,860 lb; 1,300 kg).
* ^ An imperial or long ton is the same as 1.016 metric tonnes and
1.120 short tons , the US customary unit.
* ^ A staith is an elevated platform used to transfer minerals such
as coal from railway waggons onto ships.
* ^ In an appendix in A Chapter in the History of Railway
Locomotion, with Memoir of Timothy Hackworth, etc. 1892. p. 25. John
Wesley Hackworth was a descendant of Timothy.
* ^ Compare Tomlinson (1915 , pp. 141–142) and Rolt (1984 , p.
* ^ In Young, Robert (1923).
Timothy Hackworth and the Locomotive ,
cited by Kirby.
* ^ Passenger accommodation was sometimes classified as inside and
outside following the practice on stage-coaches; express trains with
premium fares were known as first-class trains. The S Tomlinson (1915
, p. 529) is unclear.
* ^ The
Surrey Iron Railway was the first public railway in 1801, a
locomotive hauled a coach in
Merthyr Tydfil in 1804 and they were
being used commercially by the Middleton Colliery in 1812; passengers
were carried on the Kilmarnock -webkit-column-width: 30em;
column-width: 30em; list-style-type: decimal;">
* ^ Kirby 2002 , back page.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , pp. 40–41.
* ^ "Efforts that kept the mines afloat". The Northern Echo.
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* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , pp. 45–47.
* ^ Allen 1974 , pp. 16–17.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , pp. 55, 63.
* ^ Kirby 2002 , p. 33.
* ^ Kirby 2002 , pp. 52, 79–80, 128.
* ^ Thomson 1819 .
* ^ Allen 1974 , p. 17.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , pp. 64–67.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , p. 70.
* ^ Kirby 2002 , p. 37.
* ^ A B Allen 1974 , p. 19.
* ^ Challis, David Milbank; Rush, Andy (2009). "The Railways Of
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* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 65.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , p. 73.
* ^ Kirby 2002 , p. 184.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , p. 74.
* ^ A B Rolt 1984 , p. 74.
* ^ A B UK Consumer Price Index inflation figures are based on data
from Gregory Clark (2016), "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for
Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)", MeasuringWorth.com.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , p. 76.
* ^ A B Allen 1974 , p. 20.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , pp. 79–80.
* ^ Davis, Hunter (1975). George Stephenson: A Biographical Study
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* ^ "
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* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , p. 83.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , pp. 85–86.
* ^ A B Rolt 1984 , p. 75.
* ^ Withdrawn Banknotes Reference Guide (PDF) (Report). Bank of
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* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , p. 105.
* ^ "Railway Jubilee at Darlington". Illustrated London News. 2
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* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , pp. 105–106.
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* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , pp. 109–110.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , pp. 110–112.
* ^ Rolt 1984 , p. 85.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , pp. 112–114.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , p. 106.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , pp. 89–90.
* ^ A B Allen 1974 , p. 27.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , p. 91.
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* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , p. 141.
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* ^ Kirby 2002 , pp. 61–63.
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* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , p. 187.
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* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , pp. 384–385.
* ^ Kirby 2002 , p. 68.
* ^ Kirby 2002 , pp. 87–88.
* ^ Kirby 2002 , p. 80.
* ^ Allen 1974 , p. 59.
* ^ Allen 1974 , p. 64.
* ^ Tomlinson 1915 , p. 278.
* ^ Allen 1974 , pp. 64–65.
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* ^ A B Allen 1974 , pp. 67–69.
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* ^ Whishaw 1842 , pp. 415, 422.
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* ^ Whishaw 1842 , pp. 421–422.
* ^ A B Whishaw 1842 , p. 416.
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* ^ Bradshaw\'s Monthly General Railway and Steam Navigation Guide
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* ^ A B Kirby 2002 , Appendix 1.
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