The Stockton and
Darlington Railway (S&DR) was a railway company
that operated in north-east England from 1825 to 1863. The world's
first public railway to use steam locomotives, its first line
connected collieries near
Darlington, and was officially opened on 27 September 1825. The
movement of coal to ships rapidly became a lucrative business, and the
line was soon extended to a new port and town at Middlesbrough. While
coal waggons were hauled by steam locomotives from the start,
passengers were carried in coaches drawn by horses until carriages
hauled by steam locomotives were introduced in 1833.
The S&DR was involved in the building of the East Coast Main Line
York and Darlington, but its main expansion was at
Middlesbrough Docks and west into
Weardale and east to Redcar. It
suffered severe financial difficulties at the end of the 1840s and was
nearly taken over by the York, Newcastle and Berwick Railway, before
the discovery of iron ore in Cleveland and the subsequent increase in
revenue meant it could pay its debts. At the beginning of the 1860s it
took over railways that had crossed the
Pennines to join the West
Coast Main Line at
Tebay and Clifton, near Penrith.
The company was taken over by the North Eastern Railway in 1863,
transferring 200 route miles (320 route kilometres) of line and about
160 locomotives, but continued to operate independently as the
Darlington Section until 1876. The opening of the S&DR was seen as
proof of the effectiveness of steam railways and its anniversary was
celebrated in 1875, 1925 and 1975. Much of the original route is now
served by the Tees Valley Line, operated by Northern.
1.2 George Stephenson
1.4 Early operations
2 Founding of Middlesbrough
3 Railway improvements
4 The way north
4.1 Great North of England Railway
4.2 Railway operations in the 1830s
4.3 Newcastle and
Darlington Junction Railway
5 Wear Valley Railway
6 Cleveland iron ore
7 Over Stainmore
8 Progress and amalgamation
9 Later history
11 Accidents and incidents
12 Anniversary celebrations
14 Notes and references
15 Further reading
16 External links
The seal of the Stockton &
Coal from the inland mines in southern
County Durham was taken away on
packhorses, and then horse and carts as the roads were improved. A
canal was proposed by George Dixon in 1767 and again by John Rennie in
1815, but both schemes failed. Meanwhile, the port of
Stockton-on-Tees, from which the Durham coal was transported onwards
by sea, had invested considerably during the early 19th century in
straightening the Tees in order to improve navigation on the river
downstream of the town and was subsequently looking for ways to
increase trade to recoup those costs.
A few years later a canal was proposed on a route that bypassed
Darlington and Yarm, and a meeting was held in Yarm to oppose the
route. The Welsh engineer George Overton was consulted, and he
advised building a tramroad. Overton carried out a survey and
planned a route from the Etherley and Witton Collieries to Shildon,
and then passing to the north of
Darlington to reach Stockton. The
Scottish engineer Robert Stevenson was said to favour the railway, and
Quaker Edward Pease supported it at a public meeting in Darlington
on 13 November 1818, promising a five per cent return on
investment. Approximately two-thirds of the shares were sold
locally, and the rest were bought by Quakers nationally.[note
1][note 2] A private bill was presented to Parliament in March 1819,
but as the route passed through Earl of Eldon's estate and one of the
Earl of Darlington's fox coverts, it was opposed and defeated by 13
Overton surveyed a new line that avoided Darlington's estate and
agreement was reached with Eldon, but another application was deferred
early in 1820, as the death of
King George III
King George III had made it unlikely a
bill would pass that parliamentary year. The promoters lodged a bill
on 30 September 1820, the route having changed again as agreement had
not been reached with
Viscount Barrington about the line passing over
his land. The railway was unopposed this time, but the bill nearly
failed to enter the committee stage as the required four-fifths of
shares had not been sold. Pease subscribed £7,000; from that time he
had considerable influence over the railway and it became known as
Quaker line". The Act that received royal assent on 19 April 1821
allowed for a railway that could be used by anyone with suitably built
vehicles on payment of a toll, that was closed at night, and with
which land owners within 5 miles (8 km) could build branches and
make junctions; no mention was made of steam locomotives.
This new railway initiated the construction of more railway lines,
causing significant developments in railway mapping and cartography,
iron and steel manufacturing, as well as in any industries requiring
more efficient transportation.
Concerned about Overton's competence, Pease asked George Stephenson,
an experienced enginewright of the collieries of Killingworth, to meet
him in Darlington.[note 3] On 12 May 1821 the shareholders appointed
Thomas Meynell as Chairman and Jonathan Backhouse as treasurer; a
majority of the managing committee, which included Thomas Richardson,
Edward Pease and his son Joseph Pease, were Quakers. The committee
designed a seal, showing waggons being pulled by a horse, and adopted
the Latin motto Periculum privatum utilitas publica ("At private risk
for public service"). By 23 July 1821 it had decided that the
line would be a railway with edge rails, rather than a plateway, and
appointed Stephenson to make a fresh survey of the line.
Stephenson recommended using malleable iron rails, even though he
owned a share of the patent for the alternative cast iron rails, and
both types were used.[note 5] Stephenson was assisted by his
18-year-old son Robert during the survey, and by the end of 1821
had reported that a usable line could be built within the bounds of
the Act, but another route would be shorter by 3 miles (5 km) and
avoid deep cuttings and tunnels. Overton had kept himself
available, but had no further involvement and the shareholders elected
Stephenson Engineer on 22 January 1822, with a salary of £660 per
year. On 23 May 1822 a ceremony in Stockton celebrated the laying
of the first track at St John's Well, the rails 4 feet
8 inches (1.42 m) apart,[note 6] the same gauge used by
Stephenson on his Killingworth Railway.
Stephenson's iron bridge across the Gaunless
Stephenson advocated the use of steam locomotives on the line.
Pease visited Killingworth in mid-1822 and the directors visited
Hetton colliery railway, on which Stephenson had introduced steam
locomotives. A new bill was presented, requesting Stephenson's
deviations from the original route and the use of "loco-motives or
moveable engines", and this received assent on 23 May 1823. The
line included embankments up to 48 feet (15 m) high, and
Stephenson designed an iron truss bridge to cross the River Gaunless.
The stone bridge over the
River Skerne was designed by the Durham
architect Ignatius Bonomi.[note 7]
In 1823 Stephenson and Pease opened
Robert Stephenson and Company, a
locomotive works at Forth Street, Newcastle, from which the following
year the S&DR ordered two steam locomotives and two stationary
engines. On 16 September 1825, with the stationary engines in
place, the first locomotive, Locomotion No. 1, left the works, and the
following day it was advertised that the railway would open on 27
The opening procession of the Stockton and
Darlington Railway crosses
the Skerne bridge
The cost of building the railway had greatly exceeded the estimates.
By September 1825 the company had borrowed £60,000 in short-term
loans and needed to start earning an income to ward off its creditors.
A railway coach, named Experiment,[note 8] arrived on the evening of
26 September 1825 and was attached to Locomotion No. 1, which had been
placed on the rails for the first time at Aycliffe Lane station
following the completion of its journey by road from Newcastle earlier
that same day. Pease, Stephenson and other members of the committee
then made an experimental journey to
Darlington before taking the
locomotive and coach to
Shildon in preparation for the opening day,
with James Stephenson, George's elder brother, at the controls. On
27 September, between 7am and 8am, 12 waggons of coal[note 9] were
drawn up Etherley North Bank by a rope attached to the stationary
engine at the top, and then let down the South Bank to St Helen's
Auckland. A waggon of flour bags was attached and horses hauled the
train across the
Gaunless Bridge to the bottom of Brusselton West
Bank, where thousands watched the second stationary engine draw the
train up the incline. The train was let down the East Bank to Mason's
Arms Crossing at
Shildon Lane End, where Locomotion No. 1, Experiment
and 21 new coal waggons fitted with seats were waiting.
The directors had allowed room for 300 passengers, but the train left
carrying between 450 and 600 people, most travelling in empty waggons
but some on top of waggons full of coal. Brakesmen were placed between
the waggons, and the train set off, led by a man on horseback with a
flag. It picked up speed on the gentle downward slope and reached 10
to 12 miles per hour (16 to 19 km/h), leaving behind men on field
hunters (horses) who had tried to keep up with the procession. The
train stopped when the waggon carrying the company surveyors and
engineers lost a wheel; the waggon was left behind and the train
continued. The train stopped again, this time for 35 minutes to repair
the locomotive and the train set off again, reaching 15 mph
(24 km/h) before it was welcomed by an estimated 10,000 people as
it came to a stop at the
Darlington branch junction. Eight and a half
miles (14 km) had been covered in two hours, and subtracting the
55 minutes accounted by the two stops, it had travelled at an average
speed of 8 mph (13 km/h). Six waggons of coal were
distributed to the poor, workers stopped for refreshments and many of
the passengers from Brusselton alighted at Darlington, to be replaced
Two waggons for the Yarm Band were attached, and at 12:30pm the
locomotive started for Stockton, now hauling 31 vehicles with 550
passengers. On the 5 miles (8 km) of nearly level track east of
Darlington the train struggled to reach more than 4 mph
(6.4 km/h). At
Eaglescliffe near Yarm crowds waited for the train
to cross the Stockton to Yarm turnpike. Approaching Stockton, running
alongside the turnpike as it skirted the western edge of Preston Park,
it gained speed and reached 15 mph (24 km/h) again, before a
man clinging to the outside of a waggon fell off and his foot was
crushed by the following vehicle. As work on the final section of
track to Stockton's quayside was still ongoing, the train halted at
the temporary passenger terminus at St John's Well 3 hours, 7 minutes
after leaving Darlington. The opening ceremony was considered a
success and that evening 102 people sat down to a celebratory dinner
at the Town Hall.
The railway that opened in September 1825 was 25 miles (40 km)
long and ran from Phoenix Pit, Old Etherley Colliery, to Cottage Row,
Stockton; there was also a half-mile (0.8 km) branch to the depot
at Darlington, 1⁄2 mile (0.80 km) of the Hagger Leases branch,
and a 3⁄4 mile (1.2 km) branch to Yarm. Most of the track
used 28 pounds per yard (14 kg/m) malleable iron rails, and 4
miles (6.4 km) of 57 1⁄2 lb/yd (28.5 kg/m) cast
iron rails were used for junctions. The line was single track with
four passing loops each mile; square sleepers supported each rail
separately so that horses could walk between them. Stone was used
for the sleepers to the west of
Darlington and oak to the east;
Stephenson would have preferred all of them to have been stone, but
the transport cost was too high as they were quarried in the Auckland
area. The railway opened with the company owing money and unable
to raise further loans; Pease advanced money twice early in 1826 so
the workers could be paid. By August 1827 the company had paid its
debts and was able to raise more money; that month the Black Boy
branch opened and construction began on the Croft and Hagger Leases
branches. During 1827 shares rose from £120 at the start to £160 at
The route of the Stockton &
Darlington Railway in 1827, shown in
black, with today's railway lines shown in red
Initially the line was used to carry coal to
Darlington and Stockton,
carrying 10,000 tons[note 10] in the first three months and
earning nearly £2,000. In Stockton the price of coal dropped from 18
to 12 shillings, and by the beginning of 1827 was 8 shillings 6 pence
(8s 6d).[note 4] Initially the drivers had been paid a daily wage,
but after February 1826 they were paid 1⁄4d per ton per mile;
from this they had to pay assistants and fireman and to buy coal for
the locomotive. The 1821 Act had received opposition from the
owners of collieries on the
River Wear who supplied London and feared
competition, and it had been necessary to restrict the rate for
transporting coal destined for ships to 1⁄2d per ton per mile,
which had been assumed would make the business uneconomic. There was
interest from London for 100,000 tons a year, so the company
began investigations in September 1825. In January 1826 the first
staith[note 11] opened at Stockton, designed so waggons over a ship's
hold could discharge coal from the bottom. A little over 18,500
tons of coal was transported to ships in the year ending June 1827 and
this increased to over 52,000 tons the following year,
44 1⁄2 per cent of the total carried.
The locomotives were unreliable at first. Soon after opening,
Locomotion No. 1
Locomotion No. 1 broke a wheel, and it was not ready for traffic until
12 or 13 October; Hope, the second locomotive, arrived in November
1825 but needed a week to ready it for the line – the cast-iron
wheels were a source of trouble. Two more locomotives of a similar
design arrived in 1826; that August 16s 9d was spent on ale to
motivate the men maintaining the engines. By the end of 1827 the
company had also bought Chittaprat from Robert Wilson and Experiment
from Stephenson. Timothy Hackworth, locomotive superintendent, used
the boiler from the unsuccessful Chittaprat to build the Royal George
in the works at Shildon; it started work at the end of November.
John Wesley Hackworth later published an account[note 12] stating that
locomotives would have been abandoned were it not for the fact that
Pease and Thomas Richardson were partners with Stephenson in the
Newcastle works, and that when
Timothy Hackworth was commissioned to
rebuild Chittaprat it was "as a last experiment" to "make an engine in
his own way". Both Tomlinson and Rolt[note 13] state this
claim was unfounded and the company had shown earlier that locomotives
were superior to horses, Tomlinson showing that coal was being moved
using locomotives at half the cost of horses. Robert Young[note 14]
states that the company was unsure as to the real costs as they
reported to shareholders in 1828 that the saving using locomotives was
30 per cent. Young also showed that Pease and Richardson were both
concerned about their investment in the Newcastle works and Pease
unsuccessfully tried to sell his share to George Stephenson.
New locomotives were ordered from Stephenson's, but the first was too
heavy when it arrived in February 1828. It was rebuilt with six wheels
and hailed as a great improvement, Hackworth being told to convert the
remaining locomotives as soon as possible. In 1828 two locomotive
boilers exploded within four months, both killing the driver and both
due to the safety valves being left fixed down while the engine was
stationary. Horses were also used on the line, and they could haul
up to four waggons. The dandy cart was introduced in mid-1828: a small
cart at the end of the train, this carried the horse downhill,
allowing it to rest and the train to run at higher speed. The S&DR
made their use compulsory from November 1828.
The Union coach as shown in an advertisement
Passenger traffic started on 10 October 1825, after the required
licence was purchased, using the Experiment coach hauled by a horse.
The coach was initially timetabled to travel from Stockton to
Darlington in two hours, with a fare of 1s, and made a return journey
four days a week and a one-way journey on Tuesdays and Saturdays. In
April 1826 the operation of the coach was contracted for £200 a year;
by then the timetabled journey time had been reduced to
1 1⁄4 hours and passengers were allowed to travel on
the outside for 9d. A more comfortable coach, Express, started the
same month and charged 1s 6d for travel inside. Innkeepers began
running coaches, two to
Shildon from July, and the Union, which served
the Yarm branch from 16 October. There were no stations: in
Darlington the coaches picked up passengers near the north road
crossing, whereas in Stockton they picked up at different places on
the quay. Between 30,000 and 40,000 passengers were carried
between July 1826 and June 1827.
Founding of Middlesbrough
The export of coal had become the railway's main business, but the
staiths at Stockton had inadequate storage and the size of ships was
limited by the depth of the Tees. A branch from Stockton to Haverton,
on the north bank of the Tees, was proposed in 1826, and the engineer
Thomas Storey proposed a shorter and cheaper line to Middlesbrough,
south of the Tees in July 1827. Later approved by George Stephenson,
this plan was ratified by the shareholders on 26 October. The
Tees Navigation Company was about to improve the river and proposed
that the railway delay application to Parliament, but, despite
opposition, at a meeting in January 1828 it was decided to
proceed. A more direct northerly route from Auckland to the
Tees had been considered since 1819, and the Tees & Weardale
Railway had applied unsuccessfully to Parliament for permission for
such a line in 1823, 1824 and 1825. This now became a
11 1⁄2-mile (18.5 km) line linking Simpasture on the
S&DR's line near today's Newton Aycliffe station with Haverton and
Stockton, via a route that was 6 miles (10 km) shorter than via
the route of the S&DR, and named the
Clarence Railway in honour of
the Duke of Clarence, later King William IV. Meetings held in Stockton
in early 1828 supported the Tees Navigation and the Clarence
Railway, but the S&DR received permission for its branch on 23
May 1828 after promising to complete the Hagger Leases Branch and to
build a bridge across the Tees at least 72 feet (22 m) wide and
19 feet (5.8 m) above low water, so as not to affect
shipping. Two members of the management committee resigned, as
they felt that Stockton would be adversely affected by the line, and
Meynell, the S&DR chairman, stepped down from leadership. The
Clarence Railway was approved a few days later, with the same gauge as
the S&DR. The route of the
Clarence Railway was afterwards
amended to reach Samphire Batts, later known as Port Clarence, and
traffic started in August 1833; by the middle of 1834 Port Clarence
had opened and 28 miles (45 km) of line was in use. The
S&DR charged the 2 1⁄4d per ton per mile landsale rate
for coal it carried the 10 miles (16 km) from the collieries to
Simpasture for forwarding to Port Clarence, rather than the lower
shipping rate. By July 1834, the Exchequer Loan Commissioners had
taken control of the Clarence Railway.
The suspension bridge over the Tees
The Croft branch opened in October 1829. Construction of the
suspension bridge across the Tees started in July 1829, but was
suspended in October after the
Tees Navigation Company pointed out the
S&DR had no permission to cross the Old Channel of the Tees. The
S&DR prepared to return to Parliament but withdrew after a design
for a drawbridge was agreed with the Navigation Company. The line
Middlesbrough was laid with malleable iron rails weighing
33 lb/yd (16 kg/m), resting on oak blocks. The
suspension bridge had been designed to carry 150 tons, but the cast
iron retaining plates split when it was tested with just 66 tons and
loaded trains had to cross with the waggons split into groups of four
linked by a 9 yards (8.2 m) long chain. For the opening
ceremony on 27 December 1830, "Globe", a new locomotive designed by
Hackworth for passenger trains, hauled people in carriages and waggons
fitted with seats across the bridge to the staiths at Port Darlington,
which had berths for six ships. Stockton continued to be served by
a station on the line to the quay until 1848, when it was replaced by
a station on the
Middlesbrough line on the other side of the Tees.
Before May 1829 Thomas Richardson had bought about 500 acres
(200 ha) near Port Darlington, and with Joseph and Edward Pease
and others he formed the Owners of the
Middlesbrough Estate to develop
Middlesbrough had only a few houses before the coming of
the railway, but a year later had a population of over 2,000 and
at the 2011 census had over 138,000 people.
S&DR offices in Darlington
In 1830 the company opened new offices at the corner of Northgate and
Union Street in Darlington. Between 1831 and 1832 a second track
was laid between Stockton and the foot of Brusselton Bank. Workshops
were built at
Shildon for the maintenance and construction of
locomotives. In 1830 approximately 50 horses shared the traffic
with 19 locomotives, but travelled at different speeds, so to help
regulate traffic horse-drawn trains were required to operate in groups
of four or five. This had led to horses, startled by a passing
locomotive and coming off their dandy cart, being run down by the
following train. On one occasion a driver fell asleep in the dandy
cart of the preceding train and his horse, no longer being led, came
to a stop and was run down by a locomotive. The rule book stated that
locomotive-hauled trains had precedence over horse-drawn trains, but
some horse drivers refused to give way and on one occasion a
locomotive had to follow a horse-drawn train for over 2 miles
(3 km). The committee decided in 1828 to replace horses
with locomotives on the main line, starting with the coal trains, but
there was resistance from some colliery owners. After the S&DR
bought out the coach companies in August 1832, a mixed passenger and
small goods service began between Stockton and
Darlington on 7
September 1833, travelling at 12–14 miles per hour
(19–23 km/h); locomotive-hauled services began to
December 1833 and to
Middlesbrough on 7 April 1834. The
company had returned the five per cent dividend that had been promised
by Edward Pease, and this had increased to eight per cent by the time
he retired in 1832. When the treasurer Jonathan Backhouse retired
in 1833 to become a
Quaker minister he was replaced by Joseph
The way north
Great North of England Railway
The north entrance to
Shildon Tunnel, which opened in 1842
On 13 October 1835 the
North Midland Railway
North Midland Railway (Y&NMR)
was formed to connect
York to London by a line to a junction with the
planned North Midland Railway. Representatives of the Y&NMR
and S&DR met two weeks later and formed the Great North of England
Railway (GNER), a line from
York to Newcastle that used the route
of the 1 1⁄2-mile (2.4 km) Croft branch at
Darlington. The railway was to be built in sections, and to allow
both to open at the same time permission for the more difficult line
through the hills from
Darlington to Newcastle was to be sought in
1836 and a bill for the easier line south of
Darlington to York
presented the following year. Pease specified a formation wide enough
for four tracks, so freight could be carried at 30 miles per hour
(48 km/h) and passengers at 60 mph (97 km/h), and
George Stephenson had drawn up detailed plans by November. The
Act for the 34 1⁄2 miles (55.5 km) from Newcastle to
Darlington was given royal assent on 4 July 1836, but little work had
been done by the time the 43 miles (69 km) from Croft to York
received permission on 12 July the following year. In August a general
meeting decided to start work on the southern section, but
construction was delayed, and after several bridges collapsed the
engineer Thomas Storey was replaced by Robert Stephenson.
The S&DR sold its Croft branch to the GNER, and the railway
opened for coal traffic on 4 January 1841 using S&DR locomotives.
The railway opened to passengers with its own locomotives on 30
Between November 1841 and February 1842 the S&DR introduced a
Darlington and Coxhoe, on the Clarence Railway, where
an omnibus took passengers the 3 1⁄2 miles (5.6 km) to the
Durham & Sunderland Railway at Shincliffe. Early in 1842 the
Shildon Tunnel Company opened its 1,225-yard
(1,120 m) tunnel through the hills at
Shildon to the Wear basin
and after laying 2 miles (3.2 km) of track to South Church
station, south of Bishop Auckland, opened in May 1842. The
SD&R provided a 3 1⁄4 hour service between Darlington
and Newcastle, with a four-horse omnibus from South Church to Rainton
Meadows on the Durham Junction Railway, from where trains ran to
Gateshead, on the south side of the
River Tyne near Newcastle.
Railway operations in the 1830s
By 1839 the track had been upgraded with rails weighing 64 lb/yd
(32 kg/m). The railway had about 30 steam locomotives, most
of them six coupled, that ran with four-wheeled tenders with two
water butts, each capable of holding 600 imperial gallons
(2,700 l; 720 US gal) of water. The line descended
Shildon to Stockton, assisting the trains that carried coal to
the docks at a maximum speed of 6 mph (9.7 km/h); the
drivers were fined if caught travelling faster than 8 mph
(13 km/h), and one was dismissed for completing the
forty-mile return journey in 4 1⁄2 hours. On
average there were about 40 coal trains a day, hauling 28 waggons with
a weight of 116 tons. There were about 5000 privately owned
waggons, and at any one time about 1000 stood at
The steam locomotive
Middlesbrough introduced in 1839
The railway had modern passenger locomotives, some with four
wheels There were passenger stations at Stockton, Middlesbrough,
Shildon and West Auckland, and trains also stopped at
Middlesbrough Junction, Yarm Junction, Fighting Cocks and
Heighington. Some of the modified road coaches were still in use,
but there were also modern railway carriages, some first class with
three compartments each seating eight passengers, and second class
carriages that seated up to 40.[note 15] Luggage and sometimes
the guard travelled on the carriage roof; a passenger travelling
third class suffered serious injuries after falling from the roof in
1840. Passenger trains averaged 22–25 mph
(35–40 km/h), and a speed of 42 mph (68 km/h) was
recorded. Over 200,000 passengers were carried in the year to 1
October 1838, and in 1839 there were twelve trains each day
Middlesbrough and Stockton, six trains between Stockton and
Darlington, and three between
Darlington and Shildon, where a carriage
was fitted with Rankine's self-acting brake, taken over the Brussleton
Inclines, and then drawn by a horse to St Helens Auckland. The
Bradshaw's railway guide for March 1843, after South Church opened,
shows five services a day between
Darlington and South Church via
Shildon, with three between
Shildon and St Helens. Also listed were
six trains between Stockton and
Hartlepool via Seaton over the
Clarence Railway and the Stockton and
Hartlepool Railway that had
opened in 1841.
By this time Port
Darlington had become overwhelmed by the volume of
imports and exports and work started in 1839 on
which had been laid out by William Cubitt, capable of holding 150
ships, and built by resident civil engineer George Turnbull. The
suspension bridge across the Tees was replaced by a cast iron bridge
on masonry piers in 1841. After three years and an expenditure of
£122,000 (equivalent to £9.65m at 2011 prices), the formal opening
of the new dock took place on 12 May 1842. The S&DR
provided most of the finance, and the dock was absorbed by the company
Darlington Junction Railway
The N&DJR crossed the Sherburn with a timber viaduct
The GNER had authority for a railway from
York to Newcastle; it opened
Darlington in 1841 having spent all of its authorised capital and
could not start work on the extension to Newcastle. At the time
Parliament was considering the route of a railway between England and
Scotland and favoured a railway via the west coast. Railway financier
George Hudson chaired a meeting of representatives of north-eastern
railways that wished a railway to be built via the east coast. In
the 1830s a number of railways had opened in the area between
Darlington and Newcastle, and
Robert Stephenson was engaged to select
a route using these railways as much as possible. The Newcastle and
Darlington Junction Railway (N&DJR) differed slightly from the
GNER route in the southern section before joining the Durham Junction
Rainton and using the Pontop &
South Shields Railway
from Washington to Brockley Whins, where a new curve onto the
Brandling Junction Railway
Brandling Junction Railway allowed direct access to Gateshead. This
required the construction of 25 1⁄2 miles (41.0 km) of new
line, 9 miles (14 km) less than the GNER route, but trains would
need to travel 7 1⁄2 miles (12.1 km) further.
This route ran parallel to S&DR lines for 5 miles (8.0 km)
and Pease argued that it should run over these as it would add only
1 1⁄2 miles (2.4 km). The bill was presented
unchanged to Parliament in 1842, and was opposed by the S&DR.
Despite this, the Newcastle and
Darlington Junction Railway Act
received royal assent on 18 June 1842, and a second Act the following
year secured the deviations from the GNER route in the south
recommended by Stephenson. After the opening celebration on
18 June 1844, through services ran from London to
The N&DJR made an offer to lease the GNER and buy it within five
years, and GNER shares increased in value by 44 per cent as the
N&DJR took over on 1 July 1845; the N&DJR became part of the
larger York, Newcastle & Berwick Railway (YN&BR) in 1847.
Wear Valley Railway
The Wear Valley Railway in 1847
Bishop Auckland &
Weardale Railway (BA&WR) received
permission in July 1837 to build a 8 1⁄4-mile (13.3 km)
line from South Church to Crook. The line opened on 8 November 1843
with a station at Bishop Auckland.
The Stanhope and Tyne Railway, a 33 3⁄4-mile (54.3 km)
South Shields and Stanhope had opened in 1834. Steam
locomotives worked the section east of Annfield, and in the western
section inclines were worked by stationary engines or gravity, with
horses hauling waggons over level track. The lime kilns and the
line between Stanhope and Carrhouse closed in 1840, and with the
Stanhope to Annfield section losing money, the insolvent railway
company was dissolved on 5 February 1841. The northern section became
the Pontop and
South Shields Railway and the southern section from
Stanhope to Carrhouse was bought by the newly formed Derwent Iron
Company at Consett, renamed the Wear & Derwent Railway,
and used to transport limestone from quarries in the Stanhope area to
its works at Consett. The
Weardale Extension Railway ran from
Waskerley on the Wear & Derwent to Crook on the BA&WR and
included the Sunniside Incline worked by a stationary engine.
Sponsored by the Derwent Iron Company, the 10-mile (16 km) line
was built by the S&DR and opened on 16 May 1845. A
passenger service started to Hownes Gill and Stanhope (Crawley) on 1
September 1845; the Stanhope service was withdrawn at the end of
1846. Travelling north from Crook the carriages and waggons were
drawn up the Sunniside Incline, a locomotive hauled the mixed train to
Waskerley Park Junction, then they were let down Nanny Mayor's Incline
and a locomotive took them forward. When returning, regulations
required that the carriages run loose down the Sunniside Incline and
they were let to run into Crook station, controlled by the guard using
the carriage brakes. Later, a 730 feet (220 m) viaduct
replaced the two inclines at Hownes Gill ravine on 1 July 1858. A
deviation replacing Nanny's Mayor's Incline and a curve that allowed
trains from Crook direct access to Rowley opened for freight on 23 May
1859 and for passenger traffic on 4 July 1859.
Redcar Railway, a short extension to Redcar,
received permission on 21 July 1845. The line branched off before the
Middlesbrough terminus, which was closed and a new through station
opened with the line on 4 June 1846. Also authorised in July
1845 was the Wear Valley Railway, a 12-mile (19 km) line
Bishop Auckland &
Weardale line to Frosterley. The line
opened on 3 August 1847, and the Act also gave the S&DR permission
for the Bishopley branch, over which 500,000 tons of limestone
travelled in 1868. The line was extended in 1862 from Frosterley to
Just before the line opened on 22 July 1847, the Wear Valley Railway
Bishop Auckland &
Weardale Extension Railway and Wear & Derwent Railway and
then the S&DR leased the Wear Valley Railway and Middlesbrough
Redcar Railways for 999 years. This required a payment of
£47,000 each year, exceeding the SD&R's net revenue; traffic
Derwent Iron Company
Derwent Iron Company was reduced during a period of financial
difficulty and the Black Boy colliery switched to sending its coal to
Hartlepool. No dividend was paid in 1848 and the next few
years; lease payments were made out of reserves. The
S&DR announced a bill in November 1848 to permit a lease by and
amalgamation with the YN&BR, but this was withdrawn after the
YN&BR share price crashed and its chairman Hudson resigned after
questions were raised about his share dealings. In 1850 the
S&DR had share capital of £250,000 but owed £650,000, most of
this without the authority of Parliament until 1849; the debt was
converted into shares in 1851.
Cleveland iron ore
Henry Bolckow and John Vaughan discovered a seam of iron
ore at Eston. They opened a mine, laid a branch line to the
Redcar Railway and started hauling ironstone over
the S&DR to their blast furnaces west of Bishop Auckland. By 1851
Derwent Iron had opened a mine in the area and began moving ironstone
54 miles (87 km) to Consett, and the S&DR had paid the
arrears on its debt and was able to pay a dividend the following year,
albeit only 4 per cent; between 1849 and 1853 the traffic more than
In 1852 the
Leeds Northern Railway
Leeds Northern Railway (LNR) built a line from
Northallerton to a junction with the Stockton to
Hartlepool line and a
section of the route ran parallel to the S&DR alongside the Yarm
to Stockton Road. The S&DR was originally on the east side of the
road, but the LNR built its line with four tracks on the other side of
the road, leasing two to the S&DR for a rental of 1s a year. On 25
January 1853 the LNR and SD&R opened a joint station at
Eaglescliffe with an island platform between the tracks, and one side
was used by S&DR trains and the other by the LNR. Rather than
allow trains to approach the platform line from either direction, the
Board of Trade
Board of Trade inspecting officer ruled that trains approaching on a
line without a platform must first pass through and then reverse into
the platform line.
The railways in Cleveland in 1863, the Cleveland Railway shown in red
Middlesbrough & Guisborough Railway, with two branches into
the iron-rich hills, was approved by Parliament on 17 June 1852; Pease
had to guarantee dividends to raise the finance needed. The
9 1⁄2-mile (15.3 km) single-track railway was worked by
the S&DR, and opened to minerals on 11 November 1853 and
passengers on 25 February 1854. With electric telegraph installed
between stations, passenger trains were not permitted to leave a
station until confirmation had been received that the line was
By 1857 a blast furnace had opened close to the Durham coalfield on
the north side of the Tees. Backed by the rival West Hartlepool
Harbour & Railway, the Durham & Cleveland Union Railway
proposed a line from the mines in
Skinningrove and Staithes, via
Guisborough and a bridge over the
to a jetty at Cargo Fleet, from where a ferry would carry the ore
across the Tees to the blast furnaces. When the proposal was before
Parliament the S&DR suggested that their
Redcar could be extended to Saltburn, and the Tees crossed by a swing
bridge. The Cleveland Railway received permission for a line from
Skinningrove as far as Guisborough, and the S&DR permission for an
extension to Saltburn and a branch to a mine at Skelton. This 1858
S&DR Act also authorised the merger of the S&DR with the
railways it held on lease.
An application to Parliament for a jetty in the following year was
unsuccessful, but in 1860 the Upsall, Normanby & Ormesby
Railway received permission for a line with access to the river, the
S&DR claim of exclusive rights to the foreshore having been
rejected. The jetty was also opposed by the Tees Conservancy
Commissioners and they moored barges along the foreshore to obstruct
construction. In what became known as the Battle of the Tees, a fight
broke out when a steam tug sent by the Commissioners interrupted men
moving the barges. The barges were successfully moved, but a more
serious fight developed the following night when three of the
Commissioners' steam tugs arrived. The police then kept watch on the
works until they were finished.
Henry Pease, a S&DR director and Quaker, visited his brother
Joseph in mid-1859 at his house by the sea at Marske-by-the-Sea.
Returning late for dinner, he explained he had walked to Saltburn,
then a group of fisherman's cottages, where he had had a "sort of
prophetic vision" of a town with gardens. With other S&DR
directors he planned the town, with gardens and
Zetland Hotel by the
station, and bought a house at 5 Britannia Terrace, where he stayed
for a few weeks every summer. The extension opened in 1861, a
station on the through line replacing the terminus at
Main articles: South Durham &
Lancashire Union Railway and Eden
A railway to serve Barnard Castle, from the S&DR at a junction
near North Road station and along the River Tees, was proposed in
1852; this route bypassed as far as possible the Duke of Cleveland's
estate, as he had opposed an earlier railway. An application that year
failed, but the
Barnard Castle Railway Act was given
royal assent on 3 July 1854 and the 15 1⁄4-mile (24.5 km)
railway opened on 8 July 1856.
The SD&LUR viaduct over the Tees Valley in 1858
Cleveland iron ore is high in phosphorus and needs to be mixed with
purer ores, such as those on the west coast in
Lancashire. In the early 1850s this ore was travelling the long
way round over the Newcastle & Carlisle Railway to the
Barrow-in-Furness area, and Durham coke was returning. Both the
South Durham &
Lancashire Union Railway (SD&LUR) and the Eden
Valley Railway (EVR) companies were formed on 20 September 1856.
Taking advantage of the new railway at Barnard Castle, the SD&LUR
Kirkby Stephen to meet the West Coast Main
Line (WCML) at Tebay, on the section then controlled by the Lancaster
& Carlisle Railway, and also linked
Barnard Castle with West
Auckland. The EVR was a branch from
Kirkby Stephen to the WCML near
Penrith via Appleby. The routes were surveyed by
Thomas Bouch and
SD&LUR received permission on 13 July 1857. The EVR route followed
the east bank of the River Eden, a mile longer than a more expensive
route on the west bank, and its Act received royal assent on 21 May
Bouch had laid out an economical route that followed the contours and
avoided tunnels, but there were formidable gradients up to the
1,370-foot-high (420 m) Stainmore summit. Land for two tracks was
purchased, and a single track line was laid; valleys were crossed by
viaducts, three made from wrought iron, including the Belah Viaduct,
1,040 feet (320 m) long and 196 feet (60 m) high.
A new station was built to replace the terminus at Barnard
Castle. A mineral train ran between
Barnard Castle and Barras on
26 March 1861, and mineral traffic worked through to
Tebay from 4 July
1861. There was an opening ceremony on 7 August 1861 and the
SD&LUR west of
Barnard Castle opened to passengers the following
4-4-0 locomotives with enclosed cabs had been built for
the line in 1860 by Stephenson and Co, and the S&DR worked
traffic from the start: two return services a day were provided for
passengers. The EVR opened to mineral traffic on 8 April 1862 and
passengers on 9 June 1862, to the south-facing junction at Clifton
(later Clifton & Lowther). The S&DR had presented a bill in
1861 to provide better connections for passengers on the WCML by
extending the line up to Penrith, and to link up with the Cockermouth,
Keswick & Penrith Railway to provide access for mineral traffic to
Cumberland. The L&CR agreed to allow the S&DR running rights
over its line and services were extended to Penrith from 1 August
Progress and amalgamation
In 1854 there were five or six trains a day between
Redcar and three a day between
Darlington and Frosterly. Travelling at
average speeds of 19–24 miles per hour (31–39 km/h),
passengers were charged from 1d per mile for third class to 2.2d per
mile for first. Horses were still used on trains in the
mid-1850s: a horse-drawn coach was still independently operated
Middlesbrough and Stockton in 1854 on Sundays, as the only
S&DR services that run on that day were the mail trains, and
locomotives replaced horses on passenger trains to West Auckland in
1856.[note 17] The S&DR opened a carriage works south of
Darlington North Road station in 1853 and later it built a
locomotive works nearby to replace its works at Shildon. Designed by
William Bouch, who had taken over from Hackworth as Locomotive
Supervisor in 1840, it completed its first locomotive in
1864. In 1858 the Brusselton Inclines were bypassed by a
line from the north end of
Shildon Tunnel; the same year a passenger
service started on the Hagger Leases branch and a mineral line opened
from Crook via two inclines to Waterhouse. The section of the
SD&LUR between West Auckland and
Barnard Castle opened for
minerals in July 1863 and passengers on 1 August 1863, together with a
direct line from
Bishop Auckland to West Auckland. Stations at
Evenwood and Cockfield replaced stations on the Hagger Leases
The seal of the North Eastern Railway
In 1859 a company had been formed to link the Newcastle & Carlisle
Railway with the SD&R via the Derwent Valley; by 1860 this had
grown into the Newcastle, Derwent &
Weardale Railway, which now
bypassed the SD&R and linked with the SD&LUR, and the North
British and London & North Western (LNWR) railways were providing
two thirds of the capital. The LNWR proposed to build warehouses in
Hartlepool and buy shares in the West
Hartlepool Harbour &
Railway. The North Eastern Railway (NER), formed in 1854 by
amalgamation, at the time was the largest railway company in the
country and controlled the
East Coast Main Line
East Coast Main Line from Knottingley,
south of York, through
Darlington to Berwick-upon-Tweed. When
they approached the S&DR with a proposal to merge, the directors
deciding they preferred a merger with the NER than eventually becoming
part of the LNWR, entered negotiations. Opposed by the NER, the
Newcastle, Derwent &
Weardale Railway bill was approved by the
House of Commons in 1861, but the line was eventually rejected by the
House of Lords. The SD&LUR and EVR were absorbed by the
S&DR on 30 June 1862.
With 200 route miles (320 km) of line and about 160
locomotives, the Stockton &
Darlington Railway became part of
the North Eastern Railway on 13 July 1863. Due to a clause in the Act
the railway was managed as the independent
Darlington Section until
1876, when the lines became the NER's Central Division.
After the restoration of the dividend in 1851, by the end of 1854
payments had recovered to 8 per cent and then had not dropped below
7 1⁄2 per cent.
The NER had built a branch in the late 1850s from Durham to Bishop
Auckland, but used a separate station in the town until December 1867,
when all services began to use the S&DR station. The Sunniside
Incline was replaced by a deviation, albeit with gradients of 1 in 51
and 1 in 52, which opened for mineral traffic on 10 April 1867 and for
passengers on 2 March 1868; after 1868 trains on this line were
extended to serve Benfieldside station (later known as Blackhill and
then Consett). In Cleveland, a branch from Nunthorpe to Battersby
opened on 1 June 1864; passengers were carried from 1 April 1868.
A branch from
Barnard Castle to Middleton-in-Teesdale opened on 12 May
The locomotive works at
Darlington operated independently under Bouch
until 1875, the locomotives having been renumbered by the NER a couple
of years earlier. There was a varied range of locomotives, but the
most common type was used on the mineral trains and had a wheel
arrangement of 0-6-0; the later engines were of the Stephenson long
boilered type. Most passenger locomotives had four driven wheels in
the form 2-4-0; some were 2-2-2. Bouch had designed two bogie 4-4-0
locomotives for the line over Stainmore in 1860, and another fourteen
with this wheel arrangement had been built by 1874. S&DR
services and those on the ECML called at different stations in
Darlington until 1887, when S&DR trains were diverted through a
Darlington Bank Top station, rejoining the route to Stockton
from a junction south of
Darlington and a new line to Oak Tree
Junction. An extension from Stanhope to Wearhead opened in
1895, and the line over Stainmore to
Tebay was doubled by the end
of the century.
The former S&DR, shown in red, as part of the larger NER network
From 1913 former S&DR lines were electrified with 1,500 Vdc
overhead lines and electric locomotives hauled coal trains between
Shildon and Erimus marshalling yard, which had opened in 1908 between
Middlesbrough and Thornaby. The trains took the former S&DR line
Shildon to Simpasture Junction, joining the former Clarence
Railway line to Carlton, where a later line allowed access to the
Middlesbrough extension. The locomotives operated for 20
years, but then coal traffic had reduced, which made it uneconomical
to maintain the electrification system.
As a result of the Railways Act 1921, on 1 January 1923 the North
Eastern Railway became the North Eastern area of the London and North
Eastern Railway (LNER). The passenger service was withdrawn
north of Tow Law on 1 May 1939. Britain's railways were
nationalised on 1 January 1948 and the lines were placed under the
control of British Railways. In the early 1950s control was split
between the North Eastern and London Midland regions with Kirkby
Stephen as the boundary. Local passenger trains were withdrawn
Kirkby Stephen and
Tebay on 1 December 1952. The service
Weardale was withdrawn on 29 June 1953 and services north
of Crook on 11 June 1956.
A diesel locomotive stands at Thornaby station in 1961
The 1955 Modernisation Plan, known formally as the "Modernisation and
Re-Equipment of the British Railways", was published in December 1954.
With the aim of increasing speed and reliability steam trains were
replaced with electric and diesel traction. From 1954 Diesel
Multiple Units took over passenger services in the north east except
those on the ECML, and were introduced to the line over Stainmore
in February 1958. The passenger service was withdrawn between
Barnard Castle and Penrith on 20 January 1962, and between Bishop
Barnard Castle on 12 June 1962.
Richard Beeching published his report The Reshaping of British
Railways, which recommended closing the network's least used stations
and lines. This included the remaining former S&DR lines except
for the line between
Darlington and Saltburn via Stockton and
Middlesbrough. Passenger service between Nunthorpe and
Guisborough was withdrawn in 1964; the service between Middlesbrough
and Nunthorpe was retained. The line between
Barnard Castle and the branch to Middleton-in-Teesdale were closed to
passengers on 30 November 1964. Trains were withdrawn north of
Bishop Auckland on 8 March 1965, but the passenger service to
Bishop Auckland was saved because of regional development
Main article: Locomotives of the Stockton and
Accidents and incidents
On 19 March 1828, the boiler of locomotive No. 5 exploded at
Simpasture Junction. One of the two firemen was killed, the other
severely scalded. The driver (George Stephenson's older brother) was
On 1 July 1828, the boiler of
Locomotion No. 1
Locomotion No. 1 exploded at Aycliffe
Lane station, killing the driver.
The Exhibition of the Locomotives as shown in the Illustrated London
News in 1875
The Stockton and
Darlington was not the first railway and a train had
previously carried passengers, but its opening in 1825 was seen as
proof of the effectiveness of steam railways as a means of public
transport.[note 18] A jubilee was held on 27 and 28 September
1875 to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the opening of the
world's first steam operated public railway: the
Darlington North Road
workshops housed a locomotive exhibition, a statue of Joseph Pease was
unveiled in Darlington, his portrait presented to the Darlington
Corporation and a banquet held. Fifty years later centenary
celebrations were held in July to allow foreign men visiting the
International Railway Congress to take part. An exhibition of rolling
stock at the new Faverdale Wagon Works in
Darlington was opened by the
Duke and Duchess of
King George VI
King George VI and the Queen
Mother). The following day the royal couple watched as procession
of locomotives passed between Stockton and Oak Tree Junction, starting
with a Hetton Colliery locomotive that had been built in 1822 and
finishing with a replica train of ten chaldron waggons and "the
company's coach" hauled by Locomotive No.1 propelled by a petrol
engine in a specially built tender. A festival was held in Belle
Vue, Manchester on 27 September 1925, a Sunday to allow railwaymen to
attend, where a pageant showed how transport had changed through time,
beginning with a group of ancient Britons dragging a log with their
belongings on top and ending with Stephenson's Rocket; another
procession included Locomotion No.1, propelled by its tender, and more
modern locomotives. On 31 August 1975, to celebrate the
150th anniversary, a cavalcade was held between
Heighington, where a replica of Locomotion headed a procession of
locomotives, which was completed by the prototype high-speed
train. In the same year the
National Railway Museum opened in
York that combined exhibits from a Museum in York, which had opened
after the 1875 festivities, and the National Transport Museum at
Tees Valley Line
Tees Valley Line uses the most of the former Stockton
Darlington Railway between
Bishop Auckland and Saltburn.
Bishop Auckland the non-electrified line is single track to
Shildon, double track to Heighington, and single track to the junction
East Coast Main Line
East Coast Main Line north of Darlington. This section is a
Community Rail service called the Bishop line, and is sometimes known
as the Heritage Line because of its links with the S&DR.
South of Darlington, trains take the 1887 line before joining the
original 1825 route to Stockton at the site of Oak Tree Junction.
The line is 8 miles (13 km) to
Eaglescliffe South Junction,
where the 1853 Leeds Northern route is taken through Eaglescliffe
station to Stockton Cut Junction. The non-electrified line
then follows the S&DR route for 19 miles (31 km) to Saltburn,
except for later deviations at Thornaby (1908) and Redcar
(1978). The former
Middlesbrough & Guisborough Railway
line is open between Guisborough Junction and Nunthorpe as part of the
Esk Valley Line
Esk Valley Line to Whitby.
On 14 June 2007, during excavations for road building, some of the
original stone sleepers used by the railway in 1825 were discovered
intact near Lingfield Point. The stones each weigh about 75 pounds
(34 kg) and have bolt holes for the chairs that secured the rail.
Officials involved in the road project hope to preserve the stones
along a new bicycle path.
Northern Rail diesel multiple unit on the
Tees Valley Line
Tees Valley Line at Redcar
As of July 2016[update] a two train per hour off-peak service is
provided by Northern between Saltburn and Darlington, and ten trains a
day continue to Bishop Auckland. One train per hour leaves
Middlesbrough going south to Manchester Airport via Yarm and another
travels north to Newcastle via Sunderland. There are eighteen trains a
Middlesbrough and Nunthorpe, and four of these continue to
Whitby. Tees Valley Unlimited, the local enterprise
partnership, published in December 2013[update] its ambition to
improve passenger services, with the priority of an all day two
trains an hour service over the
Darlington to Saltburn and Nunthorpe
Hartlepool routes using new trains; additional platforms are needed
Darlington station to allow this service frequency. A station
James Cook University Hospital
James Cook University Hospital opened in May 2014. A
Hitachi train plant opened in September 2015 at Newton Aycliffe to
build trains for the Intercity Express Programme.
North Road railway station
North Road railway station the station buildings and goods shed are
Grade II* listed. The station building is now the Head of
Darlington Railway Museum, which has particular
reference to the Stockton &
Darlington Railway and houses
Locomotion No. 1. Nearby, the former carriage works are now used
as workshops for steam locomotives. At
Shildon is "Locomotion" or
National Railway Museum Shildon, part of the National Railway Museum,
which contains heritage railway vehicles. The site includes Timothy
Hackworth's house, the Soho Workshop and a former coal drops,
which are listed buildings. The heritage
Weardale Railway runs
special services over its line from
Bishop Auckland to
Notes and references
^ In the 19th century members of the Society of Friends travelled to
attend regular meetings and came to know Quakers elsewhere, this
leading to marriages and business partnerships. The Society of Friends
published guidance on conduct that included honesty in business
matters, and this gave Quakers the confidence to invest in the
dealings of a devout member.
^ "In the mean time, a bill is to be brought into Parliament to carry
a rail-way from
Bishop Auckland to
Darlington and Stockton. Mr.
Stevenson ... has been called ... to give an opinion as to the best
line. The work is estimated at 120,000l., a great part of which is
^ Smiles (1904, p. 150) indicates that Stephenson visited Pease
uninvited, but Nicholas Wood, who had accompanied Stephenson, stated
shortly after Stephenson's death that the meeting was by
^ a b Before decimal currency was introduced there were 12 old pence
(d) in a shilling (s) and 20s in a pound (£). One penny in 1825 was
worth the same in 2016 as approximately 31p, and 1s about £3.77.
^ Malleable iron rails cost £12 10s[note 4] and cast iron rails £6
15s per ton, but malleable iron rails could be less than half the
weight for the same strength.
^ Smiles (1904, p. 160) states that early tramroads had rails
4 ft 8 in (1.42 m) apart, but Tomlinson (1915,
pp. 82–83) challenges this, stating that the most common gauge
of the early tramroads and waggonways was about 4 feet (1.2 m),
and some, such as the Wylam waggonway, had the rails 5 feet
(1.5 m) apart. The gauge of the S&DR was given in early
documents as 4 ft 8 in (1.42 m), but the distance
between the rails was later measured as 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in
(1,435 mm), and this became the standard gauge used by 60 per
cent of railways worldwide. The difference of 1⁄2 inch (13 mm)
is a mystery.
^ The Skerne bridge was shown on the reverse of the Series E five
pound note that featured George Stephenson, issued by the Bank of
England between 1990 and 2003. Allen (1974, p. 22) and
Tomlinson (1915, pp. 93–95) state that Bonomi was directly
appointed by the directors after Stephenson had ignored suggestions to
consult him, but Rolt (1984, p. 75) does not mention this.
^ Smiles (1904, p. 166) has an image of this railway coach and
describes it as "a somewhat uncouth machine", even though the
Illustrated London News
Illustrated London News had discounted in 1875 an earlier publication
of Smiles' image, stating that coach used on the opening day was a
similar to a road coach. Tomlinson (1915, pp. 109–110)
describes the coach as having a table, cushioned seats and carpets,
and criticises the Smiles image for the lack of roof seats, having the
wheels outside the coach frame and says that the drawing in Smiles
does not look like a vehicle that was built for £80 (approximately
£6000 in 2016).
^ These waggons (known as wagons after about 1830) were designed
to carry a Newcastle chaldron (pronounced chalder in Newcastle) of
coal, about 53 long cwt (5,900 lb; 2,700 kg). This
differed from the London chaldron, which was 36 bushels or
25 1⁄2 long cwt (2,860 lb;
^ An imperial or long ton is the same as 1.016 metric tonnes and 1.120
short tons, the US customary unit.
^ A staith is an elevated platform used to transfer minerals such as
coal from railway waggons onto ships.
^ In an appendix in A Chapter in the History of Railway Locomotion,
with Memoir of Timothy Hackworth, etc. 1892. p. 25. 
John Wesley Hackworth was a descendant of Timothy.
^ Compare Tomlinson (1915, pp. 141–142) and Rolt (1984,
^ In Young, Robert (1923).
Timothy Hackworth and the Locomotive ,
cited by Kirby.
^ Passenger accommodation was sometimes classified as inside and
outside following the practice on stage-coaches; express trains with
premium fares were known as first-class trains. The S&DR
introduced third class accommodation on some trains in 1835 as people
unable to afford a second class ticket had been walking along the
^ In the year ending June 1849 they carried 21 million ton miles,
which rose to 48 million in the year ending December 1853. Ironstone
shipments increased from 28,000 tons in the six months before December
1849 to 231,000 tons in the six months before December 1852.
^ Kirby (2002, pp. 94–95) states that these were the last
horses to be used on the line, but Allen (1974, p. 112) states
that a horse-drawn four compartment railway carriage operated between
Middlesbrough until 1864; Tomlinson (1915, p. 529)
Surrey Iron Railway
Surrey Iron Railway was the first public railway in 1801, a
locomotive hauled a coach in
Merthyr Tydfil in 1804 and they were
being used commercially by the Middleton Colliery in 1812; passengers
were carried on the Kilmarnock & Troon Railway in 1818.
^ Kirby 2002, back page.
^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 40–41.
^ "Efforts that kept the mines afloat". The Northern Echo. Newsquest
(North East) Ltd. 16 June 2008. Retrieved 12 September 2013.
^ Allen 1974, p. 16.
^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 45–47.
^ Allen 1974, pp. 16–17.
^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 55, 63.
^ Kirby 2002, p. 33.
^ Kirby 2002, pp. 52, 79–80, 128.
^ Thomson 1819.
^ Allen 1974, p. 17.
^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 64–67.
^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 70.
^ Kirby 2002, p. 37.
^ a b Allen 1974, p. 19.
^ Challis, David Milbank; Rush, Andy (2009). "The Railways Of Britain:
An Unstudied Map Corpus". Imago Mundi. 61 (2): 186–214.
^ Rolt 1984, p. 65.
^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 73.
^ Kirby 2002, p. 184.
^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 74.
^ a b Rolt 1984, p. 74.
^ a b UK
Retail Price Index
Retail Price Index inflation figures are based on data from
Clark, Gregory (2017). "The Annual RPI and Average Earnings for
Britain, 1209 to Present (New Series)". MeasuringWorth. Retrieved 6
^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 76.
^ a b Allen 1974, p. 20.
^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 79–80.
^ Davis, Hunter (1975). George Stephenson: A Biographical Study of the
Father of Railways. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. p. 75.
Robert Stephenson (1803–1859)". Network Rail. Retrieved 25 March
^ Smiles 1904, p. 154.
^ Tomlinson 1915, p. 83.
^ Tomlinson 1915, pp. 85–86.
^ a b Rolt 1984, p. 75.
^ Withdrawn Banknotes Reference Guide (PDF) (Report). Bank of England.
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